The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
Sympathectomy using chemicals (e.g., 6-hydroxydopamine or guanethidine) which selectively and reversibly destroy adrenergic nerve endings while leaving cholinergic nerve endings intact.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The removal or interruption of some part of the sympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Diseases of the parasympathetic or sympathetic divisions of the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; which has components located in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Autonomic dysfunction may be associated with HYPOTHALAMIC DISEASES; BRAIN STEM disorders; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES. Manifestations include impairments of vegetative functions including the maintenance of BLOOD PRESSURE; HEART RATE; pupil function; SWEATING; REPRODUCTIVE AND URINARY PHYSIOLOGY; and DIGESTION.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.
Drugs that inhibit the actions of the sympathetic nervous system by any mechanism. The most common of these are the ADRENERGIC ANTAGONISTS and drugs that deplete norepinephrine or reduce the release of transmitters from adrenergic postganglionic terminals (see ADRENERGIC AGENTS). Drugs that act in the central nervous system to reduce sympathetic activity (e.g., centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonists, see ADRENERGIC ALPHA-AGONISTS) are included here.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Agents having as their major action the interruption of neural transmission at nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Because their actions are so broad, including blocking of sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, their therapeutic use has been largely supplanted by more specific drugs. They may still be used in the control of blood pressure in patients with acute dissecting aortic aneurysm and for the induction of hypotension in surgery.
Diseases of any component of the brain (including the cerebral hemispheres, diencephalon, brain stem, and cerebellum) or the spinal cord.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocking agent in hypertension.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
Nerve fibers which project from sympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Sympathetic postganglionic fibers use norepinephrine as transmitter, except for those innervating eccrine sweat glands (and possibly some blood vessels) which use acetylcholine. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.
Nerve fibers liberating catecholamines at a synapse after an impulse.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes arising from or involving components of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, cranial nerves, and meninges. Included in this category are primary and metastatic nervous system neoplasms.
Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Two ganglionated neural plexuses in the gut wall which form one of the three major divisions of the autonomic nervous system. The enteric nervous system innervates the gastrointestinal tract, the pancreas, and the gallbladder. It contains sensory neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons. Thus the circuitry can autonomously sense the tension and the chemical environment in the gut and regulate blood vessel tone, motility, secretions, and fluid transport. The system is itself governed by the central nervous system and receives both parasympathetic and sympathetic innervation. (From Kandel, Schwartz, and Jessel, Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p766)
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the brain, spinal cord, or meninges.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Drugs that mimic the effects of stimulating postganglionic adrenergic sympathetic nerves. Included here are drugs that directly stimulate adrenergic receptors and drugs that act indirectly by provoking the release of adrenergic transmitters.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A nonselective alpha-adrenergic antagonist. It is used in the treatment of hypertension and hypertensive emergencies, pheochromocytoma, vasospasm of RAYNAUD DISEASE and frostbite, clonidine withdrawal syndrome, impotence, and peripheral vascular disease.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Compounds containing the hexamethylenebis(trimethylammonium) cation. Members of this group frequently act as antihypertensive agents and selective ganglionic blocking agents.
A guanidine analog with specific affinity for tissues of the sympathetic nervous system and related tumors. The radiolabeled forms are used as antineoplastic agents and radioactive imaging agents. (Merck Index, 12th ed) MIBG serves as a neuron-blocking agent which has a strong affinity for, and retention in, the adrenal medulla and also inhibits ADP-ribosyltransferase.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An imidazoline sympatholytic agent that stimulates ALPHA-2 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS and central IMIDAZOLINE RECEPTORS. It is commonly used in the management of HYPERTENSION.
A benign neoplasm that usually arises from the sympathetic trunk in the mediastinum. Histologic features include spindle cell proliferation (resembling a neurofibroma) and the presence of large ganglion cells. The tumor may present clinically with HORNER SYNDROME or diarrhea due to ectopic production of vasoactive intestinal peptide. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, p966)
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
An alkaloid found in the roots of Rauwolfia serpentina and R. vomitoria. Reserpine inhibits the uptake of norepinephrine into storage vesicles resulting in depletion of catecholamines and serotonin from central and peripheral axon terminals. It has been used as an antihypertensive and an antipsychotic as well as a research tool, but its adverse effects limit its clinical use.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
A nicotinic cholinergic antagonist often referred to as the prototypical ganglionic blocker. It is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and does not cross the blood-brain barrier. It has been used for a variety of therapeutic purposes including hypertension but, like the other ganglionic blockers, it has been replaced by more specific drugs for most purposes, although it is widely used a research tool.
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A neurotransmitter analogue that depletes noradrenergic stores in nerve endings and induces a reduction of dopamine levels in the brain. Its mechanism of action is related to the production of cytolytic free-radicals.
Clusters of neurons and their processes in the autonomic nervous system. In the autonomic ganglia, the preganglionic fibers from the central nervous system synapse onto the neurons whose axons are the postganglionic fibers innervating target organs. The ganglia also contain intrinsic neurons and supporting cells and preganglionic fibers passing through to other ganglia.
A nicotinic antagonist that has been used as a ganglionic blocker in hypertension, as an adjunct to anesthesia, and to induce hypotension during surgery.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Pathogenic infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges. DNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; RNA VIRUS INFECTIONS; BACTERIAL INFECTIONS; MYCOPLASMA INFECTIONS; SPIROCHAETALES INFECTIONS; fungal infections; PROTOZOAN INFECTIONS; HELMINTHIASIS; and PRION DISEASES may involve the central nervous system as a primary or secondary process.
An alpha-adrenergic antagonist with long duration of action. It has been used to treat hypertension and as a peripheral vasodilator.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The part of the hypothalamus posterior to the middle region consisting of several nuclei including the medial maxillary nucleus, lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area is concerned with control of sympathetic responses and is sensitive to conditions of decreasing temperature and controls the mechanisms for the conservation and increased production of heat.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors found on both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes where they signal through Gi-Go G-PROTEINS. While postsynaptic alpha-2 receptors play a traditional role in mediating the effects of ADRENERGIC AGONISTS, the subset of alpha-2 receptors found on presynaptic membranes signal the feedback inhibition of NEUROTRANSMITTER release.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
The biochemical and electrophysiological interactions between the NERVOUS SYSTEM and IMMUNE SYSTEM.
The 10th cranial nerve. The vagus is a mixed nerve which contains somatic afferents (from skin in back of the ear and the external auditory meatus), visceral afferents (from the pharynx, larynx, thorax, and abdomen), parasympathetic efferents (to the thorax and abdomen), and efferents to striated muscle (of the larynx and pharynx).
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
A moderately malignant neoplasm composed of primitive neuroectodermal cells dispersed in myxomatous or fibrous stroma intermixed with mature ganglion cells. It may undergo transformation into a neuroblastoma. It arises from the sympathetic trunk or less frequently from the adrenal medulla, cerebral cortex, and other locations. Cervical ganglioneuroblastomas may be associated with HORNER SYNDROME and the tumor may occasionally secrete vasoactive intestinal peptide, resulting in chronic diarrhea.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A system of NEURONS that has the specialized function to produce and secrete HORMONES, and that constitutes, in whole or in part, an ENDOCRINE SYSTEM or organ.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-2 receptors are more sensitive to EPINEPHRINE than to NOREPINEPHRINE and have a high affinity for the agonist TERBUTALINE. They are widespread, with clinically important roles in SKELETAL MUSCLE; LIVER; and vascular, bronchial, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Nerves and plexuses of the autonomic nervous system. The central nervous system structures which regulate the autonomic nervous system are not included.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.
Interruption of sympathetic pathways, by local injection of an anesthetic agent, at any of four levels: peripheral nerve block, sympathetic ganglion block, extradural block, and subarachnoid block.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
Removal of an autonomic or sensory ganglion by any means.
A sympathomimetic agent that acts predominantly at alpha-1 adrenergic receptors. It has been used primarily as a vasoconstrictor in the treatment of HYPOTENSION.
The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate alpha adrenergic receptors.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC
Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A nicotinic antagonist used primarily as a ganglionic blocker in animal research. It has been used as an antihypertensive agent but has been supplanted by more specific drugs in most clinical applications.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
A steroid metabolite that is the 11-deoxy derivative of CORTICOSTERONE and the 21-hydroxy derivative of PROGESTERONE.
A non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist with a long half-life, used in cardiovascular disease to treat arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension. Nadolol is also used for MIGRAINE DISORDERS and for tremor.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
Drugs that act on adrenergic receptors or affect the life cycle of adrenergic transmitters. Included here are adrenergic agonists and antagonists and agents that affect the synthesis, storage, uptake, metabolism, or release of adrenergic transmitters.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A plant alkaloid with alpha-2-adrenergic blocking activity. Yohimbine has been used as a mydriatic and in the treatment of ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The major nerves supplying sympathetic innervation to the abdomen. The greater, lesser, and lowest (or smallest) splanchnic nerves are formed by preganglionic fibers from the spinal cord which pass through the paravertebral ganglia and then to the celiac ganglia and plexuses. The lumbar splanchnic nerves carry fibers which pass through the lumbar paravertebral ganglia to the mesenteric and hypogastric ganglia.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Inflammation of the gingiva surrounding the crown of a tooth.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The adrenergic beta-1 receptors are equally sensitive to EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE and bind the agonist DOBUTAMINE and the antagonist METOPROLOL with high affinity. They are found in the HEART, juxtaglomerular cells, and in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Viral infections of the brain, spinal cord, meninges, or perimeningeal spaces.
Part of the arm in humans and primates extending from the ELBOW to the WRIST.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
The position or attitude of the body.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
Vesicular amine transporter proteins that transport the neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE into small SECRETORY VESICLES. Proteins of this family contain 12 transmembrane domains and exchange vesicular PROTONS for cytoplasmic acetylcholine.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Inflammation of blood vessels within the central nervous system. Primary vasculitis is usually caused by autoimmune or idiopathic factors, while secondary vasculitis is caused by existing disease process. Clinical manifestations are highly variable but include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; behavioral alterations; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; and BRAIN INFARCTION. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp856-61)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
One of the two major pharmacological subdivisions of adrenergic receptors that were originally defined by the relative potencies of various adrenergic compounds. The alpha receptors were initially described as excitatory receptors that post-junctionally stimulate SMOOTH MUSCLE contraction. However, further analysis has revealed a more complex picture involving several alpha receptor subtypes and their involvement in feedback regulation.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of noradrenergic neurons. They remove NOREPINEPHRINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. It regulates signal amplitude and duration at noradrenergic synapses and is the target of ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252)
Glucose in blood.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
The consumption of edible substances.
The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.
Condition where a primary dysfunction of either heart or kidney results in failure of the other organ (e.g., HEART FAILURE with worsening RENAL INSUFFICIENCY).
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
Traumatic injuries to the brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, autonomic nervous system, or neuromuscular system, including iatrogenic injuries induced by surgical procedures.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The TEMPERATURE at the outer surface of the body.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).

