An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Evaluation of manifestations of disease.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Observable manifestations of impaired psychological functioning.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A congenital or acquired condition in which the SPLEEN is not in its normal anatomical position but moves about in the ABDOMEN. This is due to laxity or absence of suspensory ligaments which normally provide peritoneal attachments to keep the SPLEEN in a fixed position. Clinical symptoms include ABDOMINAL PAIN, splenic torsion and ISCHEMIA.
Enlargement of the spleen.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Tumors or cancer of the SPLEEN.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Strains of MURINE LEUKEMIA VIRUS that are replication-defective and rapidly transforming. The envelope gene plays an essential role in initiating erythroleukemia (LEUKEMIA, ERYTHROBLASTIC, ACUTE), manifested by splenic foci, SPLENOMEGALY, and POLYCYTHEMIA. Spleen focus-forming viruses are generated by recombination with endogenous retroviral sequences.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Diseases of the respiratory system in general or unspecified or for a specific respiratory disease not available.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Cells of the lymphoid series that can react with antigen to produce specific cell products called antibodies. Various cell subpopulations, often B-lymphocytes, can be defined, based on the different classes of immunoglobulins that they synthesize.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Symptoms of disorders of the lower urinary tract including frequency, NOCTURIA; urgency, incomplete voiding, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. They are often associated with OVERACTIVE BLADDER; URINARY INCOMPETENCE; and INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS. Lower urinary tract symptoms in males were traditionally called PROSTATISM.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Retrograde flow of gastric juice (GASTRIC ACID) and/or duodenal contents (BILE ACIDS; PANCREATIC JUICE) into the distal ESOPHAGUS, commonly due to incompetence of the LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Abnormalities in the process of URINE voiding, including bladder control, frequency of URINATION, as well as the volume and composition of URINE.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A group of disorders characterized by physical symptoms that are affected by emotional factors and involve a single organ system, usually under AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM control. (American Psychiatric Glossary, 1988)
The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Clinical or physiological indicators that precede the onset of disease.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
A sudden, temporary sensation of heat predominantly experienced by some women during MENOPAUSE. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Difficult or labored breathing.
Impaired digestion, especially after eating.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A characteristic symptom complex.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.
A false belief regarding the self or persons or objects outside the self that persists despite the facts, and is not considered tenable by one's associates.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Production or presence of gas in the gastrointestinal tract which may be expelled through the anus.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Substernal pain or burning sensation, usually associated with regurgitation of gastric juice into the esophagus.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The formation and development of blood cells outside the BONE MARROW, as in the SPLEEN; LIVER; or LYMPH NODES.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
A combination of distressing physical, psychologic, or behavioral changes that occur during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Symptoms of PMS are diverse (such as pain, water-retention, anxiety, cravings, and depression) and they diminish markedly 2 or 3 days after the initiation of menses.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency of acid beta-glucosidase (GLUCOSYLCERAMIDASE) leading to intralysosomal accumulation of glycosylceramide mainly in cells of the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. The characteristic Gaucher cells, glycosphingolipid-filled HISTIOCYTES, displace normal cells in BONE MARROW and visceral organs causing skeletal deterioration, hepatosplenomegaly, and organ dysfunction. There are several subtypes based on the presence and severity of neurological involvement.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Abnormal or excessive excitability with easily triggered anger, annoyance, or impatience.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
An immunological attack mounted by a graft against the host because of tissue incompatibility when immunologically competent cells are transplanted to an immunologically incompetent host; the resulting clinical picture is that of GRAFT VS HOST DISEASE.
Lymphoid tissue on the mucosa of the small intestine.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The performance of the basic activities of self care, such as dressing, ambulation, or eating.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Substances that stimulate mitosis and lymphocyte transformation. They include not only substances associated with LECTINS, but also substances from streptococci (associated with streptolysin S) and from strains of alpha-toxin-producing staphylococci. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Disorders characterized by impairment of the ability to initiate or maintain sleep. This may occur as a primary disorder or in association with another medical or psychiatric condition.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.
Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with three nitro groups in any position.
Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Mononuclear cells with pronounced phagocytic ability that are distributed extensively in lymphoid and other organs. It includes MACROPHAGES and their precursors; PHAGOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS; HISTIOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and MICROGLIA. The term mononuclear phagocyte system has replaced the former reticuloendothelial system, which also included less active phagocytic cells such as fibroblasts and endothelial cells. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 2d ed.)
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
Splenic torsion occurs when the spleen twists along the axis of the blood supply. Symptoms of splenic torsion include lethargy ... Primary diseases of the spleen are splenic torsion and splenic tumors. ... the dilation causes the spleen's ligaments to stretch and increases the spleen's mobility within the abdomen. The spleen ... It seems apparent that many dogs of the breed suffer enlarged spleens for no obvious reason other than the spleen may have been ...
Symptoms include abdominal pain, bone pain, and peptic ulcer which are more prevalent than in other subtypes of acute myeloid ... Liver and splenic dysfunction also contributes to hemorrhage. Involvement of the bone can lead to osteoporosis. Abdominal ... Enlargement of the liver and spleen, or hepatosplenomegaly is characteristic. The mast cells release also many anticoagulants ... These former symptoms are due to release of a substance called histamine from neoplastic mast cells. ...
... in the left shoulder is considered a classic symptom of a ruptured spleen. May result from diaphragmatic or ... peridiaphragmatic lesions, renal calculi, splenic injury or ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Kehr's sign is a classic example of ... Ruptured spleen Rutkow IM (June 1978). "Rupture of the spleen in infectious mononucleosis: a critical review". Arch Surg. 113 ( ...
Accordingly, pulmonary symptoms such as cough and dyspnea have been seen. CNS involvement (primary or secondary) can lead to ... Disseminated HS (including MH) is not readily treated surgically, since even in the splenic form, early metastasis to the liver ... Primary lesions of HS occur in spleen, lymph node, lung, bone marrow, skin and subcutis especially of extremities. Secondary ... Lesions can be solitary or multiple within an organ (especially spleen). Periarticular HS has a distinctive appearance: it ...
An enlarged spleen can lead to splenic sequestration and accelerated removal of neutrophils. Utilization of neutrophils can ... experts recommend that patients using these drugs be told about the symptoms of agranulocytosis-related infection, such as a ... However, granulocytes live only ~10 hours in the circulation (for days in spleen or other tissue), which gives a very short- ... occur in infections In patients that have no symptoms of infection, management consists of close monitoring with serial blood ...
Lung: Pulmonary infarction or lung infarction Spleen: Splenic infarction occurs when the splenic artery or one of its branches ... Although it can occur asymptomatically, the typical symptom is severe pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, sometimes ... ISBN 0-07-141620-X. Nores, M; Phillips, EH; Morgenstern, L; Hiatt, JR (1998). "The clinical spectrum of splenic infarction". ... affect solid organs such as the spleen, heart and kidneys wherein the solidity of the tissue substantially limits the amount of ...
The liver or spleen may also become swollen, and in less than one percent of cases splenic rupture may occur. While usually ... Before puberty, the disease typically only produces flu-like symptoms, if any at all. When found, symptoms tend to be similar ... However, because spleen size varies greatly, ultrasonography is not a valid technique for assessing spleen enlargement and ... Those who are infected can spread the disease weeks before symptoms develop. Mono is primarily diagnosed based on the symptoms ...
... hepatic or splenic vein that causes obstruction of venous blood flow from the spleen towards the heart. The cause of such ... may constitute the presenting symptoms.[citation needed] The basic pathology is some kind of obstructive pathology in the ... Enlargement of spleen, ascites, jaundice, and the result of destruction of various blood cells by spleen - anemia, leukopenia, ... is a chronic congestive enlargement of the spleen resulting in premature destruction of the red blood cells by the spleen. ...
On occasion, their first presentation may be with splenic rupture. Most patients show no symptoms and the tumours are found ... Littoral cell angioma, abbreviated LCA, and formally known as littoral cell angioma of the spleen, is a benign tumour of the ... Jul 2004). "Littoral cell angioma of the spleen" (PDF). Ann Acad Med Singap. 33 (4): 524-6. PMID 15329769. Dascalescu, CM.; ... spleen that arises from the cells that line the red pulp. LCAs most often are not clinically detectable. ...
... control their symptoms, and allow removal of a major proliferative focus and tumour bulk in this disease. Splenic irradiation ... Abnormal enlargement of the spleen High white blood cell count B-symptoms - Fever, night sweats and/or weight loss Similar to ... unfit for systemic treatment or refractive to chemotherapy may have their spleens removed via splenectomy or undergo splenic ... Furthermore, it is most active in the blood, bone marrow and spleen, all of which are main sites involved with B-PLL and thus ...
Rarely, left atrial isomeric patients have a single, normal, functional spleen. Patients lacking a functional spleen are in ... Acute symptoms can be due to both cardiac and non-cardiac defects. Cyanosis or blue skin coloration, primarily affecting the ... Freedom, Robert M.; Treves, S. (1973-05-01). "Splenic Scintigraphy and Radionuclide Venography in the Heterotaxy Syndrome". ... resulting in an overall lack a spleen (asplenia) or development of many spleens (polysplenia). Asplenia is most often observed ...
An accessory spleen is a small splenic nodule extra to the spleen usually formed in early embryogenesis. Accessory spleens are ... Although it can occur asymptomatically, the typical symptom is severe pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, sometimes ... These accessory spleens are non-functional. Splenic infarction is a condition in which blood flow supply to the spleen is ... Transverse section of the spleen, showing the trabecular tissue and the splenic vein and its tributaries Spleen Laparoscopic ...
In contrast, spleen enlargement is rare, occurring in 5% of people. Splenic dysfunction, leading to the presence of Howell- ... There are several types with varying symptoms; signs and symptoms may include diarrhea, weight loss, feeling tired, enlargement ... In AA, symptoms may improve if the underlying condition is treated; eprodisate has been shown to slow renal impairment by ... In AA amyloidosis, the kidneys are involved in 91-96% of people, symptoms ranging from protein in the urine to nephrotic ...
A splenic injury, which includes a ruptured spleen, is any injury to the spleen. The rupture of a normal spleen can be caused ... Generally a nonoperative approach is chosen in those who are hemodynamically stable with non-worsening symptoms. During this ... Splenic rupture is usually evaluated by FAST ultrasound of the abdomen. Generally this is not specific to splenic injury; ... American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Organ Injury Scaling: Splenic Injury Grading Because a splenic rupture permits ...
Symptoms may begin early in life or in adulthood and mainly affect the liver, spleen, and bone. Enlarged liver and grossly ... While painless, enlargement of spleen increases the risk of splenic rupture. Hypersplenism and pancytopenia, the rapid and ... Symptoms include an enlarged liver and spleen, extensive and progressive brain damage, eye movement disorders, spasticity, ... Major symptoms include an enlarged spleen and/or liver, seizures, poor coordination, skeletal irregularities, eye movement ...
An accessory spleen is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from the main body of the spleen. Accessory spleens are ... They are medically significant in that they may result in interpretation errors in diagnostic imaging or continued symptoms ... Polysplenia is the presence of multiple accessory spleens rather than one normal spleen. Accessory spleens may be formed during ... The most common locations for accessory spleens are the hilum of the spleen and adjacent to the tail of the pancreas. They may ...
