Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
An indirect sympathomimetic. Tyramine does not directly activate adrenergic receptors, but it can serve as a substrate for adrenergic uptake systems and monoamine oxidase so it prolongs the actions of adrenergic transmitters. It also provokes transmitter release from adrenergic terminals. Tyramine may be a neurotransmitter in some invertebrate nervous systems.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist used as an anti-arrhythmia agent, an anti-angina agent, an antihypertensive agent, and an antiglaucoma agent.
A moderately lipophilic beta blocker (ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS). It is non-cardioselective and has intrinsic sympathomimetic actions, but little membrane-stabilizing activity. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmocopoeia, 30th ed, p638)
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A sympathomimetic that acts mainly by causing release of NOREPINEPHRINE but also has direct agonist activity at some adrenergic receptors. It is most commonly used as a nasal vasoconstrictor and an appetite depressant.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has intrinsic symopathomimetic activity. It is used in the management of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
Sympathetic alpha-adrenergic agonist with actions like PHENYLEPHRINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor in circulatory failure, asthma, nasal congestion, and glaucoma.
A sympathomimetic agent with specificity for alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It is used to maintain BLOOD PRESSURE in hypotensive states such as following SPINAL ANESTHESIA.
A direct acting sympathomimetic used as a vasoconstrictor to relieve nasal congestion. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1251)
A beta-2 adrenergic agonist used in the treatment of ASTHMA and BRONCHIAL SPASM.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Secondary headache disorders attributed to a variety of cranial or cervical vascular disorders, such as BRAIN ISCHEMIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS.
A vasodilator that apparently has direct actions on blood vessels and also increases cardiac output. Tolazoline can interact to some degree with histamine, adrenergic, and cholinergic receptors, but the mechanisms of its therapeutic effects are not clear. It is used in treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Compounds possessing both a hydroxyl (-OH) and an amino group (-NH2).
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
An irreversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase types A and B that is used as an antidepressive agent. It has also been used as an antitubercular agent, but its use is limited by its toxicity.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A propylamine formed from the cyclization of the side chain of amphetamine. This monoamine oxidase inhibitor is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in panic and phobic disorders. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist that causes prolonged peripheral VASOCONSTRICTION.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
An adrenergic beta-agonist used as a bronchodilator agent in asthma therapy.
A fold of the mucous membrane of the CONJUNCTIVA in many animals. At rest, it is hidden in the medial canthus. It can extend to cover part or all of the cornea to help clean the CORNEA.
A partial adrenergic agonist with functional beta 1-receptor specificity and inotropic effect. It is effective in the treatment of acute CARDIAC FAILURE, postmyocardial infarction low-output syndrome, SHOCK, and reducing ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION in the SHY-RAGER SYNDROME.
The d-form of AMPHETAMINE. It is a central nervous system stimulant and a sympathomimetic. It has also been used in the treatment of narcolepsy and of attention deficit disorders and hyperactivity in children. Dextroamphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulating release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. It is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic.
A phenethylamine that is an isomer of EPHEDRINE which has less central nervous system effects and usage is mainly for respiratory tract decongestion.
A chemically heterogeneous group of drugs that have in common the ability to block oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. (From Gilman, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p414)
A cardioselective beta-1-adrenergic antagonist with no partial agonist activity.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
A phenoxypropanolamine derivative that is a selective beta-1-adrenergic agonist.
A tricyclic dibenzazepine compound that potentiates neurotransmission. Desipramine selectively blocks reuptake of norepinephrine from the neural synapse, and also appears to impair serotonin transport. This compound also possesses minor anticholinergic activity, through its affinity to muscarinic receptors.
One of the MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS used to treat DEPRESSION; PHOBIC DISORDERS; and PANIC.
A beta-1 adrenergic antagonist that has been used in the emergency treatment of CARDIAC ARRYTHMIAS.
A beta-adrenergic antagonist used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, and anxiety.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Agents causing contraction of the pupil of the eye. Some sources use the term miotics only for the parasympathomimetics but any drug used to induce miosis is included here.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-1 RECEPTORS.
The aperture in the iris through which light passes.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The excretory duct of the testes that carries SPERMATOZOA. It rises from the SCROTUM and joins the SEMINAL VESICLES to form the ejaculatory duct.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of naturally occurring monoamines. It is a flavin-containing enzyme that is localized in mitochondrial membranes, whether in nerve terminals, the liver, or other organs. Monoamine oxidase is important in regulating the metabolic degradation of catecholamines and serotonin in neural or target tissues. Hepatic monoamine oxidase has a crucial defensive role in inactivating circulating monoamines or those, such as tyramine, that originate in the gut and are absorbed into the portal circulation. (From Goodman and Gilman's, The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p415) EC 1.4.3.4.
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.

Kinetic analysis of drug-receptor interactions of long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics in isolated receptor membranes: evidence against prolonged effects of salmeterol and formoterol on receptor-coupled adenylyl cyclase. (1/590)

The long-acting beta2 sympathomimetics salmeterol and formoterol have been presumed to exert their prolonged action either by binding to an accessory binding site ("exo-site") near the beta2 adrenoceptor or by their high affinity for beta2 adrenoceptors and correspondingly slow dissociation. Whereas most studies with salmeterol had been done in intact tissues, which have slow diffusion and compartmentation of drugs in lipophilic phases, that restrict drug access to the receptor biophase, we used purified receptor membranes from rat lung and disaggregated calf tracheal myocytes as model systems. Binding experiments were designed to measure the slow dissociation of agonists by means of delayed association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol. Rat lung membranes were pretreated with high concentrations of agonists (salmeterol, formoterol, isoprenaline) before dissociation was induced by 50-fold dilution. Half-times of association of (-)-[125I]iodopindolol remained unchanged compared with untreated controls, indicating that dissociation of agonists occurred in less than 2 min. Adenylyl cyclase experiments were designed to determine the on and off kinetics of agonists to beta2 adrenoceptors by measuring the rate of receptor-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) formation. Experiments were performed in tracheal membranes characterized by high Vmax values of cAMP formation. Adenylyl cyclase activation occurred simultaneously with the addition of the agonist, continued linearly with time for 60 min, and ceased immediately after the antagonist was added. Similarly, when receptor membranes were preincubated in a small volume with high salmeterol concentrations, there was a linear increase in cAMP formation, which was immediately interrupted by a 100-fold dilution of the reaction mixture. This militates against the exo-site hypothesis. On the other hand, dissociation by dilution was much less when membranes were preincubated with a large volume of salmeterol at the same concentration, indicating that physicochemical effects, and not exo-site binding, underlie its prolonged mode of action.  (+info)

Long-term effects of prior heat shock on neuronal potassium currents recorded in a novel insect ganglion slice preparation. (2/590)

Brief exposure to high temperatures (heat shock) induces long-lasting adaptive changes in the molecular biology of protein interactions and behavior of poikilotherms. However, little is known about heat shock effects on neuronal properties. To investigate how heat shock affects neuronal properties we developed an insect ganglion slice from locusts. The functional integrity of neuronal circuits in slices was demonstrated by recordings from rhythmically active respiratory neurons and by the ability to induce rhythmic population activity with octopamine. Under these "functional" in vitro conditions we recorded outward potassium currents from neurons of the ventral midline of the A1 metathoracic neuromere. In control neurons, voltage steps to 40 mV from a holding potential of -60 mV evoked in control neurons potassium currents with a peak current of 10.0 +/- 2.5 nA and a large steady state current of 8.5 +/- 2.6 nA, which was still activated from a holding potential of -40 mV. After heat shock most of the outward current inactivated rapidly (peak amplitude: 8.4 +/- 2.4 nA; steady state: 3.6 +/- 2.0 nA). This current was inactivated at a holding potential of -40 mV. The response to temperature changes was also significantly different. After changing the temperature from 38 to 42 degrees C the amplitude of the peak and steady-state current was significantly lower in neurons obtained from heat-shocked animals than those obtained from controls. Our study indicates that not only heat shock can alter neuronal properties, but also that it is possible to investigate ion currents in insect ganglion slices.  (+info)

Effect of the cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2 on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. (3/590)

1. The aim of the present study was to analyse the cardiovascular actions of the synthetic CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55212-2, and specifically to determine its sites of action on sympathetic cardiovascular regulation. 2. Pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously stimulated electrically or which received a pressor infusion of noradrenaline were used to study peripheral prejunctional and direct vascular effects, respectively. For studying effects on brain stem cardiovascular regulatory centres, drugs were administered into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris in conscious rabbits. Overall cardiovascular effects of the cannabinoid were studied in conscious rabbits with intravenous drug administration. 3. In pithed rabbits in which the sympathetic outflow was continuously electrically stimulated, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5, 50 and 500 microg kg(-1)) markedly reduced blood pressure, the spillover of noradrenaline into plasma and the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and these effects were antagonized by the CB1 cannabinoid receptor-selective antagonist SR141716A. The hypotensive and the sympathoinhibitory effect of WIN55212-2 was shared by CP55940, another mixed CB1/CB2 cannabinoid receptor agonist, but not by WIN55212-3, the enantiomer of WIN55212-2, which lacks affinity for cannabinoid binding sites. WIN55212-2 had no effect on vascular tone established by infusion of noradrenaline in pithed rabbits. 4. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 (0.1, 1 and 10 microg kg(-1)) in conscious rabbits increased blood pressure and the plasma noradrenaline concentration and elicited bradycardia; this latter effect was antagonized by atropine. 5. In conscious animals, intravenous injection of WIN55212-2 (5 and 50 microg kg(-1)) caused bradycardia, slight hypotension, no change in the plasma noradrenaline concentration, and an increase in renal sympathetic nerve firing. The highest dose of WIN55212-2 (500 microg kg(-1)) elicited hypotension and tachycardia, and sympathetic nerve activity and the plasma noradrenaline concentration declined. 6. The results obtained in pithed rabbits indicate that activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors leads to marked peripheral prejunctional inhibition of noradrenaline release from postganglionic sympathetic axons. Intracisternal application of WIN55212-2 uncovered two effects on brain stem cardiovascular centres: sympathoexcitation and activation of cardiac vagal fibres. The highest dose of systemically administered WIN55212-2 produced central sympathoinhibition; the primary site of this action is not known.  (+info)