Further evidence that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline from adrenergic nerve terminals by restriction of availability of calcium. (1/5862)

1 Guinea-pig vasa deferentia were continuously superfused after labelling the transmitter stores with [3H](-)-noradrenaline. Release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was induced by transmural nerve stimulation. 2 Prostglandin E2 (14 nM) drastically reduced the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline, while tetraethylammonium (2 mM), rubidium (6 mM), phenoxybenzamine (3 muM) each in the presence or absence of Uptake 1 or 2 blockade, and prolonged pulse duration (from 0.5 to 2.0 ms) all significantly increased the release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline per nerve impulse. 3 The inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on evoked release of [3H]-(-)-noradrenaline was significantly reduced by tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration, whilst it was actually enhanced by phenoxybenzamine. This indicates that increased release of noradrenaline per nerve impulse does not per se counteract the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2. 4 It is concluded that tetraethylammonium, rubidium and prolonged pulse duration counteracted the inhibitory effect of prostaglandin E2 on T3H]-(-)-noradrenaline release by promoting calcium influx during the nerve action potential. The results are consistent with, and add more weight to the view that prostaglandins inhibit the release of noradrenaline by restriction of calcium availability.  (+info)

Hierarchy of ventricular pacemakers. (2/5862)

To characterize the pattern of pacemaker dominance in the ventricular specialized conduction system (VSCS), escape ventricular pacemakers were localized and quantified in vivo and in virto, in normal hearts and in hearts 24 hours after myocardial infarction. Excape pacemaker foci were localized in vivo during vagally induced atrial arrest by means of electrograms recorded from the His bundle and proximal bundle branches and standard electrocardiographic limb leads. The VSCS was isolated using a modified Elizari preparation or preparations of each bundle branch. Peacemakers were located by extra- and intracellular recordings. Escape pacemaker foci in vivo were always in the proximal conduction system, usually the left bundle branch. The rate was 43+/-11 (mean+/-SD) beats/min. After beta-adrenergic blockade, the mean rate fell to 31+/-10 beats/min, but there were no shifts in pacemaker location. In the infarcted hearts, pacemakers were located in the peripheral left bundle branch. The mean rate was 146+/-20 beats/min. In isolated normal preparations, the dominant pacemakers usually were in the His bundle, firing at a mean rate of 43+/-10 beats/min. The rates of pacemakers diminished with distal progression. In infarcted hearts, the pacemakers invariably were in the infarct zone. The mean firing rates were not influenced by beta-adrenergic blockade. The results indicate that the dominant pacemakers are normally in the very proximal VSCS, but after myocardial infarction pacemaker dominance is shifted into the infarct. Distribution of pacemaker dominance is independent of sympathetic influence.  (+info)

Ganglioneuromas and renal anomalies are induced by activated RET(MEN2B) in transgenic mice. (3/5862)

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by the development of medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytomas, musculoskeletal anomalies and mucosal ganglioneuromas. MEN2B is caused by a specific mutation (Met918-->Thr) in the RET receptor tyrosine kinase. Different mutations of RET lead to other conditions including MEN2A, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung disease). Transgenic mice were created using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase promoter to direct expression of RET(MEN2B) in the developing sympathetic and enteric nervous systems and the adrenal medulla. DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) transgenic mice developed benign neuroglial tumors, histologically identical to human ganglioneuromas, in their sympathetic nervous systems and adrenal glands. The enteric nervous system was not affected. The neoplasms in DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) mice were similar to benign neuroglial tumors induced in transgenic mice by activated Ras expression under control of the same promoter. Levels of phosphorylated MAP kinase were not increased in the RET(MEN2B)-induced neurolglial proliferations, suggesting that alternative pathways may play a role in the pathogenesis of these lesions. Transgenic mice with the highest levels of DbetaH-RET(MEN2B) expression, unexpectedly developed renal malformations analogous to those reported with loss of function mutations in the Ret gene.  (+info)

Effects of amlodipine on sympathetic nerve traffic and baroreflex control of circulation in heart failure. (4/5862)

Short-acting calcium antagonists exert a sympathoexcitation that in heart failure further enhances an already elevated sympathetic activity. Whether this is also the case for long-acting formulations is not yet established, despite the prognostic importance of sympathetic activation in heart failure. It is also undetermined whether in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists favorably affect a mechanism potentially responsible for the sympathetic activation, ie, the baroreflex impairment. In 28 heart failure patients (NYHA functional class II) under conventional treatment we measured plasma norepinephrine and efferent postganglionic muscle sympathetic nerve activity (microneurography) at rest and during arterial baroreceptor stimulation and deactivation induced by stepwise intravenous infusions of phenylephrine and nitroprusside, respectively. Measurements were performed at baseline and after 8 weeks of daily oral amlodipine administration (10 mg/d, 14 patients) or before and after an 8-week period without calcium antagonist administration (14 patients). Amlodipine caused a small and insignificant blood pressure reduction. Heart rate, left ventricular ejection fraction, and plasma renin and aldosterone concentrations were not affected. This was the case also for plasma norepinephrine (from 2.43+/-0.41 to 2.50+/-0.34 nmol/L, mean+/-SEM), muscle sympathetic nerve activity (from 54.4+/-5.9 to 51.0+/-4.3 bursts/min), and arterial baroreflex responses. No change in the above-mentioned variables was seen in the control group. Thus, in mild heart failure amlodipine treatment does not adversely affect sympathetic activity and baroreflex control of the heart and sympathetic tone. This implies that in this condition long-acting calcium antagonists can be administered without untoward neurohumoral effects anytime conventional treatment needs to be complemented by drugs causing additional vasodilatation.  (+info)

Cardiac sympathetic activity estimated by 123I-MIBG myocardial imaging in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy after beta-blocker or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. (5/5862)

Impaired cardiac sympathetic activity can be evaluated by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging. METHODS: We studied the significance of MIBG imaging for 24 patients (age 58+/-12 y) with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). We compared 12 patients (group A) treated with metoprolol (dose from 30-60 mg/d) with 12 patients treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Patients were studied before treatment, after 5 mo of treatment (only in group A) and after 1 y of treatment. Cardiac MIBG uptake was assessed as the heart-to-mediastinum activity ratio (H/M) and total defect score (TDS) from anterior planar and SPECT MIBG images, which were acquired in 4 h after tracer injection. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) calculated by echocardiography were also assessed. RESULTS: TDS decreased in both groups (in group A, from 30+/-7 through 23+/-9 to 18+/-10; P < 0.01, in group B, from 30+/-6 to 24+/-8; P < 0.01) and H/M was increased in both groups (in group A, from 1.87+/-0.31 through 2.03+/-0.28 to 2.14+/-0.29; P < 0.01, in group B, from 1.82+/-0.28 to 1.94+/-0.26; P < 0.05). But TDS and H/M were more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). LVEF was significantly increased in only group A (from 38+/-6 through 43+/-8 to 49%+/-9%; P < 0.01). NYHA improved in both groups (in group A, from mean 2.5 through 2.1 to 1.8; P < 0.01, in group B, from mean 2.6 to 2.1; P < 0.05) but was more improved in group A than in group B (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cardiac function, symptom and cardiac sympathetic activity evaluated by MIBG images improved after the beta-blocker therapy more than with the treatment that used ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Sympathetic nerve alterations assessed with 123I-MIBG in the failing human heart. (6/5862)

Norepinephrine (NE) reuptake function is impaired in heart failure and this may participate in myocyte hyperstimulation by the neurotransmitter. This alteration can be assessed by 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. METHODS: To determine whether the impairment of neuronal NE reuptake was reversible after metoprolol therapy, we studied 18 patients (43+/-7 y) with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy who were stabilized at least for 3 mo with captopril and diuretics. Patients underwent, before and after 6 mo of therapy with metoprolol, measurements of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), maximal oxygen consumption and plasma NE concentration. The cardiac adrenergic innervation function was scintigraphically assessed with MIBG uptake and release measurements on the planar images obtained 20 min and 4 h after tracer injection. To evaluate whether metoprolol had a direct interaction with cardiac MIBG uptake and release, six normal subjects were studied before and after a 1-mo metoprolol intake. RESULTS: In controls, neither cardiac MIBG uptake and release nor circulating NE concentration changed after the 1-mo metoprolol intake. Conversely, after a 6-mo therapy with metoprolol, patients showed increased cardiac MIBG uptake (129%+/-10% versus 138%+/-17%; P = 0.009), unchanged cardiac MIBG release and decreased plasma NE concentration (0.930+/-412 versus 0.721+/-0.370 ng/mL; P = 0.02). In parallel, patients showed improved New York Heart Association class (2.44+/-0.51 versus 2.05+/-0.23; P = 0.004) and increased LVEF (20%+/-8% versus 27%+/-8%; P = 0.0005), whereas maximal oxygen uptake remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: Thus, a parallel improvement of myocardial NE reuptake and of hemodynamics was observed after a 6-mo metoprolol therapy, suggesting that such agents may be beneficial in heart failure by directly protecting the myocardium against excessive NE stimulation.  (+info)

Regional patterns of myocardial sympathetic denervation in dilated cardiomyopathy: an analysis using carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine and positron emission tomography. (7/5862)