For people experiencing symptoms, the splenic tissue can be removed by surgery. Splenosis is slightly more common in males than ... It most commonly occurs as a result of traumatic splenic rupture or abdominal surgery. Depending on the location of the spleen ... Histologically, the regular spleen tissue is made up of red and white pulp, similar to the structure of an accessory spleen. ... The implantation of spleen tissue under the skin may result from abdominal surgery or gunshot wounds. Splenosis of the brain or ...
However, the tip of the spleen may be palpable in a newborn baby up to three months of age. Symptoms may include abdominal pain ... The possible causes of moderate splenomegaly (spleen 1000 g) are chronic myelogenous leukemia myelofibrosis malaria splenic ... However, because spleen size varies greatly, ultrasonography is not a valid technique for assessing spleen enlargement and ... Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen. The spleen usually lies in the left upper quadrant (LUQ) of the human abdomen. ...
Any dog showing symptoms of mastocytosis or with a grade III tumor has a poor prognosis. Dogs of the Boxer breed have a better ... Gastrointestinal and splenic involvement is more common in cats than in dogs; 50 percent of cases in dogs primarily involved ... When metastasis does occur, it is usually to the liver, spleen, lymph nodes and bone marrow. When mastocytomas affect humans, ... Other sites in cattle include the spleen, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, omentum, and uterus. Brière C (2002). "Use of a ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. Patients with Hodgkin's lymphoma may present with the following symptoms: *Lymph nodes: the most ... Hodgkin T (1832). "On some morbid experiences of the absorbent glands and spleen". Med Chir Trans. 17: 69-97.. ... Splenic involvement is signified by adding "S" to the stage. The inclusion of "bulky disease" is signified by "X". ... Systemic symptoms: about one-third of patients with Hodgkin's disease may also present with systemic symptoms, including low- ...
... is a condition in which blood flow supply to the spleen is compromised, leading to partial or complete ... Although it can occur asymptomatically, the typical symptom is severe pain in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, sometimes ... Splenic infarction occurs when the splenic artery or one of its branches are occluded, for example by a blood clot. In one ... Splenic infarction can be induced for the treatment of such conditions as portal hypertension or splenic injury. It can also be ...
... occurs when a significant impact to the spleen from some outside source (i.e. automobile accident) damages ... The primary symptom, hemorrhage, presents differently depending on the degree of injury, with the symptoms of major hemorrhage ... However, any type of major impact directed to the spleen may cause splenic trauma. This can happen in bicycling accidents, when ... followed by suture ligation of the splenic blood supply. After the spleen has been removed, the abdomen is irrigated with ...
Fatigue (lassitude). Systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss are known as B symptoms; thus, presence of ... Splenic involvement is signified by adding "S" to the stage. The inclusion of "bulky disease" is signified by "X". Stage 1 ... Radiation to below the diaphragm to the abdomen, spleen or pelvis is called inverted-Y field radiation. Total nodal irradiation ... Systemic symptoms: about one-third of people with Hodgkin disease may also present with systemic symptoms, including: Itchy ...
Signs and symptomsEdit. People with Hodgkin lymphoma may present with the following symptoms: *Lymphadenopathy: the most common ... Hodgkin T (1832). "On some morbid experiences of the absorbent glands and spleen". Med Chir Trans. 17: 69-97.. ... Splenic involvement is signified by adding "S" to the stage. The inclusion of "bulky disease" is signified by "X". ... Systemic symptoms such as fever, night sweats, and weight loss are known as B symptoms; thus, presence of these indicate that ...
Splenic marginal zone lymphomas (SMZLs) are MZLs that initially are confined to the spleen, bone marrow, and blood. Nodal ... It presents with symptoms of difficult swallowing and/or sensations of a foreign body in the esophageal area. Endoscopy, ... Patients with systemic (i.e. Ann Arbor stage III and IV) primary gastric EMZL who are free of symptoms have been treated with ... Patients with symptoms usually present with chest pain, shortness of breath, and/or a history of recurrent respiratory ...
The splenic condition involving Felty syndrome is more specifically noted as inflammatory splenomegaly. The spleen is an ... The symptoms of Felty's syndrome are similar to those of rheumatoid arthritis. Patients suffer from painful, stiff, and swollen ... The spleen is a lymphatic organ, which means it is largely involved in the immune system and immune responses. When the spleen ... This increase in defense activities ultimately causes hypertrophy of the spleen, leading to splenomegaly. The spleen is found ...
Reserve platelets are stored in the spleen, and are released when needed by splenic contraction induced by the sympathetic ... Symptoms of platelet disordersEdit. Spontaneous and excessive bleeding can occur because of platelet disorders. This bleeding ...
Although symptoms include an enlargement in the size of the spleen, or a change from the spleen's original position to another ... Wandering spleen (splenoptosis) predisposes the spleen to complications such as torsion, splenic infarction, pancreatic ... Wandering spleen (or pelvic spleen) is a rare medical disease caused by the loss or weakening of the ligaments that help to ... The usual treatment is splenopexy, fixation of the spleen, but if there is no blood flow after unwinding the spleen through ...
Rare other sites have been the liver and spleen, giving rise to a hepatic pregnancy or splenic pregnancy, respectively. Even an ... Symptoms may include abdominal pain or vaginal bleeding during pregnancy. As this is nonspecific in areas where ultrasound is ... Yagil Y, Beck-Razi N, Amit A, Kerner H, Gaitini D (2007). "Splenic Pregnancy: The Role of Abdominal Imaging". Journal of ... and/or gastrointestinal symptoms. Suspicion of an abdominal pregnancy is raised when the fetal anatomy can be easily felt, or ...
Donation is not recommended for those with a history of back pain.[45] Other symptoms observed in more than 40 percent of ... The documented adverse effects of filgrastim include splenic rupture (indicated by left upper abdominal or shoulder pain, risk ... The most common severe adverse reactions were pulmonary edema/deep vein thrombosis, splenic rupture, and myocardial infarction ... donors include myalgia, headache, fatigue, and insomnia.[45] These symptoms all returned to baseline 1 month post-donation, ...
Spleen. Main article: Spleen. The spleen is the largest lymphoid organ in the body but has other functions.[23] It breaks down ... Gestational diabetes can develop in the mother as a result of pregnancy and while this often presents with few symptoms it can ... There are three main divisions - the left gastric artery, the common hepatic artery and the splenic artery. ... Another product is iron, which is used in the formation of new blood cells in the bone marrow.[5] Medicine treats the spleen ...
In its early stages, esophageal cancer may not have any symptoms at all. When severe, esophageal cancer may eventually cause ... Diseases may cause difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), painful swallowing (odynophagia), chest pain, or cause no symptoms at all ... Esophageal varices often do not have symptoms until they rupture. A ruptured varix is considered a medical emergency, because ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. Mild ascites is hard to notice, but severe ascites leads to abdominal distension. Patients with ... Complications involve portal vein thrombosis and splenic vein thrombosis: clotting of blood affects the hepatic portal vein or ... Symptoms. Increased abdominal size, increased weight, abdominal discomfort, shortness of breath[2]. ... Ascites is generally treated while an underlying cause is sought, in order to prevent complications, relieve symptoms, and ...
Signs and symptoms[edit]. The most usual signs and symptoms are the appearance of a chronic, painless mass in the neck, which ... Accessory spleen. *Polysplenia. *Wandering spleen. *Splenomegaly *Banti's syndrome. *Splenic infarction. *Splenic tumor ... The book starts by listing the typical symptoms and indications of how far the disease had progressed. It then goes into detail ... NTM infections do not show other notable constitutional symptoms, but scrofula caused by tuberculosis is usually accompanied by ...
... and sits between the layers of the ligament between the spleen and the left kidney. The splenic vein, which also passes behind ... Because symptoms (such as skin yellowing, pain, or itch) do not occur until later in the disease, it often presents at a later ... Spleen. 13. Esophagus. 14. Stomach. 15. Pancreas: 16. Accessory pancreatic duct, 17. Pancreatic duct.. 18. Small intestine: 19 ... The splenic artery runs along the top margin of the pancreas, and supplies the left part of the body and the tail of the ...
Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular ... The gold standard for diagnosis is visualization of the amastigotes in splenic aspirate or bone marrow aspirate. This is a ... Signs and symptomsEdit. When people develop visceral leishmaniasis, the most typical symptoms are fever and the enlargement of ... The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left ...
The test often can't determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the ... an enlarged spleen, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity), pruritus (itching), and other signs of liver injury; ... severe anemia with splenic enlargement, or acute chest syndrome. ... before any signs or symptoms appear. The results of predictive ... testing is used to confirm a diagnosis when a particular condition is suspected based on physical mutations and symptoms. ...
This space is found between the spleen, the left kidney, the nephrosplenic ligament (which runs between the spleen and kidney ... Usually, the impaction must be quite large before it presents symptoms, and may be diagnosed via gastroscopy or ultrasound, ... splenic puncture during abdominocentesis, laceration of abdominal viscera, or contamination from a skin capillary. Cloudy fluid ... caudal border of the spleen, ascending colon (left dorsal and ventral, pelvic flexure), the small intestine if distended (it is ...
The most common symptoms in children are easy bruising, pale skin, fever, and an enlarged spleen or liver.[30] ... marginal zone/marginal zone B-cell (Splenic marginal zone. *MALT. *Nodal marginal zone ... Uncommon neurological symptoms like migraines, seizures, or coma can occur as a result of brain stem pressure. All symptoms ... Some patients experience nausea or a feeling of fullness due to an enlarged liver and spleen; this can result in unintentional ...
... Isolated Splenic Sarcoidosis, Reumatol Clin. ... Sarcoidosis - Symptoms - Diagnosis - Treatment - Prognosis, (vaadatud 12.07.2015) *↑ "Professional Guide to Diseases", 10. ... A. Kurata, N. Takayama, Y. Terado jt, Sarcoidal granulomas in the spleen associated with multiple carcinomas, SARCOIDOSIS ... Ying-Ting Wang, MS, Yi-Ping Han, MD, Qiang Li, MD, He-Zhong Chen, MD, Recurrence of sarcoidosis: The follow-up of splenic ...
The spleen contains half the body's monocytes in reserve ready to be deployed to injured tissue.[35][36] ... This leads to inflammation of the gut and disease symptoms of IBD. Intestinal macrophages are critical in maintaining gut ... "Identification of splenic reservoir monocytes and their deployment to inflammatory sites". Science. 325 (5940): 612-6. Bibcode ... Erythrocytes have a lifespan on average of 120 days and so are constantly being destroyed by macrophages in the spleen and ...
EBV causes infectious mononucleosis.[39] Children infected with EBV have few symptoms or can appear asymptomatic, but when ... enlarged spleen, swollen liver, or rash.[40] Post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome has also been associated with EBV ... Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. HTLV-I Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. Immune disorders. *HIV *AIDS ... Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other ...
The test often can't determine if a person will show symptoms of a disorder, how severe the symptoms will be, or whether the ... severe anemia with splenic enlargement, or acute chest syndrome.. Tay-Sachs disease. Lipids accumulate in the brain; ... an enlarged spleen, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity), pruritus (itching), and other signs of liver injury; ... before any signs or symptoms appear. The results of predictive and presymptomatic testing can provide information about a ...
Reserve platelets are stored in the spleen, and are released when needed by splenic contraction induced by the sympathetic ... The symptoms depend on the site of thrombosis. Tests of function[edit]. Bleeding time[edit]. Developed by Duke in 1910 and ... Signs and symptoms of disorders[edit]. Spontaneous and excessive bleeding can occur because of platelet disorders. This ...