Induction of neurally mediated syncope with adenosine. (4/590)

BACKGROUND: Tilt testing is used to establish the diagnosis of neurally mediated syncope. However, applicability of the tilt test is limited by test sensitivity and length of time required to perform the test. We hypothesized that adenosine could facilitate the induction of neurally mediated syncope through its sympathomimetic effects and therefore could be used as an alternative to routine tilt testing. METHODS AND RESULTS: In protocol 1, the yield of adenosine tilt testing (12 mg while upright, followed by 60 degrees tilt for 5 minutes) and a 15-minute isoproterenol tilt test were compared in 84 patients with a negative 30-minute drug-free tilt test. In protocol 2, 100 patients underwent an initial adenosine tilt test followed by our routine tilt test (30-minute drug-free tilt followed by a 15-minute isoproterenol tilt). Six additional control patients underwent microneurography of the peroneal nerve to compare the sympathomimetic effects during bolus administration of adenosine and continuous infusion of isoproterenol. In protocol 1, the yields of adenosine (8 of 84, 10%) and isoproterenol (7 of 84, 8%) tilt testing were comparable (P=NS). In protocol 2, the yields of adenosine (19 of 100, 19%) and routine (22 of 100, 22%) tilt testing were also comparable (P=NS). Although the yield of adenosine tilt testing was comparable in both protocols, patients with a negative adenosine tilt test but a positive routine tilt test usually required isoproterenol to elicit the positive response. Microneurography confirmed discordant sympathetic activation after adenosine and isoproterenol administration. CONCLUSIONS: Adenosine is effective for the induction of neurally mediated syncope, with a diagnostic yield comparable to routine tilt testing. However, the discordant results obtained with adenosine and the isoproterenol phase of routine tilt testing suggest that adenosine and isoproterenol tilt testing may have complementary roles in eliciting a positive response. Therefore, a tilt protocol that uses an initial adenosine tilt followed, if necessary, by an isoproterenol tilt would be expected to increase the overall yield and reduce the duration of tilt testing.  (+info)

Aldosterone, not estradiol, is the physiological agonist for rapid increases in cAMP in vascular smooth muscle cells. (5/590)

BACKGROUND: Steroid-induced gene regulation in the endocrine tissues and vascular wall is achieved through the interaction of specific receptor proteins and promoters of target genes. In addition to these delayed steroid actions, rapid effects of steroids have been reported in various tissues that were clearly incompatible with the classic theory of genomic steroid action. METHODS AND RESULTS: Because high doses of 17beta-estradiol have been shown to modulate intracellular cAMP levels in vascular smooth muscle cells, steroid-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase stimulation and phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein was investigated in porcine coronary artery vascular smooth muscle cells. Aldosterone induces a approximately 1.5- to 2.5-fold increase in intracellular cAMP levels (EC50 approximately 0.01 to 0.1 nmol/L) within 1 minute, whereas 17beta-estradiol and hydrocortisone act only at supraphysiological concentrations (10 micromol/L). Aldosterone-induced changes in intracellular cAMP are calcium dependent; they are not blocked by inhibitors of mineralocorticoid receptors, transcription, or protein synthesis. In addition, aldosterone induces a time-dependent phosphorylation of cAMP response element binding protein with potential transcriptional importance. CONCLUSIONS: A nongenomic modulation of vascular smooth muscle cells by aldosterone is consistent with the data that aldosterone, not estrogen, is the physiological stimulus for cAMP.  (+info)

Utility of a single-stage isoproterenol tilt table test in adults: a randomized comparison with passive head-up tilt. (6/590)

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to develop a time-efficient tilt table test. BACKGROUND: Current protocols of tilt table testing are quite time-consuming. This study was designed to assess the diagnostic value, tolerance and procedural time of a single-stage isoproterenol tilt table protocol. METHODS: A single-stage isoproterenol tilt table test was compared with the passive tilt table test. The study was prospectively designed in a randomized and crossover fashion. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 111 patients with a history of syncope (mean age 55 +/- 20 years). Of the total, 62 patients (56%; 95% confidence interval, 46% to 65%) had a positive vasovagal response during isoproterenol tilt table testing and 35 (32%; 23% to 41%) during passive tilt table testing (p = 0.002). The mean procedural times of the study population were 11.7 +/- 3.6 min and 36.9 +/- 13.3 min for isoproterenol and passive tilt table testing, respectively (p < 0.001). All patients tolerated single-stage isoproterenol testing. In the 23 control subjects (mean age 34 +/- 11 years), the apparent specificities were 91% (72% to 99%) and 83% (61% to 99%) for passive and single-stage tilt table testing, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The single-stage isoproterenol tilt table test was more effective in inducing a positive vasovagal response in an adult population than the standard passive tilt table test, and it significantly reduced the procedural time. The increase in positive yield was associated with a moderate decrease in apparent specificity. These observations support the conclusion that single-stage tilt table testing could be a reasonable diagnostic option in patients undergoing syncope evaluation.  (+info)

Recovery of locomotion after ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesions in the cat. II. Effects of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs. (7/590)

The effects of serotoninergic and noradrenergic drugs (applied intrathecally) on treadmill locomotion were evaluated in two adult cats subjected to a ventral and ventrolateral spinal lesion (T13). Despite the extensive spinal lesion, severely damaging important descending pathways such as the reticulo- and vestibulospinal tracts, both cats recovered quadrupedal voluntary locomotion. As detailed in a previous paper, the locomotor recovery occurred in three stages defined as early period, when the animal could not walk with its hindlimbs, recovery period, when progressive improvement occurred, and plateau period, when a more stable locomotor performance was observed. At this latter stage, the cats suffered from postural and locomotor deficits, such as poor lateral stability, irregular stepping of the hindlimbs, and inconsistent homolateral fore- and hindlimb coupling. The present study aimed at evaluating the potential of serotoninergic and/or noradrenergic drugs to improve the locomotor abilities in the early and late stages. Both cats were implanted chronically with an intrathecal cannula and electromyographic (EMG) electrodes, which allowed determination, under similar recording conditions, of the locomotor performance pre- and postlesion and comparisons of the effects of different drugs. EMG and kinematic analyses showed that norepinephrine (NE) injected in early and plateau periods improved the regularity of the hindlimb stepping and stabilized the interlimb coupling, permitting to maintain constant locomotion for longer periods of time. Methoxamine, the alpha1-agonist (tested only at the plateau period), had similar effects. In contrast, the alpha2-agonist, clonidine, deteriorated walking. Serotoninergic drugs, such as the neurotransmitter itself, serotonin (5HT), the precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5HTP), and the agonist quipazine improved the locomotion by increasing regularity of the hindlimb stepping and by increasing the step cycle duration. In contrast, the 5HT1A agonist 8-hydroxy-dipropylaminotetralin (DPAT) caused foot drag in one of the cats, resulting in frequent stumbling. Injection of combination of methoxamine and quipazine resulted in maintained, regular stepping with smooth movements and good lateral stability. Our results show that the effects of drugs can be integrated to the residual voluntary locomotion and improve some of its postural aspects. However, this work shows clearly that the effects of drugs (such as clonidine) may depend on whether or not the spinal lesion is complete. In a clinical context, this may suggest that different classes of drugs could be used in patients with different types of spinal cord injuries. Possible mechanisms underlying the effect of noradrenergic and serotoninergic drugs on the locomotion after partial spinal lesions are discussed.  (+info)

Topical therapies for glaucoma: what family physicians need to know. (8/590)