OBJECTIVE: To assess presynaptic function of cardiac autonomic innervation in patients with advanced congestive heart failure using positron emission tomography (PET) and the recently developed radiolabelled catecholamine analogue carbon-11 hydroxyephedrine (HED) as a marker for neuronal catecholamine uptake function. DESIGN AND PATIENTS: 29 patients suffering from dilated cardiomyopathy with moderate to severe heart failure were compared with eight healthy controls. Perfusion scan was followed by HED dynamic PET imaging of cardiac sympathetic innervation. The scintigraphic results were compared with markers of disease severity and the degree of sympathetic dysfunction assessed by means of heart rate variability. RESULTS: In contrast to nearly normal perfusions, mean (SD) HED retention in dilated cardiomyopathy patients was abnormal in 64 (32)% of the left ventricle. Absolute myocardial HED retention was 10.7 (1.0)%/min in controls v 6.2 (1.6)%/min in dilated cardiomyopathy patients (p < 0.001). Moreover, significant regional reduction of HED retention was demonstrated in apical and inferoapical segments. HED retention was significantly correlated with New York Heart Association functional class (r = -0.55, p = 0. 002) and ejection fraction (r = 0.63, p < 0.001), but not, however, with plasma noradrenaline concentrations as well as parameters of heart rate variability. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, using PET in combination with HED in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, not only global reduction but also regional abnormalities of cardiac sympathetic tracer uptake were demonstrated. The degree of abnormality was positively correlated to markers of severity of heart failure. The pathogenetic mechanisms leading to the regional differences of neuronal damage as well as the prognostic significance of these findings remain to be defined.  (+info)

Localization of sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons innervating the heart of the Beijing duck by means of the retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. (8/5862)