Even more rarely, splenic rupture can occur after colonoscopy because of adhesions between the colon and the spleen. ... This interval does not apply to people at high risk of colorectal cancer, or to those who experience symptoms of colorectal ... In some low-risk populations screening by colonoscopy in the absence of symptoms does not outweigh the risks of the procedure. ... The liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, duodenum, colon, and kidneys are routinely evaluated in all patients. ...
It typically presents at a late stage and is often associated with systemic symptoms ("B symptoms").[citation needed] ... or spleen. These 2 subtypes usually associate with weight loss, fevers and night sweats, and can be lethal if left untreated ... marginal zone/marginal zone B-cell (Splenic marginal zone. *MALT. *Nodal marginal zone ... Signs and symptoms[edit]. The clinical presentation varies according to the type of ALCL. Two of the ALCL subtypes are systemic ...
Immunocompromization and/or coinfection with FeLV, FIV and other Mycoplasma species can exacerbate symptoms or cause symptoms ... Intact M. haemofelis organisms have been observed in the phagocytic vacuoles of splenic and pulmonary macrophages, suggesting ... and increases the likelihood that these cells will be captured and destroyed by the spleen. The attachment of M. haemofelis to ... Symptoms include anemia, lethargy, fever and anorexia. In suspected cases, M. haemofelis can be identified by polymerase chain ...
Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular ... 2007). "Splenic Accumulation of IL-10 mRNA T Cells Distinct from CD4+ CD25+ (FoxP3+) Regulatory T Cells in Human Visceral ... When people develop visceral leishmaniasis, the most typical symptoms are fever and the enlargement of the spleen, with ... However, T regs are not elevated in spleen cells from VL patients nor does depletion of T regs increase Leishmania antigen ...
This may present no symptoms, but can cause pain due to restricted blood flow to the superior mesenteric artery. Animated ... Arteries and veins around the pancreas and spleen. Coeliac artery compression syndrome Williams, Timothy K.; Harthun, Nancy; ... venous return from the coeliac artery is through either the splenic vein emptying into the hepatic portal vein or via smaller ... spleen, and the superior half of both the duodenum and the pancreas. These structures correspond to the embryonic foregut. ( ...
Presenting signs and symptoms of the congenital heart defect may include cyanosis, breathlessness, lethargy and poor feeding.[ ... These uncommon congenital disorders are characterized by defects in the heart, spleen and paired organs such as the lungs and ... an analysis of the heart malformations in the splenic agenesis syndrome, with fourteen new cases". Acta Paediatrica Supplement ... November 1955). "Implications of agenesis of the spleen on the pathogenesis of conotruncus anomalies in childhood; ...
The spleen is a lymphatic organ located in the bodys upper left abdominal quadrant. It filters and stores red blood cells, ... Signs and Symptoms. The symptoms of splenic infarction are dependent upon the extent and severity of damage to the spleen and ... Splenic Abscess. An infarcted spleen can result in splenic abscess if the infarction is caused by bacteria. Symptoms include ... Splenic Rupture. Splenic infarction can sometimes cause the spleen to rupture and hemorrhage. Diagnosis of this type of splenic ...
Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is slow-growing, type of NHL. It is linked with viral infections, including hepatitis C ... Symptoms. People with SMZL often have:* a larger than normal spleen. * low red blood cell count (called anemia) ... Splenic marginal zone lymphoma. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a slow-growing (indolent) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma ... Symptoms include jaundice, fever, enlarged liver, abdominal pain and dark urine.. Hepatitis can be caused by a variety of ...
Splenic flexure syndrome is a painful digestive disorder. Discover what causes it, what symptoms to look out for, and how to ... Get the details you need to know about splenic flexure syndrome and what it means for your colon. ... Its situated next to your spleen. While gas is normal, splenic flexure syndrome can cause excessive gas and discomfort. This ... Splenic flexure syndrome symptoms. General discomfort, specifically in your upper left abdominal area, is a common symptom of ...
Read on to learn about risk factors, symptoms, and more. ... Splenic sequestration is a blockage of the splenic vessels by ... It causes a sudden, painful enlargement of the spleen. The spleen may have to be removed due to complications of sickle cell ... What are the symptoms of sickle cell anemia?. Symptoms of sickle cell anemia usually show up at a young age. They may appear in ... It has similar symptoms to Hb SS anemia. However, sometimes the symptoms of beta zero thalassemia are more severe. It is ...
Artery in the spleen (splenic artery aneurysm) High blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cigarette smoking may raise your risk ... The symptoms depend on where the aneurysm is located. If the aneurysm occurs near the bodys surface, pain and swelling with a ... The type of surgery that is done and when you need it depend on your symptoms and the size and type of aneurysm. ... Aneurysms in the body or brain often cause no symptoms. Aneurysms in the brain may expand without breaking open (rupturing). ...
... signs and symptoms, standard treatment options and means of care and support. ... The spleen will get bigger if RBCs are stuck there. This is called splenic sequestration crisis. Seek care immediately if your ... Teach them the signs and symptoms of a crisis and acute chest syndrome. Teach them what to do if they see any signs or symptoms ... Feel your childs spleen if he or she has pain, yellow skin or eyes, or a swollen abdomen. Your childs healthcare provider ...
... general CAT scans Analysis Usage CT imaging Diagnostic imaging Splenic diseases Diagnosis Research ... A diagnostic approach to splenic lesions.(Report) by Applied Radiology; Health, ... In the spleen, these may be solitary, scattered or diffuse. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms related to ... in patients with a known malignancy or symptoms attributable to possible splenic pathology, the incidentally discovered splenic ...
Spleen (splenic artery aneurysm). What Causes an Aneurysm? The causes of aneurysms are often unknown but may include: * ... Aneurysms often have no symptoms because they develop slowly. If an aneurysm occurs near the surface of the skin, symptoms may ... Additional symptoms for aneurysm depend on the location and may include: *Aortic aneurysm*A noticeable pulsation near the navel ... A clogged blood vessel in a leg, which can lead to symptoms in the leg or foot such as pain, numbness, tingling, paleness, ...
Acute splenic sequestration -Retention of blood in the spleen.. Anemia -A condition in which there is an abnormally low number ... SYMPTOMS. The symptoms of sickle cell anemia usually appear during the first year or two of life. However, some individuals do ... The spleen can also become enlarged due to blockages and/or increased activity of the spleen. Rapid enlargement of the spleen ... acute splenic sequestration, with pooling of blood causing a sudden enlargement of the spleen ...
There may be no symptoms, but, if the walls rupture, it can be fatal. ... Splenic artery aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs near the spleen.. *Mesenteric artery aneurysm: This affects the artery ... Symptoms. Most aneurysms are clinically silent. Symptoms do not usually occur unless an aneurysm ruptures. ... I have 5 symptoms so that will make 5 out 10. soon ill drop by to the doctor to ask some help. i wish i dont have that one. ...
Many have no symptoms and are not dangerous. However, at their most severe, aneurysms can lead to life-threatening internal ... Splenic artery aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs near the spleen.. *Mesenteric artery aneurysm: This affects the artery ... If symptoms appear, an MRI scan can identify an aneurysm that has not yet ruptured. CT scans are usually preferred for ruptured ... Symptoms can also relate to the cause of an aneurysm rather than the aneurysm itself. For example, in the case of an aneurysm ...
Splenic sequestration (pooling). When red blood cells build up in the spleen, it becomes enlarged and painful. The spleen can ... Each childs symptoms may vary. They may be mild or severe. Symptoms can include: *Anemia. This is the most common symptom. ... Splenic sequestration (pooling). The spleen becomes enlarged and painful when sickle cells get stuck and build up there. Fewer ... What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease in a child? Most children with SCD will start to have symptoms during the first ...
... and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. For a general discussion, and for links to other system-specific ... Splenic hydatid infection is a rare form of hydatid disease, ... normal appearance of the spleen. *pseudolesion of the spleen: ... Symptoms are nonspecific and include:. *abdominal pain. *enlarged spleen. *fever. Pathology. Splenic hydatid cysts are usually ... retrograde spread from the liver to the spleen via the hepatic portal and splenic veins in portal hypertension 2 ...
Stitches in hepatic and splenic regions. θ Chronic hepatitis.. Violent stitches in region of spleen.. ... THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS. OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA. BY CONSTANTINE HERING, M. D.. Presented by M di-T ... Most symptoms appear while sitting and go off on motion, pressing and rubbing.. Moving : backache and heaviness , ; of head, ... Stitches : in head and out of eyes ; in left hypochondrium ; in hepatic and splenic region ; in back ; in small of back ; in ...
Stitches in hepatic and splenic regions. θ Chronic hepatitis. Violent stitches in region of spleen. ... THE GUIDING SYMPTOMS OF OUR MATERIA MEDICA BY CONSTANTINE HERING, M. D. Presented by M di-T ...
... spleen pain and other symptoms, and possible causes and treatments for enlarged spleen (splenomegaly). ... Approach to the adult patient with splenomegaly and other splenic disorders. Accessed June 14, ... Enlarged spleen Open pop-up dialog box Close Enlarged spleen. Enlarged spleen. The spleen is a small organ normally about the ... An enlarged spleen usually doesnt cause symptoms. Its often discovered during a routine physical exam. Your doctor generally ...
Treated with Rituxan and Treanda which reduced size of spleen and resolved symptoms. Will have spleen removed this month. Will ... Re: splenic marginal zone lymphoma. I also have splenic marginal zone lymphoma. My spleen was very enlarged and was removed. ... Re: splenic marginal zone lymphoma. My brother was just diagnoses with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. His spleen was removed ... Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma. I am 63 years old and recently diagnosed with SMZL. Spleen was 22 cm and had fever, cough, ...
... in conjunction with the intravenous administration of contrast material to maximize density differences between the splenic ... Preferred examination Although many plain radiographic imaging findings suggest spleen trauma injury, CT is the radiographic ... In most patients, the symptoms of blunt splenic trauma are absent or subtle; this characteristic probably explains the higher ... Splenic abscesses caused by bacterial endocarditis, splenic infarction, and invasive procedures can simulate splenic injury, ...
Patients usually have an enlarged spleen, which may cause discomfort or pain. Symptoms can be slow to develop. Patients may ... Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL) is a cancer of the B-cells found in the spleen. The spleen helps the bodys immune system ... Irradiation of the spleen is sometimes necessary.. Clinical Trials. Cancer Patients have more options through clinical studies ... Surgical removal of the spleen. This can lead to full remission in some patients.. Immunotherapy. Rituxan is the most common ...
No spleen or splenic dysfunction;. * Or are taking medication such as steroids and cancer treatments.. So what are the symptoms ... "If a parent is worried about a childs condition or if a symptom lasts longer than four to five days, they should contact their ... If you havent been vaccinated and experience flu-like symptoms, Dr Ahmed advises you seek advice from your local pharmacist or ...
Splenic artery aneurysm occurs in an artery in the spleen. Learn more about the different types of aneurysms. ... Symptoms and diagnosis. Aneurysms can develop slowly over many years and often have no symptoms. An aneurysm occurring near the ...
Symptoms and complications of SCD are different for each person and can range from mild to severe. Learn more. ... It happens when a large number of sickle cells get trapped in the spleen and cause it to suddenly get large. Symptoms include ... For those who have had a very severe, life-threatening episode of splenic sequestration or who have had many episodes in the ... Parents of a child with SCD should learn how to feel and measure the size of their childs spleen and seek help if the spleen ...
Most splenic lesions are detected incidentally, posing a challenge for both interpreting and referring physicians in ... In the spleen, these may be solitary, scattered or diffuse. Patients may be asymptomatic or present with symptoms related to ... in patients with a known malignancy or symptoms attributable to possible splenic pathology, the incidentally discovered splenic ... Splenic metastases. The spleen is a rare site for metastatic disease, with only a 3% occurrence in a large autopsy series.19 ...
The severity of signs and symptoms or lack of surgical experience often lead to a total splenectomy.1 The spleen plays an ... Splenic vascularisation is segmentary and very variable. The splenic artery supplies irrigation to the spleen and to ... Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involvement Cirugía preservadora de órgano tras ... Inicio Cirugía y Cirujanos (English Edition) Spleen-preserving surgery after blunt abdominal trauma with splenic hilum involv ...
a considerable proportion of these cases the enlargement of the spleen is due to... ... The association of anaemia of a severe type and enlargemes of the spleen has been recognized clinically for many years. ... The liver and lymphatic glands may be enlarged as well as the spleen. Gastro-intestinal symptoms are the rule, vomiting and ... Diet In The Splenic Anaemias. The association of anaemia of a severe type and enlargemes of the spleen has been recognized ...
to baseline scan and no new sites; no increase in size of other nodes/liver/spleen, exception: splenic, hepatic nodules; other ... CR: Complete disappearance of all detectable clinical evidence of disease and disease-related symptoms if present prior to ... or spleen; with the exception of splenic and hepatic nodules, involvement of other organs is usually assessable and no ... or spleen; with the exception of splenic and hepatic nodules, involvement of other organs is usually assessable and no ...
Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was ... The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. ... The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. ... Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was ... Wandering spleen has rarely been associated with FUO. The incidence of wandering spleen is around 5% known from series of ...
Early Signs and Symptoms If a person has sickle cell disease (SCD), it is present at birth. But most infants do not have any ... Splenic sequestration crisis. The spleen is an organ that is located in the upper left side of the belly. The spleen filters ... A splenic sequestration crisis occurs when red blood cells get stuck in the spleen, making it enlarge quickly. Since the red ... The symptoms depend upon what part of the brain is affected. Symptoms of stroke may include:. *Weakness of an arm or leg on one ...
Splenic torsion occurs when the spleen twists along the axis of the blood supply. Symptoms of splenic torsion include lethargy ... Primary diseases of the spleen are splenic torsion and splenic tumors. ... the dilation causes the spleens ligaments to stretch and increases the spleens mobility within the abdomen. The spleen ... It seems apparent that many dogs of the breed suffer enlarged spleens for no obvious reason other than the spleen may have been ...
This would be most likely due to sudden splenic rupture from a chronically enlarged and softened up spleen. In cases where a ... "big spleen disease". As this form of malaria is often without symptoms, persons who are carriers of it may donate blood unaware ... similar to P.vivax; can cause splenic rupture; in people without spleen causes overwhelming sepsis. ... There are a number of common symptoms for all forms of malaria such as an enlargement of spleen and liver, low red blood cell ...
  • Many conditions - including infections, liver disease and some cancers - can cause an enlarged spleen, also known as splenomegaly (spleh-no-MEG-uh-lee). (
  • Approach to the adult patient with splenomegaly and other splenic disorders. (
  • Ultrasound showed splenomegaly and irregular spleen that is located in left lower quadrant. (
  • Symptoms of wandering spleen are typically those associated with an abnormally large size of the spleen (splenomegaly) or the unusual position of the spleen in the abdomen. (
  • In these cases, symptoms may include abdominal pain, abnormal enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly), bleeding into the abdomen (infarct), the accumulation of fibrous tissue in the spleen (fibrosis), and/or decay of splenic tissue (necrosis). (
  • Symptoms usually develop due to the abnormal position of the spleen in the lower abdomen or because of the abnormal enlargement of the spleen (splenomegaly). (
  • Splenomegaly is a disease that occurs when the spleen is abnormally enlarged and begins filtering out good blood cells as well as bad blood cells. (
  • This could signal splenic damage, splenic rupture, or splenomegaly. (
  • Spleen enlargement, or splenomegaly, is another reason for splenic pain. (
  • Palpation of the lower border of the spleen will reveal whether it is enlarged, because this occurs only after significant splenomegaly has occurred. (
  • Contrast enhanced CT showed splenomegaly, multiple splenic masses that ranged in size from 3 mm to 33 mm, with little or no enhancement, that almost completely replaced the spleen, a splenic laceration, intraabdominal free fluid with densities of blood, and new hypodense hepatic nodules (Fig.2). (
  • it includes a wait-and-see approach for asymptomatic patients, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, androgens, or immunomodulatory agents for anemia, cytoreductive drugs such as hydroxyurea for the splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms, and splenectomy or radiotherapy in selected patients. (
  • one of them, ruxolitinib, is the current best available therapy for MF splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms. (
  • most patients present with symptoms from anemia or splenomegaly or constitutional symptoms. (
  • As the disease evolves, all patients become symptomatic due to marrow failure, increasing splenomegaly causing abdominal symptoms and early satiety, and constitutional symptoms such as weight loss, night sweats, and low-grade fever. (
  • Distinctive symptoms typically include abdominal pain or splenomegaly (an enlargement of the spleen). (
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphomas presenting with splenomegaly and typical immunophenotype are characterized by allelic loss in 7q31-32. (
  • The term splenomegaly generally denotes a palpably enlarged spleen. (
  • Categorization by presentations such as massive splenomegaly, isolated splenomegaly, or accompanying symptoms could be considered. (
  • Isolated splenomegaly is a feature of diagnoses such as splenic marginal lymphoma or benign splenic neoplasms. (
  • Abnormal enlargement of the spleen, splenomegaly, is usually determined by physical exam. (
  • Ruxolitinib and most other JAK inhibitors exert a salutary effect on constitutional symptoms and splenomegaly but have yet to produce histopathologic or cytogenetic remissions, reverse bone marrow fibrosis, or improve survival over best supportive care. (
  • Splenomegaly is a generalized term that simply means enlargement of the spleen. (
  • In medical terms an enlarged spleen is called splenomegaly. (
  • Serological examination was positive for Ebstein-Barr virus, confirming the diagnosis of splenic rupture following splenomegaly due to infectious mononucleosis. (
  • Splenomegaly can often be a primary symptom of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). (
  • Surgery to remove the spleen (called a splenectomy) may be offered for SMZL. (
  • When a splenectomy is not an option, external beam radiation therapy to the spleen may be used to treat SMZL. (
  • The spleen may have to be removed due to complications of sickle cell disease in an operation known as a splenectomy. (
  • Management options include surgery but owing to the risk of spontaneous or traumatic rupture, splenic hydatid cysts are usually treated surgically with a total or partial splenectomy. (
  • 2. Rahmani Sh, Mohammadi Tofigh A. Spleen-Preserving Surgery Versus Splenectomy for Splenic Hydatid Cyst: Ten Years Experience. (
  • Splenic involvement secondary to blunt abdominal trauma is often treated by performing a splenectomy. (
  • The severity of the post-splenectomy syndrome is currently well known (blood loss, sepsis), so there is an increasing tendency to preserve the spleen. (
  • I was told for cats with splenic mastocytosis, the treatment of choice is splenectomy. (
  • After careful preoperational assessment, a laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy was scrutinously performed and the entire spleen was removed without any rupture. (
  • Laparoscopic-assisted splenectomy was technically feasible and therapeutically harmless for PAS treatment compared with open surgery as long as the spleen was removed intact. (
  • A combination of chemotherapy and a splenectomy, surgery to remove the tumor on the spleen, have been the most successful. (
  • Ultimately, some splenic lesions can be diagnosed only by splenectomy with pathologic exam of the removed organ. (
  • We present a case of an elderly white female with a known history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) presenting with symptoms consistent with a bowel obstruction, who was diagnosed with a wandering spleen and subsequently developed an ITP exacerbation requiring laparoscopic splenectomy. (
  • Fortunately, clinical symptoms disappeared within days and additional splenectomy was not needed. (
  • Patients who undergo posttraumatic splenectomy are thought to retain variable degrees of splenic function postoperatively and may have a reduced risk of subsequent sepsis. (
  • Splenic angioembolization is often utilized in the management of patients with moderate splenic injury to avoid splenectomy. (
  • Surgery for spleen removal is called splenectomy. (
  • In rare cases, the blood vessels coming from the spleen have twisted so much that the spleen must also be removed (splenectomy). (
  • Splenic sequestration is a blockage of the splenic vessels by sickle cells. (
  • A splenic sequestration crisis occurs when red blood cells get stuck in the spleen, making it enlarge quickly. (
  • Splenic sequestration crisis and aplastic crisis most commonly occur in infants and children with SCD. (
  • What is splenic sequestration? (
  • Splenic sequestration is a problem with the spleen that can happen in people who have sickle cell disease . (
  • Splenic sequestration happens when a lot of sickled red blood cells become trapped in the spleen. (
  • If splenic sequestration happens suddenly, it can be a life-threatening emergency. (
  • Splenic sequestration crisis - Early signs include pallor, enlarged spleen and pain in the abdomen due to accumulation of sickled cells within the spleen. (
  • Deposits in the bone marrow and splenic sequestration lead to clinically significant anemia and thrombocytopenia. (
  • Again, the most common symptom is upper left abdominal pain that may radiate to the left shoulder. (
  • Symptoms include acute upper abdominal pain with radiating shoulder pain and lower left chest pain. (
  • Paluska et al (1) found incidental splenic lesions in 1% of patients in an emergency room population undergoing computed tomography (CT) scans for abdominal pain or trauma. (
  • Symptoms include abdominal pain, bone pain, and peptic ulcer which are more prevalent than in other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia. (
  • Common symptoms of spleen injury include: persistent left upper quadrant abdominal pain, nausea or vomiting, lightheadedness upon standing, or fainting. (
  • Symptoms of Splenic lymphangiomatosis, when present can include upper left abdominal pain, nausea, sometimes vomiting, cough or difficulty in breathing. (
  • Some children with wandering spleen may have no symptoms (asymptomatic), while others may experience acute or chronic abdominal pain. (
  • In adulthood, wandering spleen most often causes abdominal pain or present as an abdominal mass that does not cause symptoms (asymptomatic). (
  • The most prominent symptom of spleen damage is upper left abdominal pain under the ribcage or upper stomach pain. (
  • Abdominal pain, fever, malaise and weight loss are usually the most common symptoms [1]. (
  • Typical symptoms include high fever, weight loss, and abdominal pain, with jaundice occurring infrequently. (
  • The condition is often asymptomatic but presentation is variable from abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and obstipation as a result of splenic torsion and ischemia. (
  • If you suspect your dog might have spleen cancer symptoms include severe abdominal pain, anemia, weakness, sudden collapse and loss of appetite. (
  • Abdominal pain - a possible symptom of a potentially fatal rupture of the spleen. (
  • While symptoms from splenic flexure syndrome may not be life-threatening, this condition can cause severe pain. (
  • While it's not considered a life-threatening condition, splenic flexure syndrome can cause severe pain and discomfort if left untreated. (
  • With a brain aneurysm, go to the emergency room or call 911 or the local emergency number if you have a sudden or severe headache, especially if you also have nausea, vomiting, seizures, or any other nervous system symptom. (
  • As the most severe form of SCD, individuals with this form also experience the worst symptoms at a higher rate. (
  • Symptoms are not as severe. (
  • However, sometimes the symptoms of beta zero thalassemia are more severe. (
  • These types of sickle cell disease are more rare and usually don't have severe symptoms. (
  • Some don't cause symptoms or severe problems, but others do. (
  • Symptoms and complications of SCD are different for each person and can range from mild to severe. (
  • The association of anaemia of a severe type and enlargemes of the spleen has been recognized clinically for many years. (
  • Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography revealed a severe intra-parenchymal hematoma and multiple lacerations of the spleen with a large amount of hemoperitoneum without active bleeding. (
  • If the pedicle is twisted in the course of the movement of the spleen, the blood supply may be interrupted or blocked (ischemia) to the point of severe damage to the blood vessels (infarction). (
  • In severe cases, blood flow into the spleen is diminished and the spleen may become greatly enlarged, as it accumulates (sequesters) blood elements such as platelets and red blood cells. (
  • Severe pain arising from the spleen often signals the presence of splenic infarction. (
  • Others have very severe symptoms and are often hospitalized for treatment. (
  • Patients with this condition also run a high risk of splenic rupture, which can result in severe blood loss and often death. (
  • Athletes with sickle cell trait are potentially more vulnerable to other serious conditions such as gross hematuria, splenic infarction, exertional heat stroke, severe muscle breakdown (rhabdomyolysis) and potentially even sudden death when participating in strenuous exercise under intense environmental conditions. (
  • Splenic infarction causes sudden and sometimes severe pain in the left side of the chest and abdomen. (
  • Sickle cell trait (SCT) isn't technically a disease, it means you're a carrier of the disease - and you are unlikely to experience the severe symptoms seen with sickle cell - but there are risk factors and too many people aren't even aware of their sickle cell status. (
  • However, if the symptoms are severe and if the blood count is low, than surgical removal of spleen may be required for relief of the symptoms. (
  • An ultrasound scan of the abdomen showed an enlarged spleen with an abnormal echo pattern and a CT scan of the abdomen showed severe splenic rupture. (
  • If severe injuries are untreated a ruptured spleen can be fatal. (
  • In rare cases, death may result from severe hepatitis or splenic rupture. (
  • The spleen is a lymphatic organ located in the body's upper left abdominal quadrant. (
  • The spleen is an encapsulated organ composed of vascular sinuses, which comprise the red pulp, and interspersed cords of lymphatic tissue, making up the white pulp. (
  • Sarcoidosis is a multisystem inflammatory process that can present with splenic lesions in addition to other organ involvement as the lungs and mediastinum. (
  • The spleen is a small organ normally about the size of your fist. (
  • Your spleen is an organ located just below your left rib cage. (
  • An enlarged spleen may even outgrow its own blood supply, which can damage or destroy sections of the organ. (
  • The spleen is a functionally complex organ occupying the left upper quadrant (LUQ). (
  • The spleen is the most vascular organ of the body, and approximately 350 L of blood passes through it per day. (
  • This risk is true especially because the spleen is the organ most commonly injured when thoracoabdominal trauma occurs, and splenic injuries represent approximately 25% of all blunt injuries to the abdominal viscera. (
  • The spleen is a lymphoid organ located in left upper quadrant suspended by gastrosplenic and splenorenal ligaments [ 4 ]. (
  • The spleen is an organ that is located in the upper left side of the belly. (
  • The spleen is the most commonly injured organ in instances of blunt trauma to the abdomen (motor vehicle accidents). (
  • The spleen, is a very vascular organ and can bleed profusely if it is injured. (
  • While its occurrence in the spleen is very rare, splenic lymphangiomatosis can be noted with only splenic involvement or it can be a part of a multi-organ disease condition. (
  • Gastric Symptoms - Splenic lymphangiomatosis when combined with involvement of any other abdominal organ, may lead to gastric symptoms. (
  • The spleen is a small organ located in the upper left portion of the abdomen. (
  • The spleen is an organ that lies just underneath the ribcage on the left side of the body. (
  • The spleen is an organ situated behind the stomach, in the upper left part of the abdomen known as the left hypochondrium. (
  • Most commonly, metastases to the spleen, of which only 22 cases have been described in the world literature, are associated with widespread tumor dissemination throughout the abdominal cavity and/or other organ parenchyma. (
  • Splenic infarction is tissue death in the spleen caused by a lack of oxygen to this vital organ. (
  • The spleen is an organ that helps filter the blood. (
  • Does "spontaneous" rupture of the spleen usually occur in a normal organ? (
  • Because the spleen is an extremely vascular organ, it contains many vessels that carry and circulate fluids in the dog's body. (
  • The spleen is an elongated and relatively flat organ that resides in the abdomen of mammals along the outer edge of the stomach. (
  • The spleen is an organ of the lymphatic system located on the left side of your stomach (abdomen) under the rib cage and diaphragm in a region that is referred to as the left upper quadrant. (
  • It causes a sudden, painful enlargement of the spleen. (
  • The enlargement of the spleen may be temporary, depending on treatment. (
  • a considerable proportion of these cases the enlargement of the spleen is due to some well recognized cause, such as he cirrhosis or amyloid disease , but in a certain number the nized causes are absent, and it seems probable that we have to deal with a specific disease of unknown origin. (
  • There are a number of common symptoms for all forms of malaria such as an enlargement of spleen and liver, low red blood cell count (anemia) and jaundice. (
  • Enlargement of the liver and spleen, or hepatosplenomegaly is characteristic. (
  • Enlargement is most often the result of twisting (torsion) of the splenic arteries and veins or, in some cases, the formation of a blood clot (infarct) in the spleen. (
  • Changes in spleen structure, frequently encountered during malaria, may result either in a simple asymptomatic enlargement or in serious complications such as hematoma, rupture, or infarction ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • Enlargement of the spleen and subsequent splenic rupture is a rare, but potentially deadly complication. (
  • Abnormal enlargement of the spleen or liver may occur, in part, due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, an abnormal process where blood cells develop outside of the bone marrow. (
  • Splenic enlargement from the virus is associated with adenopathy as the virus places stresses on the immune system of which the spleen plays an important role. (
  • Your splenic flexure is in the sharp bend between your transverse colon and descending colon in your upper abdomen. (
  • Clinical factors must be taken into account when evaluating a splenic lesion, most importantly pain attributable to the spleen, signs and symptoms of infection, immune status, history of known malignancy, associated findings on imaging of the chest, abdomen or pelvis and a history of abdominal trauma, either recent or remote. (
  • Your spleen is tucked under your rib cage next to your stomach on the left side of your abdomen. (
  • Contrast-enhanced arterial-phase CT scan of the abdomen shows a mottled appearance of the spleen. (
  • The radiologist must be wary of assuming that splenic injury is the cause if fluid is appreciated in the abdomen or around the spleen. (
  • The location of the spleen is in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, beneath the rib cage. (
  • CT-scanning of the abdomen can reveal splenic injuries with an x-ray. (
  • Splenic lymphangiomatosis or involvement of liver can also present with fluid accumulation in abdomen or ascites, anemia and sometimes liver failure in advanced cases. (
  • Congenital wandering spleen is a very rare, randomly distributed birth defect characterized by the absence or weakness of one or more of the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position in the upper left abdomen. (
  • Because there is little or nothing to hold it in place the spleen "wanders" in the lower abdomen or pelvis where it may be mistaken for an unidentified abdominal mass. (
  • This is the area of the embryo that gives rise to the ligaments that normally hold the spleen in the upper left abdomen. (
  • The area around the upper left abdomen can also feel tender, and the area surrounding the spleen will often be bruised. (
  • Gas trapped in the bend of the colon lying near the spleen (splenic flexure) can cause pain in the left upper abdomen or in the left lower chest. (
  • Introduction: Wandering spleen is a rare medical condition in which the spleen is not located in the left upper quadrant but rather in variable locations of the dependent abdomen due to the absence of peritoneal attachments. (
  • The colon then makes a sharp left turn called the hepatic flexure (hepatic=liver), and is referred to as the transverse colon , as it makes its way to the left upper quadrant of the abdomen near the spleen. (
  • In the early stage, patient may not present with any symptoms, but later on the disease may lead to enlarged spleen, pain in left upper quadrant of abdomen, easy bruising, fatigue and anemia. (
  • Spleen in located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen. (
  • In a normal healthy patient, spleen is not palpable physical examination of abdomen. (
  • Pain in left upper side of abdomen may be one of the symptoms. (
  • It is strongly advised to seek immediate medical care if an injury is sustained coupled with pain in the left upper stomach (abdomen) region along with any of the above listed signs and symptoms. (
  • Anyway, some differentials diagnosis as epidermoid cysts, pseudocysts, splenic abscesses, hematomas and cystic neoplasms of the spleen should be considered2. (
  • 2] Abbott R, Levy A, Aguilera N, Gorospe L, Thompson W (2004) From the Archives of the AFIP Primary Vascular Neoplasms of the Spleen: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation1. (
  • It is also done to relieve discomfort if the larger than normal spleen puts pressure on other organs. (
  • On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the normal spleen demonstrates lower signal intensity than the liver on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and higher signal intensity than liver on T2-weighted images (T2WI). (
  • Confirmation of a normal spleen can be shown by repeat imaging in a later phase of contrast enhancement. (
  • Asplenia refers to the absence ('a-') of normal spleen function and is associated with some serious infection risks. (
  • A doctor talks to his patient about spleen infarction. (
  • This condition is referred to as splenic infarction. (
  • Two of the more serious complications of splenic infarction include abscess and rupture. (
  • The symptoms of splenic infarction are dependent upon the extent and severity of damage to the spleen and the causative factor. (
  • Splenic infarction can sometimes cause the spleen to rupture and hemorrhage. (
  • An infarcted spleen can result in splenic abscess if the infarction is caused by bacteria. (
  • People suffering from splenic infarction may delay treatment due to an initial lack of symptoms or because symptoms are mild. (
  • Hematoma or infarction of the spleen might be followed by the development of a splenic abscess, a clinical condition that has been reported in only 1 patient, to our knowledge ( 4 ). (
  • Spleen infarction is rarer than rupture and may go unnoticed. (
  • Only 9 documented cases of splenic infarction associated with malaria have been reported ( 3 ), all consequent to P . falciparum infection (except in 1 patient who was coinfected with P . vivax and 2 cases in which the etiologic agent was unknown). (
  • Splenic rupture following infarction has not yet been described. (
  • Indeed, splenic hematoma or infarction, together with the humoral and cellular immunodepression due to malaria, might well be predisposing factors for bacterial (e.g., salmonellae) colonization of the spleen from the gut, as likely happened in this patient, although cultures of the pus, blood, or intraabdominal fluid were not performed. (
  • Splenic infarction can occur in athletes with sickle cell trait, particularly at high altitudes. (
  • However, few studies have reported on postoperative splenic infarction after LSPDP. (
  • We report a case of complete splenic infarction and obliteration of the splenic artery and vein after LSPDP. (
  • Although the operation was completed with preservation of the splenic artery and vein, postoperative splenic infarction was revealed with left back pain and fluid collection around the stump of the pancreas on postoperative day 9. (
  • Splenic infarction was attributed to scattered micro-embolizations within the spleen after drawing strongly on the tape encircling the splenic vessels. (
  • To prevent splenic infarction in LSPDP, we should carefully isolate the pancreatic parenchyma from the splenic vessels, and must avoid drawing tightly on the vessel loop encircling splenic vessels. (
  • Partial splenic infarction was reported in their previous reports. (
  • However, no cases of complete spleen infarction have been described. (
  • We encountered one case of complete splenic infarction and obliteration of both the splenic artery and vein. (
  • This report offers the first description of complete splenic infarction after LSPDP using Kimura's method. (
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a slow-growing (indolent) B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). (
  • I'm 44 years old and have recently been diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma, a form of NHL that is low grade, stage iv. (
  • I also have splenic marginal zone lymphoma. (
  • My brother was just diagnoses with splenic marginal zone lymphoma. (
  • Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL) is a cancer of the B-cells found in the spleen. (
  • The splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a special type of lymphoma that has undergone several classification changes within the past years. (
  • The types of B-cell lymphoma commonly involving the spleen include splenic marginal zone lymphoma and T-cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma. (
  • We describe a unique case of splenic marginal zone lymphoma associated with micronodular T cell/histiocyte-rich large B-cell lymphoma in the red pulp, a combination that has not previously reported in the literature. (
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a rare non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that recently has been recognized as an entity. (
  • BACKGROUND: Extranodal marginal zone cell lymphoma (MZCL) of MALT-type share similar features with nodal and splenic MZCL regarding morphology and immunophenotype. (
  • In this article, we review the current knowledge on the biological findings, clinical features, and therapeutic approaches for splenic marginal zone lymphoma. (
  • Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL), along with extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) and nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL), share a common origin from the "marginal zone. (
  • Spleen lymphoma is exceptionally rare type of primary cancer of spleen. (
  • It is also called splenic marginal zone lymphoma. (
  • Spleen lymphoma is B-cell non Hodgkin's lymphoma. (
  • Spleen lymphoma usually develops after the age of 50 years more commonly in men. (
  • The cause of splenic lymphoma remains unknown. (
  • The cause of spleen lymphoma is not known. (
  • Although spleen lymphoma is a rare type of cancer, it is imperative to differentiate spleen lymphoma with other types of splenic benign lesions. (
  • Diagnosis is also required to differentiate types of spleen lymphoma (B-cell lymphoma) so that appropriate treatment can be started. (
  • Once spleen lymphoma is confirmed with these tests, treatment module is decided on whether the patient is asymptomatic or symptomatic. (
  • Majority of patients do not manifest with spleen lymphoma symptoms. (
  • Once the underlying cause is addressed and treated, treatment may not be needed for spleen lymphoma. (
  • A diagnostic approach to splenic lesions. (
  • Most splenic lesions are detected incidentally, posing a challenge for both interpreting and referring physicians in determining the need for and type of further evaluation. (
  • The differential diagnosis of focal splenic lesions can be divided into several categories. (
  • As previously noted, most splenic lesions are found incidentally. (
  • at least a 50 percent (%) increase from nadir in the sum of product diameter (SPD) of any previously involved nodes, or in a single involved node, or the size of other lesions (example: splenic or hepatic nodules). (
  • Fine-needle aspiration of splenic lesions can be accomplished in selected cases but may expose the patient to risk of splenic rupture. (
  • status after bone marrow transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia with ringenhancing lesions in the liver and spleen caused by aspergillosis fungal infection. (
  • B, Multiple low-density hepatic and splenic lesions caused by tuberculosis. (
  • Splenic lesions were seen with ultrasound in 21.0% of patients with HIV (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6 - 33.8). (
  • The finding of tenderness to palpation in the left upper quadrant suggests spleen injury. (
  • CT scan initially revealed a non-enhancing mass in the pelvis and absence of a spleen in the left upper quadrant. (
  • Eventually, the cyst may completely replace the splenic parenchyma. (
  • CT scanning should be performed in conjunction with the intravenous administration of contrast material to maximize density differences between the splenic parenchyma and hematomas. (
  • Abstract: In cervical squamous cell carcinoma, solitary metastasis to and recurrence in the parenchyma of the spleen are uncommon in the absence of apparent disease in other sites. (
  • The internal part of the spleen (called the parenchyma) has white pulp and red pulp. (
  • If return to full physical activity, in particular contact sports, is contingent upon documented healing of the splenic parenchyma after blunt trauma in the pediatric population, follow-up imaging for low-grade injuries is best obtained around 7-8 weeks. (
  • I'm currently undergoing chemo to reduce the size of my spleen but have been told that I could remove the spleen or do a mini stem cell transplant. (
  • As you know, the best treatment for splenic mastocytosis is to remove the spleen. (
  • Surgery to remove the spleen caused by this deadly form of cancer is possible in the first two stages of development and don't involve other organs. (
  • Splenic anaemia may also occur during infancy, though we are still ignorant as to whether it is the same disease as the adult form, or sui generis. (
  • Oral sepsis and gastro-intestinal symptoms may also occur. (
  • His symptoms and abdominal US findings suggested that splenic re-bleeding had caused delayed splenic rupture to occur. (
  • Acquired" wandering spleen may occur during adulthood due to injuries or other underlying conditions that may weaken the ligaments that hold the spleen in its normal position (e.g., connective tissue disease or pregnancy). (
  • Wandering spleen may occur during adulthood because of accident or injury, another underlying disorder (e.g., connective tissue disease), or the abnormal relaxation (laxity) of the ligaments caused by pregnancy. (
  • In some cases, shoulder pain can also occur on the left side due to spleen damage. (
  • however, chest pain due to splenic rupture can also occur in these areas. (
  • Oftentimes, bruising will occur over the area of the spleen, and the area will hurt when touched. (
  • In spite of this, it may occur with a very forceful blow to the abdominal area, as may happen during a fight, a motor accident, during a contact sport, or because of a rib fracture, with the broken end of the rib penetrating the spleen. (
  • In other cases, splenic rupture may not actually occur for some weeks following the trauma. (
  • Hemangiosarcoma can occur wherever there are blood vessels in the body, but most often develop in the spleen, heart, liver, skin and soft tissue. (
  • You should consult a doctor immediately if signs and symptoms occur as well as for return to play protocol. (
  • This is serious condition that can occur during a direct blow or trauma and without emergency treatment a ruptured spleen can cause life threatening internal bleeding. (
  • The prevalence of splenic ruptures are poorly documented but one study suggest that traumatic splenic ruptures are more likely to occur in males (2:1 male to female) with ages ranging from 18-34 years. (
  • Rupture may occur without trauma, but impact to the spleen is also a factor. (
  • Splenic flexure syndrome occurs when gas builds up or becomes trapped in your colon. (
  • Splenic artery aneurysm: This type of aneurysm occurs near the spleen. (
  • Splenic rupture is always a medical emergency because it may be catastrophic in the degree of hemorrhage that occurs, and needs immediately evaluation and treatment. (
  • A break of a contained hematoma is usually involved in splenic rupture, which occurs almost exclusively during acute infection and the primary attack ( 6 ). (
  • occurs secondary to a ruptured spleen and can cause blood pressure to drop (hypotension). (
  • If blood flow is interrupted to the spleen by an object such as a blood clot or piece of plaque or because of trauma, infection or certain diseases, the affected portions of the spleen die due to lack of oxygen. (
  • Splenic hydatid infection is a rare form of hydatid disease , and isolated splenic involvement is even less common. (
  • Due to the spleen's role in fighting infection, the spleen is removed only in cases where significant trauma has occurred. (
  • The spleen removes or filters out unnecessary or foreign material, breaks down and eliminates worn out blood cells, and produces white blood cells, which aid the body in fighting infection. (
  • Also, when the body is fighting an illness, the spleen enlarges as it helps fight the infection. (
  • An enlarged spleen is found in 50% to 80% of malaria patients ( 1 ), while only 25 cases of splenic rupture have been reported since 1960 (0%-2% in natural occurring infection) ( 5 ). (
  • Recently, an abscess of the spleen caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been reported as a complication of P . falciparum malaria ( 4 ) and, to our knowledge, is the only case in the literature definitely related to Plasmodium infection. (
  • Children often experience mild symptoms with primary EBV infection. (
  • it is reportedly associated with neoplasms or splenic infection, but is rarely encountered in patients with both conditions. (
  • In the past, the mortality rate of splenic rupture was extremely high, due to the patient's poor general condition, complications and difficulty in diagnosis, with the major cause of death being hypotensive shock from the extensive blood loss, whereas infection and other complications also played a major role. (
  • The spleen tissue may also be harmed if there is abnormal tissue growth or infection. (
  • A 69-year-old woman with multiple calcified granulomas in the liver and spleen, representing a sequela of prior histoplasmosis infection. (
  • To estimate the frequency of splenic EPTB microabscesses detected with ultrasound in patients with HIV and TB co-infection. (
  • Because the spleen works in close collaboration with the dog's blood and lymph, it can be affected by infection, liver disease and other conditions that may compromise the health of the dog. (
  • In humans the spleen is about the size of a fist and its primary roles are filtering the body's blood and helps to fight infection. (
  • Usually, the longer the infected person experiences the symptoms the more the infection weakens the person's immune system and the longer he/she will need to recover. (
  • Haematological malignancies 2 , infectious mononucleosis 3 and malaria 4 are some of the most significant underlying cause of a traumatic splenic rupture. (
  • Common co-morbidities for traumatic splenic ruptures are hypertension, type II diabetes, and asthma. (
  • Non-traumatic splenic ruptures can be associated with numerous conditions and diseases. (
  • While the exact cause of splenic lymphangiomatosis is not clear, it is speculated that it could be a result of malformations during the embryonic development. (
  • Diagnosis of the cause of splenic pain is based upon the assessment of splenic size, hemodynamic parameters, history of injury or other medical conditions, and other symptoms. (
  • The obstruction of the lymphatic vessels affecting the normal lymphatic drainage during embryonic development can be one of the causes of splenic lymphangiomatosis. (
  • Car accidents are one of the main causes of splenic rupture, either due to direct impact or a broken rib on the lefthand side of the body. (
  • What are the symptoms of sickle cell disease in a child? (
  • What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Sickle Cell Disease? (
  • If you have a baby or young child who has sickle cell disease, you will check your child's spleen to see if it's larger than normal. (
  • The signs and symptoms of sickle cell disease vary greatly from one person to another. (
  • Other conditions that can lead to splenic include drug addiction, sickle cell disease, and prolonged use of blood thinners. (
  • As your spleen grows larger, it filters normal red blood cells as well as abnormal ones, reducing the number of healthy cells in your bloodstream. (
  • MF is a clonal proliferation of a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, 3 in which the abnormal cell population releases several cytokines and growth factors in the bone marrow that lead to marrow fibrosis and stroma changes and colonizes extramedullary organs such as the spleen and liver. (
  • However, experimental studies suggest that regenerated splenic tissue is histologically and functionally abnormal, thus offering limited protection against sepsis. (
  • Often there are no symptoms, but a ruptured aneurysm can lead to fatal complications. (
  • Most of the signs and symptoms of SCD are related to complications of the disease. (
  • In fact, some 20 percent of women may experience symptoms and complications throughout their entire pregnancy. (
  • Therefore, treatment remains essentially palliative and aimed at controlling disease symptoms and complications and improving the patients' quality of life. (
  • A literature search showed that splenic complications of chronic pancreatitis were not uncommon but were a rare event in an acute episode, with surgical intervention being the optimal management. (
  • Splenic complications of chronic pancreatitis are well recognised with an incidence of 2.2% 9 . (
  • In breeds that have a high incidence of splenic tumor we recommend yearly exams starting at 5 years of age, with radiographs and ultrasounds to catch this problem early before complications and spread, since the prognosis is poor in most cancerous spleens because they have already spread by the time of diagnosis. (
  • Signs of impending hemorrhagic shock along with these symptoms could mean a ruptured spleen. (
  • The healthcare team carefully monitors the person with SMZL and starts treatment when symptoms appear or there are signs that the disease is progressing more quickly. (
  • The signs and symptoms of SCD will vary from person to person and can change over time. (
  • The common signs and symptoms include fever, headache, flushing of face and trunk. (
  • Although delayed splenic rupture or bleeding is unpredictable, it is very important to understand the mechanisms and to educate the family of the children with splenic injuries of the warning signs of delayed rupture or bleeding. (
  • The splenic hilar vessels were not injured (Fig. 1 c), and there were no signs of active bleeding. (
  • Signs and symptoms of hemorrhagic shock are common. (
  • Diminished function due to the reduced oxygen supply and the signs and symptoms varies on the site that is affected. (
  • Depending on the size of the embolus, age and underlying conditions, like the presence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), the signs and symptoms may vary. (
  • The signs and symptoms of hyperemesis gravidarum typically surface during the 4- to 6-week gestation period. (
  • This blood loss causes some dogs to show intermittent symptoms of lethargy and weakness, but usually the signs are so subtle they go unnoticed or are attributed to another less serious cause. (
  • 2 Signs and symptoms of an exertional sickling event include intense pain, fatigue, feeling like you cannot continue exercising, muscle cramping and inability to catch your breath 4 . (
  • Type 1 Gaucher disease is characterized by variability in signs, symptoms, severity, and progression. (
  • 3) If a splenic lesion with benign imaging characteristics (either a cyst or homogeneous, low-attenuation with no enhancement and smooth margins) is detected in an asymptomatic patient, no follow-up imaging is necessary. (
  • As the hydatic cyst increases in size, it may lead to compression of the hilar vessels of the spleen, resulting in pericystic splenic atrophy. (
  • Splenic hydatid cyst. (
  • Hydatid cyst of spleen: A diagnostic challenge. (
  • I then asked for further details and was told that everything looked fine but there was a "possible small cyst in the spleen which is essentially normal" and that I shouldn`t be concerned. (
  • Because the residing area was an endemic hydatid disease zone, a primary spleen hydatid cyst was suspected. (
  • The development of an isolated spleen hydatid cyst is extremely rare, with only a few reported cases. (
  • The imaging characteristics of splenic hydatid cysts are calcification of the cyst wall, the presence of daughter cysts and membrane detachment. (
  • A splenic hydatid cyst should be treated surgically due to the risk of rupture. (
  • This may later resolve partially to produce a splenic cyst. (
  • Some sickle cell patients will sustain enough damage to their spleen that it becomes shrunken and ceases to function at all. (
  • However, in patients with a known malignancy or symptoms attributable to possible splenic pathology, the incidentally discovered splenic lesion may be more significant. (
  • Patients are triaged initially into one of three categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic with pain attributable to the spleen, or symptomatic with systemic involvement. (
  • Hydatid disease of the spleen: imaging findings in nine patients. (
  • The diagnosis of penetrating splenic injury is made easily because patients almost always are referred for surgery. (
  • Patients usually have an enlarged spleen, which may cause discomfort or pain. (
  • It is common for patients to have cancer in both the spleen and bone marrow, though progression into the lymph nodes themselves is rare and marks the advanced stages of the disease. (
  • Unstable patients, with classic symptoms and findings often go directly to surgery for exploration and repair. (
  • In some cases, patients with splenic rupture have experienced breathing difficulty due to stress on the lungs from an injury to the ribcage. (
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture is a common complication, in up to 30% of patients [1, 2, 4-6]. (
  • For patients with stage II FL who have large lymph nodes, stage III or stage IV FL or advanced-stage relapsed FL, treatment will be based on symptoms, the patient's age and health status, the extent of disease and the patient's choice. (
  • Patients with situs ambiguous traditionally have been categorized based on the number of spleens. (
  • Patients with abdominal involvement may present with pain, but there are usually no constitutional symptoms. (
  • Patients with early stages of chronic liver disease and even those with compensated cirrhosis can present without any clinical symptoms, which means that liver disease and ongoing liver damage can remain unidentified for many years. (
  • In selected patients, especially those with portal vein or splenic vein thrombosis, Doppler venous ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging studies may be necessary to determine whether veins draining the spleen are affected by clots (portal vein thrombosis, splenic vein thrombosis). (
  • These patients will generally possess a moderate to severely enlarged spleen prior to rupture with histology confirming the pathological nature of the underlying disease. (
  • In these cases, the patients present with symptoms reflecting the underlying disease, which is confirmed by a positive serology. (
  • Patients who have undergone this procedure may subsequently demonstrate Howell-Jolly bodies on peripheral blood smears, a sign of splenic hypofunction indicating an increased risk of asplenic sepsis. (
  • Research suggests that ultrasound can identify splenic microabscesses caused by EPTB, but data are limited on the frequency of this finding in patients with culture-proven EPTB. (
  • 95% CI 72.3 - 97.9) of splenic microabscesses seen on ultrasound in patients with HIV. (
  • Ultrasound evaluation of the spleen in patients with HIV and symptoms suggestive of TB in endemic regions is a viable diagnostic adjunct. (
  • Ultrasound detection of splenic microabscesses in HIV patients is probably sufficient indication to initiate TB treatment prior to obtaining culture data. (
  • Majority of patients suffering from spleen cancer do not experience any symptoms. (
  • Packed red blood cell transfusion was required in 13 (6%) of the 222 patients, and 3 (2%) of 145 with isolated splenic injuries. (
  • Splenic hydatid cysts are generally asymptomatic. (
  • Affected individuals may not have symptoms at the time of diagnosis (asymptomatic) may remain symptom-free for many years. (
  • Some individuals may not exhibit symptoms for many years (asymptomatic). (
  • We report a patient presenting with uterine cervical cancer with splenic metastases. (
  • Isolated solitary parenchymal metastases in the spleen are rare, especially in recurrent disease. (
  • In most cases, episodes of pain may be related to the spontaneous twisting and untwisting of the mobile spleen (torsion and detorsion) or of the blood vessels serving the spleen. (
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture, also referred to as atraumatic splenic rupture, is a rare but life-threatening emergency condition. (
  • We herein report the case of a 58-year-old male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) complicated by splenic tuberculosis (TB), who presented with spontaneous rupture of the spleen. (
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of spontaneous splenic rupture in AML with splenic TB. (
  • The relevant literature on spontaneous splenic rupture was also reviewed and the potential etiology and treatment were discussed. (
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture, also referred to as atraumatic splenic rupture, is an uncommon serious complication of acute leukemia, with very few reported cases since Rokitansky first described spontaneous rupture of the spleen in a patient with leukemia in 1861 ( 1 - 7 ). (
  • Although the precise occurrence of spontaneous splenic rupture is not known, its actual morbidity may be higher due to the difficulty of diagnosis in the past. (
  • In the present study, we report a case of spontaneous splenic rupture occurring in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (
  • Our conclusion was spontaneous splenic rupture secondary to an episode of acute pancreatitis. (
  • Spontaneous splenic rupture is a rare condition that is initially very difficult to diagnose. (
  • We present a case of spontaneous splenic rupture associated with acute pancreatitis. (
  • To our knowledge, spontaneous splenic rupture, as a complication of acute pancreatitis, is a rare condition. (
  • Very rare causes of spontaneous splenic rupture include viral infections such as Hepatitis A 6 and Rubella 7 as well as bacterial pneumonia 8 . (
  • In our patient, the diagnosis of spontaneous splenic rupture, secondary to acute pancreatitis, was ascertained by a raised amylase and a CT scan showing significant pancreatic swelling. (
  • General discomfort, specifically in your upper left abdominal area, is a common symptom of splenic flexure syndrome. (
  • Instead of ligaments, the spleen is attached by a stalk-like tissue supplied with blood vessels (vascular pedicle). (
  • Primary angiosarcoma of the spleen (PAS) is a very rare malignant neoplasm that originates from endothelial cells of the splenic blood vessels. (
  • A type of cancer or mass that forms on the soft tissues of the blood vessels of the spleen and is the most common form of cancer in dogs. (
  • You can see the dark vertical blood vessels in this photo as they enter fat between the stomach and a very enlarged and dark spleen in a semi-circle at the far right. (
  • Further, the spleen is attached to the stomach via small blood vessels, and it will also twist. (
  • Fever with these symptoms could mean an abscessed spleen. (
  • Spleen was 22 cm and had fever, cough, night sweats and fatigue. (
  • Fever of unknown origin [FUO] is intermittent high fever of more than 38-39° Celsius without clear known cause or symptoms, lasting for more than 8 days, more than 3 weeks in an outpatient setting, or more than 1 week in inpatient setting even with evaluation [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Instead of getting the episodic chills and fever, the patient might get non specific symptoms like backaches, headaches and fevers. (
  • Cardiorespiratory Symptoms - Splenic lymphangiomatosis when accompanied with disease in the lungs and chest region, it may result in symptoms of cough, chest pain, fever, wheezing and breathlessness. (
  • The characteristic set of symptoms for mono is the clinical triad of sore throat, fever and lymphadenopathy together with significant malaise. (
  • A 58-year-old male patient was admitted to the Luhe Hospital (Beijing, China) in July, 2015, with a 2-month history of fever and cough, without symptoms of fatigue or night sweats. (
  • Accompanying symptoms such as fever are features of lymphomas, malaria, endocarditis, or infectious mononucleosis. (
  • The spleen has a marginal zone which is easily visualized in normal conditions, unlike the lymph node and other extranodal organs. (
  • Splenic hydatid cysts are usually solitary. (
  • Cysts of the spleen are the most common benign focal splenic masses. (
  • Pseudocysts are much more common, representing 80% of all splenic cysts. (
  • Splenic cysts are very common problems and do not need any further workup. (
  • In splenic lymphangiomatosis, cysts are formed on the spleen, which are mainly formed from lymphatic vessels. (
  • In some cases, cysts may also be acquired during the life, leading to splenic lymphangiomatosis. (
  • With brain tissue, which is impervious to pain, the symptoms of pain, numbness or tingling may be evident along the course of the nerve originating from the affected area. (
  • On histologic examination, splenic tissue was found to have been replaced by congested inflammatory infiltrates and fibrotic tissue. (
  • The remaining positive case was the unclassified case, for which the translocation was detected in the spleen and in hilar lymph node tissue. (
  • As much of the tissue will be spared as possible because the spleen helps protect the body against bacterial infections. (
  • The mechanism of splenic rupture secondary to acute pancreatitis has several proposals including splenic vein thrombosis or ectopic pancreatic tissue in spleen 1 but however largely remains undetermined. (
  • Although many plain radiographic imaging findings suggest spleen trauma injury, CT is the radiographic modality used at most institutions. (
  • See the splenic trauma images below. (
  • Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the imaging characteristics of splenic trauma with CT and to address the outcome of conservative treatment. (
  • Most blunt splenic trauma is seen in children struck by a motor vehicle, in those involved in an activity-related fall, or in occupants of motor vehicles involved in accidents. (
  • The case is presented of splenic preservation after blunt abdominal trauma with hilum involvement, emphasising the role of Floseal® as a haemostatic agent, as well as the use of resorbable meshes to preserve the spleen. (
  • His injury was diagnosed as grade III on the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma (AAST) splenic injury scale. (
  • Trauma is a common cause of a splenic rupture. (
  • Available at: (
  • Risk of splenic salvage after trauma. (
  • Splenic Embolization After Trauma: An Opportunity to Improve Best Immunization Practices. (
  • If trauma causes the dog to lose blood, the spleen will respond by releasing that reserve blood back into the system. (
  • Howman-Giles R, Gilday DL, Venugopal S, Shandling B, Ash JM (1978) Splenic trauma-nonoperative management and long-term follow-up by scintiscan. (
  • Stylianos S, Egorova N, Guice KS, Arons RR, Oldham KT (2006) Variation in treatment of pediatric spleen injury at trauma centers versus nontrauma centers: a call for dissemination of American Pediatric Surgical Association benchmarks and guidelines. (
  • Martin K, VanHouwelingen L, Butter A (2011) The significance of pseudoaneurysms in the nonoperative management of pediatric blunt splenic trauma. (
  • Bird JJ, Patel NY, Mathiason MA, Schroeppel TJ, D'huyvetter CJ, Cogbill TH (2012) Management of pediatric blunt splenic injury at a rural trauma center. (
  • Involvement of spleen to form splenic lymphangiomatosis is a very rare condition and needs proper evaluation and diagnosis, to plan appropriate management. (
  • Involvement of many organs along with splenic lymphangiomatosis makes it difficult to manage, is usually progressive and may have a poor prognosis. (
  • Splenic lymphangiomatosis can be very rarely found as the only involvement and in most cases other organs are involved too. (
  • Symptoms of splenic lymphangiomatosis depend on the involvement of other organs. (
  • We applied CGH and cytogenetics to 13 cases of SMZL with primary splenic involvement. (
  • In this article, the authors propose an algorithm based on clinical factors for narrowing the differential diagnosis of an incidental splenic mass. (
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-three MZCL cases were divided on clinical grounds into 61 extranodal MALT-type, 19 splenic and 12 nodal MZCL. (
  • Clinical Screen for the presence of splenic inflammation. (
  • Leschied JR, Mazza MB, Davenport MS, Chong ST, Smith EA, Hoff CN, Ladino-Torres MF, Khalatbari S, Ehrlich PF, Dillman JR (2016) Inter-radiologist agreement for CT scoring of pediatric splenic injuries and effect on an established clinical practice guideline. (
  • In this lysosomal storage disorder (LSD), clinical features are reflective of the distribution of Gaucher cells in the liver, spleen, bone marrow, skeleton, and lungs. (
  • She was given the diagnosis of wandering spleen based on ultrasound and CT scan images. (
  • Figure B. The abdominal ultrasound revealed a 44 mm round mass in the spleen (Figure A), with hypoechoic content and some zones with posterior acoustic shadow (Figure B). (
  • 17-19] Typical EPTB ultrasound findings are free abdominal and treatment are limited, which further hampers containment of fluid, pericardial effusion, periaortic lymph nodes and splenic the epidemic. (
  • An ultrasound revealed it was from the spleen. (
  • CT guided spleen biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is nowadays used for the purpose of sampling spleen tumors. (
  • In particular, the MZ is especially developed in spleen- and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues, whereas it is rarely identifiable in lymph nodes. (
  • When the spleen and lymph nodes detect unhealthy blood cells in the bloodstream, they create defender cells called lymphocytes which destruct the old and unhealthy red blood cells. (
  • The patient remembered that he had been unwell 2 weeks earlier with flu-like symptoms and enlarged cervical lymph nodes. (
  • Penetrating injuries also frequently involve the spleen along with other abdominal organs. (
  • Systemic Splenic lymphangiomatosis - This condition involves many other organs along with splenic lymphangiomatosis. (
  • Visceral hemangiosarcoma develops in internal organs, most often the spleen and the right chamber of the heart. (
  • Two organs closely linked are the liver and the spleen. (
  • It usually affects the spleen, bone marrow and blood. (
  • My cancer presents itself in the spleen and bone marrow only. (
  • When splenic lymphangiomatosis is associated with bone disease, it may present with bone pain in the affected areas. (
  • Bone metastasis was consequently identified and the symptom was quickly alleviated after radiation therapy. (
  • Leishmania amastigotes were found in 32 bone marrow aspirates, 3 liver biopsy specimens, 2 splenic aspirates, and 1 skin biopsy specimen. (
  • The myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), previously termed the myeloproliferative disorders , are characterized by the clonal proliferation of one or more hematopoietic cell lineages, predominantly in the bone marrow, but sometimes in the liver and spleen. (
  • Iron that has been recycled from old red blood cells is stored in the spleen where it awaits transport to the bone marrow. (
  • I`ve not well versed in matters of the spleen, I know it`s in the general vicinity of the pancreas, etc. so could this a cause for concern in relation to possible pancreatic cancer? (
  • Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (LSPDP), a newly developed operative procedure, is indicated for benign and low-grade malignant disease of the pancreas. (
  • The spleen is also closely related to the immune and pancreas function. (
  • Gastro-intestinal symptoms are not uncommon, in particular gastric haemorrhage which is often profuse, and diarrhoea . (
  • Spleen compromise in hydatid disease is uncommon, its frequency is estimated between 0.9 percent and 8 percent of cases, with most developed from systemic or intraperitoneal dissemination product of a ruptured liver cyst1. (
  • PAS is an uncommon and aggressive splenic disease. (
  • It is not uncommon for a radiologist interpreting a chest x-ray to comment that the spleen seems enlarged (usually considered an incidental finding). (
  • Splenic rupture with no or minimal force is not uncommon as it is noted in several conditions. (
  • It is not uncommon for us to encounter problems with the spleen. (
  • The incidence of splenic hematoma without rupture is unknown ( 2 ). (
  • The mass represents a calcified splenic hematoma. (
  • The resected spleen was enlarged with a large parenchymal hematoma. (
  • The mechanism of delayed splenic rupture in our case was considered to be the result of a tear in the subcapsular hematoma caused by stretching the splenocolic ligament related to a bowel movement during defecation. (
  • We herein report on a case of delayed splenic rupture caused by tearing of a subcapsular hematoma. (
  • This may cause immediate rupture of the spleen, or it may result in the formation of a hematoma. (
  • Quite often the doctors just wait and watch because you don't want to treat SMZL if there aren't any symptoms like and enlarged spleen. (
  • The findings indicate that SMZL with primary splenic presentation and the typical IgM+, IgDdim, CD5-, CD10-, CD23- immunophenotype is characterized by the presence of deletions in chromosome 7q31-32. (
  • Well, of course, I am, especially in conjunction w/ my other noted symptoms which include weight loss, clumpy,loose stools (steatorrhea maybe? (
  • Symptoms of splenic lymphangiomatosis may also include palpitations, anxiety or dizziness. (
  • Resulting symptoms may include fatigue, weakness, blood in the stools, anemia, bloody vomit (hematemesis), and/or an abnormally low level of blood platelets (thrombocytopenia). (
  • Other causes of spleen injury include fist fights and contact sports such as hockey and football. (
  • These symptoms include but are not limited to dizziness, fainting, fatigue or confusion. (
  • Symptoms may include dyspnea, coughing and chest pain. (
  • Viral diseases that can lead to splenic rupture include mononucleosis, malaria, and in rare cases HIV. (
  • The symptoms depend on where the aneurysm is located. (
  • The type of surgery that is done and when you need it depend on your symptoms and the size and type of aneurysm. (
  • What Are Symptoms of an Aneurysm? (
  • The doctor may monitor an unruptured aortic aneurysm, if no symptoms are evident. (
  • This pictorial essay reviews the wide spectrum of benign and malignant pathologies to be considered when computed tomography (CT) demonstrates concurrent focal disease in the liver and spleen. (
  • Hepato-splenic lymphangiomatosis - This condition of splenic lymphangiomatosis primarily involves the liver and the spleen. (
  • Angiosarcoma of the spleen is a very rare neoplasm, but represents the most common primary nonlymphoid malignant tumour of the spleen [1, 2]. (
  • A number of conditions, including liver disease and some cancers, can cause your spleen to become enlarged. (
  • Splenic hydatid disease has been reported to constitute up to 4% of cases of abdominal hydatid disease 4 . (
  • Due to the limited and nonspecific symptoms, splenic hydatid disease has a long latency period. (
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease and laryngeal symptoms. (
  • Primary disease affects the lungs, whereas the disseminated form most commonly involves the liver and spleen. (
  • Can the spleen be involved in a disease process that might be obscured by the crisis brought about by rupture? (
  • Many people exposed to the Epstein-Barr virus do not show symptoms of the disease, but carry the virus. (
  • In the portal venous phase, splenic enhancement becomes homogeneous. (
  • The tendency to gastric haemorrhage must be remember a tendency which is probably due to mechanical derange-ment of the venous supply produced by the splenic tumour, and any distension of the stomach by large quantities of food, flatulence , etc., or unnecessary irritation by irritating viands, should be avoided so far as is possible. (
  • When the spleen twists the blood keeps on pumping into it by the arterial system, but this same blood is not able to leave through the venous system, and the spleen becomes grossly engorged. (
  • Intraoperative findings confirmed a wandering spleen without peritoneal attachments and a long splenic artery and vein. (
  • Splenic flexure syndrome is a condition that causes gas to become trapped inside flexures - or curves - within your colon. (
  • While gas is normal, splenic flexure syndrome can cause excessive gas and discomfort. (
  • There is no specific test used to diagnose splenic flexure syndrome. (
  • In some cases, splenic flexure syndrome improves and goes away on its own from flatulence or consistent bowel movements. (
  • Modifying your diet can prevent symptoms from splenic flexure syndrome. (
  • Splenic flexure syndrome is a digestive disorder that causes gas to accumulate in your colon. (
  • Can adult Hirschsprungs, redundancy of transverse colon, cause accessory spleen from spleen injury caused by colon adhesion at the splenic flexure? (
  • It should be performed only by an experienced interventional radiologist, with surgical support in case of splenic laceration or rupture. (
  • Stitches in hepatic and splenic regions. (
  • Infectious diseases can spread systemically, resulting in hepatic and splenic abscesses or microabscesses. (
  • A 77-year-old Hispanic woman with cystic hepatic and splenic abscesses caused by echinococcus. (
  • Surgically removing an enlarged spleen isn't usually the first treatment, but is sometimes recommended. (
  • Your symptoms may be related to irritable bowel syndrome which can be exacerbated by stress and/or anxiety. (
  • Can somebody's colon cancer mimic irritable bowel syndrome symptoms? (
  • Splenic lymphangiomatosis, being congenital in nature, is usually seen in children, however, it may be observed at any age in rare cases. (
  • Wandering spleen, whether it is a condition with which a baby is born (congenital form) or is the result of multiple births in women or some sort of accident that may affect men and women (acquired form), is an extremely rare disorder. (
  • A number of infections and diseases may cause an enlarged spleen. (
  • Ultrasonography and CT are the most valuable imaging techniques for the diagnosis and evaluation of focal splenic diseases 3 . (
  • The dietary suitable for these symptoms is considered in the section on Diseases of Children . (
  • [1] Lichtin AE, Cook JR. Diseases of the spleen. (
  • After serial investigations he was diagnosed as having P. vivax malaria, which was complicated by a ruptured spleen. (
  • Those lacking a functional spleen are at higher risk of catching malaria and dying from this. (