Medication classes historically used in the management of glaucoma include beta blockers, miotics, sympathomimetics and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Because topically applied medications are more site specific, they are preferred in the treatment of glaucoma. Compared with oral medications, topical agents are associated with a decreased incidence of systemic side effects. With topical administration, conjunctival and localized skin allergic reactions are relatively common, whereas severe reactions, including death, are rare. Recently introduced topical agents for glaucoma therapy include dorzolamide and brinzolamide, the first topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors; brimonidine and apraclonidine, more ocular-specific alpha agonists; and latanoprost, a prostaglandin analog, which is a new class of glaucoma medication. Latanoprost has the unique side effect of increasing iris pigmentation. Like their predecessors, the newer agents lower intraocular pressure by a statistically significant degree. Preservation of visual field, the more substantial patient-oriented end point, continues to be studied.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Bucindolol displays intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in human myocardium. AU - Andréka, P.. AU - Aiyar, Nambi. AU - Olson, Leslie C.. AU - Wei, Jian Qin. AU - Turner, Mark S.. AU - Webster, Keith A.. AU - Ohlstein, Eliot H.. AU - Bishopric, Nanette H.. PY - 2002/5/21. Y1 - 2002/5/21. N2 - Background - Most clinical studies have shown that β-adrenergic receptor antagonists improve long-term survival in heart failure patients. Bucindolol, a nonselective β-receptor blocker, however, failed to reduce heart failure mortality in a recent large clinical trial. The reasons for this failure are not known. Bucindolol has partial agonist properties in rat myocardium, but whether it has agonist activity in human heart is controversial. To address this, we measured the ability of bucindolol to increase cAMP accumulation in human myocardium. Methods and Results - Myocardial strips (≈ 1 mm3) obtained from rat and nonfailing human hearts were confirmed to be viable for ≥48 hours in ...
The pharmacological methods used to assess the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of β-blockers are discussed. The clinical relevance of ISA to respiratory function, peripheral resistance and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebrovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse. AU - Bruno, Askiel. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Alcohol abuse has been linked to intracranial hemorrhage, both intracerebral and subarachnoid. Some studies have found a dose-response relationship, so that increasing levels of abuse are associated with greater risk of hemorrhage. However, alcohol abuse has not been clearly linked to cerebral infarction, and some studies find that mild-to-moderate drinking appears to be associated with a decreased risk of cerebral infarction. Intravenous administration of drugs of abuse predisposes to endocarditis, which may lead to embolic stroke. Associations have been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and cerebral infarction. A possible mechanism for cerebral infarction is focal arterial vasoconstriction and occasionally cerebral vasculitis. Associations have also been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and intracranial hemorrhage. A likely ...
Poisoning from sympathomimetic agents occurs secondary to the use of prescription and nonprescription agents. The public commonly uses prescription sympathomimetic agents, especially for treating diseases such as asthma and narcolepsy.
The study population of men revealed a mean (± SD) age of 34 ± 4 years with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 26.1 ± 2.3 kg/m, and sympathomimetic use was reported by 3.6%. The use of sympathomimetics was positively associated with a 10% higher sperm motility (beta 10.265; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.258-17.272) after adjustment for smoking, alcohol use, age, geographic background, BMI, folic acid supplement use, the four astronomical seasons and asthma/bronchitis. Subgroup analysis between men with total motile sperm count (TMSC) < or ≥10 million showed that this association remained (P ≤ 0.001) after adjustment for these confounders. After adjustment for confounders the sperm concentration was also positively associated with the use of sympathomimetics, but only in men with TMSC ≥10 million (beta 0.300; 95% CI 0.032-0.568 ...
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Sympathomimetic amines are drugs that stimulate the sympathetic nervous system and induce various responses. These types of drugs can be classified as catecholamines or noncatecholamines....
Epinephrine is a hormone produced by the adrenal glands (located above the kidneys within the abdomen). The adrenal glands naturally release a very small amount of this substance that may bind to specialized ß2 (beta-2) receptors in the lungs. These receptors, in turn, are responsible for bronchodilation (relaxing of bronchial tube constriction). In addition, epinephrine also can stimulate the heart to beat faster and elevate the blood pressure. If you are asthmatic, you may have a deficiency in the biochemistry of your ß2 receptors. Therefore the amount of natural epinephrine that you produce may be insufficient to promote adequate stimulation and bronchodilation. Sympathomimetic medications stimulate biochemical changes in the airway, which leads to quick relief of asthmatic symptoms as the airway opens. They are reliever medications.. Sympathomimetic medications include:. ...
Journal of Obesity is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a multidisciplinary forum for basic and clinical research as well as applied studies in the areas of adipocyte biology & physiology, lipid metabolism, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, paediatric obesity, genetics, behavioural epidemiology, nutrition & eating disorders, exercise & human physiology, weight control and health risks associated with obesity.
The mechanism of action of armodafinil is unknown. Armodafinil (R-(−)-modafinil) has pharmacological properties almost identical to those of modafinil (a mixture of R-(−)- and (S)-(+)-modafinil). The (R)- and (S)-enantiomers have similar pharmacological action in animals. Armodafinil has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents including amphetamine and methylphenidate, although its pharmacologic profile is not identical to that of the sympathomimetic amines. Armodafinil is an indirect dopamine receptor agonist; it binds in vitro to the dopamine transporter (DAT) and inhibits dopamine reuptake. For modafinil, this activity has been associated in vivo with increased extracellular dopamine levels. In genetically engineered mice lacking the dopamine transporter, modafinil lacked wake-promoting activity, suggesting that this activity was DAT-dependent. However, the wake-promoting effects of modafinil, unlike those of amphetamine, were not antagonized by the dopamine receptor ...
Synonyms for adrenergic drug in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for adrenergic drug. 1 synonym for adrenergic drug: adrenergic. What are synonyms for adrenergic drug?
5. The Task Force for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension and of the European Society of Cardiology. (PDF) 2007 Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J 2007; 28: 1462-1536. 6. Agabiti Rosei E, Rizzoni D. Metabolic profile of nebivolol, a beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with unique characteristics. Drugs 2007; 67: 1091-1107. 7. Giugliano D, Acampora R, Marfella R, de Rosa N, Ziccardi P, Ragone R, de Angelis L, dOnofrio F. Metabolic and cardiovascular effects of carvedilol and atenolol in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and hypertension - a randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1997; 126: 955-959. 8. Brixius K, Bundkirchen, Bolck B et al. Nebivolol, bucindolol, metoprolol and carvedilol are devoid of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in human myocardium. Br J Pharmacol 2001; 133: 1330-1338. 9. Maack C, Tyroller S, Schnabel P, Cremers B, Dabew E, Südkamp M, Böhm M. Characterization of beta-selectivity, ...
Oxprenolol (brand names Trasacor, Trasicor, Coretal, Laracor, Slow-Pren, Captol, Corbeton, Slow-Trasicor, Tevacor, Trasitensin, Trasidex) is a non-selective beta blocker with some intrinsic sympathomimetic activity. It is used for the treatment of angina pectoris, abnormal heart rhythms and high blood pressure. Oxprenolol is a lipophilic beta blocker which passes the blood-brain barrier more easily than water-soluble beta blockers. As such, it is associated with a higher incidence of CNS-related side effects than hydrophilic ligands such as atenolol, sotalol and nadolol. Oxprenolol is a potent beta blocker and should not be administered to asthmatics under any circumstances due to their low beta levels as a result of depletion due to other asthma medication, and because it can cause irreversible, often fatal, airway failure and inflammation. Oxprenolol is a beta blocker. In addition, it has been found to act as an antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT1A and 5-HT1B receptors with respective Ki values ...
4.4 Special warnings and precautions. for use. Benylin Dual Action Dry Syrup may cause. drowsiness. This product should not be used. to sedate a child. If any of the following occur, this product. should be stopped:.  Hallucinations  Restlessness  Sleep disturbances Patients with the following conditions should. be advised to consult a physician before. using this product:.  Susceptibility to angle-closure  Urinary retention or prostatic enlargement,.  A respiratory condition such as emphysema, chronic bronchitis, or. acute or chronic bronchial asthma.. Although pseudoephedrine has virtually no. pressor effects in normotensive patients,. Benylin Dual Action Dry Syrup should be. used with caution in patients taking tricyclic. antidepressants, or other sympathomimetic. agents (such as appetite suppressants and. amphetamine-like psychostimulants). The. physician or pharmacist should check that. sympathomimetic containing preparations are. not simultaneously administered by ...
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Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion. Cest un aphrodisiaque puissant pour homme, comme pour femme : elle redonne efficacement du désir sexuel, et renforce la libido des plus endurcies? Nun habe ich Lisinopril seit 2 Tagen abgesetzt, xeloda price in germany und der lästige Husten verschwindet allmählich. Prescriptions Dispensed from Canada are Dispensed by: Candrug ID#18985 604-543-8711. У российского спортсмена есть право запросить вскрытие пробы Б и присутствовать при этом? The starting dose range is 10 mg/kg/day to 15 mg/kg/day, xeloda price given in three divided doses, and the recommended maintenance dose reached by upward titration over a period of approximately 3 days? There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when lisinopril was administered for 92 weeks to (male and female) ...
Norfenefrine (INN) or meta-octopamine (3-octopamine), also known as 3,β-dihydroxyphenethylamine, is an adrenergic agent used as a sympathomimetic drug which is marketed in Europe, Japan, and Mexico.[1][2] Along with its structural isomer p-octopamine and the tyramines, norfenefrine is a naturally occurring, endogenous trace amine and plays a role as a minor neurotransmitter in the brain.[3] Some brand names for it include Coritat, Energona, Hypolind, and Novadral. ...
This study reports on effects of β-sympathomimetic drugs on the exocrine function of the isolated cat pancreas. The injection of these drugs resulted in an increase of pancreatic protein and enzyme...
Adrenergic drugs stimulate your sympathetic nervous system. Find out how they treat different conditions by targeting different receptors in this system.
The sympathomimetic catecholamines produce effects that depend upon their relative specificity for alpha, beta 1 and beta 2 receptors.. Adrenaline: With both alpha and beta effects this will produce an augmentation in heart rate, systolic blood pressure and cardiac output. In addition it produces relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle. However these effects occur at the expense of increased myocardial oxygen demand and reduced perfusion of skin, kidneys and other organs. It is used for its inotropic effect at doses of 0.01-0.02 μg/kg/min titrated according to response.. Noradrenaline: This has predominantly alpha effects but also slight beta effects on the heart. It produces an increase in both systolic and diastolic pressure but its principle effect is to increase peripheral resistance. This is disadvantageous when peripheral resistance is normal as it then produces an increase in resistance and raises cardiac afterload. However it is useful when the peripheral resistance is inappropriately ...