Sympathetic, parasympathetic and sensory neurons were labeled by injections of horseradish peroxidase into various regions of the heart in 33 Beijing ducks. Sympathetic postganglionic neurons innervating the heart were located in the paravertebral ganglia C15 (C16 is the last cervical segment in the duck) to T3, especially in the ganglion T1. The coronary sulcus and ventricle were more abundantly innervated by sympathetic neurons than the atrium. The left side of the heart was preferentially innervated by sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the left side of paravertebral ganglia but the right side of the heart were equally supplied from the right and left ganglia. Within the medulla oblongata, the number of labeled vagal preganglionic neurons in the nucleus ambiguus was much greater than that in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. Labeled neurons of the nucleus ambiguus were found in many ducks injected into the coronary sulcus. Cardiac sensory neurons were observed in the dorsal root ganglia C15 to T2 (highest in the ganglion T1) and in the nodose and jugular ganglia of the vagus nerve. These labeled neurons probably form the afferent and efferent limbs of cardiac reflexes and control circulation in the Beijing duck.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic kidney disease. T2 - Role of sympathetic nervous system activation and potential benefits of renal denervation. AU - Hering, Dagmara. AU - Esler, Murray D.. AU - Schlaich, Markus P.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease continues to increase worldwide. Hypertension and diabetes are recognised as two major factors contributing to further progression of CKD. Importantly, progressive renal impairment increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in pharmacological antihypertensive and anti-diabetic approaches, the alarming number of patients developing nephropathy indicates the failure of the available treatment strategies. The relevance of sympathetic activation for the development and progression of chronic kidney disease is well established. Likewise, progressive renal failure results in exaggerated sympathetic activation leading to a vicious cycle, providing the rationale for the use of ...
Exposure to maternal obesity or a maternal diet rich in fat during development may have adverse outcomes in offspring, such as the development of obesity and hypertension. The present study examined the effect of a maternal high-fat diet (m-HFD) on offspring blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, responses to stress, and sensitivity to central administration of leptin and ghrelin. Offspring of New Zealand white rabbits fed a 13% HFD were slightly heavier than offspring from mothers fed a 4% maternal normal fat diet (P,0.05) but had 64% greater fat pad mass (P=0.015). Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, and renal sympathetic nerve activity at 4 months of age were 7%, 7%, and 24% greater, respectively (P,0.001), in m-HFD compared with maternal normal fat diet rabbits, and the renal sympathetic nerve activity response to airjet stress was enhanced in the m-HFD group. m-HFD offspring had markedly elevated pressor and renal sympathetic nerve activity responses to intracerebroventricular ...
One common reaction to CSA is chronic elevated SNS activity or physiologic hyperarousal. Symptoms of increased SNS activity can include increased heart rate, increased respiration, muscle tension, perspiration, exaggerated startle response, and difficulty sleeping. Increased SNS activation has been linked to trauma exposure in general and to certain psychological disorders, especially anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although this physiologic response is common to all major traumas, in childhood trauma the increased SNS activity begins so early in life that it can fundamentally alter the individuals overall physiologic functioning and put that individual at increased risk for stress-related disorders. Activity of the SNS naturally increases during sexual arousal. Studies on the relation between SNS arousal and sexual arousal in women have identified an optimal level of SNS arousal for facilitating genital sexual arousal (Lorenz, Harte, Hamilton, & Meston, 2012). ...
Backgrounds: Efferent sympathetic activity is increased in patients with chronic renal failure possibly through the mechanisms of excitatory sympathetic afferents from the damaged kidney. We examined whether renal insufficiency (RI) contributes to elevated sympathetic activity in patients with heart failure.. Methods: We determined resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in 87 patients with heart failure (ejection fraction (EF) , 0.45). Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) , 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 were determined using the simplified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation to identify RI.. Results: Forty-three percent of the patients had RI (n=37). Mean age, gender and body mass index did not significantly differ between the RI group and no RI one. However, specific activity scale and ejection fraction were lower, usages of diuretics, beta-blockers and statins were more frequent among RI group compared with no RI one. MSNA values were significantly higher in RI group (burst ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Both central command and exercise pressor reflex activate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in decerebrate cats. AU - Tsuchimochi, Hirotsugu. AU - Hayes, Shawn G.. AU - McCord, Jennifer L.. AU - Kaufman, Marc P. PY - 2009/4. Y1 - 2009/4. N2 - Both static and dynamic exercise are known to increase cardiac pump function as well as arterial blood pressure. Feedforward control by central command and feedback control by the exercise pressor reflex are thought to be the neural mechanisms causing these effects during exercise. It remains unknown as to how each mechanism activates cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA) during exercise, especially at its onset. Thus we examined the response of CSNA to stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR, i.e., central command) and to static muscle contraction of the triceps surae muscles or stretch of the calcaneal tendon in decerebrate cats. We found that MLR stimulation immediately increased CSNA, which was followed by a gradual ...
Leptin binds to receptors in multiple hypothalamic nuclei to increase sympathetic nerve activity; however, the neurocircuitry is unclear. Here, using anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, we investigated the role of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Intracerebroventricular injection of leptin slowly increased lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA), heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and baroreflex control of LSNA and heart rate. Inhibition of the paraventricular nucleus with muscimol completely reversed leptins effects. Blockade of paraventricular melanocortin 3/4 receptors with SHU9119 or ionotropic glutamate receptors with kynurenate, alone or together, each partially reversed the effects of leptin, implicating increased activation of glutamate and melanocortin 3/4 receptors. Conversely, although blockade of neuropeptide Y Y1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus increased LSNA, mean arterial pressure, and heart rate, these responses were prevented by ...
We studied the effects of intense sympathetic stimulation on the chronotropic responses of the heart to subsequent test stimulations of the cardiac autonomic nerves in dogs anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. Such intense sympathetic stimulations (which we refer to as release stimulations) are known to release neuropeptide Y as well as norepinephrine. The changes in cardiac cycle length evoked by vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were progressively more attenuated as we increased the frequency and duration of the antecedent sympathetic release stimulations. We found that 2.5 minutes after a maximal release stimulation (30 Hz for 5 minutes), the mean +/- SEM chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations were diminished to 36.5 +/- 1.6% and 54.7 +/- 1.3% respectively, of the prestimulation responses. The mean times for the chronotropic responses to the vagal and sympathetic test stimulations to recover to their control values were 52.0 +/- 1.3 and 63.2 +/- 2.9 ...
Intoduction: Sympathetic activation contributes to both the initiation and progression of heart failure. The role of anemia in determining sympathetic overactivity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that, in CHF patients, anemia could lead to increased sympathetic activity through tonic activation of excitatory chemoreceptor afferents.. Methods: We conducted a double-blind, randomized, vehicle-controlled study to examine the effect of chemoreflex deactivation on muscle sympathetic nerve activity in CHF patients with and without anemia. We compared the effect of breathing 100%; oxygen for 15 minutes in 18 stable CHF patients with anemia and 18 control CHF patients matched for age, sex, blood pressure, and body mass index.. Results: Baseline muscle sympathetic nerve activity was significantly elevated in CHF patients with anemia compared with patients with CHF alone (56.0+/−3.2 versus 45.5+/−3.1 bursts per minute; P,0.0237). Administration of 100%; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronic exercise reduces sympathetic nerve activity in rabbits with pacing-induced heart failure. T2 - A role for angiotensin II. AU - Liu, Jun Li. AU - Irvine, Scott. AU - Reid, Ian A.. AU - Patel, Kaushik P. AU - Zucker, Irving H. PY - 2000/10/10. Y1 - 2000/10/10. N2 - Background - Chronic exercise (EX) improves the quality of life and increases the survival of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Because sympathetic nerve activity is elevated in the CHF state, it is possible that EX is beneficial in this disease due to a decrease in sympathetic outflow. Methods and Results - We evaluated arterial baroreflex function and resting renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in EX normal and CHF rabbits before and after angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. Four groups of rabbits were studied: a normal non-EX group, a normal EX group, a CHF non-EX group, and a CHF EX group. EX lowered resting RSNA in rabbits with CHF but not in normal rabbits. In addition, EX increased ...
The body has defensive responses to correct low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). A vital component of this response is release of glucagon and activation of the sympathetic nervous system, which provides the means for raising blood glucose levels towards normal. We can measure circulating hormones indicating the level of these responses, but additionally, sympathetic nervous system responses can be measured directly. We can measure the sympathetic nerve activity that controls blood flow to muscles (MSNA) and blood flow and sweating to skin (SSNA). The purpose of this study is to determine if either hypoglycemia or exercise cause differential responses in muscle and skin sympathetic nerve activity. We would also like to determine what the sympathetic response is to cycling exercise with insulin and normal blood sugar. Therefore, we would like to test the sympathetic responses to insulin with normal blood glucose, hypoglycemia, and during exercise bouts and normal blood glucose, with or without insulin ...
Mechanical and metabolic signals arising during skeletal muscle contraction reflexly increase sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure (i.e., the exercise pressor reflex). In a rat model of simulated peripheral artery disease (PAD) in which a femoral artery is chronically (~72 hours) ligated, the mechanically-sensitive component of the exercise pressor reflex during 1 Hz dynamic contraction is exaggerated compared to that found in normal rats. Whether this is due to an enhanced acute sensitization of mechanoreceptors by metabolites produced during contraction or involves a chronic sensitization of mechanoreceptors is unknown. To investigate this issue, in decerebrate, unanesthetized rats we tested the hypothesis that the increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) during 1 Hz dynamic stretch are larger when evoked from a previously ligated hindlimb compared to those evoked from the contralateral freely perfused hindlimb. Dynamic stretch ...
MURRAY ESLER; Neurochemical quantification of human organ-specific sympathetic nervous system activity. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 November 2000; 99 (5): 349-350. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
There is strong evidence that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have an increased risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). This elevated risk is independent of standard risk factors such as smoking, obesity, high cholesterol, diabetes, and high blood pressure. The relative risk of developing CHD is proportional to the severity of depression (the more severe the depression, the more likely the development of CHD).. The sympathetic nervous system (the part of your nervous system that makes your heart beat harder and faster) is responsible for our flight and fight response to a threatening situation. It has been determined that increased sympathetic nervous system activation occurs in approximately one in three untreated patients with MDD (with no underlying CHD). There is growing evidence linking elevated sympathetic activity to early stages of kidney dysfunction and an increased incidence of cardiovascular (heart and blood vessel) disease development (eg, heart attacks). ...
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with the development of obesity and is a significant contributor to chronic liver, metabolic, and cardiovascular diseases. We have recently shown that hepatic sympathetic nerve activity is significantly elevated in mice fed a high fat diet (HFD; 33±2 vs. 63±5 spikes/s, normal chow vs. HFD; p|0.05), although the contribution of the sympathetic nervous system to NAFLD pathology remains unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that sympathetic overactivity contributes to NAFLD during diet-induced obesity. Male C57B1/6 mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) or normal chow (5% fat) for 15 weeks. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 150 mg/kg i.p.) was then administered to selectively destroy sympathetic nerves, or vehicle control (n=4/group), and mice were sacrificed 3 days later. 6-OHDA treatment did not influence body weight (e.g. 41±3 vs. 40±2 g; HFD-vehicle vs. HFD-OHDA; p|0.05) or visceral adipose tissue mass in normal chow or HFD fed animals. However, HFD
