Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The interfaces between T-CELLS and ANTIGEN-PRESENTING CELLS. Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. Immunological synapses can have several functions including LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION; enhancing, balancing, or terminating signaling; or directing cytokine secretion.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
Specialized junctions between NEURONS which connect the cytoplasm of one neuron to another allowing direct passage of an ion current.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).
Spiny processes on DENDRITES, each of which receives excitatory input from one nerve ending (NERVE ENDINGS). They are commonly found on PURKINJE CELLS and PYRAMIDAL CELLS.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
A persistent activity-dependent decrease in synaptic efficacy between NEURONS. It typically occurs following repeated low-frequency afferent stimulation, but it can be induced by other methods. Long-term depression appears to play a role in MEMORY.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.
The output neurons of the cerebellar cortex.
Axons of certain cells in the DENTATE GYRUS. They project to the polymorphic layer of the dentate gyrus and to the proximal dendrites of PYRAMIDAL CELLS of the HIPPOCAMPUS. These mossy fibers should not be confused with mossy fibers that are cerebellar afferents (see NERVE FIBERS).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell-surface proteins that bind glutamate and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors include ionotropic receptors (AMPA, kainate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors), which directly control ion channels, and metabotropic receptors which act through second messenger systems. Glutamate receptors are the most common mediators of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. They have also been implicated in the mechanisms of memory and of many diseases.
Cytoskeleton specialization at the cytoplasmic side of postsynaptic membrane in SYNAPSES. It is involved in neuronal signaling and NEURONAL PLASTICITY and comprised of GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS; scaffolding molecules (e.g., PSD95, PSD93), and other proteins (e.g., CaCMKII).
A MARVEL domain-containing protein found in the presynaptic vesicles of NEURONS and NEUROENDOCRINE CELLS. It is commonly used as an immunocytochemical marker for neuroendocrine differentiation.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in TELENCEPHALON of the BRAIN.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent PHOSPHORYLATION of GMP to generate GDP and ADP.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.
Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A family of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins involved in the short-term regulation of NEUROTRANSMITTER release. Synapsin I, the predominant member of this family, links SYNAPTIC VESICLES to ACTIN FILAMENTS in the presynaptic nerve terminal. These interactions are modulated by the reversible PHOSPHORYLATION of synapsin I through various signal transduction pathways. The protein is also a substrate for cAMP- and CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is believed that these functional properties are also shared by synapsin II.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
One of four subsections of the hippocampus described by Lorente de No, located furthest from the DENTATE GYRUS.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Neurotransmitter receptors located on or near presynaptic terminals or varicosities. Presynaptic receptors which bind transmitter molecules released by the terminal itself are termed AUTORECEPTORS.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Drugs used for their actions on any aspect of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter systems. Included are drugs that act on excitatory amino acid receptors, affect the life cycle of excitatory amino acid transmitters, or affect the survival of neurons using excitatory amino acids.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA containing two processes. They receive inputs from the RETINAL PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and send outputs to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS. The bipolar cells also make lateral connections in the retina with the RETINAL HORIZONTAL CELLS and with the AMACRINE CELLS.
The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.
Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.
A vesicular glutamate transporter protein that is predominately expressed in the DIENCEPHALON and lower brainstem regions of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
A potent excitatory amino acid antagonist with a preference for non-NMDA iontropic receptors. It is used primarily as a research tool.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that sequester the inhibitory neurotransmitters GLYCINE; GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID; and possibly GAMMA-HYDROXYBUTYRATE into SECRETORY VESICLES.
The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.
Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.
A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
An IBOTENIC ACID homolog and glutamate agonist. The compound is the defining agonist for the AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, AMPA). It has been used as a radionuclide imaging agent but is more commonly used as an experimental tool in cell biological studies.
Postsynaptic potentials generated from a release of neurotransmitters from a presynaptic nerve terminal in the absence of an ACTION POTENTIAL. They may be m.e.p.p.s (miniature EXCITATORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS) or m.i.p.p.s (miniature INHIBITORY POSTSYNAPTIC POTENTIALS).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A subsection of the hippocampus, described by Lorente de No, that is located between the HIPPOCAMPUS CA2 FIELD and the DENTATE GYRUS.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A protein component of the synaptic basal lamina. It has been shown to induce clustering of acetylcholine receptors on the surface of muscle fibers and other synaptic molecules in both synapse regeneration and development.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for KAINIC ACID.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Signal transduction mechanisms whereby calcium mobilization (from outside the cell or from intracellular storage pools) to the cytoplasm is triggered by external stimuli. Calcium signals are often seen to propagate as waves, oscillations, spikes, sparks, or puffs. The calcium acts as an intracellular messenger by activating calcium-responsive proteins.
An amino acid that, as the D-isomer, is the defining agonist for the NMDA receptor subtype of glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, NMDA).
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
A family of vesicular neurotransmitter transporter proteins that were originally characterized as sodium dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporters. Vesicular glutamate transport proteins sequester the excitatory neurotransmitter GLUTAMATE from the CYTOPLASM into SECRETORY VESICLES in exchange for lumenal PROTONS.
An amorphous region of electron dense material in the cytoplasm from which the MICROTUBULES polymerization is nucleated. The pericentriolar region of the CENTROSOME which surrounds the CENTRIOLES is an example.
A multifunctional calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase subtype that occurs as an oligomeric protein comprised of twelve subunits. It differs from other enzyme subtypes in that it lacks a phosphorylatable activation domain that can respond to CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE KINASE.
A subset of GABA RECEPTORS that signal through their interaction with HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.
NEURAL PATHWAYS and connections within the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, beginning at the hair cells of the ORGAN OF CORTI, continuing along the eighth cranial nerve, and terminating at the AUDITORY CORTEX.
A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC
Compounds that interact with and modulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.
Inorganic or organic derivatives of phosphinic acid, H2PO(OH). They include phosphinates and phosphinic acid esters.
A pathway of fibers that originates in the lateral part of the ENTORHINAL CORTEX, perforates the SUBICULUM of the HIPPOCAMPUS, and runs into the stratum moleculare of the hippocampus, where these fibers synapse with others that go to the DENTATE GYRUS where the pathway terminates. It is also known as the perforating fasciculus.
An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.
Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.
Physical forces and actions in living things.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
INTERNEURONS of the vertebrate RETINA. They integrate, modulate, and interpose a temporal domain in the visual message presented to the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS, with which they synapse in the inner plexiform layer.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.
A noncompetitive antagonist at GABA-A receptors and thus a convulsant. Picrotoxin blocks the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-activated chloride ionophore. Although it is most often used as a research tool, it has been used as a CNS stimulant and an antidote in poisoning by CNS depressants, especially the barbiturates.
Cell adhesion molecule involved in a diverse range of contact-mediated interactions among neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and myotubes. It is widely but transiently expressed in many tissues early in embryogenesis. Four main isoforms exist, including CD56; (ANTIGENS, CD56); but there are many other variants resulting from alternative splicing and post-translational modifications. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, pp115-119)
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.
Fatty acid derivatives that have specificity for CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. They are structurally distinct from CANNABINOIDS and were originally discovered as a group of endogenous CANNABINOID RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Chemically stimulated aggregation of cell surface receptors, which potentiates the action of the effector cell.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.
Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The ability of a substrate to retain an electrical charge.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of vesicular transport proteins characterized by an N-terminal transmembrane region and two C-terminal calcium-binding domains.
The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
A family of POTASSIUM and SODIUM-dependent acidic amino acid transporters that demonstrate a high affinity for GLUTAMIC ACID and ASPARTIC ACID. Several variants of this system are found in neuronal tissue.
Photosensitive afferent neurons located in the peripheral retina, with their density increases radially away from the FOVEA CENTRALIS. Being much more sensitive to light than the RETINAL CONE CELLS, the rod cells are responsible for twilight vision (at scotopic intensities) as well as peripheral vision, but provide no color discrimination.
A genus of the Ambystomatidae family. The best known species are the axolotl AMBYSTOMA MEXICANUM and the closely related tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. They may retain gills and remain aquatic without developing all of the adult characteristics. However, under proper changes in the environment they metamorphose.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.

Trans-synaptically induced bursts in regular spiking non-pyramidal cells in deep layers of the cat motor cortex. (1/13503)

In deep layers of the cat motor cortex, we have investigated the properties of neurons displaying trans-synaptically induced bursts. In in vivo experiments, extracellularly recorded burst neurons were separated into two subtypes based on their dependence on stimulation sites, the medullary pyramid or the ventrolateral (VL) thalamic nucleus, from which bursts of 10-20 spikes were triggered. The spike amplitude attenuation and frequency adaptation during a burst were more prominent in pyramid-dependent burst neurons than in VL-dependent burst neurons. Intracellular recordings in in vivo experiments revealed that pyramid-dependent bursts emerged from a long-lasting depolarization, while each spike during a VL-dependent burst was narrow in half-width and was followed by a fast AHP, similar to fast spiking neurons. In in vitro slice experiments, intracellular recordings were obtained from neurons that displayed a burst of attenuated spikes emerging from a long-lasting depolarization, and were also obtained from fast spiking neurons. They were morphologically recovered to be multipolar cells with sparsely spiny dendrites and local axonal networks, suggesting that they are inhibitory interneurons. The multipolar neurons displaying bursts of attenuated spikes may mediate the recurrent inhibition of pyramidal tract cells.  (+info)

Developmental synaptic changes increase the range of integrative capabilities of an identified excitatory neocortical connection. (2/13503)

Excitatory synaptic transmission between pyramidal cells and fast-spiking (FS) interneurons of layer V of the motor cortex was investigated in acute slices by using paired recordings at 30 degrees C combined with morphological analysis. The presynaptic and postsynaptic properties at these identified central synapses were compared between 3- and 5-week-old rats. At these two postnatal developmental stages, unitary EPSCs were mediated by the activation of AMPA receptors with fast kinetics at a holding potential of -72 mV. The amplitude distribution analysis of the EPSCs indicates that, at both stages, pyramidal-FS connections consisted of multiple functional release sites. The apparent quantal size obtained by decreasing the external calcium ([Ca2+]e) varied from 11 to 29 pA near resting membrane potential. In young rats, pairs of presynaptic action potentials elicited unitary synaptic responses that displayed paired-pulse depression at all tested frequencies. In older animals, inputs from different pyramidal cells onto the same FS interneuron had different paired-pulse response characteristics and, at most of these connections, a switch from depression to facilitation occurred when decreasing the rate of presynaptic stimulation. The balance between facilitation and depression endows pyramidal-FS connections from 5-week-old animals with wide integrative capabilities and confers unique functional properties to each synapse.  (+info)

Modulation of long-term synaptic depression in visual cortex by acetylcholine and norepinephrine. (3/13503)

In a slice preparation of rat visual cortex, we discovered that paired-pulse stimulation (PPS) elicits a form of homosynaptic long-term depression (LTD) in the superficial layers when carbachol (CCh) or norepinephrine (NE) is applied concurrently. PPS by itself, or CCh and NE in the absence of synaptic stimulation, produced no lasting change. The LTD induced by PPS in the presence of NE or CCh is of comparable magnitude with that obtained with prolonged low-frequency stimulation (LFS) but requires far fewer stimulation pulses (40 vs 900). The cholinergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by atropine and pirenzepine, suggesting involvement of M1 receptors. The noradrenergic facilitation of LTD was blocked by urapidil and was mimicked by methoxamine, suggesting involvement of alpha1 receptors. beta receptor agonists and antagonists were without effect. Induction of LTD by PPS was inhibited by NMDA receptor blockers (completely in the case of NE; partially in the case of CCh), suggesting that one action of the modulators is to control the gain of NMDA receptor-dependent homosynaptic LTD in visual cortex. We propose that this is a mechanism by which cholinergic and noradrenergic inputs to the neocortex modulate naturally occurring receptive field plasticity.  (+info)

Plasticity of first-order sensory synapses: interactions between homosynaptic long-term potentiation and heterosynaptically evoked dopaminergic potentiation. (4/13503)

Persistent potentiations of the chemical and electrotonic components of the eighth nerve (NVIII) EPSP recorded in vivo in the goldfish reticulospinal neuron, the Mauthner cell, can be evoked by afferent tetanization or local dendritic application of an endogenous transmitter, dopamine (3-hydroxytyramine). These modifications are attributable to the activation of distinct intracellular kinase cascades. Although dopamine-evoked potentiation (DEP) is mediated by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), tetanization most likely activates a Ca2+-dependent protein kinase via an increased intracellular Ca2+ concentration. We present evidence that the eighth nerve tetanus that induces LTP does not act by triggering dopamine release, because it is evoked in the presence of a broad spectrum of dopamine antagonists. To test for interactions between these pathways, we applied the potentiating paradigms sequentially. When dopamine was applied first, tetanization produced additional potentiation of the mixed synaptic response, but when the sequence was reversed, DEP was occluded, indicating that the synapses potentiated by the two procedures belong to the same or overlapping populations. Experiments were conducted to determine interactions between the underlying regulatory mechanisms and the level of their convergence. Inhibiting PKA does not impede tetanus-induced LTP, and chelating postsynaptic Ca2+ with BAPTA does not block DEP, indicating that the initial steps of the induction processes are independent. Pharmacological and voltage-clamp analyses indicate that the two pathways converge on functional AMPA/kainate receptors for the chemically mediated EPSP and gap junctions for the electrotonic component or at intermediaries common to both pathways. A cellular model incorporating these interactions is proposed on the basis of differential modulation of synaptic responses via receptor-protein phosphorylation.  (+info)

Cellular sites for dynorphin activation of kappa-opioid receptors in the rat nucleus accumbens shell. (5/13503)

The nucleus accumbens (Acb) is prominently involved in the aversive behavioral aspects of kappa-opioid receptor (KOR) agonists, including its endogenous ligand dynorphin (Dyn). We examined the ultrastructural immunoperoxidase localization of KOR and immunogold labeling of Dyn to determine the major cellular sites for KOR activation in this region. Of 851 KOR-labeled structures sampled from a total area of 10,457 microm2, 63% were small axons and morphologically heterogenous axon terminals, 31% of which apposed Dyn-labeled terminals or also contained Dyn. Sixty-eight percent of the KOR-containing axon terminals formed punctate-symmetric or appositional contacts with unlabeled dendrites and spines, many of which received convergent input from terminals that formed asymmetric synapses. Excitatory-type terminals that formed asymmetric synapses with dendritic spines comprised 21% of the KOR-immunoreactive profiles. Dendritic spines within the neuropil were the major nonaxonal structures that contained KOR immunoreactivity. These spines also received excitatory-type synapses from unlabeled terminals and were apposed by Dyn-containing terminals. These results provide ultrastructural evidence that in the Acb shell (AcbSh), KOR agonists play a primary role in regulating the presynaptic release of Dyn and other neuromodulators that influence the output of spiny neurons via changes in the presynaptic release of or the postsynaptic responses to excitatory amino acids. The cellular distribution of KOR complements those described previously for the reward-associated mu- and delta-opioid receptors in the Acb shell.  (+info)

GABAergic excitatory synapses and electrical coupling sustain prolonged discharges in the prey capture neural network of Clione limacina. (6/13503)

Afterdischarges represent a prominent characteristic of the neural network that controls prey capture reactions in the carnivorous mollusc Clione limacina. Their main functional implication is transformation of a brief sensory input from a prey into a lasting prey capture response. The present study, which focuses on the neuronal mechanisms of afterdischarges, demonstrates that a single pair of interneurons [cerebral A interneuron (Cr-Aint)] is responsible for afterdischarge generation in the network. Cr-Aint neurons are electrically coupled to all other neurons in the network and produce slow excitatory synaptic inputs to them. This excitatory transmission is found to be GABAergic, which is demonstrated by the use of GABA antagonists, uptake inhibitors, and double-labeling experiments showing that Cr-Aint neurons are GABA-immunoreactive. The Cr-Aint neurons organize three different pathways in the prey capture network, which provide positive feedback necessary for sustaining prolonged spike activity. The first pathway includes electrical coupling and slow chemical transmission from the Cr-Aint neurons to all other neurons in the network. The second feedback is based on excitatory reciprocal connections between contralateral interneurons. Recurrent excitation via the contralateral cell can sustain prolonged interneuron firing, which then drives the activity of all other cells in the network. The third positive feedback is represented by prominent afterdepolarizing potentials after individual spikes in the Cr-Aint neurons. Afterdepolarizations apparently represent recurrent GABAergic excitatory inputs. It is suggested here that these afterdepolarizing potentials are produced by GABAergic excitatory autapses.  (+info)

A genetic approach to visualization of multisynaptic neural pathways using plant lectin transgene. (7/13503)

The wiring patterns among various types of neurons via specific synaptic connections are the basis of functional logic employed by the brain for information processing. This study introduces a powerful method of analyzing the neuronal connectivity patterns by delivering a tracer selectively to specific types of neurons while simultaneously transsynaptically labeling their target neurons. We developed a novel genetic approach introducing cDNA for a plant lectin, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), as a transgene under the control of specific promoter elements. Using this method, we demonstrate three examples of visualization of specific transsynaptic neural pathways: the mouse cerebellar efferent pathways, the mouse olfactory pathways, and the Drosophila visual pathways. This strategy should greatly facilitate studies on the anatomical and functional organization of the developing and mature nervous system.  (+info)

Single synaptic events evoke NMDA receptor-mediated release of calcium from internal stores in hippocampal dendritic spines. (8/13503)

We have used confocal microscopy to monitor synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients in the dendritic spines of hippocampal pyramidal cells. Individual spines respond to single afferent stimuli (<0.1 Hz) with Ca2+ transients or failures, reflecting the probability of transmitter release at the activated synapse. Both AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists block the synaptically evoked Ca2+ transients; the block by AMPA antagonists is relieved by low Mg2+. The Ca2+ transients are mainly due to the release of calcium from internal stores, since they are abolished by antagonists of calcium-induced calcium release (CICR); CICR antagonists, however, do not depress spine Ca2+ transients generated by backpropagating action potentials. These results have implications for synaptic plasticity, since they show that synaptic stimulation can activate NMDA receptors, evoking substantial Ca2+ release from the internal stores in spines without inducing long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD).  (+info)

Synapses (Chinese: 那个我最亲爱的陌生人), also known as The Beloved Stranger, is a 2019 Taiwanese film directed and written by Chang Tso- ... Synapses at IMDb (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Articles containing Chinese-language ... Frater, Patrick (2019-09-11). "Taiwan's Golden Horse Film Festival to Open With Dementia Drama 'Synapses'". Variety. Retrieved ...
The SyNAPSE team for IBM is led by Dharmendra Modha, manager of IBM's cognitive computing initiative. The SyNAPSE team for HRL ... SyNAPSE is a backronym standing for Systems of Neuromorphic Adaptive Plastic Scalable Electronics. The name alludes to synapses ... SyNAPSE is a DARPA program that aims to develop electronic neuromorphic machine technology, an attempt to build a new kind of ... New IBM SyNAPSE Chip Could Open Era of Vast Neural Networks IBM, August 7, 2014 "Dharmendra S Modha's Cognitive Computing Blog ...
... takes place during prophase I of meiosis. When homologous chromosomes synapse, their ends are first attached to the ... Thus synapsis in Drosophila is independent of meiotic recombination, consistent with the view that synapsis is a precondition ... Synapsis is the pairing of two chromosomes that occurs during meiosis. It allows matching-up of homologous pairs prior to their ... Look up synapsis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. UC Berkeley video of chromosome end migration and match assessment during ...
... (or virological synapse) is a molecularly organized cellular junction that is similar in some aspects to ... As viral synapses allow the virus to spread directly from cell to cell, they also provide a means by which the virus can escape ... Viral synapses are thought to explain how cell-to-cell transfer can operate in the HIV infection even when there is a low ... Formation of these synapses has been shown to involve reorientation of the cytoskeleton, which is triggered by engagement of ...
Level Plane information regarding Usurp Synapse (Archived) Old Usurp Synapse Index (Archived) Official Myspace page (Archive) ( ... Usurp Synapse was a screamo band from Lafayette, Indiana. The group combined fast and frantic grindcore influenced drumming and ... Usurp Synapse formed in 1998 in Lafayette, Indiana. Their line up changed somewhat frequently during their initial run. Antonio ... That same year Mike Dixon (who previously worked in the band Rep Seki) joined Usurp Synapse as the keyboardist. Later that same ...
Synapse is based on the Microsoft .NET framework and all Synapse components are also .NET components. Although Peltarion has ... Synapse is a component-based development environment for neural networks and adaptive systems. Created by Peltarion, Synapse ... The development cycle in Synapse is based on the canonical data mining cycle. A notable difference however is that in Synapse ... Synapse features four different operating modes that make up the development cycle. The preprocessing mode is for data mining ...
WTF is Frozen Synapse?. TotalBiscuit/Cynical Brit. Retrieved 28 May 2012. Ben Lee (8 March 2012). "'Fez', 'Frozen Synapse' win ... Frozen Synapse has one versus one multiplayer. Free-for-all, four-player, and two versus two are planned but will not be ... A sequel, Frozen Synapse 2, for Windows, Mac and Linux was originally planned to be released in 2016 but was pushed back to ... Frozen Synapse is a turn-based tactics video game developed by independent game developer Mode 7 Games, in which players plan ...
Tripartite synapses occur at a number of locations in the central nervous system with astrocytes and may also exist with Muller ... Tripartite synapse refers to the functional integration and physical proximity of the presynaptic membrane, postsynaptic ... The alveus projections can form either glutamatergic or cholinergic synapses with the stratum oriens, but the astrocytes of ... Rochon, D (1 June 2001). "Synapse-glia interactions at the mammalian neuromuscular junction". The Journal of Neuroscience. 21 ( ...
Eventually, Fisk has Synapse use his powers on Laurent, but it instead reminds him that he is Daredevil. He knocks out Synapse ... 3 #1 Synapse (Max Mullins) at Marvel Wiki Synapse (Emily Guerrero) at Marvel Wiki Max Mullins' profile in the Appendix to the ... Tired of being pushed around, Synapse planned on using his powers on Fisk, but Fisk, who had a stronger mind, knew of Synapse's ... The second Synapse, Emily Guerrero, was introduced as a new member of the Avengers. She first appeared in Uncanny Avengers Vol ...
2008 Synapsis satoi Ochi & Kon, 2007 Synapsis simplex Sharp, 1875 Synapsis strnadi Kral, 2002 Synapsis tmolus (Fischer von ... 1999 Synapsis gilleti Arrow, 1931 Synapsis horaki Zidek & Pokorny, 2010 Synapsis kiuchii Hanboonsong & Masumoto, 1999 Synapsis ... 1907 Synapsis boonlongi Hanboonsong & Masumoto, 1999 Synapsis brahminus (Hope, 1831) Synapsis davidis Fairmaire, 1878 Synapsis ... 2000 Synapsis ochii Masumoto, 1995 Synapsis ovalis Boucomont, 1920 Synapsis puluongensis Bui & Bonkowski, 2018 Synapsis ...
It is the sole species in the genus Synapsis, which was described as a genus in 1866. Areces-Mallea, A.E. (1998). "Synapsis ... Synapsis ilicifolia is a species of plant in the Schlegeliaceae family. It is endemic to the island of Cuba. ... Synapsis Griseb. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, IUCN Red List endangered ...
Look up Synapse or synapse in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. A synapse is a neural junction used for communication between ... in neurobiology Electrical synapse, in electrophysiology Immunological synapse, in immunology SyNAPSE (Systems of Neuromorphic ... neurons Synapse may also refer to: Apache Synapse, open source enterprise service bus (ESB) and mediation engine Azure Synapse ... a neurology journal Synapse: The Magazine of the University of Nevada School of Medicine (online) Synapse Magazine, produced by ...
The Synapse web portal is an online registry of research projects that allows data scientists to discover and share data, ... Synapse.org is an open source platform for collaborative scientific data analysis. It can store data, code, results, and ...
... is involved in the maturation of synapses, essentially "awakening" the silent synapses. The characterization of silent synapses ... Silent synapses are typically considered to be immature glutamatergic synapses. As the brain matures, the relative number of ... These synapses are named "silent" because normal AMPA receptor-mediated signaling is not present, rendering the synapse ... Once AMPARs are inserted, the synapse is no longer silent; activated synapses no longer require simultaneous pre- and ...
Chemical synapses are not the only type of biological synapse: electrical and immunological synapses also exist. Without a ... Electrical synapses are faster than chemical synapses. Electrical synapses are found throughout the nervous system, including ... Audio help · More spoken articles) Synapse Review for Kids Synapses Biologymad.com (2004) Synapse - Cell Centered Database ... An autapse is a chemical (or electrical) synapse formed when the axon of one neuron synapses with its own dendrites. Here is a ...
Chemical synapses are by far the most prevalent and are the main player involved in excitatory synapses. Electrical synapses, ... An excitatory synapse is a synapse in which an action potential in a presynaptic neuron increases the probability of an action ... Unlike an electrical synapse, the chemical synapses are separated by a space called the synaptic cleft, typically measured ... excitatory synapses aid in the electrical transmission of neuronal signals. The physical morphology of synapses is crucial in ...
... electrical synapse-based systems co-exist with chemical synapses. Compared to chemical synapses, electrical synapses conduct ... An autapse is an electrical (or chemical) synapse formed when the axon of one neuron synapses with its own dendrites. Although ... Long-term changes can be seen in electrical synapses. For example, changes in electrical synapses in the retina are seen during ... The simplicity of electrical synapses results in synapses that are fast, but can produce only simple behaviors compared to the ...
The ribbon synapse is a type of neuronal synapse characterized by the presence of an electron-dense structure, the synaptic ... It is found to be a part of all vertebrate synaptic ribbons in ribbon synapses and is the central portion of ribbon synapses. ... Different types of ribbon synapses have different dependence on Ca2+ releases. The hair cell ribbon synapses exhibit a steep ... In correspondence to its activity, ribbon synapses can have synaptic ribbons that vary in size. In mouse photoreceptor synapses ...
Synapse is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of neuroscience published in New York City by Wiley-Liss to address basic science ... ". "Synapse - Wiley Online Library". Synapse. Onlinelibrary.wiley.com. doi:10.1002/(ISSN)1098-2396. Retrieved 2013-02-07. " ...
"Synapse Films: About Us". "Synapse Films". synapse-films.com/. Retrieved 24 April 2020. "Here is the OFFICIAL ballot for the ( ... Synapse Films is an American DVD and Blu-ray label, founded in 1997 and specializing in cult horror, science fiction and ... Synapse Films was owned and operated by Don May, Jr. and his business partners Jerry Chandler and Charles Fiedler, the catalyst ... In 2004, Synapse released the controversial Thriller - A Cruel Picture on DVD, followed by a Blu-ray release in 2022. A ...
"synapse-project - [no description]". Git.launchpad.net. Retrieved 4 January 2019. "synapse-project - [no description]". Git. ... Synapse is a free and open-source application launcher for Linux originally created by Michal Hruby and Alberto Aldegheri. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to Synapse (software). Official website v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Comparison of applications launchers "synapse-project - [no description]". Git.launchpad.net. Retrieved 4 January 2019. " ...
"Temporal Synapse , Public Art Archive". www.publicartarchive.org. Retrieved 2017-08-20. "Temporal Synapse - Project One Studio ... Temporal Synapse is a 2013 six-part permanent, reactive art installation created by Project One located inside Sidney and Lois ... Temporal Synapse is located in the Blue Elevator Bays on levels 1-6 of Sidney & Lois Eskenazi Hospital. Founded in 2009, ... Temporal Synapse was commissioned by Eskenazi Health as part of a re-imagining of the organization's historical art collection ...
Synapse at IMDb [1] at Synapse the Film [2] at Movie Pilot [3] at MVP Life v t e v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Synapse is a science fiction thriller directed by music video director Kenlon Clark. The screenplay was written by Adam G. ... Synapse is the first theatrical content produced by Los Angeles Center Studios and Hollywood Locations. The film takes places ... "Meet Brian Brosnan Producer Of Synapse". synapsethefilm.com. 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 October 2014. "Adam Simon Think ...
Dendrodendritic synapses are activated in a similar fashion to axodendritic synapses in respects to using a chemical synapse. ... This is in contrast to the more common axodendritic synapse (chemical synapse) where the axon sends signals and the dendrite ... There is evidence that these synapses are bi-directional, in that either dendrite can signal at that synapse. Ordinarily, one ... Using bidirectional electrical synapses in the dendrodendrtic synapses they modulate inhibition of different signals thus ...
The port was done by Steve Hales, who also wrote a number of games for Synapse. Synapse was developing a series of home ... so Broderbund shut Synapse down. Powell, Jack (July 1985). "Eight New Synapse Games". Antic. 4 (3). "Page 6". AtariMania. Uston ... Many of Synapse's games made their way to the UK as part of the initial wave of U.S. Gold-distributed imports (under the " ... By early 1984 Synapse was the largest third-party provider of Atari 8-bit software, but 65% of its sales came from the ...
These marks include: Synapse Group Inc., Newsub Services, Synapse Solutions, Synapse Retail Ventures, and Magazine Rewards ... Synapse Group Inc. - Official website BBB Business Review: Synapse Group, Inc. Bloomberg Businessweek Profile: Synapse Group, ... "Corporate Website". Synapse Group Inc. Bloomberg Businessweek. "Synapse Group, Inc". Bloomberg. Google Finance. "Synapse Group ... Synapse Group acquired Bizrate Insights. In 2016, Synapse Group acquired Magazine Discount Center. In 2019, Synapse Group ...
... is released under the Apache License. Synapse supports the creation of Proxy Services, which allows users to ... Synapse can be extended with custom Java extensions or POJO classes, or via Apache BFS scripting languages such as Javascript, ... Apache Synapse is a simple, lightweight and high performance open source enterprise service bus (ESB) and mediation engine. It ... Synapse has implemented a non-blocking HTTP/S transport implementation over the Apache HttpComponents/NIO module to handle ...
Immunological synapses are the subject of much ongoing research. The immune synapse is also known as the supramolecular ... In immunology, an immunological synapse (or immune synapse) is the interface between an antigen-presenting cell or target cell ... For example, synapse formation is quick in CD8+ T cells, because for CD8+ T cells it is fundamental to eliminate the pathogen ... Inhibitory immunological synapse of NK cells When an NK cell encounters a self cell, it forms a so-called inhibitory ...
Synapse Synaptic plasticity Neural computation Dendrodendritic synapse Palay SL (July 1956). "Synapses in the central nervous ... The difference between the axo-axonic synapses and other synapses on mauthner cells is that synapses on dendrites and soma ... Based on their locations, synapses can be classified into various kinds, such as axo-dendritic synapse, axo-somatic synapse, ... for synapses on axons). Synapse location will govern the role of that synapse in a network of neurons. In axo-dendritic ...
Article by Synapse. Check out some of this weeks important and interesting headlines from the world of science.. 12/02 Growth ...
Synapse Hiranya Jayathilaka ([email protected]) What to Expect… • The problem and the solution - Int... ... Introduction to Apache Synapse. *Introduction to Apache Synapse Hiranya Jayathilaka ([email protected]) ... Introducing Apache Synapse *What is Apache Synapse? • A high performance ESB implementation - Fast - Lightweight - Low resource ... synapse.apache.org/Synapse_Samples.html • Java and Apache ANT are required to try out the samples ...
... proteins and the rich cytoskeletal environment may constitute obstacles to the diffusion of receptors within the synapse. To ... The flux of neurotransmitter receptors in and out of synapses depends on receptor interaction with scaffolding molecules. ... had lower mobility in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses but a higher residency time at excitatory synapses. Therefore ... Diffusion barriers constrain receptors at synapses PLoS One. 2012;7(8):e43032. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0043032. Epub 2012 Aug ...
Unitary GABAAreceptor-mediated IPSCs at BC-BC synapses recorded at the soma showed a fast rise and decay, with a mean decay ... Rapid Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in a Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Network Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... Rapid Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in a Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Network. Marlene Bartos, Imre Vida, Michael Frotscher, ... Rapid Signaling at Inhibitory Synapses in a Dentate Gyrus Interneuron Network. Marlene Bartos, Imre Vida, Michael Frotscher, ...
... and best practices from Synapse Research Ltd. Check out our blogs and resources here. ...
Elena Kalodner-Martin, PhD Student, Published in Synapsis Journal. Friday, June 19, 2020. Friday, June 19, 2020. Elena Kalodner ... in Synapsis, an interdisciplinary health humanities journal. ...
Amongst the key new Synapse products in Las Vegas will be the GRB100 - a 3Gb/s HD and SD 48x16 channel shuffler - re-embedder. ... Also debuting at NAB, the Synapse-powered SynView multiview product line has been enhanced with 3D multiviewing, which is ... which is upgradable to handle 3Gb/s-signals.Other key product developments with Axons Synapse module family that will be ...
How do active synapses counteract the inherent Aβ-mediated excitotoxicity? Is this the price to pay for an LTP-ed synapse? ... This indicates that tau plays an important role in targeting Fyn to the synapse, although some Fyn arrives at the synapse ... Honolulu: The Missing Link? Tau Mediates Aβ Toxicity at Synapse. Go to another part. Series - Alzheimers Association ... As might be expected with less Fyn at the synapse, in both Δtau74 and tau-null mice there was less phosphorylation of NR2b, and ...
This article describes Azure Synapse Analytics as output for Azure Stream Analytics. ... Azure Synapse server name.. Username. The username that has write access to the database. Stream Analytics supports only SQL ... To use Azure Synapse Analytics as output, ensure that the storage account is configured at the job level, not at the output ... Azure Synapse Analytics is a limitless analytics service that brings together enterprise data warehousing and Big Data ...
"Seeing glutamate at central synapses".. Abstract. Glutamate is the major fast excitatory neurotransmitter in the nervous ...
More than 50 years of Synapse are available at the Librarys Synapse Archive ... Synapse is the UCSF student newspaper. We seek to serve as a forum for the campus community. Articles and columns represent the ... Ninad Bhats "Batteries" is the winner of the Synapse Storytelling Contest Creative Writing category. The poem introduces an ...
PRNewswire/ -- Synapse Biomedical, Inc. (www.synapsebiomedical.com) získal núdzové povolenie od FDA na použitie nového DPS ... O spoločnosti Synapse Biomedical, Inc.: Spoločnosť Synapse Biomedical bola založená v roku 2002 ako vedľajší podnik Univerzity ... Synapse má ústredie v Oberlin v štáte Ohio a svoju európsku pobočku má v Enghien les Bains vo Francúzsku. Viac informácií ... Spoločnosť Synapse Biomedical získava núdzové povolenie od FDA na nový systém asistencie pacientom, ktorí sú odstavovaní od ...
The Synapse 19 is a carefully calculated, supremely organized backpack designed for day hiking, everyday carry, and ultralight ... Synapse 19//Synik 22 Black 210 Ballistic - $55.00. Select Freudian Slip. Add to Basket Subtract Quantity. Quantity Input. Add ... If you love the design of the Synapse 19, but want a bigger version, check out the Synapse 25. ... Sign up for notifications when the Synapse 19 becomes available!. Submit Back In Stock Sign Up. ...
... Part of Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 4 (NIPS ... reciprocal synapses between cones and horizontal cells, which produce the antagonistic center/surround receptive field, and ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Razer Synapse features personalized device settings, infinite settings and profiles, inter-device communication, and surface ... Razer Synapse is our unified configuration software that allows you to rebind controls or assign macros to any of your Razer ... Razer Synapse is our unified configuration software that allows you to rebind controls or assign macros to any of your Razer ... No longer limited by onboard device memory, Razer Synapse 2.0 brings the brain of your Razer hardware to the cloud allowing you ...
Synapse: Two offers a junction between the familiar and the unknown, narrowing the space between us. Join Ensemble Uncaged for ... Synapse: Two , Ensemble Uncaged , Rachael Elliott & Andy Kozar, instructors. Saturday • December 18, 2021 , 1:00 pm. Free - $ ...
Synapse Audio Software. News archive. Our products. Shop. Support. FAQ. User Service Area. About us. Contact us. Featured ...
Celebrating 125 years of the synapse: from Sherrington to the present day In Collection Celebrating 125 years of the Synapse ... It is 125 years since he added the term, synapse, to the scientific vernacular and 90 years since he was awarded the Nobel ... A major change in our understanding of synapses since Sherringtons day is that we now know that they are not fixed entities, ... S Clare Stanford; Celebrating 125 years of the synapse: from Sherrington to the present day. Neuronal Signal 22 December 2022; ...
Optimize performance on caching and shuffle with new services from Apache Spark for Azure Synapse ... Azure Synapse Analytics Analitik tanpa batas dengan waktu perolehan wawasan yang tak tertandingi ... Apache Spark for Azure Synapse In-cluster Caching and Shuffle Service (Preview) ... Apache Spark for Azure Synapse In-cluster Caching and Shuffle Service (Preview). ...
VGHT chills as the universe undulates. This full length CD sizzles with slinky groovalicious low end and chill vocals flowing over funky beats, glossy drones, poems of hope, and even a dose of rock and blues. Madisons The Isthmus Newspaper raves, The Trolley carves out a tribal, ambient, dreamy vibe that doesnt feel like the intersection of poetry and music, but stands as
... we will learn about various concepts of Azure Synapse Analytics which will help you in acing your next interview. ... How are Azure Synapse Analytics and Other Azure Services Integrated?. *Q6. With Azure Synapse Analytics, how do you Monitor and ... How are Azure Synapse Analytics and Other Azure Services Integrated?. Azure Synapse Analytics is built to work with other Azure ... How does Azure Synapse Analytics Differ from Other Analytics Services?. Microsoft Azure Synapse Analytics is a cloud-based ...
Synapse has been working with other industry leaders to develop these best practices and to bring them into regulatory ... Synapse also provides clients with technical support in reviewing grid modernization plans to ensure that utility proposals are ... Synapse evaluates distribution system investments, reliability, and infrastructure issues as part of utility rate cases and ... Synapse helps clients review utility proposals to ensure that AMI investments are cost-effective, properly planned, properly ...
Automated Detection of Synapses in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Stacks. ... Automated Detection of Synapses in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy Image Stacks. ...
It also undergoes synapse S&B process during adulthood to reform and modify the circuits to adapt to the changing environment, ... we have used drosohpila visual system as a model system to identify a number of S&B signals both for filopodia and synapses to ...
Distribution intracellulaire et trafic des récepteurs à tyrosine kinase EphA4 et EphB2 à la synapse mature dans le système ...
EFHC1, implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, functions at the cilium and synapse to modulate dopamine signaling. ... EFHC1, implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, functions at the cilium and synapse to modulate dopamine signaling. ... EFHC1, implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, functions at the cilium and synapse to modulate dopamine signaling. ... EFHC1, implicated in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, functions at the cilium and synapse to modulate dopamine signaling ...
CA1 pyramidal neuron: synaptically-induced bAP predicts synapse location (Sterratt et al. 2012). Effects of increasing CREB on ... Amyloid-beta effects on release probability and integration at CA3-CA1 synapses (Romani et al. 2013). ... CA1 pyramidal neuron: synaptically-induced bAP predicts synapse location (Sterratt et al. 2012). ... Computational modeling of the effects of amyloid-beta on release probability at hippocampal synapses. Front Comput Neurosci 7:1 ...
Synapse acknowledges the traditional owners of the land on which our sites are located throughout Australia. We recognise their ... Our regular eNewsletters will keep you updated with whats happening at Synapse and across Australia surrounding brain injury ...
  • Azure Synapse Analytics is a limitless analytics service that brings together enterprise data warehousing and Big Data analytics. (microsoft.com)
  • Azure Stream Analytics jobs can output to a dedicated SQL pool table in Azure Synapse Analytics and can process throughput rates up to 200MB/sec. (microsoft.com)
  • To use Azure Synapse Analytics as output, ensure that the storage account is configured at the job level, not at the output level. (microsoft.com)
  • The following table lists the property names and their descriptions for creating am Azure Synapse Analytics output. (microsoft.com)
  • Microsoft Azure Synapse Analytics is a robust cloud-based analytics solution offered as part of the Azure platform. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Azure Synapse Analytics' primary advantage is its ability to manage structured and unstructured data, making it a potent tool for data-driven enterprises. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Learn about the essential features and benefits of Azure Synapse Analytics. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Learn about Azure Synapse Analytics' many security capabilities and how to manage data security in the service. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • How does Azure Synapse Analytics Differ from Other Analytics Services? (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Microsoft Azure Synapse Analytics is a cloud-based analytics solution offered as part of the Azure platform. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Azure Synapse Analytics is a comprehensive analytics solution with unique capabilities and advantages. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Azure Synapse Analytics comprises various components, each serving a distinct role in the overall architecture. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • To address this question, we studied the membrane diffusion of the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) subunits clustered (γ2) or not (α5) at inhibitory synapses in rat hippocampal dissociated neurons. (nih.gov)
  • The baseline for this technology was the refinement of electron microscopy (and the development of epoxy resins), which enabled the high resolution, 2D visualization of biological tissues, including neurons and their synapses. (portlandpress.com)
  • The SHANK3 protein plays a role in the functioning of synapses, which are the connections between nerve cells (neurons) where cell-to-cell communication occurs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Within synapses, the SHANK3 protein acts as a scaffold that supports the connections between neurons, ensuring that the signals sent by one neuron are received by another. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A decrease in the functioning of synapses and cell-to-cell communication between neurons caused by a lack of SHANK3 protein is thought to contribute to the developmental delay, intellectual disability, and absent or severely delayed speech characteristic of people with 22q13.3 deletion syndrome. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In contrast, γ2 was ~3-fold more confined and dwelled ~3-fold longer in inhibitory synapses than α5, indicating faster synaptic escape of α5. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, using a gephyrin dominant-negative approach, we showed that the increased residency time of γ2 at inhibitory synapses was due to receptor-scaffold interactions. (nih.gov)
  • As shown for GABA(A)R, the excitatory glutamate receptor 2 subunit (GluA2) of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) had lower mobility in both excitatory and inhibitory synapses but a higher residency time at excitatory synapses. (nih.gov)
  • Relative to the extrasynaptic region, γ2 and α5 showed reduced diffusion and increased confinement at both inhibitory and excitatory synapses but they dwelled for a short time at excitatory synapses. (nih.gov)
  • Unitary GABA A receptor-mediated IPSCs at BC-BC synapses recorded at the soma showed a fast rise and decay, with a mean decay time constant of 2.5 ± 0.2 msec (32°C). Synaptic transmission at BC-BC synapses showed paired-pulse depression (PPD) (32 ± 5% for 10 msec interpulse intervals) and multiple-pulse depression during repetitive stimulation. (jneurosci.org)
  • We have built a contrast(cid:173) sensitive silicon retina that models all major synaptic interactions in the outer-plexiform layer of the vertebrate retina using current-mode CMOS circuits: namely, reciprocal synapses between cones and horizontal cells, which produce the antagonistic center/surround receptive field, and cone and horizontal cell gap junctions, which determine its size. (neurips.cc)
  • The first in the series explains Sherrington's contribution to the debate about the term 'synapse' and its function in neuronal signaling. (portlandpress.com)
  • Therefore barriers impose significant diffusion constraints onto receptors at synapses where they accumulate or not. (nih.gov)
  • Our data further reveal that the confinement and the dwell time but not the diffusion coefficient report on the synapse specific sorting, trapping and accumulation of receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Acute exposures to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides inhibit ChE activities, causing accumulation of ACh at synapses, and their disruption in organisms. (cdc.gov)
  • In contrast, 3 d of MI, which alters TC activity but does not shift OD, does not significantly affect the structure of TC synapses . (bvsalud.org)
  • In the next article of the series, Avila and Henstridge take a giant leap forward from Cajal's work and describe awesome developments in techniques for imaging synapses [ 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Each time a new memory is created or a new skill is learned, stronger connections - or synapses - are built between brain cells. (cdc.gov)
  • Supramolecular organization of proteins takes place at these synapses involving various types of immune cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this studay, we have used drosohpila visual system as a model system to identify a number of S&B signals both for filopodia and synapses to reveal thier molecular mechanisms. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Rapid structural remodeling of thalamocortical synapses parallels experience-dependent functional plasticity in mouse primary visual cortex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Consequently, there has been considerable debate as to whether the plasticity of TC synapses , which transmit competing visual information from each eye to V1, contributes to the early functional consequences of MC or is simply a feature of long-term deprivation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here, we used quantitative immuno-electron microscopy to examine the possibility that alterations of TC synapses occur rapidly enough to impact OD after brief MC. (bvsalud.org)
  • We also plan to examine whether systemic administration of verapamil prevents synapse loss in the cochlea. (cdc.gov)
  • Findings have shown that psychological learning processes can cause biological changes in brain synapses and neurophysiological expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • No longer limited by onboard device memory, Razer Synapse 2.0 brings the brain of your Razer hardware to the cloud allowing you an infinite number of profiles, configurations, and allows for longer, more complex macros. (razer.com)
  • The article explains how it is now feasible to use block-face trimming which, in combination with sophisticated data handling, enables the assembly of 3D constructs of synapses and the mapping of their connections within the brain matrix. (portlandpress.com)
  • Synapse Pipelines is a data integration service that enables customers to design, plan, and manage data integration workflows. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • This indicates that tau plays an important role in targeting Fyn to the synapse, although some Fyn arrives at the synapse independently of tau. (alzforum.org)
  • It is 125 years since he added the term, 'synapse', to the scientific vernacular and 90 years since he was awarded the Nobel prize for his work on spinal reflexes, for which the role of synapses is fundamental. (portlandpress.com)
  • Elena Kalodner-Martin, a PhD student in the Composition and Rhetoric program, recently published an article titled, " Moving 'Beyond the Bikini': Exposing the Logics of Pinkwashed Healthcare " in Synapsis, an interdisciplinary health humanities journal. (umass.edu)
  • Sequential triple recordings revealed that the decay time course of IPSCs at BC-BC synapses was approximately twofold faster than that at BC-granule cell synapses, whereas the extent of PPD was comparable. (jneurosci.org)
  • Young people's brains build synapses faster than adult brains. (cdc.gov)
  • Synapse Studio is a web-based workspace that offers a single interface for data preparation, administration, and exploration. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Synapse SQL is a distributed SQL engine that offers a unified view of data stored in relational and non-relational data sources. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • Synapse Spark is a distributed computing engine that can handle large amounts of data. (analyticsvidhya.com)
  • The data show that 3 d of MC is sufficient to induce substantial remodeling of TC synapses . (bvsalud.org)
  • Synapse regularly supports its clients working on initiatives to establish grid modernization planning processes that allow for stakeholder and regulatory review to ensure that grid modernization plans are comprehensive, are transparent, incorporate stakeholder input, and take advantage of industry best practices. (synapse-energy.com)
  • In this presentation, I attempt to address areas like enterprise integration problems, ESB pattern, Synapse architecture, features and the configuration model. (slideshare.net)
  • New evidence indicates that TTS-inducing exposures may cause an irreversible loss of neural synapses and degeneration of the cochlear nerve even after hearing thresholds completely recover. (cdc.gov)
  • If you love the design of the Synapse 19, but want a bigger version, check out the Synapse 25 . (tombihn.com)
  • Synapse is the UCSF student newspaper. (ucsf.edu)
  • This themed collection celebrates 125 years of the synapse through a series of reviews written by a team of international experts in the field. (portlandpress.com)
  • Synapse reviews utility proposals for advanced metering infrastructure investments (AMI) as part of rate cases, grid modernization planning cases, or stand-alone reviews of AMI economics. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Amongst the key new Synapse products in Las Vegas will be the GRB100 - a 3Gb/s HD and SD 48x16 channel shuffler - re-embedder. (tvtechnology.com)
  • It also undergoes synapse S&B process during adulthood to reform and modify the circuits to adapt to the changing environment, while maintaing its high-order bahaviours at the same time. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Synapse also provides clients with technical support in reviewing grid modernization plans to ensure that utility proposals are cost-effective and in the public interest. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Our results support the hypothesis that the rapid plasticity of TC synapses is a key step in the sequence of events that shift OD in visual cortex . (bvsalud.org)
  • Synapse: Two offers a junction between the familiar and the unknown, narrowing the space between us. (longy.edu)
  • Synapse has been working with other industry leaders to develop these best practices and to bring them into regulatory processes. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Now for the first time, a paper appearing July 22 in Cell details a molecular mechanism that links tau to Aβ toxicity at the synapse. (alzforum.org)
  • Synapse helps clients review utility proposals to ensure that AMI investments are cost-effective, properly planned, properly implemented, and that its myriad benefits are fully captured over time. (synapse-energy.com)
  • First authors Ittner and Yazi Ke looked for Fyn in a tau knockout (KO) mouse , and found it to be reduced by two-thirds at the synapse. (alzforum.org)
  • Ittner and colleagues found that in the Δtau74 transgenic mouse, Fyn was down by three-quarters at the synapse, despite the presence of endogenous tau. (alzforum.org)
  • Synapse evaluates distribution system investments, reliability, and infrastructure issues as part of utility rate cases and other engagements. (synapse-energy.com)

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