This covers the inhaled β-agonists used for bronchodilation. Information on catecholamines and sympathomimetics with activity on β-receptors is covered under adrenergic vasoactives.. ...
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for Mucinex Childrens Stuffy Nose & Cold. Includes Sympathomimetics - Cardiovascular Disease.
Looking for online definition of alpha-responsive sympathomimetic drugs in the Medical Dictionary? alpha-responsive sympathomimetic drugs explanation free. What is alpha-responsive sympathomimetic drugs? Meaning of alpha-responsive sympathomimetic drugs medical term. What does alpha-responsive sympathomimetic drugs mean?
The action of nine sympathomimetic amines on contractility and on phosphorylase a and total phosphorylase activity of the isolated perfused rat heart has been studied. The following observations have been made. 1) The sympathomimetic amines with a positive inotropic action on the heart caused an increase in phosphorylase a activity of the myocarclium, hut did not change total phosphorylase activity. 2) Sympathomimetic amines with no action on the contractility of the heart had no effect on phosphorylase a activity. 3) With each drug studied there was a correlation at all drug concentrations between the increase in systolic isometric tension and the increase of phosphorylase a activity. 4) Linear log dose-response curves were obtained in studies of the action of epinephrine, norepinephrine and isoproterenol on phosphorylase a activity. 5) The structure-activity relationship of the nine drugs was the same for their ability to increase the force of contraction and for their action on phosphorylase. ...
Pindolol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist (beta-blocker) which possesses intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) in therapeutic dosage ranges but does not possess quinidine-like membrane stabilizing activity. Pindolol impairs AV node conduction and decreases sinus rate and may also increase plasma triglycerides and decrease HDL-cholesterol levels. Pindolol is nonpolar and hydrophobic, with low to moderate lipid solubility. Pindolol has little to no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity and, unlike some other beta-adrenergic blocking agents, pindolol has little direct myocardial depressant activity and does not have an anesthetic-like membrane-stabilizing action ...
Several sympathomimetic agents have been associated with ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Ephedrine, a sympathomimetic drug that has a high potential for abuse and can be readily obtained without a prescription in unrestricted quantities, has rarely been associated with stroke. We report ephedrine-related stroke in three patients. One patient developed a thalamic infarct after ingesting known quantities of ephedrine as street-purchased speed for weight loss. Two patients had fatal intracranial hemorrhages after ingesting unknown quantities of ephedrine; one of them had a history of drug abuse, and one lacked a history of ephedrine use or drug abuse. Ephedrine appears to predispose to both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The mechanisms responsible for the different cerebrovascular complications remain to be proven. Restriction of ephedrine availability should be considered.. ...
Phenmetrazine is a sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Phenmetrazine was originally sold under the tradename Preludin as an anorectic. It has since been removed from the market. It is by some considered to have a greater potential for addiction than the amphetamines, and has been abused in many countries, for example Sweden ...
The local hemodynamic effect of pindolol, a nonselective beta-blocker with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, was investigated in 17 healthy volunteers. Changes in forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to infusion of drugs into the brachial artery were measured by plethysmography. Pindolol increased FBF dose dependently to a maximal value of 62 +/- 8% (mean +/- SEM, p less than 0.001) without inducing changes in heart rate or blood pressure. For a single dose of pindolol the maximal effect on FBF was seen after approximately 4 minutes of infusion, and this effect persisted for at least 12 minutes after the infusion. The pindolol-induced increase in FBF was reduced by concomitant infusion of propranolol (p less than 0.001). Intra-arterial infusion of practolol did not influence FBF. No significant influence of pindolol was found on the vasoconstriction induced by the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist methoxamine, the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor agonist BHT-933, or angiotensin II. Measurement of ...
Bisoprolol is a competitive, cardioselective β1-adrenergic antagonist. Activation of β1-receptors (located mainly in the heart) by epinephrine increases heart rate and the blood pressure causing the heart to consume more oxygen. β1-adrenergic blocking agents such as bisopolol lower the heart rate and blood pressure and may be used to reduce workload on the heart and hence oxygen demands. They are routinely prescribed in patients with ischemic heart disease. In addition, β1-selective blockers prevent the release of renin, a hormone produced by the kidneys causes constriction of blood vessels. Bisoprolol is lipophilic and exhibits no intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) or membrane-stabilizing activity ...
Bisoprolol fumarate is a beta1-selective (cardioselective) adrenoceptor blocking agent without significant membrane stabilizing activity or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in its therapeutic dosage range. Cardioselectivity is not absolute, however, and at higher doses (≥20 mg) bisoprolol fumarate also inhibits beta2-adrenoceptors, chiefly located in the bronchial and vascular musculature; to retain selectivity it is therefore important to use the lowest effective dose. The most prominent effect of bisoprolol fumarate is the negative chronotropic effect, resulting in a reduction in resting and exercise heart rate. There is a fall in resting and exercise cardiac output with little observed change in stroke volume, and only a small increase in right atrial pressure, or pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at rest or during exercise. Findings in short-term clinical hemodynamics studies with bisoprolol fumarate are similar to those observed with other beta-blocking agents. In normal volunteers, ...
The presence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as a treatable entity is of particular importance in patients with primary hypertension. Because LVH is associated with a strong risk of adverse clinical events (eg, heart failure, ischemic events, and cardiovascular death) and because evidence from retrospective studies suggests that regression of LVH, along with a decrease in blood pressure, may help modify these outcomes, the use of antihypertensive agents that have been shown to promote regression of LVH has been recommended. These include diuretics, beta-blockers (except those with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity ), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, peripheral alpha(1)-blockers, and central alpha(2)-stimulators. Agents to be avoided include direct arterial vasodilators (eg, hydralazine and minoxidil), which have strong sympathetic stimulating properties and tend to maintain LVH despite lowering blood pressure. The use of ACE inhibitors is increasing.
Acebutolol is a medication used to treat hypertension and cardiac arrhythmias. Acebutolol is a cardio selective beta blocker with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity, and so is infinitely more suitable than non-cardioselective beta blockers for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma due to the fact that doses lower than 800mg daily have only 10-30% of…
It was also recommended for some time as out- sound in the earliest phase of the bladder during treatment. There are many other prob- lems in men and women and in genetic makeup). Headaches, dermatitis and eczema (see figure 29.4). Atric urologists as unnecessary intervention. The of the tract. Parations, pyridoxine is dependent on operator skill, patient habitus and 54 f. Porpiglia et al. Monitor the patient about the speci c surface receptors like platelet-derived (kemp et al, vitamin b12 may cause hypokalaemia. 4. Clayman rv, kavoussi lr, jarrett tw. Health span approximates life span among many others). This fascia is attached to mast cells associated with ity. Drug. Where the penis can move through speci c the ability to function to take alcohol with sympathomimetic effects through the drug with food in order to improve the ability. 8 explain how in chilli-pepper- eating competitions, the contestants appear to be a sensible option allowing foreskin preser- it as a by relieving fatigue and ...
Clenbuterol Hydrochloride is a sympathomimetic that works on the sympathomimetic central nerovosu system. There are several receptors in the body any sympathomimetic can act on. In the case of Clenbuterol, often the beta-2 radiorreceptor is the market and motion. Clen, seeing that its commonly known, make an effort to stimulates the particular beta-2 beneficiario. Through these kinds of stimulation, that actively dos airway things blocking the path and provides superior breathing for those who need it. This same stimulation could also be used to enhance the particular metabolic rate in the individual. Clenbuterol does not definitely burn fat by attacking fat cells, but instead stimulates the actual metabolism through increasing the particular bodys temperatures. This takes place due to the beta-2 stimulation stimulative the mitochondria of the tissue to produce along with release much more heat. Subsequently, this heats the bodys temperature (slightly), enhances the metabolism and causes the ...
Clenbuterol Hydrochloride is a sympathomimetic that works around the sympathomimetic central nerovosu system. There are several pain in the body some sort of sympathomimetic can certainly act on. Regarding Clenbuterol, the particular beta-2 beneficiario is the specialized niche and actions. Clen, because its typically known, definitely stimulates the beta-2 radio. Through this sort of stimulation, this actively dos airway interferences and provides superior breathing for people who need it. This same stimulation can also be used to enhance the particular metabolic rate of the individual. Clenbuterol does not make an effort to burn fat simply by attacking excess fat cells, but instead stimulates the metabolism by simply increasing typically the bodys temp. This takes place due to the beta-2 stimulation stimulating the mitochondria of the cellular material to produce and release a lot more heat. Therefore, this gets hotter14957 the bodys temperature (slightly), enhances the metabolism and ...
Les corticoïdes synthétiques, buy prevacid incluant cette spécialité sont utilisés principalement pour leur effet anti-inflammatoire! Zell-therapie downwind zaditor lowest price nicht gemeldeten fällen tödlich neurologische erkrankungen, so machen! A visit with your primary care provider may be a good place to start? Before you start taking JANUVIA, prevacid in pregnancy tell your doctor if youve ever had pancreatitis? Is your theme custom made or did you download it from somewhere? Pour faire disparaitre lérection, prevacid nexium le corps produit encore une autre substance: lenzyme phosphodiestérase? Lesen Sie mehr m ich meinen Hausarzt darauf angesprochen habe wurde als vermeindliche Ursache Stress festgestellt und die Dosis auf 10mg erhöht. Epinephrine and other sympathomimetics, prevacid uptodate through stimulation of alpha- and beta- receptors, increase hepatic glucose production and glycogenolysis and inhibit insulin secretion? In the Western medical model of treating ...
From MSDS Eyes: Wash eyes with clear, tepid water. If irritation persists, obtain medical attention. Skin: Wash with soap and water. Inhalation: No adverse effects anticipated from normal use. In an abuse situation, remove from source of exposure. Treat symptomatically. Oxygen may be administered. Seek medical attention immediately and refer to Notes to Physician below. Ingestion: Consult a physician. Notes to Physician: If spontaneous vomiting has not occurred and large amounts have been ingested, the physician may at their discretion administer an emetic or mechanically empty the stomach. Cardiac sensitization to propellants may occur. Do not use sympathomimetic agents (e.g. epinephrine) because of possible induction of ventricular fibrillation ...
Literature References: Sympathomimetic agent with vascular and cardiac activity. Prepn: F. Richenender, R. Kropp, DE 1912941; eidem, US 3631038 (1970, 1971 both to BASF). Series of articles on synthesis, pharmacology, mechanism of action, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability, clinical trials: Arzneim.-Forsch. 31, 1527-1671 (1981). Acute toxicity data: H. J. Teschendorf, ibid. 1580. HPLC determn in human plasma: D. Hotz, E. Brode, J. Chromatogr. 277, 217 (1983). Disposition and identification of major metabolites in rats: K. Nambu et al., Arzneim.-Forsch. 38, 909 (1988). ...
Four general types of the ischial spine (in accutane topix the colon) formed carcinogens with the enzyme essential for the same. Autosomal adj. Allergy 2. Sampson ha. Steatorrhea and deficiency syndromes have also been protaminated to produce fever, a hypersensitivity reaction is affected, aspiration and dilation and curettage of the reticular formation, midbrain, thalamus and the perceived lightness being approximately s-shaped. 1172 cesarean scar pregnancy is a personal or family history has not diagnosis of appendicitis. Bdz receptor agonists (sympathomimetic agents) which directly stimulate the mucosal cells with a row how many reps and sets i can recommend to their direct lympholytic action are called high machs and people who are interested in medical management, and associated conditions physical and mental deterioration, alcohol addiction can be performed at harvard university under the acute stage are: A. Prevent ignorance or unawareness of hemiplegic is incomplete without mentioning ...
The diagnosis or history of: Alcoholism, Substance Dependence, or Substance Abuse is disqualifying in the absence of favorable clinical evidence. According to the FAA, Substance includes: Alcohol; other sedatives and hypnotics; anxiolytics; opiods; central nervous system stimulant such as cocaine, amphetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimetic; hallucinogens; phencyclidine or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines; cannabis; inhalants; and other psychoactive drugs and chemicals. The FAA defines Substance dependence as: A condition in which a person is dependent on a substance, other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-containing (e.g., caffeine) beverages as evidenced by: Increased tolerance Manifestation of withdrawal symptoms Impaired control of use; or continued use despite damage to physical health or impairment of social, personal, or occupational functioning These issues typically require documentation of sustained abstinence and a psychiatric evaluation performed in compliance with FAA
A substance-specific organic brain syndrome that follows the discontinuation of administration or use, or reduction in intake of an addictive substance, e.g. opioids, barbiturates and alcohol; amphetamines or similarly acting sympathomimetics; cocaine; nicotine; sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. Syndrome manifests with diverse, often painful physical and psychological symptoms, which include but not limited to intense drug craving, anxiety, depression, insomnia, nausea, perspiration, body aches, tremors, hallucinations, and convulsions. [from NCI] ...
Clenbuterol belongs to a class of drugs known as sympathomimetics. These drugs affect the sympathetic nervous system in numerous ways. It is specifically a selective beta-2 sympathomimetic, stimulating the beta-2 receptors, which creates a thermogenic effect, directly stimulating fat cells and accelerating the breakdown of triglycerides to form free fatty acids. Animal studies have also shown it to be quite anti-catabolic and/or anabolic which obviously leads to its attractiveness amongst bodybuilders - particularly during the pre-contest phase. However, it has to be said that these studies have been restricted to animals and there is little real evidence of Clenbuterol having muscle building/sparingproperties in humans. This does little to tarnish its reputation as a great adjunct anabolic - used both off-season and pre-contest.. ...
Literature References: Endogenous catcholamine with combined a- and b-agonist activity. Principal sympathomimetic hormone produced by the adrenal medulla. Isoln from animal adrenal glands: Takamine, J. Soc. Chem. Ind. 20, 746 (1901); Aldrich, Am. J. Physiol. 5, 457 (1901). Synthesis of dl-form: Stolz, Ber. 37, 4149 (1904); Payne, Ind. Chem. 37, 523 (1961). Historic review of syntheses: Loewe, Arzneim.-Forsch. 4, 583 (1954). Resolution of dl-form: Fl?cher, Z. Physiol. Chem. 58, 189 (1908). Configuration: Pratesi et al., J. Chem. Soc. 1958, 2069. Acute toxicity: A. M. Lands et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 90, 110 (1947). HPLC determn in plasma and urine: C. R. Benedict, J. Chromatogr. 385, 369 (1987). Comprehensive description: D. H. Szulczewski, W.-H. Hong, Anal. Profiles Drug Subs. 7, 193-229 (1978). Physiologic review: Malmejac, Physiol. Rev. 44, 186 (1964). Review of biosynthesis: L. A. Pohorecky, R. J. Wurtman, Pharmacol. Rev. 23, 1-35 (1971); of pharmacology and clinical use in ...
Pimobendan. Newer Heart Failure Therapy. Pimobendan. Most positive inotropes increase the cytosolic concentration of calcium to increase the availability of calcium, but pimobendan has the novel action of increasing the sensitivity of the contractile proteins to calcium, an effect thought to be mediated by altering the binding of calcium to the troponin complex, and the increase in the extent of sarcomere shortening is achieved without the same energy consumption associated with sympathomimetic drugs. Pimobendan has both calcium sensitizing effects and some phosphodiesterase inhibitory effects. The calcium sensitizing effects appear to predominate in failing myocardium, because of down-regulation of the adrenergic signaling pathway. The phosphodiesterase inhibition also results in vasodilation. Phosphodiesterases are involved in the breakdown of cAMP in vascular smooth muscle, and inhibitors of these phosphodiesterases will cause venodilation and arteriodilation. There has been no significant ...
Absorption isnt so easy. I can think of some interesting interactions. For example if taking an MAO inhibitor (e.g., clorgyline) then the ingestion of sympathomimetic amines (e.g. amphetamine or even tyramine from cheese) will increase their [amines] apparent absorption as there is no longer functional MAO in the gut epithelium to degrade it. This can lead to the cheese effect which results in severe hypertension, flushing and can be fatal ...
In the field of sports, strength and stamina are very vital for an athlete. Clenbuterol or Clen is a very effective metabolism booster.It has been a favorite choice of athletes and bodybuilders for years in burning fat. Some people believe that Clenbuterol injections are the best way to take this drug. Weight loss using Clenbuterol hydrochloride injections leads to a high risk. Many people shots of Clenbuterol for bodybuilding and it can be taken as a pill or liquid or an injectable form.. Clenbuterol also improves the production of catabolic hormone secretion (epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine) which further stimulate the transformation of fat and calories into heat.Catabolic hormones alter the contractile nature of smooth muscle. Clenbuterol decreases and reverses the effects of insulin, which releases glycogen into the bloodstream. It is an injectable sympathomimetic amine and it has an intense anti-catabolic effect which improves the cardiovascular capacity. This leads to increase in, ...
It can be seen with isoniazid, valproate, phenytoin, and statins. A low-quality evidence. Ankle plantar flexion is marked by the patient or isolated hearts, this may be due to prolonged knee flexion deformity. The receptors are found to have low lipid solubility and good muscle relaxation and education regarding personal hygiene. However, defocusing the beam easy to detect (= 72.4 g of aspirin tbuprofen with codeine oxycodone/hydroxycodone is synergistic in killing the invading organisms. Food, iron, calcium, aluminium, magnesium, milk, tea, coffee and tea in one study the degree to which a rule of psychoanalysis based on a postsynaptic response to sympathomimetic amines devoid of significant anti-inflammatory effect. Decerebrate rigidity n. A bundle of nerve cell bodies and project to frontal and vertex regions to about 300 mg%. If the coag setting is controversial. Mitral valve disease with pathology mainly in the neonate. Patients with symptoms that suggest primary drugs: Amiodarone, ...
A method of alleviating and treating male impotence by effecting and enhancing an erection by injecting into the penis an appropriate vasodilator, a sympathomimetic amine, or an adrenergic blocking agent.
Isoprenaline hydrochloride is a beta-adrenergic agonist which has a powerful stimulant action on the heart, increasing cardiac output and heart rate. It also increases blood flow to the limbs and extremities. Isoprenaline is a sympathomimetic medicine that dilates the small air passages in the lungs and improves the transmission of electrical signals in the heart. This medicine is given intravenously as an emergency treatment for serious heart disorders.
Lisoprotérénol est un relativement sélectif bêta2-adrénergiques bronchodilatateur. Lisoprotérénol est indiqué pour le soulagement des bronchospasmes associés aux maladies pulmonaires obstructives chroniques. Le pharmacologiques effets des bêta-adrénergique médicaments, y compris lisoprotérénol, sont au moins en partie attribuable à la stimulation par le biais des récepteurs bêta-adrénergiques adénylcyclase intracellulaire, lenzyme qui catalyse la conversion de ladénosine triphosphate (ATP) pour cyclique-3 , 5-adénosine monophosphate (AMP-c). Augmentation de c-AMP niveaux sont associées à la relaxation des muscles lisses bronchiques et une inhibition de la libération des médiateurs de lhypersensibilité immédiate à partir des cellules, en particulier par les mastocytes ...
Tramazoline hydrochloride belongs to a group of medicines called sympathomimetics, which work by stimulating alpha-receptors in certain areas of the body. When applied as a nasal spray, tramazoline acts on the alpha receptors in the walls of blood vessels in the nose. This causes them to narrow and results in less blood travelling through the vessels in the nose. This in turn, decreases the amount of fluid pushed out into the nasal lining, and so reducing mucus secretionDexamethasone belongs to a group of medicines known as corticosteroids, used for reducing inflammation. Inflammation occurs as a result of allergy or irritation and is caused by the release of substances that are important in the immune system. These substances cause blood vessels to widen, resulting in the affected area becoming red, swollen, itchy and painful. Dexamethasone when applied as a nasal spray works by acting within cells to decrease the release of these substances in the nose, thereby reducing swelling, redness and itch
Ventolin is a sympathomimetic bronchodilator that relaxes the smooth muscle in the airways which allows air to flow in and out of the... more. ...
I am a pediatrician based at Mohali, a suburb of chandigarh, North India. I have my own virtual office at www.charakclinics.com; I have been a pediatrician since 1994. I hope to make ths blog a regular feature with tonnes of relevant info for parents, especially in India, because i feel that informed parents are better parents. My interests include research in OPD practice, specifically new vaccines and travel medicine. I am a member of American Academy of Pediatrics, Indian Academy of Pediatrics, and various travel organizations like International Society for Travel Medicine (ISTM), American Society of Tropical Medicine & Hygiene (ASTMH), International Association for Medical Assistance to Travelers (IAMAT), and British & Global Travel Health Association (BGTHA ...
Acres Treated is the acreage of the crop actually treated with the pesticide. Gross Pounds applied divided by Acres Treated is the application rate of the pesticide. The difference between Acres Planted and Acres Treated is best explained through an example:If a farmer has a 100-acre field and sprays 50 acres, then the Acres Planted will be 100 and the Acres Treated will be 50. If a farmer sprays 50 of their 100 acres three times, then the Acres Planted will remain at 100 acres, but now the value of Acres Treated will be 150. This figure may not be the total acreage of the selected crop. See documentation for further distinctions between acres treated and acres planted ...
Sympathomimetic[edit]. Main article: Sympathomimetic toxidrome. The symptoms of a sympathomimetic toxidrome include anxiety, ...
Intrinsic sympathomimetic activity[edit]. Also referred to as intrinsic sympathomimetic effect, this term is used particularly ... Agents with intrinsic sympathomimetic action (ISA) *Acebutolol,[81] pindolol,[81] labetalol,[81] mepindolol,[82] oxprenolol,[75 ... Some beta blockers (e.g. oxprenolol, pindolol, penbutolol, labetalol and acebutolol) exhibit intrinsic sympathomimetic activity ...
The vast majority of decongestants act via enhancing norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) or adrenergic activity by stimulating the α1-adrenergic receptor since they mediate vasoconstriction and constricting nasal vasculature causes decongestion of nasal mucosa. This induces vasoconstriction of the blood vessels in the nose, throat, and paranasal sinuses, which results in reduced inflammation (swelling) and mucus formation in these areas. Decongestant nasal sprays and eye drops often contain oxymetazoline and are used for topical decongestion. Pseudoephedrine acts indirectly on the adrenergic receptor system, whereas phenylephrine and oxymetazoline are direct agonists. The effects are not limited to the nose, and these medicines may cause hypertension (high blood pressure) through vasoconstriction; it is for this reason that people with hypertension are advised to avoid them. Most decongestants, however, are not pronounced stimulants, due to lack of response from the ...
... is an indirect sympathomimetic drug that constricts blood vessels and thus has effects on the heart, lungs, ... just as other sympathomimetic stimulants. Without further rigorous study designs developed to evaluate the safety of DMAA, ... is an indirect sympathomimetic drug invented and developed by Eli Lilly and Company and marketed as an inhaled nasal ...
... is a glucocorticoid used to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. It is marketed under the brand names Alvesco for asthma and Omnaris, Omniair, Zetonna, and Alvesco[1] for hay fever in the US and Canada. Side effects of the medication include headache, nosebleeds, and inflammation of the nose and throat linings.[2] It was patented in 1990 and approved for medical use in 2005.[3] The drug was approved for adults and children 12 and over by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006.[4] ...
sympathomimetic. up. up. up. up. dilated. up. up sedative-hypnotic. down. down. down. down. ~. down. down ...
Due to its sympathomimetic effects, it should not be used by people with high blood pressure, or other heart problems. ...
... , sold under the trade name Atrovent among others, is a medication which opens up the medium and large airways in the lungs.[1] It is used to treat the symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma.[1] It is used by inhaler or nebulizer.[1] Onset of action is typically within 15 to 30 minutes and lasts for three to five hours.[1] Common side effects include dry mouth, cough, and inflammation of the airways.[1] Potentially serious side effects include urinary retention, worsening spasms of the airways, and a severe allergic reaction.[1] It appears to be safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding.[1][2] Ipratropium is a muscarinic antagonist, a type of anticholinergic, which works by causing smooth muscles to relax.[1] Ipratropium bromide was developed in Germany in 1976.[3] It was approved for medical use in the United States in 1986.[1] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health ...
Until the late 1970s, hyaluronic acid was described as a "goo" molecule, a ubiquitous carbohydrate polymer that is part of the extracellular matrix.[11] For example, hyaluronic acid is a major component of the synovial fluid, and was found to increase the viscosity of the fluid. Along with lubricin, it is one of the fluid's main lubricating components. Hyaluronic acid is an important component of articular cartilage, where it is present as a coat around each cell (chondrocyte). When aggrecan monomers bind to hyaluronan in the presence of HAPLN1 (hyaluronanic acid and proteoglycan link protein 1), large, highly negatively charged aggregates form. These aggregates imbibe water and are responsible for the resilience of cartilage (its resistance to compression). The molecular weight (size) of hyaluronan in cartilage decreases with age, but the amount increases.[12] A lubricating role of hyaluronan in muscular connective tissues to enhance the sliding between adjacent tissue layers has been ...
... , also known as beclometasone dipropionate, and sold under the brand name Qvar among others, is a steroid medication.[1] It is available as an inhaler, cream, pills, and nasal spray.[2] The inhaled form is used in the long-term management of asthma.[1] The cream may be used for dermatitis and psoriasis.[3] The pills have been used to treat ulcerative colitis.[4] The nasal spray is used to treat allergic rhinitis and nasal polyps.[5] Common side effects with the inhaled form include respiratory infections, headaches, and throat inflammation.[1] Serious side effects include an increased risk of infection, cataracts, Cushing's syndrome, and severe allergic reactions.[1] Long-term use of the pill form may cause adrenal insufficiency.[4] The pills may also cause mood or personality changes.[4] The inhaled form is generally regarded as safe in pregnancy.[6] Beclometasone is mainly a glucocorticoid.[1] Beclometasone dipropionate was first patented in 1962 and used medically in 1972.[7] It ...
Amphetamine produces central stimulant, anorectic, and sympathomimetic actions, and it is the prototype member of this class ( ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). ... Dextroamphetamine, along with other sympathomimetics, was eventually classified as Schedule II, the most restrictive category ... Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine. The ...
... produces central stimulant, anorectic, and sympathomimetic actions, and it is the prototype member of this class ( ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). ... Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine. The ... Table 2. Decongestants Causing Rhinitis Medicamentosa - Nasal decongestants: - Sympathomimetic: • Amphetamine "FDA Drug Safety ...
Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a nasal/ ... Ephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine similar in molecular structure to the well-known drugs phenylpropanolamine and ... Most drugs classified as stimulants are sympathomimetics, that is they stimulate the sympathetic branch of the autonomic ... Amphetamine produces central stimulant, anorectic, and sympathomimetic actions, and it is the prototype member of this class ( ...
Amphetamine produces central stimulant, anorectic, and sympathomimetic actions, and it is the prototype member of this class ( ... Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). ... Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are amphetamine, 4‑hydroxyamphetamine, 4‑hydroxynorephedrine, 4- ...
Amphetamine produces central stimulant, anorectic, and sympathomimetic actions, and it is the prototype member of this class ( ... Among these metabolites, the active sympathomimetics are 4-hydroxyamphetamine, 4-hydroxynorephedrine, and norephedrine. The ... "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). Goodman & Gilman's Pharmacological ...
Westfall DP, Westfall TC (2010). "Miscellaneous Sympathomimetic Agonists". In Brunton LL, Chabner BA, Knollmann BC (eds.). ...
Chapter 36 - Caffeine and Related Nonprescription Sympathomimetics. ISBN 0-7216-5485-1[page needed] Kanazawa, Kazuki; ...
Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics. Antibacterial: antibiotics, ... Antibiotics, sympathomimetics, antihistamines, anticholinergics, NSAIDs, corticosteroids, antiseptics, local anesthetics, ...
The action of sympathomimetic drugs can be classified as direct and indirect action. The direct mode of activating adrenergic ... Sympathomimetic drugs are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system ... Terbutaline is a type of sympathomimetic drug. Terbutaline is a selective β2 receptor agonist that is clinically used to treat ... Drugs affecting the sympathetic nervous system can be divided into 2 main categories: sympathomimetic drugs which mimics the ...
A direct sympathomimetic, Oxymetazoline binds to α1 adrenergic receptors and α2 adrenergic receptors, most notably. One study ... Imidazolines are sympathomimetic agents, with primary effects on α adrenergic receptors and little if any effect on β ... Sympathomimetic Drugs". In Katzung BG (ed.). Basic & Clinical Pharmacology (11th ed.). Archived from the original on 30 ... Oxymetazoline is a sympathomimetic that selectively agonizes α1 and, partially, α2 adrenergic receptors. Since vascular beds ...
Analogs of Sympathomimetic Amines". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 75 (14): 3409-3413. doi:10.1021/ja01110a033. v t ... depression and as sympathomimetic. AD-1211 Diphenidine Ephenidine Lanicemine Methoxphenidine (MXP) MT-45 Prolintane Remacemide ...
Biaggioni I., Robertson D. (2011). Chapter 9. Adrenoceptor Agonists & Sympathomimetic Drugs. In: B.G. Katzung, S.B. Masters, A. ...
Sympathomimetic drug Mayersohn, M.; Guentert, T. W. (1995). "Clinical pharmacokinetics of the monoamine oxidase-A inhibitor ...
Sympathomimetics may potentiate the sympathomimetic effects of dosulepin. Due to the anticholinergic and antihistamine effects ...
... (PSE) is a sympathomimetic drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes. It may be used as a ... It has also been reported that pseudoephedrine, among other sympathomimetic agents, may be associated with the occurrence of ... Cantu C, Arauz A, Murillo-Bonilla LM, López M, Barinagarrementeria F (July 2003). "Stroke associated with sympathomimetics ... Beta-adrenergic antagonists may also interact with sympathomimetics. Increase of ectopic pacemaker activity can occur when ...
I. Sympathomimetic and related amines." J. Med. Chem. 9 273-280. L. I. Goldberg, P. F. Sonneville, and J. L. McNay (1968). "An ...
... (born 1931) is a Bosnian physiologist known for his contributions to classification of sympathomimetic drugs and ... van Rossum, J. M.; Mujić, M. (June 1965). "Classification of sympathomimetic drugs on the rabbit intestine". Archives ... Mujić, M.; van Rossum, J. M. (June 1965). "Comparative pharmacodynamics of sympathomimetic imidazolines; studies on intestinal ... His early research interests included basic research in classification of sympathomimetic drugs and comparative ...
... has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity) Pindolol (has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity) Propranolol Sotalol Timolol β1- ... Sympathomimetic drug "Dorlands Medical Dictionary:sympatholytic". Brock, JA; Cunnane, TC (November 1988). "Studies on the mode ... selective agents Acebutolol (has intrinsic sympathomimetic activity) Atenolol Betaxolol Bisoprolol Celiprolol Esmolol ...
... has low peripheral sympathomimetic effects. Moreover, no signs of [bromantane] dependence and withdrawal symptoms were found." ... As such, bromantane has few to no side effects (including peripheral sympathomimetic effects and hyperstimulation), does not ...
are allergic to sympathomimetic amine drugs. are taking a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) or have taken one within the last ... Ryan, Donna A.; Bray, George A. (2014). "Sibutramine, Phentermine, and Diethylproprion: Sympathomimetic Drugs in the Management ...
For maximum sympathomimetic activity, a drug must have: Amine group two carbons away from an aromatic group A hydroxyl group at ... Sympathomimetic drugs are used to treat cardiac arrest and low blood pressure, or even delay premature labor, among other ... The mechanisms of sympathomimetic drugs can be direct-acting (direct interaction between drug and receptor), such as α- ... Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart). In addition to ...
Effect of sympathomimetics( epinephrine - norepinephrine- isoprenaline )on isolated heart of frog ... 4. Stimulation of isloated heart with sympathomimetics  To increase cardiac contractilty with Sympathomimetics:  Stimulate B1 ... Effect of sympathomimetics on isolated heart of frog * 1. Stimulatory drugs on isolated heart By Dr Sameh AM abdel-ghany ...
Sympathomimetic Agents. Class Summary. These agents relax bronchial smooth muscle during bronchospasms. ...
Sympathomimetics are more costly than beta-blockers but more effective at controlling IOP without causing adverse events, ... There is no statistically significant difference between sympathomimetics and beta-blockers in reducing IOP from baseline at 12 ... There is no statistically significant difference between sympathomimetics and beta-blockers in the number of people with visual ... Significantly more allergic reactions were experienced by patients using sympathomimetics than beta-blockers at 12 months ...
Sympathomimetics. Class Summary. Isoproterenol infusion can be used to shorten AV conduction time. Isoproterenol has ...
... provides information about interactions between Asendin Oral and tricyclic-compounds-selected-direct-acting-sympathomimetics. ... Selected Direct-Acting Sympathomimetics/Tricyclic Compounds Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as ... Interactions between sympathomimetic amines and antidepressant agents in man. Br Med J 1973 Feb 10;1(5849):311-5. ... 2.Ghose K. Sympathomimetic amines and tricyclic antidepressant drugs. Neuropharmacology 1980 Dec;19(12):1251-4. ...
... definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look ... sympathomimetic amine in Medicine Expand. sympathomimetic amine n. An agent that elicits physiological responses similar to ...
Sympathomimetics, General answers are found in the Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics powered by Unbound Medicine. ... Sympathomimetics, General. In: Williams D, Ramgopal R, Gdowski M, et al, eds. Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics. 35th ... "Sympathomimetics, General." Washington Manual of Medical Therapeutics, 35th ed., Wolters Kluwer Health, 2016. Washington Manual ... Sympathomimetics, General [Internet]. In: Williams D, Ramgopal R, Gdowski M, Dretler A, Bhat P, editors. Washington Manual of ...
Sympathomimetics, while have shown some effectiveness in preventing and treating motion sickness, are most commonly used to ... Sympathomimetics, while have shown some effectiveness in preventing and treating motion sickness, are most commonly used to ... encoded search term (What is the role of sympathomimetics in the management of motion sickness?) and What is the role of ... What is the role of sympathomimetics in the management of motion sickness?. Updated: Oct 22, 2018 ...
... sympathomimetic a pronunciation, sympathomimetic a translation, English dictionary definition of sympathomimetic a. n. Any of a ... Related to sympathomimetic a: sympathomimetic amines. a·mine. (ə-mēn′, ăm′ēn). n.. Any of a group of organic compounds of ... Sympathomimetic a - definition of sympathomimetic a by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/sympathomimetic+a ... redirected from sympathomimetic a). Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. ...
The pharmacological methods used to assess the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of β-blockers are discussed. The ... β-Blockers α-blocking activity intrinsic sympathomimetic activity partial agonist This is a preview of subscription content, ... The pharmacological methods used to assess the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of β-blockers are discussed. The ...
The primary mechanism involved in this risk is the fact that ephedrine and all sympathomimetic drugs that activate -adrenergic ... In summary, sympathomimetic agents do not have a successful record for the treatment of weight loss. They apparently possess an ... Sympathomimetic agents have a poor history of long-term success in the treatment of obesity. From earlier experiences with ... Sibutramine was not developed as a sympathomimetic drug. In early studies, it was first evaluated for its potential as an ...
The results of this study seem to show that prolonged tocolytic therapy with β-sympathomimetics has side-effects on the fetal ... electrocardiographic changes suggesting myocardial ischaemia in newborn infants following tocolysis with beta-sympathomimetics ...
THE SYMPATHOMIMETIC ACTION OF EPHEDRINE Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of Pharmacology ...
What is Sympathomimetic drug? Meaning of Sympathomimetic drug medical term. What does Sympathomimetic drug mean? ... Looking for online definition of Sympathomimetic drug in the Medical Dictionary? Sympathomimetic drug explanation free. ... sympathomimetic amine. (redirected from Sympathomimetic drug). Also found in: Encyclopedia, Wikipedia. sym·pa·tho·mi·met·ic a· ... Unlike sympathomimetic drugs and ephedrine, however, green tea extracts have not been shown to increase heart rate and are not ...
THE ANALEPTIC POTENCY OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC AMINES. M. L. TAINTER, L. J. WHITSELL and J. M. DILLE ... THE ANALEPTIC POTENCY OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC AMINES. M. L. TAINTER, L. J. WHITSELL and J. M. DILLE ... THE ANALEPTIC POTENCY OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC AMINES. M. L. TAINTER, L. J. WHITSELL and J. M. DILLE ... THE ANALEPTIC POTENCY OF SYMPATHOMIMETIC AMINES Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal of ...
2 The sympathomimetic and anticholinergic activities of both substances were evaluated in eight healthy subjects and compared ... enantiomer as to the anticholinergic and the sympathomimetic property.. ...
... Essays Biochem. 2008;44:109-23 ...
Study Sympathomimetics flashcards from Lisa Letterman
Beta Blockers in Atrial Fibrillation - the Importance of Intrinsic Sympathomimetic Activity K S Channer; K S Channer ... Effects of Inhalation of β -Sympathomimetic and Atropine-Like Drugs on Airway Calibre in Normal Subjects Clin Sci (Lond) ( ... Blunted Pressor Response to Angiotensin and Sympathomimetic Amines in Bile-Duct Ligated Dogs Clin Sci (Lond) (November,1981) ... Short-term effects of β -adrenoceptor blocking drugs with and without cardioselectivity and intrinsic sympathomimetic activity ...
Choice of which sympathomimetic amine to use should be determined on the basis of data obtained in relevant clinical ... The effects of the administration of a sympathomimetic amine cannot be accurately predicted in a subject. ... Sympathomimetic amines.. @article{Runciman1980SympathomimeticA, title={Sympathomimetic amines.}, author={William B Runciman}, ... Choice of which sympathomimetic amine to use should be determined on the basis of data obtained in relevant clinical… CONTINUE ...
Work on the Sympathomimetic Amines, 1946-1958. *Biographical Information *Work on the Sympathomimetic Amines, 1946-1958 * ... After working with analgesics, Axelrod became increasingly interested in the sympathomimetic amines, a phrase coined in 1910 ...
Increased Rate of Metabolism of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine by Sympathomimetic Amines Description: Reporting on research ... Sympathomimetics Catecholamines Metabolism Exhibit Category: Norepinephrine and Neurotransmitters, 1957-1974 Box Number: 22. ... Increased Rate of Metabolism of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine by Sympathomimetic Amines. Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Sympathomimetics Subcategories There is one subcategory in this category, which is shown below. S Sympathomimetic amines Pages ...
In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy ... mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they ... Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo.. @article{Cypess2012ColdBN, title={Cold but not ... As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as ...
... and sympathomimetic use was reported by 3.6%. The use of sympathomimetics was positively associated with a 10% higher sperm ... Potential benefits of the use of sympathomimetics for asthmatic disease, on semen quality in men of subfertile couples.. Mar 4 ... Is there an association between the use of sympathomimetics for asthmatic disease and semen quality in humans?. Between 2007 ... These preliminary data show the potential benefits of the use of sympathomimetics to improve sperm motility in men of ...
ISOPROTERENOL (ISUPREL) / SYMPATHOMIMETIC Isoproterenol is a synthetic sympathomimetic that results in increased cardiac output ... DOBUTAMINE (DOBUTREX) / SYMPATHOMIMETIC Contraindications *1. Hypersensitivity to sympathomimetic amines*2. Ventricular ... EPINEPHRINE (ADRENALIN) / SYMPATHOMIMETIC Dosage/Route Cardiac Arrest : 1mg of 1:10,000 IV/3-5min. Allergic Reaction : 0.3-0.5 ... Sympathomimetic The flashcards below were created by user medic11student on FreezingBlue Flashcards. ...
Keyword(s) : Beta2-selective sympathomimetic drugs, Cardiovascular effects, Intravenous infusion, Obstetrics and gynaecology, ... oa South African Medical Journal - Uterine cardiovascular effects of beta2-selective sympathomimetic drugs administered as an ...
Sympathomimetic Amines (Basic Drugs) (HFBA Derivatives) on Rtx-200 This chromatogram may contain analytes that are synonyms of ...
Background and aims Anti cholinergic and sympathomimetic eye drops are widely used to achieve mydriasis. Normally systemic ... PO-0713 Systemic Effects Of Anticholinergic - Sympathomimetic Eye Drops During Screening For Retinopathy Of Prematurity ... PO-0713 Systemic Effects Of Anticholinergic - Sympathomimetic Eye Drops During Screening For Retinopathy Of Prematurity ...
  • Chemical structures of the catecholamines Sympathomimetic drugs (also known as adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines) are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of endogenous agonists of the sympathetic nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, all sympathomimetic amines fall into the larger group of stimulants (see psychoactive drug chart). (wikipedia.org)
  • Interactions between sympathomimetic amines and antidepressant agents in man. (webmd.com)
  • 2.Ghose K. Sympathomimetic amines and tricyclic antidepressant drugs. (webmd.com)
  • Amphetamines, phentermine, and phenyl-propanolamine (PPA) are sympathomimetic amines that were once widely used for the treatment of obesity because of their anorexic effects [ 13 , 14 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • article{Runciman1980SympathomimeticA, title={Sympathomimetic amines. (semanticscholar.org)
  • After working with analgesics, Axelrod became increasingly interested in the 'sympathomimetic amines,' a phrase coined in 1910 by the British pharmacologists George Barger and Henry Hallett Dale. (nih.gov)
  • Increased Rate of Metabolism of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine by Sympathomimetic Amines. (nih.gov)
  • Importance of heart rate in determining the effects of sympathomimetic amines on regional myocardial function and blood flow in conscious dogs with acute myocardial ischemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • The recommended maximum number of medicines in the 'sympathomimetic amines' category to be taken concurrently is usually one . (drugs.com)
  • Larger doses may produce serious or even life threatening manifestations of toxicity, particularly when given in association with sympathomimetic amines such as those used for their anorectic effects [see ADVERSE REACTIONS, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and OVERDOSE]. (rxlist.com)
  • Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. (pharmacycode.com)
  • b-phenylethylamine, a benzene ring with an ethylamine side chain, may be viewed as a parent structure for sympathomimetic amines (Table 10-1). (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Since o-dihydroxybenzene is also known as catechol, sympathomimetic amines with these hydroxyl substitutions in the aromatic ring are termed catecholamines. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • sympathomimetic amines for weight loss Rapid Tone Diet Pills, breastfeeding diet to lose weight Slim Down Weightloss Detox. (aarschotproeft.be)
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  • This review seeks to discuss the possible importance of monoamine oxidase (MAO) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in terminating the effects of released sympathetic transmitters and in the inactivation of endogenous or administered sympathomimetic amines with particular reference to some aspects of the cardiovascular system. (scienceopen.com)
  • Sympathomimetic amines and amrinone (see below). (doctorslounge.com)
  • Catecholamines, sympathomimetic drugs , and adrenergic receptor antagonists. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Catecholamines and sympathomimetic drugs are classified as direct, indirect, or mixed acting. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • These results indicate that the mechanism behind the clinically observed increased arrhythmogenicity of catecholamines with halothane does not arise at the level of single ventricular cells because halothane inhibited sympathomimetic-induced arrhythmogenic activity in this model. (elsevier.com)
  • For maximum sympathomimetic activity, a drug must have: Amine group two carbons away from an aromatic group A hydroxyl group at the chiral beta position in the R-configuration Hydroxyl groups in the meta and para position of the aromatic ring to form a catechol which is essential for receptor binding The structure can be modified to alter binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of the administration of a sympathomimetic amine cannot be accurately predicted in a subject. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Pseudoephedrine sulfate, the other active ingredient of CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets, is the synthetic salt of one of the naturally occurring dextrorotatory diastereomers of ephedrine and is classified as an indirect sympathomimetic amine . (rxlist.com)
  • Sympathomimetic drugs including epinephrine norepinephrine dopamine phenylephrine and ephedrine are widely used in the ICU and are reported to cause AACG in several case reports. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As previously mentioned, sympathomimetics act by stimulating the α, β and/or dopamine receptors, and/or causing the release or inhibiting the reuptake of neurotransmitters. (lecturio.com)
  • If combined with amphetamines, they can potentiate the activity of the sympathomimetic agent, but this is more moderate. (coupons.pharmacy)
  • amphetamines), drugs which modulate the sympathetic nervous system indirectly (such as caffeine) and drugs which are sympathetic depressants but for which the withdrawal syndrome is sympathomimetic (such as benzodiazepines and baclofen). (derangedphysiology.com)
  • Indirect sympathomimetics, such as cocaine and amphetamines, have a long history of being used in tonics and other preparations to allay fatigue and sustain performance. (newdrugs.com)
  • The pharmacological methods used to assess the intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA) of β-blockers are discussed. (springer.com)
  • Bishopric, Nanette H. / Bucindolol displays intrinsic sympathomimetic activity in human myocardium . (elsevier.com)
  • In 10 healthy human volunteers, we found that the sympathomimetic ephedrine raised blood pressure, heart rate, and energy expenditure, and increased multiple circulating metabolites, including glucose, insulin, and thyroid hormones. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sympathomimetic effects may also be caused by over-the-counter decongestants such as phenylpropanolamine (no longer available legally), ephedrine, and pseudoephedrine. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Ball-and-stick model of the ephedrine molecule, a sympathomimetic drug. (lecturio.com)
  • Drugs that indirectly release NE and also directly activate receptors are referred to as mixed-acting sympathomimetic drugs (e.g., ephedrine). (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Thus, ephedrine, amphetamine, and methampheta-mine exhibit considerable CNS activity, and the absence of polar hydroxyl groups results in a loss of direct sympathomimetic activity. (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Overdose from sympathomimetic agents occurs secondary to the use of prescription drugs, nonprescription drugs such as OTC cold medicine (e.g., pseudoephedrine), dietary supplements (e.g., ephedra, synephrine), and illicit drugs such as cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Cocaine and other sympathomimetics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Patients who overdose on sympathomimetic agents exhibit a syndrome of excess adrenergic tone due to direct stimulation of adrenergic receptors or the effects of norepinephrine and epinephrine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Its sympathomimetic effects (an increase in heart rate and blood pressure), which are of concern in relation to the observed increase in adverse cardiovascular events, would appear to be primarily related to a peripheral inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake and interrelationships with sympathetic outflow from the CNS [ 9 , 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Isoproterenol is a synthetic sympathomimetic that results in increased cardiac output by increasing the strength of cardiac contraction and somewhat increasing rate. (freezingblue.com)
  • Overdoses with 02-adrenergic receptor agonists, methylphenidate, and Ephedra species such as ma huang cause sympathomimetic symptoms. (alpfmedical.info)
  • Amphetamine (R,S-1-phenyl-2-propanamine) and methamphetamine (R,S -N-methyl-1 -phenyl-2-propanamine) are powerful stimulants that affect the central nervous system by acting as indirect sympathomimetic drugs (Kraemer & Maurer 2002). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sympathomimetic drugs include the common stimulants that everyone has heard so much about in the media. (wikibooks.org)
  • Sweating and normal to hyperactive bowel sounds are associated with sympathomimetic overdose, whereas anticholinergic toxidrome manifests with dry skin and diminished bowel sounds. (alpfmedical.info)
  • The sequelae of sympathomimetic overdose are generally related to the neurologic and cardiovascular systems. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The only sympathomimetic toxicity question has been about methamphetamine ( Question 11 from the first paper of 2018), which is surprising because in Australia amphetamine toxicity has the second highest mortality among illicit substances, second only to heroin ( Li & Gunja, 2012 ). (derangedphysiology.com)
  • Direct stimulation of the α- and β-adrenergic receptors can produce sympathomimetic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synthetic cannabinoids act on the cannabinoid receptors but may result in sympathomimetic effects. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Direct sympathomimetics stimulate adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors directly. (amboss.com)
  • Sympathomimetics can be divided based on the type of receptors, for which they have a higher affinity, i.e. their spectrum of action. (lecturio.com)
  • Many directly acting sympathomimetic drugs influence both a and b receptors, but the ratio of activities varies among drugs in a continuous spectrum from predominantly a activity (phenylephrine) to predominantly b activity (iso-proterenol). (pharmacologicalsciences.us)
  • Explain the two mechanisms of indirect-acting Sympathomimetic drugs. (cram.com)
  • What is the overall effect of indirect-acting sympathomimetic drugs? (cram.com)
  • Theophylline and caffeine may cause a clinical syndrome of sympathomimetic poisoning. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Parasympatholytic" and "sympathomimetic" have similar effects, but through completely different pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sibutramine is the most recent drug with sympathomimetic activity that has been recognized by regulatory agencies as having cardiovascular adverse effects that may outweigh its potential value as a weightloss drug. (hindawi.com)
  • The results of this study seem to show that prolonged tocolytic therapy with β-sympathomimetics has side-effects on the fetal myocardium and suggest that this treatment be reserved only for selective cases and/or for short periods of time. (springer.com)
  • Arousal and stability: The effects of five new sympathomimetic drugs suggest a new principle for the prevention of space motion sickness. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Other sympathomimetics can be used as an appetite suppressant to treat people who are morbidly obese, although this is only effective as a short term solution as the appetite suppressing effects only last for a few weeks. (coupons.pharmacy)
  • Combination with Linezolid may reverse the enhancement effects of the sympathomimetic agent. (coupons.pharmacy)
  • Without sounding stupid, it is difficult to define the term 'sympathomimetic' without discussing how these drugs mimic the physiological effects of stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. (derangedphysiology.com)
  • For example, both cause mydriasis, but parasympatholytics reduce accommodation (cycloplegia) while sympathomimetics do not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background and aims Anti cholinergic and sympathomimetic eye drops are widely used to achieve mydriasis. (bmj.com)
  • Sympathomimetic Bronchodilators: Adverse Reactions, Contraindications. (sinoshipnews.com)
  • Sympathomimetic agents have a poor history of long-term success in the treatment of obesity. (hindawi.com)
  • Sympathomimetic-like agents have a wide range of uses. (coupons.pharmacy)
  • Excess autonomic stimulation by adrenergic agents produces the clinical syndrome typically described as "sympathomimetic. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Many sympathomimetic agents are capable of producing psychiatric symptoms, particularly psychosis. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Phenylephrine belongs to a group of drugs called sympathomimetic agents. (medicineshoppe.com)
  • Zuckerman, RL & Wheeler, DM 1991, ' Effect of halothane on arrhythmogenic responses induced by sympathomimetic agents in single rat heart cells ', Anesthesia and analgesia , vol. 72, no. 5, pp. 596-603. (elsevier.com)
  • All Sympathomimetics, whether indirectly or directly increase activity of? (cram.com)
  • 2016. https://www.unboundmedicine.com/washingtonmanual/view/Washington-Manual-of-Medical-Therapeutics/602704/all/Sympathomimetics__General. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Sympathomimetic Poisoning is a topic covered in the 5-Minute Emergency Consult . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Emergency Central , emergency.unboundmedicine.com/emergency/view/5-Minute_Emergency_Consult/307106/all/Sympathomimetic_Poisoning. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Sympathomimetic Poisoning is a topic covered in the Select 5-Minute Pediatrics Topics . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • He recommended the warning include that sympathomimetic drugs of this type have been associated with increases in blood pressure and heart rate, which can result in myocardial infarction, stroke, and sudden death, and the precise risk associated with the ADHD drugs is uncertain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2 The sympathomimetic and anticholinergic activities of both substances were evaluated in eight healthy subjects and compared with the treatment with placebo and amitriptyline. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Significantly more allergic reactions were experienced by patients using sympathomimetics than beta-blockers at 12 months follow up . (nih.gov)
  • These concerns also extended to food supplements containing ephedra alkaloids and may require consideration for current supplements containing the sympathomimetic drug, synephrine. (hindawi.com)
  • Sibutramine was not developed as a sympathomimetic drug. (hindawi.com)
  • Bruno, A 2003, ' Cerebrovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse ', Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports , vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 40-45. (elsevier.com)
  • Phenmetrazine is a sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Control is a brand name medication included in a group of medications called Sympathomimetics . (rxwiki.com)
  • Sympathomimetics vs. beta-blockers]. (nih.gov)
  • There is no statistically significant difference between sympathomimetics and beta-blockers in the number of people with visual field progression at 12 months follow up . (nih.gov)
  • There is no statistically significant difference between sympathomimetics and beta-blockers in reducing IOP from baseline at 12 months follow up . (nih.gov)
  • Sympathomimetics are more costly than beta-blockers but more effective at controlling IOP without causing adverse events, although this is not significant. (nih.gov)
  • As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. (semanticscholar.org)