Results: High fat feeding induced autonomic dysfunction, hypertension and type-II diabetes, which was reversed using exercise; independent of weight loss. In healthy control mice, activation of sympathetic nerves in PVAT exerts an anti-contractile effect mediated through OCT3, and release of adiponectin via β3-adrenoceptor activation. This mechanism was also dependent on nitric oxide synthase (NOS). In obesity, the anti-contractile effect was lost, and could not be restored via β3-adrenoceptor activation. Using immunohistochemistry, β3-adrenoceptors and OCT3 were shown to be downregulated in obesity. Moreover, adiponectin no longer exerts vasodilation. However, activation of NOS was able to restore anti-contractile function. Additionally, healthy sympathetic hyperstimulation i.e. exercise, reversed PVAT dysfunction in obesity by reducing inflammation of PVAT, and increasing β3-adrenoceptor and OCT3 expression; restoring the healthy PVAT anti-contractile mechanism. Furthermore, ...
There is no question that environmental stress and even personal stress can negatively affect the appearance of your skin. The human body is continually making changes to maintain a constant balance inside the body and in relationship to external factors. The catch is that our bodies are having more difficulty adjusting themselves to modern stressors such as those of hypertension, smoking, diabetes, poor nutritional habits, pollution, heavy drinking, insufficient sleep, emotional exhaustion, etc., that can cause continual sympathetic nervous system activation with very little opportunity for the parasympathetic nervous system to activate and cope with the burdens we impose on our body or from demands from our environment ...
The unique osmotic push-pull delivery system of Adalat GITS allows controlled, consistent drug release over 24 hours with once-daily dosing.18-20 Adalat GITS has a superior pharmacokinetic profile compared to generic nifedipine formulations.19-22 In addition, Adalat GITS has a low degree of sympathetic nervous system activation with minimal effects on heart rate while showing similar BP reductions compared to amplodipine.23. ...
Researchers analyzed the gut-brain connection in mice and found evidence of sympathetic nervous system activation outside the gut and that it is controlled by microbiota via a gut-brain circuit.
1. Local regulation of subcutaneous blood flow in the forearm was studied in the acute phase of myocardial infarction. Blood flow was measured by the local 133Xe-washout technique.. 2. Plasma concentrations of noradrenaline and adrenaline were increased on day 1, suggesting an increase in sympathetic neuronal activity, but gradually returned to normal thereafter.. 3. Subcutaneous blood flow on day 1 was far below normal (38%) and steadily increased to reach normal at day 7 after coronary occlusion. The sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity that caused the initial reduction in flow could be blocked by proximal nervous blockade, increasing the subcutaneous blood flow by 130, 63 and 14% on days 1, 3 and 7 respectively after coronary occlusion. A normal response to decrease in arterial perfusion pressure was observed, suggesting that intrinsic vascular reactions responsible for autoregulation of blood flow were not affected by the increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity. The vasoconstrictor ...
The increase in total integrated voltage of renal sympathetic nerve activity that occurs with peripheral thermal receptor stimulation (heat) decreases renal blood flow, and the renal vasoconstriction is prevented by prior renal denervation (34). As it was this stimulus that identified a unique subset of single renal sympathetic nerve fibers, we sought to determine quantitative aspects of the renal sympathetic neural discharge seen in multifiber recordings that were produced by peripheral thermal receptor stimulation. Postganglionic multifiber renal sympathetic nerve activity occurs in synchronized sympathetic discharges (bursts, peaks) with distinct coupling to the cardiac cycle. These synchronized renal sympathetic peaks may be characterized by their amplitude, duration, and frequency. Total integrated voltage encompasses the product of voltage under the curve of each peak (governed largely by peak amplitude as peak duration changes little) and peak frequency. Therefore, changes in total ...
Because ANP has an inhibitory effect on sympathetic nerve activity (14), we hypothesized that the indexes of sympathetic nerve activity were different during infusion periods between the two groups. However, there was no difference of plasma norepinephrine or heart rates, which was probably because of the relatively small dose of ANP or GTN and the slight reduction of the mean arterial blood pressure in this study.. In our study, the plasma levels of ALD, Ang II and ET-1 were significantly suppressed in the ANP group compared with the GTN group. Especially, the plasma ALD level was significantly decreased after 1 h and suppressed during the infusion of ANP. Aldosterone levels have been found to be increased in patients with AMI, and aldosterone shows both myocardial and renal effects that may have profound implications for LV remodeling (15,16). We recently reported that plasma ALD is extracted through the heart in patients with heart failure, and that a positive correlation exists between the ...
The effects of a stressful environmental stimulus (air stress) on mean arterial pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and renal function were studied in conscious deoxycorticosterone acetate-sodium chloride (DOCA-NaCl) hypertensive rats, sham DOCA-NaCl normotensive rats, and DOCA-NaCl rats with renal denervation. In conscious DOCA-NaCl hypertensive rats, air stress decreased urine flow rate [36% from 17.9 +/- 3.0 microliter X min-1 X 100 g body wt-1 (BW)], urinary sodium excretion (39% from 3.1 +/- 0.5 microeq X min-1 X 100 g BW-1), fractional water excretion (24% from 4.72 +/- 1.00%), and fractional sodium excretion (28% from 5.72 +/- 1.08%) and increased renal sympathetic nerve activity (94% from 8.3 +/- 0.6 integrator resets/min), but no changes occurred in glomerular filtration rate (-15% from 0.40 +/- 0.06 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1) or effective renal plasma flow (-7% from 2.50 +/- 0.53 ml X min-1 X 100 g BW-1). Air stress had no effect on these measures in conscious sham ...
The important demonstration here is that the efficiency of fat deposition, and not total body fat or elevated circulating FFAs, is the primary predictor of plasma insulin and insulin-to-glucose ratio after the glucose load. Because (as discussed above) the higher energetic efficiencies (hence the rate) of fat deposition in RF groups is the result of suppressed thermogenesis, the implication of these findings is that the suppression of thermogenesis favoring catch-up fat, rather than total body fat or elevated circulating FFAs, is the prime early determinant of the hyperinsulinemic and insulin-resistant state of catch-up growth.. The other neurohormonal systems that are implicated in the regulation of catch-up fat are still unclear. A role for diminished sympathetic nervous system activity in the suppression of thermogenesis during refeeding is, however, unlikely. This is because the well-known reduction in sympathetic nervous system activity during starvation is rapidly restored to fed levels ...
Briant, L. J. B., Zhang, Q., Vergari, E., Kellard, J. A., Rodriguez, B., Ashcroft, F. M. and Rorsman, P. (2017). Functional identification of islet cell types by electrophysiological fingerprinting. J. R. Soc. Interface, 2017 14. Briant, L. J. B., OCallaghan, E. L., Champneys, A. R., and Paton, J. F. (2015). Respiratory modulated sympathetic activity: a putative mechanism for developing vascular resistance? J. Physiol. (Lond.), 593(24):5341-5360. Briant, L. J. B., Paton, J. F., Pickering, A. E., and Champneys, A. R. (2015). Modelling the vascular response to sympathetic postganglionic nerve activity. J. Theor. Biol., 371:102-116. Briant, L. J. B., Stalbovskiy, A. O., Nolan, M. F., Champneys, A. R., and Pickering, A. E. (2014). Increased intrinsic excitability of muscle vasoconstrictor preganglionic neurons may contribute to the elevated sympathetic activity in hypertensive rats. J. Neurophysiol., 112(11):2756-2778. ...
Objective: To investigate the causes of Peripheral Sympathetic Nerve Dysfunction in girls immunized with the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine.
BACKGROUND: The adipose afferent reflex (AAR), a sympatho-excitatory reflex, can promote the elevation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP). Inflammation in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) involves sympathetic abnormality in some cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. This study was designed to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in the PVN on the AAR and SNA in rats with obesity-related hypertension (OH) induced by a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. METHODS: Renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were continuously recorded in anesthetized rats, and their responses to capsaicin (CAP) stimulation of the right inguinal white adipose tissue were used to evaluate the AAR. RESULTS: Compared to the control rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), plasma norepinephrine (NE, indicating SNA) and TNFα levels, TNFα mRNA and protein levels, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content and NADPH oxidase activity in the PVN were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A heart-brain-kidney network controls adaptation to cardiac stress through tissue macrophage activation. AU - Fujiu, Katsuhito. AU - Shibata, Munehiko. AU - Nakayama, Yukiteru. AU - Ogata, Fusa. AU - Matsumoto, Sahohime. AU - Noshita, Koji. AU - Iwami, Shingo. AU - Nakae, Susumu. AU - Komuro, Issei. AU - Nagai, Ryozo. AU - Manabe, Ichiro. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome characterized by insufficient cardiac function. In addition to abnormalities intrinsic to the heart, dysfunction of other organs and dysregulation of systemic factors greatly affect the development and consequences of heart failure. Here we show that the heart and kidneys function cooperatively in generating an adaptive response to cardiac pressure overload. In mice subjected to pressure overload in the heart, sympathetic nerve activation led to activation of renal collecting-duct (CD) epithelial cells. Cell-cell interactions among activated CD cells, tissue ...
The primary novel finding of the present study is that sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone of the lower limb (i.e., leg) is augmented in old compared with young women. Specifically, young women exhibit no detectable sympathetic vasoconstriction in their leg vasculature at rest. Conversely, there appears to be robust vasoconstriction in the resting lower limbs of older women. Collectively, these findings suggest that with advanced age there is an emergence of a sympathetic neural influence on leg vascular tone in women. These conclusions are based on the observation that acute sympathetic inhibition via carotid artery baroreceptor loading increased femoral artery vascular conductance (FVC; Fig. 1) ~21% in old women, whereas FVC was unchanged in the younger women with the same intervention.. It is well established that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) is augmented with age in women (Ng et al. 1993; Matsukawa et al. 1998; Moreau et al. 2003; Narkiewicz et al. 2005; Hart et al. 2011; Barnes ...
This study is investigating the effect of Azilsartan on sympathetic nerve activity in sleep disordered breathing with hypertension.
冠動脈疾患患者の交感神経活動におよぼす喫煙の影響 Effects of cigarette smoking on sympathetic nerve activity in patients with coronary artery disease. ...
Heightened sympathetic excitation and diminished parasympathetic suppression of heart rate, cardiac contractility and vascular tone are all associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and ischemic heart disease. This phenotype often exists before these disease states have been established and is a strong correlate of mortality in the population. However, the causal role of the autonomic phenotype in the development and maintenance of hypertension and myocardial ischemia remains a subject of debate, as are the mechanisms responsible for regulating sympathovagal balance. Emerging evidence suggests oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (such as nitric oxide (NO) and superoxide) play important roles in the modulation of autonomic balance, but so far the most important sites of action of these ubiquitous signaling molecules are unclear. In many cases, these mediators have opposing effects in separate tissues rendering conventional pharmacological approaches non-efficacious. Novel
A part of our nervous system called the autonomic nervous system is devoted to automatic reactions or involuntary things like breathing, sweating, and sleeping. Within the autonomic nervous system, there are two opposing sub-systems that work together: sympathetic and parasympathetic. The sympathetic nervous system has many roles, one of which is kicking us into gear when our brain perceives something dangerous or stressful. A series of chemical reactions occur, which prepare the body for action. Involuntary reactions occur including increased blood pressure and heart rate, dilated pupils and increased energy. This reaction is commonly referred to as the fight or flight response. The response is the body s way of preparing for an effective and immediate response.. ...
Sympathetic Nervous System - the division of the nervous system responsible for non-voluntary functions, such as circulation, respiration, digestion. There is no
The role of the sympathetic nervous system in the human body and examines how it can be easily upset by high levels of stress, lack of exercise and poor diet
sympathetic nervous system (Pharmcabulary for Memorizing Pharmacology Chapter 5 Neuro Flashcard) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral.
A preparation was devised in which the sympathetic vasoconstrictor response in the dog kidney perfused in vivo at constant blood flow could be elicited and measured, and the accompanying release of transmitter into the venous effluent could be quantitated. An i.a. infusion of angiotensin II amide resulted in potentiation of the response to sympathetic stimulation at a low frequency (2 cps) and an increased release of catecholamine elicited during stimulation at a higher frequency (5 cps). The vasoconstrictor response to sympathetic stimulation was increased to a much greater degree than the vasoconstrictor response to i.a. administered norepinephnine (1 µg). Cocaine, when infused i.a., potentiated the responses to both sympathetic stimulation and norepinephrine, the latter to a somewhat greater degree. Release of catecholamine during stimulation at the higher frequency also was increased after cocaine. The difference in the relative degree of potentiation of the response to endogenously ...
Enhanced sympathetic activity at the ventricular myocardium can destabilize repolarization, increasing the risk of death. Sympathetic activity is known to cluster in low-frequency bursts; therefore, we hypothesized that sympathetic activity induces periodic low-frequency changes of repolarization. We developed a technique to assess the sympathetic effect on repolarization and identified periodic components in the low-frequency spectral range (≤0.1 Hz), which we termed periodic repolarization dynamics (PRD). ...
why one of the adverse effects of levodopa is ortho static hypotention? Answered by Dr. Payam Mehranpour: Peripheral: Effect on peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Refer to ...
As a prototypical member of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily, β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) plays a central role in sympathetic regulation of cardiac function.1,2 Stimulation of βAR by catecholamines induces robust chronotropic, inotropic, and relaxant effects via the Gs-adenylate cyclase-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway.3,4 This signaling pathway is also thought to be responsible for other functions of βAR, such as regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell growth, and apoptosis.2 However, sustained βAR activation under pathological conditions such as hypertension and congestive heart failure will result in downregulation and desensitization of βAR attributable to the negative feedback of this pathway.5-7. Recent studies have revealed unanticipated complexity of βAR signal transduction. For β2AR subtype stimulation in the heart, a parallel activation of Gi protein counterbalances Gs-mediated contractile response. Whereas β1AR stimulated contractile response is ...
金 秀吉 , 河南 洋 , 林田 嘉朗 , 中村 正 , 東野 英明 , 山下 博 産業医科大学雑誌 11, 361-370, 1989 医中誌Web 被引用文献1件 ...
Sympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system The sympathetic nervous system extends from the thoracic to lumbar vertebrae and has connections with the
There may be some truth in the saying no pain, no gain. Pain is a friendly signal alerting us that something is dangerous or abnormal. Pain is not a disease but a symptom.
Can you name the Sympathetic Innervations of the Abdomen? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by ezhang
TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of paraventricular nucleus (PVH) in baroreflex-mediated changes in lumbar sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. AU - Patel, K. P.. AU - Schmid, P. G.. PY - 1988/4. Y1 - 1988/4. N2 - Electrophysiological and neuronanatomical studies indicate that reciprocal connections between the paraventricular nucleus (PVH) and medullary sites are involved in cardiovascular regulation. To determine whether the PVH is involved in the regulation of baroreflex responses, lumbar sympathetic nerve activity (LSNA) and heart rate (HR) changes were recorded in response to increases in arterial pressure (produced by bolus doses of phenylephrine i.v.) prior to, during, and 60 min following the injection of lidocaine (2% lidocaine, 200 nl) bilaterally in the PVH of chloralose-anesthetized rabbits. Baseline blood pressure, HR, and LSNA did not change in response to the administration of lidocaine in the PVH. The magnitude of baroreflex responses in HR and LSNA were expressed as the ratios of ...
In this study, we propose a new technique which detects the anomalies in skin sympathetic nerve activity (SKNA) recorded from the chest wall by using the state-of-the-art signal processing and machine learning methods for the robust detection of myocardial ischaemia (AMI). For this purpose, a preprocessing technique that obtains SKNA from the wideband recordings on STAFF III database, which are non-invasively recorded from the skin surface of the chest wall by using an equipment that has a wide frequency bandwidth and high sampling rate, is developed. By using the data that is obtained as a result of preprocessing, a novel feature extraction technique which obtains SKNA features that are critical for the reliable detection of AMI is developed. By using the critical SKNA features, a supervised learning technique based on artificial neural networks (ANN) which performs the robust detection of AMI is developed. The performance results of the proposed technique obtained from a considerable number of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Influence of Sympathetic Nerves on Transcutaneous Oxygen Tension in Normal and Ischemic Lower Extremities. AU - Rooke, Thom W.. AU - Hollier, Larry H.. AU - Osmundson, Philip J.. PY - 1987/5. Y1 - 1987/5. N2 - The authors evaluated the relationship between sympathetic nerve activity and transcutaneous oxygen tension (TcpO2) in normal and ischemic lower extremities. Dorsal foot TcpO2 was measured by using oxygen-sensing electrodes with surface temperatures of 42 ° C and 45°C; in theory, changes in sympathetic activity should affect vasomotor tone and TcpO2 in skin beneath an electrode at 42 °C (submaximal vasodilation), but not at 45°C (maximal vasodilation). The vasodilation index (TcpO2 at 42°C/TcpO2 at 45°C) was created as an index of vasomotor tone (vasodilation index increases as tone decreases). In normal limbs (n=24) averages for TcpO2 at 42°C, TcpO2 at 45°C, and vasodilation index were 30.3 mmHg, 62.1 mmHg, and 0.47, respectively. In subjects (n=5) with ...
The profound reduction in heart rate variability (HRV) that occurs during exercise is thought to be, at least in part, the result of sympathetic nervous system activation. Moxonidine is a centrally acting anti-sympathetic drug, which suppresses sympathetic nervous system outflow by stimulation of central imidazoline receptors located in the rostral ventro-lateral medulla. This study was designed to investigate the combined effects of central sympathetic inhibition with moxonidine and steady-state dynamic exercise on HRV. Ten normal males participated in a double-blind cross-over study, taking either placebo or 0·4 mg of moxonidine. The subjects were studied at rest and during steady-state exercise. HRV was measured considering both time and frequency domain parameters. As a non-linear measure, the Poincaré scatter-plot was measured and analysed quantitatively. Ventilation and gas exchange were also measured during exercise. In addition, plasma catecholamines were measured at rest and during ...
Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity is a complex process under the best of conditions in human patients, and further complicated in disease states. In our podcast about the work by Limberg et al, Associate Editor Dr. Irving Zucker interviews lead author Jerome Dempsey (University of Wisconsin - Madison) and expert Harold Schultz (University of Nebraska Medical Center) to dig deeper into the question: Does breathing have the same marked modulatory effect on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in steady state activity - bursts per minute - as it does within the breath itself? Using previous studies with inconsistent results as a springboard for their own research, Dempsey and colleagues studied MSNA in human patients within breath and at steady state. What were their results? Listen in and find out. Jacqueline K. Limberg, Barbara J. Morgan, William G. Schrage, and Jerome A. Dempsey Respiratory influences on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and vascular conductance in the steady state Am ...
Regulation of sympathetic nerve activity is a complex process under the best of conditions in human patients, and further complicated in disease states. In our podcast about the work by Limberg et al, Associate Editor Dr. Irving Zucker interviews lead author Jerome Dempsey (University of Wisconsin - Madison) and expert Harold Schultz (University of Nebraska Medical Center) to dig deeper into the question: Does breathing have the same marked modulatory effect on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in steady state activity - bursts per minute - as it does within the breath itself? Using previous studies with inconsistent results as a springboard for their own research, Dempsey and colleagues studied MSNA in human patients within breath and at steady state. What were their results? Listen in and find out. Jacqueline K. Limberg, Barbara J. Morgan, William G. Schrage, and Jerome A. Dempsey Respiratory influences on muscle sympathetic nerve activity and vascular conductance in the steady state Am ...
Posted on May 11, 2015 By Ilia Elenkov Neuroendocrine Immunology News. A recent study published in Hypertension demonstrates that cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α acting at the level of the subfornical organ induce the expression of inflammatory and excitatory mediators that subsequently drive sympathetic nervous system activation. The subfornical organ (SFO), a highly vascularized structure is a circumventricular organ that lacks […] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Leptin injection into white adipose tissue elevates renal sympathetic nerve activity dose-dependently through the afferent nerves pathway in rats. AU - Tanida, M. AU - Iwashita, S. AU - Ootsuka, Youichirou. AU - Terui, N. AU - Suzuki, M. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. M3 - Article. VL - 293. SP - 107. EP - 110. JO - Neuroscience Letters. JF - Neuroscience Letters. SN - 0304-3940. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fish oil and neurovascular control in humans. AU - Carter, Jason R.. AU - Schwartz, Christopher E.. AU - Yang, Huan. AU - Joyner, Michael Joseph. PY - 2012/8/15. Y1 - 2012/8/15. N2 - The antihypertensive influence of fish oil is controversial, and the mechanisms remain unclear. Because the inverse relation between fish oil and hypertension appears to be partially dependent on the degree of hypertension, we tested the hypothesis that fish oil would elicit more dramatic reductions in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in prehypertensive (PHT) compared with normotensive (NT) subjects. Resting MAP, MSNA, and heart rate (HR) were examined before and after 8 wk of fish oil (9 g/day; 1.6 g eicosapentaenoic acid and 1.1 g docosahexaenoic acid) or placebo (olive oil; 9 g/day) in 38 NT (19 fish oil; 19 placebo) and 29 PHT (15 fish oil; 14 placebo) volunteers. Fish oil did not alter resting MAP, MSNA, or HR in either NT (80 ± 1 to 80± 1 mmHg; 11 ± 2 ...
This can temporarily relieve symptoms, and sometimes relieve them long term. A sympathetic nerve block involves injecting this material around the sympathetic nerves.. If the initial block is successful in relieving pain for longer than the duration of the local anaesthetic (which generally helps for only a few hours), then additional blocks may be repeated in 7 -14 days, and again later if there is some success.. Sympathetic nerve blocks are designed to produce temporary or permanent interruption of activity in the sympathetic nervous system, particularly the efferent sympathetic pathways (efferent nerves transmit information from the central nervous system out to the muscles or glands). In some cases, blocks can temporarily or permanently interrupt activity of the accompanying afferent nerves (the nerves that carry information from the nerve receptors into the brain or spinal cord).. Alteration in sympathetic nervous system activity can be associated with, or be a cause of pain. Its often ...
Dr. Knights research program aims to investigate biological risk and interventions - both pharmacologic and behavioral - for social health disparities in cancer, specifically among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT) and cellular therapy recipients. Our lab does this by investigating how variations in immune function based on socioeconomic status (SES) - among other social health variables including depression, stress, sleep quality, and anxiety - contribute to differential patient responses and outcomes following HCT and cellular therapy. Reciprocally, we also investigate how these cancer therapies affect central nervous system function.. To accomplish these goals, we study biobehavioral mechanisms of cancer progression. Candidate mechanisms include the conserved transcriptional response to adversity (CTRA) transcriptome profile and associated molecular changes, inflammation, sympathetic nervous system activation, neurotoxic metabolites, and the endocannabinoid system, among others. These ...
In the present study, we attempted to unravel the physiological implications of circadian oscillators in response to sympathetic nervous system activation in osteoblasts. Our results suggest that β-AR signaling increases the expression of Nfil3 and, consequently, its binding to the Ptgs2 promoter, which in turn inhibits Ptgs2 expression in osteoblasts (supplementary material Fig. S2).. Recent studies conducted in our laboratory have shown that treatments with Iso or Dex induce circadian expression of the clock genes Per1, Per2, Per3 and Bmal1 in human osteoblasts. On the one hand, Iso induced oscillations in the osteoblast-related gene Col1a1, but not in ALP or osteocalcin (Komoto et al., 2012). On the other hand, we did not observe any significant effects of Iso in osteoclasts, which indicates that Dex rather than Iso signaling governs the transcriptional rhythmicity of the molecular clock in osteoclasts (Fujihara et al., 2014). These findings suggest that the Iso-mediated effects on Per2 ...
To verify response mechanisms and the feasibility of clinical models of pain research, the effect of laser phototherapy on neurophysiological pain mechanisms needs to be determined first in the absence of pathology. A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, repeated measures study was undertaken to investigate the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) following laser irradiation. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in a study that consisted of 5 treatments to the right posterior neck region at a dose of 4.0 J/cm2, using 820 nm laser. Each subject received active laser, placebo laser and a control condition over a three-day period, with a minimum of one day between sessions. Heart rate, blood pressure, bilateral skin temperature and skin conductance were measured distally. Results indicated that there was no alteration in sympathetic outflow, with no change in any of the outcome variables. It was concluded that in the laser phototherapy strategy used in this study, ...
It has been shown that sustained insulin infusion causes an increase in sympathetic vasoconstrictor discharge but, despite this, also causes peripheral vasodilatation. The present study was designed to determine in healthy subjects the effect of ingestion of a carbohydrate meal, with its attendant physiological insulinaemia, on vascular resistance in and sympathetic vasoconstrictor discharge to the same vascular bed, and the relationship between these parameters. Fifteen healthy subjects were studied for 2 h following ingestion of a carbohydrate meal. Calf vascular resistance was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity was assessed by peroneal microneurography. Five of the subjects also ingested water on a separate occasion, as a control. Following the carbohydrate meal, the serum insulin concentration increased to 588+/-72 pmol/l. This was associated with a 47% increase in skeletal muscle blood flow (P|0.001), a 39% fall in vascular resistance (P|0.001) and a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stroke-induced chronic systolic dysfunction driven by sympathetic overactivity. AU - Bieber, Michael. AU - Werner, Rudolf A.. AU - Tanai, Edit. AU - Hofmann, Ulrich. AU - Higuchi, Takahiro. AU - Schuh, Kai. AU - Heuschmann, Peter U.. AU - Frantz, Stefan. AU - Ritter, Oliver. AU - Kraft, Peter. AU - Kleinschnitz, Christoph. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by grants from the Bundesmi-nisterium fu€r Bildung und Forschung (BMBF01EO1504) through the Comprehensive Heart Failure Center Wu€rzburg. Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Authors Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association. PY - 2017/11. Y1 - 2017/11. N2 - Objective: Cardiac diseases are established risk factors for ischemic stroke incidence and severity. Conversely, there is increasing evidence that brain ischemia can cause cardiac dysfunction. The mechanisms underlying this neurogenic heart disease are incompletely understood. Although it is ...
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system, manifested by an increase in plasma norepinephrine (NE), is a salient feature in congestive heart failure (HF). This was first thought to be an important adaptive mechanism to support the failing myocardium (1). However, evidence now indicates that activation of the sympathetic nervous system is detrimental and maladaptive. Long-term exposure of the heart to NE can cause not only myocardial β-adrenoceptor down-regulation but also cardiac hypertrophy, ischemia, cardiac arrhythmia, tissue necrosis, and myocyte apoptosis, all of which have been shown in patients with congestive HF (2). This concept is further supported by several large clinical trials showing that long-term β-blocker therapy can not only improve left ventricular (LV) systolic function but also increase survival in patients with chronic HF secondary to LV systolic dysfunction (3-5).. Given the overwhelming success of the β-adrenoceptor blocker therapy, several investigators have ...
Continuous recording of mean cerebral blood flow velocity (MCBFV) by Doppler ultrasound allows detection of low-frequency (LF) oscillations, which reflect sympathetic activity in the cerebral circulation. To establish whether the sympathetic drive to the cerebral circulation is altered in patients with compensated cirrhosis, and, if so, where alterations take place, LF oscillations of MCBFV, heart rate (RR interval) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were analysed in 10 patients with cirrhosis and 10 control subjects during supine rest and on stimulation of carotid baroreceptors using a neck chamber applying sinusoidal suction. Bivariate analysis was used to study the relationship between pairs of oscillations. In the case of a significant association, the delay in the appearance of the oscillation in MCBFV, SAP and RR was calculated. Baroreceptor stimulation induced significant increases in SAP LF and RR LF power in both groups, while MCBFV LF power increased only in controls. During ...
2 Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently accompanied by activation of the sympathetic nervous system. This can be due to the presence of chronic diseases associated with sympathetic activation prior to AKI or induced by stressors that ultimately lead to AKI such as endotoxins and arterial hypotension in circulatory shock. Conversely, sympathetic activation may also result from acute renal injury. Focusing on studies in experimental renal ischemia and reperfusion (IR), this review summarizes the current knowledge on how the sympathetic nervous system is activated in IR‐induced AKI and on the consequences of sympathetic activation for the development of acute renal damage. Experimental studies show beneficial effects of sympathoinhibitory interventions on renal structure and function in response to IR. However, few clinical trials obtained in scenarios that correspond to experimental IR, namely major elective surgery, showed that perioperative treatment with centrally acting ...
Powell et al. defined short- and long-term time domains in the respiratory response to both single and repetitive hypoxic exposures [1]. Aspects of these time domains reflect a neural plasticity in the network generating the respiratory pattern and are evident in both the timing and amplitude of the cycle. Studies from our laboratory have focused on the plasticity evoked by hypoxia, in particular, the role of the lateral pons in modulating the cycles timing [2,3]. Because of respiratory modulation of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), we hypothesized that comparable time domains are also evident in SNAs response to hypoxia and that the lateral pons also modulates plasticity in SNA.. We recorded phrenic nerve activity (PNA) and splanchnic SNA in anesthetized (Equithesin), paralyzed, vagotomized, thoracotomized, adult male rats (Sprague-Dawley, Zivic Miller). We generated cycle-triggered averages of PNA and sSNA before, during and after hypoxic exposures (8% O2/92% N2, 45 s duration). In a ...
In vagotomized and anesthetized rabbits, aortic pressure (AP), aortic depressor nerve activity (ANA), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) were simultaneously measured while perturbing AP randomly. To quantitatively characterize the role of the
The influence of i.a. infusions of equivalent doses of prostaglandins (PG) E1, E2, F1α and F2α on vasoconstrictor responses to norepinephrine and sympathetic nerve stimulation were evaluated in the dog hindpaw perfused at constant flow. Infusions of PGE1 and PGE2,1 µg/min, decreased vascular resistance in the hindpaw. PGE1 markedly reduced responses to i.a. norepinephrine, angiotensin and sympathetic nerve stimulation whereas PGE2 did not alter these responses. However, when the infusion rate was increased to 2 µg/min, responses to nerve stimulation, but not norepinephrine, were enhanced. Infusion of PGF1α, and PGF2α, 1 µg/min, caused no change in vancular resistance in the hindpaw but enhanced the response to sympathetic nerve stimulation. PGF1α, decreased the response to norepinephrine whereas PGF2α, was without effect. These results suggest that PGF2α may enhance adrenergic transmission in the hindpaw by facilitating the release of transmitter from sympathetic nerve endings and that ...
Whats the difference between Parasympathetic nervous system and Sympathetic nervous system? The parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) controls homeostasis and the body at rest and is responsible for the bodys rest and digest function. The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) controls the bodys responses to a perceived threat and is responsible for...
Disturbed shear rate (SR), characterized by increased retrograde and oscillatory SR in the brachial artery, is associated with inflammation, atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and sympathetic hyperactivity. Young subjects do not have disturbed SR; however, elderly subjects do, which seems to be associated with sympathetic hyperactivity. Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse in young is associated with increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). We hypothesized that AAS users might have disturbed SR. We tested the association between retrograde and oscillatory SR with MSNA. In addition, we measured the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). We evaluated 10 male AAS users, age 27 ± 4 years, and 10 age-matched AAS nonusers, age 29 ± 5 years. At rest, retrograde and oscillatory SR were evaluated by Doppler ultrasound, MSNA was measured with microneurography, and hs-CRP was measured in blood sample. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was also assessed. AAS users had higher ...
The arterial baroreflexs (ABR) operating point (OP) pressure is reset upwards and rightwards from rest in direct relation to the increases in dynamic exercise intensity. However the interneural pathways and signaling mechanisms that lead to upwards and rightwards resetting of the OP pressure, and hence the increases in central sympathetic outflow during exercise, remain to be identified. Data from recent animal investigations have implicated nitric oxide (NO) as a modulator of central sympathetic outflow. For example, introduction of NO centrally dampens sympathetic outflow and there is a growing body of evidence that indicates that central NO is scavenged by centrally generated free radicals (FR), thereby, enabling increased central sympathetic outflow. Furthermore, during dynamic exercise, increases in centrally generated FRs formed by increased intensity-related oxidative metabolism and central angiotensin II (Ang II) production linked to exercise intensity related FR production suggests that FRs
We tested whether mild adiposity alters responsiveness of the kidney to activation of the renal sympathetic nerves. After rabbits were fed a high-fat or control diet for 9 wk, responses to reflex activation of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) with hypoxia and electrical stimulation of the renal nerves (RNS) were examined under pentobarbital anesthesia. Fat pad mass and body weight were, respectively, 74% and 6% greater in fat-fed rabbits than controls. RNS produced frequency-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, cortical and medullary perfusion, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow, and sodium excretion and increased renal plasma renin activity (PRA) overflow. Responses of sodium excretion and medullary perfusion were significantly enhanced by fat feeding. For example, 1 Hz RNS reduced sodium excretion by 79 ± 4% in fat-fed rabbits and 46 ± 13% in controls. RNS (2 Hz) reduced medullary perfusion by 38 ± 11% in fat-fed rabbits and 9 ± 4% in controls. Hypoxia doubled RSNA, ...
We observed earlier that central alpha-2 adrenoceptor stimulation in mice greatly augments parasympathetic tone. To test the effects in humans, we assessed autonomic vasomotor tone and baroreflex regulation in 9 normal young adults on 2 occasions, on
Obesity contributes to high blood pressure, but why and how this happens remains unclear. One of the major causes of high blood pressure-or hypertension-is the inappropriate activation of the fight-or-flight sympathetic nervous system response, and most obesity researchers have focused on factors that increase sympathetic activity. Virginia Brooks, Ph.D., however, has been investigating mechanisms that inhibit this activity. A team led by Brooks, professor of physiology and pharmacology at OHSU, identified a neuromodulator, neuropeptide Y (NPY), that inhibits sympathetic activity in a specific area of … Read More. ...
sympathetic nervous system The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system.. Preganglionic fibres originate in the thoracic and lumbar sections of the spinal cord and synapse with postganglionic nerve cells in the sympathetic ganglia. Most of these ganglia are in two ironss sidelong to the anchor, and others are within the bole ; postganglionic fibres extend to the variety meats innervated. Some effects of sympathetic stimulation are increased bosom rate, dilation of the bronchioles, dilation of the students, vasoconstriction in the tegument and entrails, vasodilation in the skeletal musculuss, decelerating of vermiculation, transition of animal starch to glucose by the liver, and secernment of adrenaline and noradrenaline by the adrenal myelin. Sympathetic effects are general instead than specific and fix the organic structure to get by with nerve-racking state of affairss. See: autonomic nervous system for illus.. and table ; parasympathetic nervous systemSympathetic urges have the ...
Central mechanisms involving aldosterone - mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activation mediate the increase in sympathetic tone after myocardial infarction (MI). We hypothesized that an increase in cardiac sympathetic activity (CSA) post MI facilitates cardiac sympathetic axonal sprouting, and that central MR blockade attenuates CSA and reduces cardiac sympathetic hyperinnervation post MI. Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to assess protein and gene expression, and fluorescent immunohistochemistry was used to study changes in sympathetic innervation. Tyrosine hydroxylase ...
The answer is no- there is not an adrenaline response to exercise. The adrenaline response is also known as the fight or flight response, and it is activated by the amydala, which is part of the limbic system of the brain. The amygdala senses fear, anxiety, and stressors. When the amygdala is triggered by anxiety and stressors, it in turn activates the sympathetic nervous system via the locus coeruleus, and also activates the HPA axis (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis). The sympathetic nervous system then triggers various body organs, such as the heart, and it increases the heart beat and contraction. The sympathetic nervous system also activates the adrenal medulla, and it subsequently releases epinephrine (adrenaline) into the bloodstream, acting as a circulating hormone in the bloodstream and further adding to the sympathetic nervous system response of increasing heart rate, widening the bronchioles in the lungs, increased sweating, increased muscle tension, and blood shunting from the ...
The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) and the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) constitute the autonomic nervous system; acting together, they maintain homeostatic balance. The postganglionic component of the SNS, a relatively simple model used to study development of the nervous system in mammals, develops independently of other neuronal lineages, with the neurons being predominantly noradrenergic. All neurons and glia of the SNS develop from the neural crest (NC) lineage. The trunk NC cells form at the dorsal aspect of the neural fold and migrate through the ventromedial somitic sclerotome to the dorsal aorta and major blood vessels. Once the NC cells reach the dorsal aorta, they receive an inductive cue, thought to be BMPs, to activate the SNS-specific differentiation program (Reissmann et al., 1996). The dorsal aorta expresses Bmp2, Bmp4 and Bmp7, and all have been shown to activate the SNS developmental program in vitro (Reissmann et al., 1996; Shah et al., 1996; Varley and Maxwell, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vascular effects of deletion of melanocortin-4 receptors in rats. AU - Stepp, David W.. AU - Osakwe, Christabell C.. AU - de Chantemele, Eric J.Belin. AU - Mintz, James D.. PY - 2013/1/1. Y1 - 2013/1/1. N2 - Obesity is a major cause of hypertension, but links between the obese and hypertensive states remain incompletely understood. A major component of cardiovascular function in obese individuals is a state of sympathoactivation. A postulated mechanism of this sympathoactivation is the activation of specific classes of neurons commonly associated with metabolic control, which also affect sympathetic outflow to cardiovascular targets. One class of neurons is characterized by expression of melanocortin-4 receptors (MC4R) which are activated by metabolic signals such as leptin and insulin. In this study, we examined the effects of deletion of MC4R in a novel rat model. MC4R knockout (KO) rats are obese and profoundly insulin resistant without frank diabetes. Despite these ...
Pain changes the way you move - literally changing motor patterns in the brain. Activation of type IV mechanoreceptors AKA nociceptors causes reflex muscle spasms of the injured/painful area. This leads to decreased motion and altered motor patterns. The opposite goal of what we are shooting for in OS. Increased Nociception also leads to sympathetic nervous system activity which leads to sympathetic mediate muscle spasm which decreases blood flow to working muscles which decreases oxygen and nutrient transport in and waste transport out of the muscles. Increased sympathetic activity also means increase cortisol levels and increased cortisol levels inhibit neuroplastic changes in the motor cortex which means your RESETS are less effective at resetting and wiring in better movement patterns. Also, remember pain is a cortical response to nociception (ie emotional response) that has reached a threshold and one is now consciously aware of, nociception is actual tissue damage/stress that is injurious. ...
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM ACTIVITY IN CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE. Sharma, M.; Bhowmik, D.; Deepak, K. K.; Tiwari, S. C.; Dash, S. C. // Indian Journal of Nephrology;Jul-Sep2007, Vol. 17 Issue 3, p107 Introduction: Hypertension is common in chronic kidney disease and plays a pivotal role in progression of renal dysfunction. The pathogenesis of hypertension in CKD is multifactorial. The stage at which the sympathetic activity starts to rise is still unclear. Hence this study was conducted to... ...
Together with the other component of the autonomic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, the sympathetic nervous ... The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the ... In the sympathetic nervous system and other components of the peripheral nervous system, these synapses are made at sites ... The sympathetic nervous system is described as being antagonistic to the parasympathetic nervous system which stimulates the ...
Autonomic ganglion Prevertebral plexus Dogiel cells Sympathetic (red) and parasympathetic (blue) nervous system "". ... Some of the targets present in the pelvic viscera include the enteric nervous system, as well as the renal system, bladder, and ... Nerves arising from the lateral horn of the spinal cord are those of the autonomic nervous system. They exit through the ... Prevertebral ganglia (or collateral ganglia, or preaortic ganglia) lie between the sympathetic ganglia and the target organ. ...
... are cardiopulmonary splanchnic nerves that allows the sympathetic nervous system's stimulation of the heart. ... "The Open Door Web Site : IB Biology : Animal Physiology : The Nervous System and Movement : The Major Factors controlling the ... They originate from the ganglion cells of the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglion of the sympathetic trunk. The ... Sympathetic nervous system). ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Inferior mesenteric artery Superior mesenteric plexus This article incorporates ... The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Lower half of right sympathetic cord. Inferior mesenteric plexus This article ... The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. I. B. Singh (2008). "The Facial Nerve". Essentials of Anatomy. Jaypee Brothers ... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is part of the human autonomic nervous system. It is one ... In summary, the fibers carried in the ganglion are: Sympathetic fibers from the external carotid plexus, via the facial nerve ...
The sympathetic trunk is a fundamental part of the sympathetic nervous system, and part of the autonomic nervous system. It ... The sympathetic trunk permits preganglionic fibers of the sympathetic nervous system to ascend to spinal levels superior to T1 ... Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic connections of the ciliary and superior cervical ganglia. Sacral ... They are a major component of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic trunk lies just lateral to the vertebral bodies ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Perez, GM; Keyser, RB (September 1986). "Cell body counts in human ciliary ... The sympathetic root contains the postganglionic sympathetic axons that provide sympathetic supply to the blood vessels of the ... Both of these muscles are involuntary since they are controlled by the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system ... The sympathetic root originates from the internal carotid plexus with cell bodies in the superior cervical ganglion. The axons ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic connections of the sphenopalatine and superior cervical ganglia. ... The stellate ganglion is at the bottom of the cervical sympathetic chain. Fibers from the stellate ganglion pass up the chain ... It receives a sensory, a parasympathetic, and a sympathetic root. Its sensory root is derived from two sphenopalatine branches ... The right sympathetic chain and its connections with the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic plexuses. ...
Diagram of efferent sympathetic nervous system. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 897 of the 20th ... Its sympathetic root is derived from the plexus on the middle meningeal artery. It contains post-ganglionic fibers arising in ... Frey's syndrome is caused by re-routing of parasympathetic and sympathetic fibres of the auriculotemporal nerve (V3) within the ...
Sympathetic nervous system innervation inhibits gastric motility. Parasympathetic nervous system innervation stimulates gastric ... These efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system are cholinergic and adrenergic neurons. The inner circular layer is ... of the smooth muscle cells can be caused by action potentials in efferent motor neurons of the enteric nervous system, or by ... All articles with unsourced statements, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2010, Digestive system, ...
ROSS JP (December 1953). "Some Unsolved Problems in the Surgery of the Sympathetic Nervous System". Annals of the Royal College ... Gask, G. E. (1933). "The surgery of the sympathetic nervous system". British Journal of Surgery. 21 (81): 113-30. doi:10.1002/ ... Some Unsolved Problems in the Surgery of the Sympathetic Nervous System 1951 Sir Ernest Frederick Finch, The Approach to ... The Influence of the Sympathetic System on Disease 1881 George Vivian Poore, Nervous Affections of the Hand (Inaugural Lecture ...
It inhibits the renal sympathetic nervous system. ANP has the opposite effect of angiotensin II on the kidney: angiotensin II ... two salt saving systems, the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) and the renal sympathetic system (RSS); and the salt ... Each system also suppresses its counteracting system(s). NP's are made in cardiac, intestinal, renal, and adrenal tissue: ANP ... ANP is shown to regulate several functions of innate and adaptive immune system as well as shown to have cytoprotective effects ...
The sympathetic nervous system was involved as well; the reduction in active sweat glands was caused by destruction of their ... The auditory system response occurs at least from 200 MHz to at least 3 GHz. In the tests, repetition rate of 50 Hz was used, ... The Active Denial System ("pain ray") is a less-lethal directed energy weapon that employs a microwave beam at 95 GHz; a two- ... Lin, J.C. (1997). Advances in Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems. Vol. 2. Springer. p. 155. ISBN 9780306455087. Retrieved ...
... and increases sympathetic nervous system activity. Ang II also provides a negative feedback to the system by inhibiting renin ... Brown, M. J. (2006). "Direct renin inhibition - a new way of targeting the renin system". Journal of the Renin-Angiotensin- ... These drugs inhibit the first and rate-limiting step of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), namely the conversion ... Weir MR (September 2007). "Effects of renin-angiotensin system inhibition on end-organ protection: can we do better?". Clin ...
The phenomena is experienced in the anhidriotic, denervated area of the body, presenting an abnormal sympathetic nervous system ... The permanent destruction of thermoregulatory function of the sympathetic nervous system causes latent complications, e.g., RSD ... Compensatory hyperhidrosis is aberrant sympathetic nervous system functioning. The only study evaluating the total body sweat ... Sweating after sympathetic surgery is a reflex cycle between the sympathetic system and the anterior portion of the ...
Chien, S (1967). "Role of the sympathetic nervous system in hemorrhage". Physiological Reviews. American Physiological Society ...
NE is a part of the sympathetic nervous system. Dysregulation of the removal of norepinephrine by NET is associated with many ... Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a disorder of the autonomic nervous system (a subcategory of dysautonomia) characterized by the ... Norepinephrine transporters are confined to the neurons of the sympathetic system, and those innervating the adrenal medulla, ... Parker LK, Shanks JA, Kennard JA, Brain KL (February 2010). "Dynamic monitoring of NET activity in mature murine sympathetic ...
November 2002). "Leptin regulates bone formation via the sympathetic nervous system". Cell. 111 (3): 305-317. doi:10.1016/S0092 ... the nervous system consists of two main parts, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The ... where it acts through the sympathetic nervous system to regulate bone metabolism. Leptin may also act directly on bone ... Bone metabolism can be regulated by central sympathetic outflow, since sympathetic pathways innervate bone tissue. A number of ...
Class II agents are anti-sympathetic nervous system agents. Most agents in this class are beta blockers. Class III agents ... Sympatholytic drugs (drugs blocking the effects of the sympathetic nervous system): examples included bretylium and adrenergic ... One of his students, Bramah N. Singh, contributed to the development of the classification system. The system is therefore ... of electrical impulses through the AV node and increases vagal activity via its central action on the central nervous system, ...
These cells are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. When stimulated, the cells contract, widening the pupil and ... It is innervated by the sympathetic system, which acts by releasing noradrenaline, which acts on α1-receptors. Thus, when ... Scheme showing sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the pupil and sites of lesion in a Horner's syndrome. Sympathetic ... Pupil dilation occurs when there is insufficient light for the normal function of the eye, and during heightened sympathetic ...
She researches the sympathetic nervous system development and functions. Her studies explore endocytic trafficking of ... neurotrophins in nervous system maintenance. "Rejji Kuruvilla, Ph.D." Retrieved 2019-01-30. Kuruvilla ... Kuruvilla completed postdoctoral research on neurotrophin signaling in sympathetic neurons at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine ...
There is increased activity in the sympathetic nervous system. Cortisol levels are elevated. Energy-providing compounds of ... Activity in an area near the brain stem known as the reticular activating system increases, causing a state of keen alertness ... Researchers have been studying how stress affects the cardiovascular system, as well as how work stress can lead to ... The action immune and digestive systems are temporarily reduced. Studies have shown an association between occupational stress ...
... the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system originates in the spinal ... The escape requires intense muscular effort, supported by all of the body's systems. The sympathetic nervous system's ... physically surrounding the sympathetic origin, and works in concert with the sympathetic nervous system. Its main function is ... These responses are triggered by the sympathetic nervous system, but, in order to fit the model of fight or flight, the idea of ...
The sympathetic nervous system functions as a single unit. Visceral changes brought on/caused by sympathetic nervous system ... cats were kept alive and healthy after having their sympathetic nervous systems completely removed. Removal of this system ... To do so, Cannon experimented with severing afferent nerves of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system in cats. ... Bard, P. (1928). "A diencephalic mechanism for the expression of rage with special reference to the sympathetic nervous system ...
... is the axis in the central nervous system. activates the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. (Thase & Howland ... The activation of the sympathetic nervous system leads to the release of non-epinephrine from nerve endings acting on the heart ... the autonomic nervous system, and the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of ... Fear works when one senses danger, the brain reacts instantly, sending signals that activate the nervous system. This causes ...
Ivar von Kügelgen; Klaus Starke (1991). "Noradrenalin-ATP co-transmission in the sympathetic nervous system". Trends in ... In: The Chemical Languages of the Nervous System. Basel, