Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Depression: Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.Symptom Assessment: Evaluation of manifestations of disease.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Plasma: The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Genetic Load: The relative amount by which the average fitness of a POPULATION is lowered, due to the presence of GENES that decrease survival, compared to the GENOTYPE with maximum or optimal fitness. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Branched DNA Signal Amplification Assay: A molecular probe technique that utilizes branched DNA (bDNA) as a means to amplify the hybridization signal. One end of the bDNA molecule is designed to bind a specific target, while the other end of the bDNA molecule contains many branches of DNA that are designed to bind a probe used for signal detection.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Behavioral Symptoms: Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Papillomavirus Infections: Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.Treatment Failure: A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.HIV Long-Term Survivors: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.Drug Monitoring: The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Epstein-Barr Virus Infections: Infection with human herpesvirus 4 (HERPESVIRUS 4, HUMAN); which may facilitate the development of various lymphoproliferative disorders. These include BURKITT LYMPHOMA (African type), INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS, and oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY).Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Polyomavirus Infections: Infections with POLYOMAVIRUS, which are often cultured from the urine of kidney transplant patients. Excretion of BK VIRUS is associated with ureteral strictures and CYSTITIS, and that of JC VIRUS with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (LEUKOENCEPHALOPATHY, PROGRESSIVE MULTIFOCAL).Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Affective Symptoms: Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Nevirapine: A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.BK Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS apparently infecting over 90% of children but not clearly associated with any clinical illness in childhood. The virus remains latent in the body throughout life and can be reactivated under certain circumstances.HIV-2: An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.HIV Core Protein p24: A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.Human papillomavirus 18: A type of human papillomavirus especially associated with malignant tumors of the genital and RESPIRATORY MUCOSA.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Benzoxazines: OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Desiccation: Removal of moisture from a substance (chemical, food, tissue, etc.).Depressive Disorder: An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Dried Blood Spot Testing: Techniques for using whole blood samples collected on filter paper for a variety of clinical laboratory tests.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.HLA-B Antigens: Class I human histocompatibility (HLA) surface antigens encoded by more than 30 detectable alleles on locus B of the HLA complex, the most polymorphic of all the HLA specificities. Several of these antigens (e.g., HLA-B27, -B7, -B8) are strongly associated with predisposition to rheumatoid and other autoimmune disorders. Like other class I HLA determinants, they are involved in the cellular immune reactivity of cytolytic T lymphocytes.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Virus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Botswana: A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Herpesvirus 4, Human: The type species of LYMPHOCRYPTOVIRUS, subfamily GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting B-cells in humans. It is thought to be the causative agent of INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS and is strongly associated with oral hairy leukoplakia (LEUKOPLAKIA, HAIRY;), BURKITT LYMPHOMA; and other malignancies.Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean: A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Parasite Load: Measure of the number of the PARASITES present in a host organism.Gene Products, gag: Proteins coded by the retroviral gag gene. The products are usually synthesized as protein precursors or POLYPROTEINS, which are then cleaved by viral proteases to yield the final products. Many of the final products are associated with the nucleoprotein core of the virion. gag is short for group-specific antigen.Lentivirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the Lentivirus genus. They are multi-organ diseases characterized by long incubation periods and persistent infection.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the GAG GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Cyclohexanes: Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.Roseolovirus Infections: Infection with ROSEOLOVIRUS, the most common in humans being EXANTHEMA SUBITUM, a benign disease of infants and young children.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Human papillomavirus 31: A type of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS associated with high risk for anogenital neoplasms.Respiration Disorders: Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.United StatesOccupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Human bocavirus: A member of the family PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily PARVOVIRINAE, originally isolated from human nasopharyngeal aspirates in patients with respiratory disease.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Parvoviridae Infections: Virus infections caused by the PARVOVIRIDAE.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Papillomaviridae: A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Nasal Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Receptors, CCR5: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.BrazilAntibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Homosexuality, Male: Sexual attraction or relationship between males.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo: A species of NAIROVIRUS of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE. It is primarily transmitted by ticks and causes a severe, often fatal disease in humans.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Tumor Virus Infections: Infections produced by oncogenic viruses. The infections caused by DNA viruses are less numerous but more diverse than those caused by the RNA oncogenic viruses.Gastroesophageal Reflux: Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.Varicellovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.pol Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus: Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.AIDS Dementia Complex: A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Psychometrics: Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.Heterosexuality: The sexual attraction or relationship between members of the opposite SEX.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Respiratory Tract DiseasesNasopharynx: The top portion of the pharynx situated posterior to the nose and superior to the SOFT PALATE. The nasopharynx is the posterior extension of the nasal cavities and has a respiratory function.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Herpesvirus 6, Human: The type species of ROSEOLOVIRUS isolated from patients with AIDS and other LYMPHOPROLIFERATIVE DISORDERS. It infects and replicates in fresh and established lines of hematopoietic cells and cells of neural origin. It also appears to alter NK cell activity. HHV-6; (HBLV) antibodies are elevated in patients with AIDS, Sjogren's syndrome, sarcoidosis, chronic fatigue syndrome, and certain malignancies. HHV-6 is the cause of EXANTHEMA SUBITUM and has been implicated in encephalitis.Urination Disorders: Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is found in North, Central and South ... Prodromal symptoms include flu-like symptoms such as fever, cough, muscle pain, headache, and lethargy. It is characterized by ... The lipid bilayer of the viral envelope is about five nm thick and is embedded with viral surface proteins to which sugar ... These factories then facilitate transcription and subsequent translation of the viral proteins. Transcription of viral genes ...
Trichodysplasia spinulosa polyomavirus
Individuals with TS symptoms exhibit much higher viral loads than do asymptomatically infected immunocompromised individuals. ... Wu, J.H.; Nguyen, H.P.; Rady, P.L.; Tyring, S.K. (March 2016). "Molecular insight into the viral biology and clinical features ... It was suspected to be associated with viral infection on the basis of the patient population in which it appeared, and ... TSPyV infects the skin, but viral DNA is rarely detectable there in asymptomatic individuals even if they possess antibodies to ...
T helper 17 cell
Patients continue to exhibit symptoms and do not show as reduced a viral load as expected. In an SIV-rhesus monkey model, it ... Because of their immunosuppressive properties, they are thought to decrease the anti-viral response to HIV, contributing to ... Revitalizing Th17 cells has been shown to decrease symptoms of chronic infection, including decreased inflammation, and results ... the loss of intestinal Th17 cells in particular has been linked to symptoms of chronic, pathogenic HIV and SIV infection. ...
Most people with HIV not on medication have viral loads which are much higher. It is estimated that around 1 in 300 people with ... Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. Genetic traits that confer greater resistance ... Long-term nonprogressors typically have viral loads under 10,000 copies RNA/ml blood, do not take antiretrovirals, and have ... who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load. Many of these patients ...
Human T-lymphotropic virus 1
Although in one human study it was effective in reducing viral load, there did not appear to be a clinical benefit. Recently ... One year post-transplant, she has had no recurrence of any symptoms, and furthermore has had a decrease in her proviral load.[ ... Valproic acid has been studied to determine if it might slow the progression of HTLV disease by reducing viral load. ... a study of valproic acid combined with zidovudine showed a major decrease in the viral load of baboons infected with HTLV-1. It ...
RT-PCR can also be used to quantify the viral load in the blood. Using RT-PCR, diagnostic results can be available in one to ... Other symptoms may include headache, muscle pain, joint swelling, and a rash. Symptoms usually improve within a week; ... viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... Characteristic symptoms include sudden onset with high fever, joint pain, and rash. Other symptoms may occur, including ...
This causes their contacts to be exposed to higher viral/bacterial loads than would be seen in the contacts of non- ... Despite his symptoms, he traveled to Hong Kong to attend a family wedding. He stayed on the ninth floor of the Metropole Hotel ... This shedding rate was calculated in men with similar HIV viral loads. Once treatment for the co-infection had been completed, ... viral load, misdiagnosis, airflow dynamics, immune suppression, and co-infection with another pathogen. Although loose ...
... despite HIV replicating in the lymphatic system and rapidly accumulating a large viral load. These persons may be infectious. ... A person may be a carrier of a disease, such as Streptococcus in the throat, without exhibiting any symptoms. Depending on the ... With respect to viral infections, in latency the virus is replicating. This is in contrast to viral latency, a form of dormancy ... The time between the injection of the parasite into the human and the development of the first symptoms of malaria is its ...
Potato virus Y
PVY infection of potato plants results in a variety of symptoms depending on the viral strain. The mildest of these symptoms is ... the viral load, the time at which infection occurs as well as the tolerance the host possesses toward the virus. Resistance to ... Determination of viral status through visual inspection is incredibly difficult as the symptoms may be masked or the infection ... Infection of plants by potyviruses can be varied in the symptoms shown. Infection can include veinal necrosis, mosaic symptoms ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... It significantly increased life expectancies and decreased noticeable symptoms from infectious diseases that were the result of ... They were able to show that indinavir, when used with two other anti-HIV drugs, could significantly reduce the HIV viral load.[ ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder
ADC typically occurs after years of HIV infection and is associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. It ... Motor symptoms include a loss of fine motor control leading to clumsiness, poor balance and tremors. Behavioral changes may ... These cells are actively infected with HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin. The essential features of ADC ... Stage 0 (Normal) Normal Mental and Motor Function Stage 0.5 (Subclinical) Minimal symptoms of cognitive or motor dysfunction ...
RT-PCR can also be used to quantify the viral load in the blood. Using RT-PCR, diagnostic results can be available in one to ... Characteristic symptoms include sudden onset with high fever, joint pain, and rash. Other symptoms may occur, including ... Additionally, viral antigen and viral RNA were found in macrophages in the synovial joint of a person experiencing a relapse of ... The symptoms can be mistaken for those of dengue fever and Zika fever. After a single infection it is believed most people ...
Signs and symptoms of HIV/AIDS
However, most have detectable viral load and will eventually progress to AIDS without treatment. These individuals are ... 19 (6). Presence of symptom as a predictor of acute HIV infection. Absence of symptom as a predictor of no acute HIV infection. ... Infected individuals may experience all, some, or none of these symptoms. The duration of symptoms varies, averaging 28 days ... People who maintain CD4+ T cell counts and also have low or clinically undetectable viral load without anti-retroviral ...
... B1 can cause immune suppression, and exposure to it is associated with an increased viral load in HIV positive ... Chronic, subclinical exposure does not lead to symptoms so dramatic as acute aflatoxicosis. The expression of aflatoxin-related ... "Association between high aflatoxin B1 levels and high viral load in HIV-positive people". World Mycotoxin Journal. 6 (3): 255- ... in addition to all the symptoms mentioned below. High-level aflatoxin exposure produces an acute hepatic necrosis, resulting ...
The viral load of an infected person is an important risk factor in both sexual and mother-to-child transmission. During the ... Neurological symptoms of peripheral neuropathy or Guillain-Barré syndrome also occurs. The duration of the symptoms varies, but ... Although most HIV-1 infected individuals have a detectable viral load and in the absence of treatment will eventually progress ... Prognosis varies between people, and both the CD4 count and viral load are useful for predicted outcomes. Without treatment, ...
Usually secondary viremia results in higher viral shedding and viral loads within the bloodstream due to the possibility that ... secondary viremia results and symptoms usually begin. Vaccination at this point is useless, as the spread to the brain is ... Viral replication then leads to viremia and the virus spreads to its secondary site of infection, the central nervous system ( ... 3.3.co;2-3. Lodmell DL, Dimcheff DE, Ewalt LC (Mar 2006). "Viral RNA in the bloodstream suggests viremia occurs in clinically ...
2016). "Zika virus: high infectious viral load in semen, a new sexually transmitted pathogen?". The Lancet Infectious Diseases ... Symptoms may include fever, red eyes, joint pain, headache, and a maculopapular rash. Symptoms generally last less than seven ... Play media Most people who are infected have no or few symptoms. Otherwise the most common signs and symptoms of Zika fever are ... The time from a mosquito bite to developing symptoms is not yet known, but is probably a few days to a week. The disease lasts ...
AIDS service organization
... to be treated or remain on the treatment for the long-term plan that was necessary to sufficiently lower patient's viral loads ... AIDS organizations provide testing, treatment, symptom management, mental health services, and more. Additionally, AIDS service ... and community organizations could only focus on symptom management and social activism to push for a cure. Once treatment was ...
... allowing physicians to monitor the viral load of CMV-infected patients. CMV pp65 antigenemia test is an immunofluorescence ... symptoms and tends to reactivate intermittently without symptoms. However, persons who have been infected with CMV develop ... Synthesis of the viral double-stranded DNA genome occurs at the host cell nucleus within specialized viral replication ... A variety of amino acid changes in the UL97 protein kinase and the viral DNA polymerase have been reported to cause drug ...
Transfusion transmitted virus
Increased viral loads in cases of congenital mannose-binding lectin deficiencies have been reported. A possible case of ... Although it does not appear to cause symptoms of hepatitis on its own, it is often found in patients with liver disease. For ... Higher than usual viral loads have been associated with severe idiopathic inflammatory myopathies, cancer and lupus. ... and viral load". J Med Virol. 83 (6): 1107-11. doi:10.1002/jmv.22024. Wootton SC, Kim DS, Kondoh Y, Chen E, Lee JS, Song JW, ...
Quantification of viral load can be performed using quantitative PCR, as affected skin demonstrates much higher viral loads ... Treatment with antiviral drugs has also been reported to improve symptoms, but only as long as treatment continues. TS was ... Trichodysplasia spinulosa (also known by many other names, including viral-associated trichodysplasia spinulosa, viral- ... can be used to confirm the presence of viral particles in cell nuclei. Electron microscopy can also be used to detect viral ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
There is conflicting information about whether deworming reduces HIV progression and viral load and increases CD4 counts in ... The signs and symptoms of helminthiasis depend on a number of factors including: the site of the infestation within the body; ... Where the burden of parasites in the body is light, there may be no symptoms. Certain worms may cause particular constellations ... of symptoms. For instance, taeniasis can lead to seizures due to neurocysticercosis. In extreme cases of intestinal infestation ...
Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS
Saliva carries a negligible viral load, so even open-mouthed kissing is considered a low risk. However, if the infected partner ... In fact, disease progression can occur over a long period of time before the onset of symptoms, and as such, HIV infections ... In other animals, viral relatives of HIV with long and variable latency periods, such as visna virus in sheep, cause central ... As the immune system of an HIV-infected individual weakens, he or she becomes susceptible to the particular viral, fungal, and ...
எயிட்சு - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
2002). "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr ... Heath KV, Singer J, O'Shaughnessy MV, Montaner JS, Hogg RS (2002). "Intentional Nonadherence Due to Adverse Symptoms Associated ... Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ... Blankson JN, Persaud D, Siliciano RF (2002). "The challenge of viral reservoirs in HIV-1 infection". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 557- ...
... a decrease in the viral load after an infection is established). The extract demonstrated direct viral activity by killing ... The main symptoms are diarrhoea, followed by nausea, vomiting, fever, malaise and abdominal pain. Some research studies have ... Presence of viral particles in fecal matter and in epithelial intestinal cells indicate that the virus replicates in the ... "Viral Zone". ExPASy. Retrieved 12 June 2015. Dong J, et al. (2011). "Crystal structure of the human astrovirus capsid spike". ...
AIDS bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas
2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with selenium supplementation: a randomized controlled ... "Intentional Nonadherence Due to Adverse Symptoms Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy". J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 31 (2 ... "Male viral load and heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in northern Thailand". J. Acquir. Immune. Defic. Syndr. 29 (3 ... "Maternal viral load, zidovudine treatment, and the risk of transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from mother to ...
Genome-wide complex trait analysis
HIV viral load: 0.084(0.04) esophageal adenocarcinoma: 0.0(0.21) Barrett's esophagus: 0.35(0.06) Gastroesophageal reflux ... 1+ DSM-IV symptoms): 0.25(0.13) drug dependence vulnerability (DV; a ratio of DSM-IV symptoms to the number of substances used ... Additional genetic variants include de novo mutations/mutation load & structural variations such as copy-number variations. ... ADHD symptoms (SDQ-ADHD): age 12: 0.19(0.07) age 13: 0.18(0.07) DSM-IV-based ADHD scale from the Conners' Parent Rating Scale- ...
Symptoms. Blackheads, whiteheads, pimples, oily skin, scarring. Complications. Anxiety, reduced self-esteem, depression, ... glycemic-load diets have been found to have different degrees of effect on acne severity. Multiple randomized ... whereas spironolactone decreased symptoms by only 40% in the same period. In a large long-term study, 97% of ... and when symptoms of significant sebum production (seborrhea) are co-present. Hormone therapy is effective for acne even ...
A problem of infections in the elderly is that they frequently present with non-specific signs and symptoms, and clues of focal ... the challenge of heterogeneity and the role of antigenic load". Experimental Gerontology. 34 (8): 911-921. doi:10.1016/S0531- ... stimulation the accumulation and the clonal expansion of memory and effector T-cells hampered immune defences against viral ...
Index of HIV/AIDS-related articles
... symptoms and viral shedding show a similar pattern, but with viral shedding preceding illness by one day. Children are much ... "W.H.O. Gives Swine Flu a Less Loaded, More Scientific Name". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 9 November 2012 ... Signs and symptoms. Most sensitive symptoms for diagnosing influenza. Symptom:. sensitivity. specificity ... many cold and flu symptoms are just general infection symptoms) can appear, though these symptoms are usually not as severe or ...
Such decompensation unmasks the underlying disease, worsening its symptoms. Common examples include decompensated heart failure ... such as the advent of a concurrent acute viral infection), which sends the body reeling through a new cascade of events. ... and therefore highly variable in rough proportion to the heat load that threatens to destabilize the body's core temperature, ...
Red blood cell
When these release their oxygen load in the tissues, they become insoluble, leading to mis-shaped red blood cells. These sickle ... The increased viscosity of the blood can cause a number of symptoms. ... as recognized by the presence of giant pronormoblasts with viral particles and inclusion bodies, thus temporarily depleting the ... where they efficiently release their oxygen load. ...
Though the symptoms are mainly sensory, in some cases motor nerves and the autonomic nervous system are affected. CIPN ... The susceptibility of an individual to liver damage can be altered by other factors such as the cancer itself, viral hepatitis ... Salvage chemotherapy or palliative chemotherapy is given without curative intent, but simply to decrease tumor load and ... However, a high index of suspicion is appropriate, since diarrhea and bloating are also symptoms of typhlitis, a very serious ...
Signs and symptoms. In addition to symptoms related to the actual cause, people with sepsis may have a fever, low body ... This section needs expansion with: Viral sepsis. You can help by adding to it. (March 2020) ... Meanwhile, for antibiotics with low volume distribution (vancomycin, teicoplanin, colistin), loading dose is required to ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial but may be fungal or viral. Gram-positive bacteria were the primary ...
Signs and symptomsEdit. Vertigo is a sensation of spinning while stationary. It is commonly associated with nausea or ... and generalized imbalance and is believed to be caused by a viral infection of the inner ear though several theories have been ... actually increasing their total inert gas loading. This is often found to provoke inner ear decompression sickness, as the ear ... Symptoms. Feeling of spinning or swaying, vomiting, difficulty walking. Causes. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo ( ...
Bacterial or viral. As bacterial and viral infections can both cause the same kinds of symptoms, it can be difficult to ... A number of studies have reported associations between pathogen load in an area and human behavior. Higher pathogen load is ... Comparison of viral and bacterial infection Characteristic Viral infection Bacterial infection Typical symptoms In general, ... The pain of viral infections is often described as itchy or burning. The classic symptoms of a bacterial infection are ...
The entire STMV particle consists of 60 identical copies of one protein that make up the viral capsid (coating), and a 1063 ... Parallel algorithms allow the load to be distributed among CPUs; an example is the spatial or force decomposition algorithm.[17 ... icosahedral plant virus that worsens the symptoms of infection by Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV). Molecular dynamics simulations ... were used to probe the mechanisms of viral assembly. ...
Health effects of tobacco
"Effect of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokines, oxidative stress, and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HIV-infected ... Generally, the unpleasant symptoms will eventually vanish over time, with repeated use, as the body builds a tolerance to the ... Depression is also common in teenage smokers; teens who smoke are four times as likely to develop depressive symptoms as their ... Smoking increases the risk of symptoms associated with Crohn's disease (a dose-dependent effect with use of greater than 15 ...
Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle. *Viral quantification ... Mouse parvovirus 1, however, causes no symptoms but can contaminate immunology experiments in biological research laboratories. ... The viral capsid of a parvovirus is made up of two to four proteins, known as VP1-4 that form an icosahedral symmetry that is ... Thus, in order for viral replication to take place the infected cells must be non-quiescent (i.e. must be actively mitotic). ...
ಜಠರ/ಜಠರೀಯ ಹುಣ್ಣು/ವ್ರಣ - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Signs and symptoms. The mildest form of hepatic encephalopathy is difficult to detect clinically, but may be demonstrated ... nitrogen load Consumption of large amounts of protein, gastrointestinal bleeding e.g. from esophageal varices (blood is high in ... Symptoms. Altered level of consciousness, mood changes, personality changes, movement problems. ... Encephalopathy often occurs together with other symptoms and signs of liver failure. These may include jaundice (yellow ...
Talk:Causes of autism
"Yet" is a problematic, loaded work beloved of POV-pushers. Alexbrn (talk) 17:06, 26 September 2018 (UTC) There's a difference ... "Environmental factors that have been claimed to contribute to autism or exacerbate its symptoms, or that may be important to ... or viral syndrome, or, rarely, an immunization, most often the MMR vaccine or the former DPT...Regression occurs either acutely ...
Diabetes mellitus type 1
The classic symptoms are frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, and weight loss. Additional symptoms may ... Plasma glucose at or above 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test. ... "Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection". Current Diabetes Reports (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi ... Symptoms. Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger, weight loss. Complications. Diabetic ketoacidosis, ...
Vaccination against meningitis does not decrease CD4+ T-cell counts or increase viral load in HIV-infected individuals, and ... Symptoms of meningococcemia are, at least initially, similar to those of influenza. Typically, the first symptoms include fever ... Diarrhea or respiratory symptoms are less common. Petechiae are often also present, but do not always occur, so their absence ... Infected fluid from the meninges then passes into the spinal cord, causing symptoms including stiff neck, fever and rashes. The ...
According to the researchers, this approach could lead to a dramatic reduction of the viral load in patient cells. ... Infection with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV) is associated with clinical symptoms of accelerated aging, as evidenced ... The research showed that in animals treated with SupT1 cell infusion, significantly lower plasma viral load (~10-fold) and ... "Nanoparticles loaded with bee venom kill HIV". 7 March 2013.. *^ "German HIV patient cured after stem cell transplant". Belfast ...
Viral. chickenpox, hand, foot and mouth disease, herpangina, herpetic stomatitis, human immunodeficiency virus, infectious ... The high bacterial load in the mouth means that ulcers may become secondarily infected. Cytotoxic drugs administered during ... Major aphthous ulceration is less common than the minor type, but produces more severe lesions and symptoms. Major aphthous ... Some of the viral infections mentioned above are also classified as vesiculobullous diseases. Other example vesiculobullous ...
Colony collapse disorder
... loss reported by beekeepers without this symptom. Large operations were more likely to have this symptom, suggesting a ... Viral and fungal combination. A University of Montana and Montana State University team of scientists headed by Jerry ... Bees in CCD colonies had higher pathogen loads and were co-infected with more pathogens than control populations, suggesting ... Precursor symptoms that may arise before the final colony collapse include: *Inability to maintain current brood due to low ...
Hepatitis C - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
... or her viral loads (the amount of the Hepatitis C virus in her blood) are high. ... Signs and symptoms[change , change source]. Hepatitis C causes acute symptoms (symptoms that begin quickly or last only a short ... Cirrhosis of the liver can cause many different symptoms. Some of these symptoms are high blood pressure in the veins that ... "FAQ - CDC Viral Hepatitis. Retrieved 2 Jan 2012.. *↑ 29.0 29.1 Lam, NC; Gotsch, PB and Langan, RC (2010-11-15). "Caring for ...
"Symptoms of Low Blood Sugar". WebMD. Archived from the original on 18 June 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2016.. ... Plasma glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) two hours after a 75 g oral glucose load as in a glucose tolerance test ... such as a viral infection or diet. Several viruses have been implicated, but to date there is no stringent evidence to support ... Symptoms. Frequent urination, increased thirst, increased hunger. Complications. Diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic ...
... viral infections of humans and other animals have incubation periods during which the infection causes no signs or symptoms.[ ... Laboratory diagnosis of viral infections. *Viral load. *Virus-like particle. *Viral quantification ... viral protein synthesis, possible assembly of viral proteins, then viral genome replication mediated by early or regulatory ... Several highly lethal viral pathogens are members of the Filoviridae. Filoviruses are filament-like viruses that cause viral ...
Pathogenesis of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: is this an infectious disease, lymphoproliferative disorder, or...
Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their peripheral blood and/or an un … ... is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent ... is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent ... Patients with CAEBV have high viral loads in their peripheral blood and/or an unusual pattern of EBV-related antibodies. This ...
What does aids dementia complex mean?
ADC typically occurs after years of HIV infection and is associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. It ... Motor symptoms include a loss of fine motor control leading to clumsiness, poor balance and tremors. Behavioral changes may ... These cells are actively infected with HIV and secrete neurotoxins of both host and viral origin. The essential features of ADC ... and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain ...
DEPLORABLE Bloggers Alliance: Italian Study Shows Lower 'Viral Load,' Milder Symptoms In COVID-19 Patients
Italian Study Shows Lower Viral Load, Milder Symptoms In COVID-19 Patients ... viral loads were higher in April. Patients swabbed in April also had more severe symptoms and were more likely to need ... But the researchers also noted that it is unclear what is causing the lower viral load. Advertisement - story continues below " ... The researchers said the lower "viral load" could mean that the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, is getting weaker. ...
Study Shows Depressive Symptoms Associated With Detectable HIV Viral Load, but Not With Missed Visits - TheBodyPRO.com
Because viral load tests were not as sensitive in 2005 as they are now, the threshold for a detectable viral load was set ... Study Shows Depressive Symptoms Associated With Detectable HIV Viral Load, but Not With Missed Visits. ... In unadjusted statistics, recent depressive symptoms conferred a 37% higher risk of having a detectable viral load over time ... while a detectable viral load was related to such symptoms, a new study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases has shown. ...
Menstrual health and HIV | aidsmap
viral load. Measurement of the amount of virus in a blood sample, reported as number of HIV RNA copies per milliliter of blood ... Is a missed period a symptom of HIV?. A single missed period is not a sign of HIV. The symptoms of recent HIV infection are the ... Several studies have shown that viral load in the female genital tract can vary during the menstrual cycle, including a 2004 ... Levels of HIV in blood and cervico-vaginal fluid are usually correlated, although viral load in vaginal secretions may fall ...
What Does an HIV Viral Load Chart Show? | Reference.com
An HIV viral load chart shows the number of particles (known as copies) of the HIV virus in 1 milliliter of blood of an HIV- ... What Are the Symptoms of a Brain Aneurysm?. * Q: Where Can One Buy Natural Herbs for Arthritis Pain?. ... What Are Viral Load and CD4 Counts in HIV/AIDS Patients?. A: Viral load refers to the amount of HIV in a sample of a patients ... An HIV viral load chart shows the number of particles (known as copies) of the HIV virus in 1 milliliter of blood of an HIV- ...
What Are Some Ways to Cure Kidney Problems? | Reference.com
Symptom - Latest news, opinion and analysis | The Next Web
Scientists dont know if viral load is linked to severity of coronavirus symptoms Healthcare workers are likely to be in ... All stories in Symptom. * 5 things self-proclaimed COVID-19 experts get wrong about statistics If we dont analyze statistics ... Our coronavirus symptom-tracking app has been used by millions - heres what were learning The global COVID-19 pandemic caused ... Study links frequent gadget use to increased ADHD symptoms in teens Its no secret that the number of hours teens spend on ...
Long-Term Data Collection From Participants in Adult AIDS Clinical Trials - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
RNA, Viral. Anti-HIV Agents. Viral Load. Lipodystrophy. Nervous System. Cardiovascular System. Neurologic Symptoms. ... of side effects and opportunistic infections in patients with low viral loads compared to those with higher viral loads. ... Successive suppressed viral load measures [ Time Frame: Measured 144 weeks after randomization ]. *Genotypic or phenotypic ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. ...
HIV and AIDS: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and More
Learn all about HIV and AIDS, including symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, life expectancy, and more. ... Whether a person has symptoms or not, during this period their viral load is very high. The viral load is the amount of HIV ... Having an undetectable viral load reduces HIV transmission risk. Learn more about HIV and undetectable viral loads here. ... while others may have minimal or nonspecific symptoms. A nonspecific symptom is a symptom that doesnt pertain to one specific ...
News & Perspective | CIDRAP
Trump: Killing fairness rule means no low-income 'bother,' less crime | Newsday
i|Stribild|/i| | aidsmap
undetectable viral load. A level of viral load that is too low to be picked up by the particular viral load test being used or ... symptom. Any perceptible, subjective change in the body or its functions that signals the presence of a disease or condition, ... viral load. Measurement of the amount of virus in a blood sample, reported as number of HIV RNA copies per milliliter of blood ... The aim of HIV treatment is to reduce the level of HIV (the viral load) in your body until it is undetectable - usually less ...
Starting Anti-HIV Therapy - TheBody.com
Symptoms. CD4+ Cell Count. Viral Load (Plasma HIV RNA). Recommendation. Severe symptoms, AIDS defining illnesses. Can be any ... If a woman is pregnant and has a low CD4+ cell count and a high viral load, she must make decisions about protecting her health ... We know that when viral load remains under 50 for at least one year on therapy, virus will usually remain suppressed for at ... Either severe symptoms or no symptoms at all. Less than 200. Can be any number. Strong recommendation to treat with anti-HIV ...
No Acronyms Please | DailyStrength
UND: Undetectable Viral Load VL: Viral Load VR: Virological Response WHR: Waist to Hip Ratio More Acronyms AFP: Alpha- ... Sx: Symptoms/Side Effects TMA: Transcription Mediated Amplification Tx: Treatment, Therapy (can also mean Transplant) ... HVL: High Viral Load (?400,000 IU) (?600,000 IU) (?800,000 IU) Hx: History ITT: Intent to Treat IU: International Unit (1 IU = ... Many people with HCV infection have no symptoms and are unaware of the need to seek treatment. Hepatitis C infects an estimated ...
psychiatric - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for psychiatric
HIV Controllers: Who They Are and What Makes Them Different
... a unique group of people who are HIV-positive but dont experience symptoms. Get the facts on what makes them different from ... A Timeline of HIV Symptoms. *. Undetectable Viral Load and HIV Transmission Risk ... Having an undetectable viral load reduces HIV transmission risk. Learn more about HIV and undetectable viral loads here. ... If someone has a viral load thats lower than 200 copies per milliliter (mL) of blood, then they cant transmit HIV to others, ...
Higher HIV viral load and lower CD4 count linked to liver cancer risk. News ... Hepatitis C symptoms & diagnosis. Co-infection with HIV and HCV does not increase the risk of end-stage liver disease or liver ... Hepatitis C symptoms & diagnosis. Many hepatitis C patients with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis face liver failure and liver ... Please report any problems you are having with the site such as display issues, pages not loading, forms not working etc. ...
Salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 after symptom onset, HFNO vs standard mask oxygenation for COVID-19 pneumonia, and time...
Salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 after symptom onset, HFNO vs standard mask oxygenation for COVID-19 pneumonia, and time ... Salivary viral load was highest during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time (slope, -0.15; R2 ... salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 was highest in patients during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined ... Todays DG Alert covers salivary viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after symptom onset ...
HIV/AIDS | HIV | HIV Symptoms | AIDS | MedlinePlus
HIV Viral Load (National Library of Medicine) Also in Spanish * Information Regarding the OraQuick In-Home HIV Test (Food and ... Drug Use and Viral Infections (HIV, Hepatitis) (National Institute on Drug Abuse) Also in Spanish ... These symptoms may come and go within two to four weeks. This stage is called acute HIV infection. ... Often, there are no symptoms during this stage. If it is not treated, eventually the virus will weaken your bodys immune ...
CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring in patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy in Uganda: cost effectiveness study |...
The three main approaches are monitoring clinical signs and symptoms; adding laboratory measures of CD cell count to clinical ... Participants were randomly assigned to three different monitoring regimens: clinical/CD4/viral load (quarterly HIV viral loads ... When the cost of the viral load test kit is reduced to 50% of its base case value, the ICER for viral load decreases to $3 316 ... and clinical/CD4/viral load. We did not calculate cost effectiveness of clinical/CD4/viral load monitoring compared with ...
Low cd4 count and viral load - Forum on Understanding Your Labs -- TheBody.com
I do not show any signs or symptoms. How worried should I be of catching something? Should I be washing my hands after i touch ... Low cd4 count and viral load. Jun 6, 2009. I was diagnosed a few weeks ago, my viral load is 4006 and my cd4 count is 139? i am ... I would suggest you have a HIV resistance test performed to make sure your viral strain doesnt already have evidence of HIV ...
Gay men - Symptoms, Treatments and Resources for Gay men
Emotional Disclosure in HIV - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Note that HIV RNA viral load, CD4 T cells, urinary cortisol, health related dysfunction, psychological distress, and medication ... No active Category C HIV AIDS-defining symptoms. *CD4 T-lymphocyte count between 150-499 ... Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral. Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes. Immune System Diseases. ...
Chronic Hepatitis B Infection
Chronic Persistent Type B Viral Hepatitis, Chronic Hepatitis B Antiviral Therapy. ... High viral load. *Elevated Liver Function Tests (ALT or SGPT). *History. *Cirrhosis symptoms and signs ... hepatitis b chronic viral, Chronic hepatitis B, Chronic type B viral hepatitis, Chronic viral hepatitis B, Chronic type B viral ... Aka: Chronic Hepatitis B Infection, Chronic Hepatitis B, Chronic Active Type B Viral Hepatitis, Chronic Persistent Type B Viral ...
Forget Surface Antibodies, If You Have Both Undetectable Viral Load and HBsAg, You Might Be Functionally "Cured" - Hepatitis B...
The symptoms you experienced may be from something other than hepatitis B/fatty liver. Please continue to consult with your ... My Viral Load report shows that Viral Load DNA not detected,Viral Load below 20iu/ML with the viral log at 1.30 Do I need ... Hello: A viral load of 5.19 IU/mL is nearly undetectable. Keep in mind viral load can range up to millions, so yours is pretty ... viral load (HBV DNA), and have normal ALT with no sign of liver damage for at least two years.. Viral load can vary over time. ...
Glossary | CATIE - Canada's source for HIV and hepatitis C information
Lipase and factor V (but not viral load) are prognostic factors for the evolution of severe yellow fever cases
... headache and other symptoms), remission (duration up to two days with disappearance of symptoms), and intoxication (that occurs ... evaluate viral parameters such as viral load and genotype among these cases, and determine markers associated with fatal ... Viral load median was 6.71 log10 copies/mL (range 3.20 to 9.93 log10 copies/mL) among patients who were hospitalised during the ... Viral load was higher in patients who were hospitalised earlier when compared to those that have been hospitalised after the ...
Cannabis use and HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence and HIV-related symptoms. - PubMed - NCBI
... and HIV symptoms/ART side effects. Adherence was also measured via pill count, viral load, and CD4 count. Results indicated ... Cannabis use and HIV antiretroviral therapy adherence and HIV-related symptoms.. Bonn-Miller MO1, Oser ML, Bucossi MM, Trafton ... Occasional cannabis use has been associated with increased antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and relief of HIV symptoms, ... in terms of ART adherence and HIV symptoms/ART side effects. A cross-sectional sample of 180 HIV+ individuals (78.3 % male) ...
InfectionProteinsPatientsHostUndetectable viral loadHighest viral loadSymptomaticParticlesPatientsSeverityOpportunistic infectionsDetectable viral load2020DiagnosisAcuteDays after symptom onsetMeasurementRespiratoryCoronavirusTime of symptom onsetCleavage of viralLower viral loadKineticsFound that viralSevereFatigueEbolaPeak viralImmuneLong-term nonprogreTreatmentsCountsTreatmentResearchersChronicPneumoniaEvaluateSignificantlyLiverSigns or symptomsStudySuppressionPatientInhibitsQuantitativePeople
- Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is characterised by chronic or recurrent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, such as fever, hepatosplenomegaly, persistent hepatitis and extensive lymphadenopathy. (nih.gov)
- ADC typically occurs after years of HIV infection and is associated with low CD4+ T cell levels and high plasma viral loads. (definitions.net)
- A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. (definitions.net)
Undetectable viral load6
- The ideal goal of any HIV treatment is an undetectable viral load, which greatly reduces the chances of virus transmission from an HIV-positive to an HIV-negative individual. (reference.com)
- However, an undetectable viral load does not mean the HIV-positive individual is free of the disease, and the virus can still pass to others, warns Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
- Taking HIV treatment and having an undetectable viral load protects your immune system and stops HIV being passed on to someone else during sex. (aidsmap.com)
- An undetectable viral load is the first goal of antiretroviral therapy. (aidsmap.com)
- Researchers, including expert Dr. Robert Gish, suggest if people have an undetectable viral load (HBV DNA), undetectable HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage, they may be "functionally cured," even if they haven't developed surface antibodies. (hepb.org)
- As a result of these findings, people who have gone two or more years with undetectable viral load and HBsAg, and no signs of liver damage just might be "functionally cured", Dr. Gish suggests, even if their surface antibodies remain undetectable. (hepb.org)
Highest viral load4
- Unlike SARS, patients with COVID-19 had the highest viral load near presentation, which could account for the fast-spreading nature of this epidemic. (docguide.com)
- However, even the groups of asymptomatic kids with highest viral load in our study still had lower viral loads than the children with symptoms. (eurekalert.org)
- We observed the highest viral load in throat swabs at the time of symptom onset, and inferred that infectiousness peaked on or before symptom onset. (nature.com)
- Viral load is highest from a few days before symptom onset to a few days after - so if your husband has COVID he is still in the middle of the period with the highest viral load. (metafilter.com)
- A new study from Korea indicates that asymptomatics develop viral loads in their noses and throats that are comparable to the viral loads of symptomatic patients. (bgr.com)
- If tested early in disease, would asymptomatic children have viral loads as high as symptomatic children? (eurekalert.org)
- However, they also note that even in the asymptomatic surveillance sub-cohort with highest viral loads, median viral loads were still significantly lower than in the symptomatic cohort. (eurekalert.org)
- Did the timing of testing just miss the peak in many of the asymptomatic kids in this study, or do asymptomatic kids actually have lower peak viral loads than symptomatic kids? (eurekalert.org)
- Significant presymptomatic transmission would probably reduce the effectiveness of control measures that are initiated by symptom onset, such as isolation, contact tracing and enhanced hygiene or use of face masks for symptomatic persons. (nature.com)
- For people who reported symptoms, we do not know exactly what the symptoms were, only that they were symptomatic. (broadinstitute.org)
- We found that 12.6 percent of nursing home residents and 3.7 percent of nursing home staff who did not report symptoms tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, compared to 53.7 percent of symptomatic residents and 17.7 percent of symptomatic staff. (broadinstitute.org)
- The virus has distinctive symptoms and only transmits while symptomatic. (telegraph.co.uk)
- Some experts estimate that as few as 1000 SARS-CoV2 infectious viral particles are all that will be needed ( ref 1 , ref 2 ). (weforum.org)
- The immune system reduces the number of viral particles, and levels of CD4 T cells may rise. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- But it's worth noting that the SinoVac results were from three doses of their vaccine (versus one of the Oxford candidate), and the viral exposure challenge was about half as strong (total viral particles) as what the Oxford paper used. (sciencemag.org)
- Viral load detects the number of HIV particles in the blood. (ndtv.com)
- This results in the formation of immature, noninfectious viral particles. (drugs.com)
- Infectious viral particles were isolated from both pharyngeal (throat) swabs and sputum samples. (eurasiareview.com)
- The researchers were no longer able to obtain infectious virus particles from day 8 after the initial onset of symptoms. (eurasiareview.com)
- Based on the results, the researchers calculated that patients' viral loads were higher in April. (blogspot.com)
- Patients swabbed in April also had more severe symptoms and were more likely to need hospitalization and intensive care, they found. (blogspot.com)
- What Are Viral Load and CD4 Counts in HIV/AIDS Patients? (reference.com)
- The study will also assess the occurrence of side effects and opportunistic infections in patients with low viral loads compared to those with higher viral loads. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- According to a study published in The Lancet Infectious Diseases , salivary viral load of SARS-CoV-2 was highest in patients during the first week after symptom onset and subsequently declined with time. (docguide.com)
- For 16 patients with serum samples available 14 days or longer after symptom onset, rates of seropositivity were 94% for anti-NP IgG (n = 15), 88% for anti-NP IgM (n = 14), 100% for anti-RBD IgG (n = 16), and 94% for anti-RBD IgM (n = 15). (docguide.com)
- Lastly, a study published in the American Journal of Respiratory Care and Critical Care Medicine showed that half of the patients with COVID-19 treated at a hospital in Beijing, China, were positive for SARS-CoV-2 even after resolution of symptoms. (docguide.com)
- Objective To examine the cost and cost effectiveness of quarterly CD4 cell count and viral load monitoring among patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART). (bmj.com)
- 41 (17.2%) patients reported moderate (11.3%) or severe (5.9%) posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- A new study shows that asymptomatic patients develop viral loads in their upper and lower airways that are just as bad as the viral loads in people who develop symptoms. (bgr.com)
- The study also shows that some patients may be labeled improperly as asymptomatic, as they might develop symptoms after the initial PCR diagnosis. (bgr.com)
- Of those, 193 patients showed COVID-19 symptoms while 110 were counted as asymptomatic at the time of their first PCR tests. (bgr.com)
- The doctors concluded that the patients who started showing symptoms needed anywhere between 13 and 20 days. (bgr.com)
- The researchers concluded that "isolation of asymptomatic patients may be necessary to control the spread of SARS-CoV-2," given the high viral loads found in asymptomatic patients. (bgr.com)
- An important implication of our findings is that there may be substantial underreporting of infected patients using the current symptom-based surveillance and screening. (bgr.com)
- Studies have shown that upto 10% of patients with COVID - 19 exhibit GI symptoms (2). (bmj.com)
- Without the symptoms of AIDS, many LTNP patients may not know they are infected. (wikipedia.org)
- We report temporal patterns of viral shedding in 94 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and modeled COVID-19 infectiousness profiles from a separate sample of 77 infector-infectee transmission pairs. (nature.com)
- Among 94 patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted to Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital, 47/94 (50%) were male, the median age was 47 years and 61/93 (66%) were moderately ill (with fever and/or respiratory symptoms and radiographic evidence of pneumonia), but none were classified as 'severe' or 'critical' on hospital admission (Supplementary Table 1 ). (nature.com)
- A total of 414 throat swabs were collected from these 94 patients, from symptom onset up to 32 days after onset. (nature.com)
- Viral load (threshold cycle (Ct) values) detected by RT-PCR (PCR with reverse transcription) in throat swabs from patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 ( N = 94), overall and stratified by disease severity, sex, age group and link to Hubei province. (nature.com)
- Before this Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) study, the largest analysis of how depression affects viral control involved 3359 HIV patients in the Kaiser Permanente healthcare system who started their first antiretrovirals between January 2000 and December 2003 . (natap.org)
- Among them, boosting the energy among patients and aiding in the treatment of herpes and other viral conditions, flu and colds, fungal infections, chronic fatigue and allergies. (rcn.com)
- REGN-COV2 rapidly reduced viral load and associated symptoms in infected COVID-19 patients. (rttnews.com)
- WEDNESDAY, July 29, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Depression and anxiety exhibited in COVID-19 patients may be a sign that the virus impacts the central nervous system, as these symptoms are closely associated with a loss of smell and taste rather than more severe manifestations of the virus, according to a study published online July 2 in The Laryngoscope . (healthday.com)
- Jakavi will fill an unmet need as the first treatment shown to significantly improve hematocrit, as well as symptom control and reduce spleen size in patients with polycythemia vera resistant to or intolerant of hydroxyurea. (novartis.com)
- In the study, a 50% or more improvement in PV-related symptoms was seen in 49% of Jakavi-treated patients compared to 5% of patients treated with best available therapy. (novartis.com)
- Investigators will be measuring patients' viral loads and keeping track of symptoms. (thehimalayantimes.com)
- The investigators plan to investigate the impact of higher-dose oseltamivir (150 mg b.d.) treatment on viral clearance and clinical recovery in adult patients hospitalized for severe influenza. (bioportfolio.com)
- The investigators plan to study the impact of higher-dose oseltamivir (150 mg b.d.) treatment on rate of viral load decline and RNA negativity (in nasal and throat swabs, assessed by quantitative RT-PCR assay) and time to clinical recovery in adult patients hospitalized for severe influenza. (bioportfolio.com)
- Pitrak mentioned some possible causes of an increase in the number of patients with acute cases who present in the ED. People who do not suspect they have AHI may be coming to the ED because they think they have COVID-19, inasmuch as many of the symptoms overlap. (medscape.com)
- Even among nursing home residents at high risk of severe disease, we found that the majority of patients harboring SARS-CoV-2 had no symptoms at the time they tested positive. (broadinstitute.org)
- Without surveillance testing, they might have continued to move normally among these vulnerable groups - even though their viral loads were the same as the patients and staff who reported symptoms. (broadinstitute.org)
- Conclusion: Neuroinflammatory responses similar to those in HIV neurocognitively impaired patients are present within macaque brains during prolonged periods of suppressed SIV viral load and in the absence of potentially neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs. (natap.org)
- Withdrawal symptoms, often produce patients with uncomplicated mild hypertension. (musicaenlamochila.net)
- The study included data from 94 laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients in Guangzhou, China-including 414 total throat swabs taken as long as 32 days after symptom onset-to analyze trends in SARS-CoV-2 viral load.The study also included information on 77 identified transmission events, from both inside and outside China, to analyze SARS-CoV-2 transmission dynamics. (constantcontact.com)
- The researchers observed high viral load in COVID-19 patients immediately after symptoms presented, which tapered off over a period of approximately 21 days. (constantcontact.com)
- They told me about cytokine storms, where the human immune system goes into deadly overdrive and frighteningly high, nearly Ebola-like viral loads in respiratory tract of seriously ill patients. (telegraph.co.uk)
- There was no obvious difference in viral loads across sex, age groups and disease severity (Fig. 2 ). (nature.com)
- Selecting the young and healthy also puts a priority on finding outcome measures that can distinguish well between low levels of symptom severity. (overcomingbias.com)
- So we need good ways to measure final symptom severity. (overcomingbias.com)
- Severity of symptoms depends on the viral load. (wikipedia.org)
- These include reductions in viral load, increases in CD4 cell count, reduced incidence of opportunistic infections, decreased mortality, and improvements in wellbeing and functioning. (bmj.com)
- Symptoms at this stage vary greatly, as they tend to stem from specific opportunistic infections. (medicalnewstoday.com)
Detectable viral load4
- Adherence to HIV care visits was associated more with mental health conditions before starting antiretroviral treatment than with recent depressive symptoms, while a detectable viral load was related to such symptoms, a new study published in Clinical Infectious Diseases has shown. (thebodypro.com)
- In unadjusted statistics, recent depressive symptoms conferred a 37% higher risk of having a detectable viral load over time compared with not having any depressive symptoms. (thebodypro.com)
- Higher depression scores also conferred a greater risk of a detectable viral load, although there was little data at the high end of the scale. (thebodypro.com)
- Long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs), sometimes also called "elite controllers", are individuals infected with HIV, who maintain a CD4 count greater than 500 without antiretroviral therapy with a detectable viral load. (wikipedia.org)
- NEW YORK -- March 25, 2020 -- Today's DG Alert covers salivary viral load of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) after symptom onset, high-flow nasal oxygenation (HFNO) versus standard mask oxygenation (SMO) during fibreoptic bronchoscopic intubation for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia, and time kinetics of viral clearance and resolution of symptoms in COVID-19. (docguide.com)
- COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 antibody positivity in a large survey of first responders and healthcare personnel, May-July 2020. (cdc.gov)
- FRIDAY, July 31, 2020 (HealthDay News) -- Early age at menarche is a risk factor for menopausal symptoms, according to a study published online July 21 in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology . (healthday.com)
- Between April 9th and June 9th, 2020, the Broad Institute's COVID-19 diagnostic laboratory worked in partnership with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health to test 32,480 residents and staff from 366 skilled nursing facilities, nursing homes, and assisted living facilities across the state, regardless of whether these individuals showed any symptoms. (broadinstitute.org)
- HHCs were considered suspect if they had fever or acute respiratory symptoms, as per the Swiss Federal Office for Public Health's case definition 9 ( Supplemental Information ). (aappublications.org)
- At stage 1, the acute stage, there may be symptoms of illness, as with other viruses. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Higher viral loads of bocavirus and metapneumovirus were not significantly associated with acute otitis media. (asm.org)
Days after symptom onset1
- Measurement of the viral load provides information about the person's health status and the effect, if any, that HIV medicines are having in controlling the virus, reports the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (reference.com)
- Read about the progression of the HIV virus in the body and how CD4 cell counts and the measurement of viral load indicate prognosis. (health24.com)
- Coronavirus symptoms do not have to show up for an infected COVID-19 person to spread the virus to others. (bgr.com)
- However, our research involving the Munich cluster showed that the new SARS coronavirus differs quite considerably in terms of its preferential target tissue," says the virologist, and adds: "Naturally, this has enormous consequences for both viral transmission and spread, which is why we decided to publish our initial findings in early February. (eurasiareview.com)
Time of symptom onset1
Cleavage of viral2
Lower viral load3
- The researchers said the lower "viral load" could mean that the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which causes COVID-19, is getting weaker. (blogspot.com)
- But the researchers also noted that it is unclear what is causing the lower viral load. (blogspot.com)
- The lower viral load was potentially tied to a reduction in COVID-19 symptoms, the company said. (globalnews.ca)
Found that viral2
- Several studies have shown that viral load in the female genital tract can vary during the menstrual cycle, including a 2004 study which found that viral load levels in cervico-vaginal fluid tended to peak at the time of menstruation and fall to the lowest level just prior to ovulation, usually midway through the cycle. (aidsmap.com)
- We also found that viral loads among infected people varied by as much as 250 million-fold, but the distribution of viral load was similar between the populations with and without symptoms at the time of testing. (broadinstitute.org)
- The aim is to describe the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of severe cases of YF, evaluate viral to determine markers associated with fatal outcome. (scielo.br)
- 95% CI 0.14-0.84) to report moderate to severe PTS symptoms. (cdc.gov)
- Others experience more severe symptoms. (catie.ca)
- influenza have higher viral loads and more severe illnesses. (bioportfolio.com)
- Non-survivors also exhibit more severe Ebola-specific symptoms as illness progresses. (eurekalert.org)
- We now need to know what the peak viral loads are in asymptomatic kids with COVID-19," said principal investigator and senior author Nira Pollock, MD, PhD, Associate Medical Director of the Infectious Diseases Diagnostic Laboratory at Boston Children's Hospital and Associate Professor of Pathology and Medicine at Harvard Medical School. (eurekalert.org)
- Here, differentiating between survivors and non-survivors is important because survivors tend to achieve peak viral load approximately four days after symptoms develop and then viral load declines. (eurekalert.org)
- When the viral load is so low that tests cannot detect it, HIV can no longer damage the immune system or transmit to other people. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The rise in viral load is faster than my immune system can cope with and it is overrun. (spanglefish.com)
- The HI virus is very clever and very cunning, once inside your body, it "hijacks" the cells that manage your immune system and slowly builds up a reservoir of inactive viral cells that lie in wait. (health24.com)
- Increased CD4 cell counts and decreased viral load with subsequent slowed progression of HIV and its sequelae. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Find out how CD4 cell counts and viral loads can predict when the final stages of Aids will kick in for an HIV positive patient and their role in this progression. (health24.com)
- In the study, 1,057 adults living with HIV, but not yet on antiretroviral treatment, who had completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms, among other questions, were followed between 2005 and 2011 for a median of two years. (thebodypro.com)
- These results suggest that for new [antiretroviral treatment] users, recent depressive symptoms are a risk factor for unsuppressed viral load, while pre-existing mental health conditions may play a larger role in HIV appointment adherence," study authors concluded. (thebodypro.com)
- Doctors usually test the viral load at the beginning of treatment and every three to six months while therapy continues. (reference.com)
- The viral load may need to be measured more frequently if physicians make treatment changes or add new medicines. (reference.com)
- however, without ART or anti-CMV treatment, most people develop retinitis in both eyes within 10 to 21 days of symptoms first appearing. (catie.ca)
- Without treatment, the viral load continues to increase and the CD4 cell count continues to drop. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- My viral load before starting treatment was 1.3 million, my genotype !B and my liver biopsy mild inflamation. (yahoo.com)
- The patient recovered fully from her neurological symptoms after 10 days of treatment with prednisone. (hindawi.com)
- A Cox model to explore the association between depression and mortality adjusted for study site, gender, race/ethnicity, HIV acquisition risk, alcohol dependence, panic disorder, antiretroviral treatment status and adherence, viral load, and CD4 count at enrollment. (natap.org)
- He and I fought for treatment when everything else was ruled out to cause his symptoms and I did a ton of research and so did he and all come up for chronic hep C. So he is in week 8 of a 48 week treatment on Pegasys Interferon weekly shot and twice daily chemo pills of Ribavarin. (dailystrength.org)
- The drugmaker said its two-antibody cocktail helped reduce viral levels more than the single antibody treatment had in a prior study. (globalnews.ca)
- The treatment also reduced viral levels at day three and day seven. (globalnews.ca)
- This randomized, double-blind, multi-center study of Tamiflu (Oseltamivir) will evaluate the efficacy against viral activity, the effectiveness in resolving the disease symptoms, and the s. (bioportfolio.com)
- This trial is designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and anti-viral activity of ALN-RSV01 in adult subjects experimentally infected with RSV. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The current Phase II trial is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability, and anti-viral activity of ALN-RSV01 administered to healthy adult volunteers experimentally inoculated with RSV. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
- The analysis demonstrated that asymptomatic children with diabetes and/or recent contact with a COVID-19 case, as well as those tested for surveillance purposes (rather than for pre-procedure or pre-admission purposes), had significantly higher estimated risk of being in the quartile with the highest viral burden. (eurekalert.org)
- In most cases, viral load decreased significantly during the first week of symptoms. (eurasiareview.com)
- Hepatitis C is a blood-borne viral disease which can cause liver inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and liver cancer. (dailystrength.org)
- They test negative for HBsAg, their viral load drops to undetectable levels and their liver enzyme tests (for ALT or SGPT) show no signs of liver damage. (hepb.org)
- That said, are there any "proven" natural paths to help with the symptoms and aid in strengthen my liver? (healingwell.com)
- Over time, they may develop symptoms of liver damage and cirrhosis of the liver. (medlineplus.gov)
- You develop symptoms of long-term liver damage. (medlineplus.gov)
Signs or symptoms4
- I do not show any signs or symptoms. (thebody.com)
- Symptoms of HIV vary widely, with some infected people not showing any signs or symptoms. (boots.com)
- not exhibiting signs or symptoms of illness. (nursingcenter.com)
- Lots of people who have been infected with either HSV-1 or HSV-2 don't know it because they have never noticed any signs or symptoms. (everydayhealth.com)
- Another study by some of the same authors , which also drew on a subset of CNICS participants, found that the length of depressive episodes impacted not only viral load and missed appointments, but also mortality. (thebodypro.com)
- The purpose of the present study was to investigate differences between non-cannabis use (NC), non-dependent cannabis use (C), and dependent use (CD) in terms of ART adherence and HIV symptoms/ART side effects. (nih.gov)
- For this study, we performed a retrospective analysis comparing nasopharyngeal viral loads (as measured by RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) levels) in residents and staff with or without symptoms. (broadinstitute.org)
- In terms of scientific significance, our study benefited from the fact that all of the cases were linked to an index case, meaning they were not simply studied based on the presence of certain symptoms. (eurasiareview.com)
- 6 months had better sustained viral control after achieving suppression than infants starting therapy between the ages of 6 and 24 months. (nih.gov)
- Analysis of 18,095 HIV-positive adults in the US Medical Monitoring Project found that those diagnosed with depression were more likely to be prescribed antiretroviral therapy but less likely to achieve sustained viral suppression than people without depression . (natap.org)
- Among those prescribed ART, 69% had durable viral suppression. (natap.org)
- A score of 10 or above on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), a common assessment tool with scores ranging from 0 to 27, was deemed to indicate symptoms consistent with major depressive disorder. (thebodypro.com)
- A symptom is subjective, observed by the patient, and cannot be measured directly. (thenextweb.com)
- Upon confirmation of the last negative test, the patient was asked to quarantine at home for 2 weeks with a follow-up visit to the hospital after 1 week to confirm the viral negative status. (docguide.com)
- Studies have shown that people with low viral loads do better in general, Mayo Clinic reports. (reference.com)
- Not all people with HIV experience symptoms, but they're still considered HIV-positive. (healthline.com)
- But once a person is infected, it can take up to two weeks for the symptoms to appear, and there are some people who don't experience any symptoms at all. (bgr.com)
- That's quite mysterious, and it's an indication that people who do not develop any symptoms are the most dangerous COVID-19 spreaders. (bgr.com)
- Of the latter group, 21 people eventually ended up developing symptoms. (bgr.com)
- Usually at first, people with CMV retinitis may experience no or gradually increasing symptoms affecting their vision. (catie.ca)
- You can spread the HBV to other people, even if you have no symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
- Some people do not experience any symptoms for many years. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- This explains why some people experience worst symptoms than others. (spanglefish.com)
- This isn't unusual - HIV management is all about reducing viral load to keep people alive longer. (spanglefish.com)
- First, surveillance testing (regular testing of asymptomatic people) can effectively detect potential outbreaks among individuals without symptoms, especially in vulnerable populations. (broadinstitute.org)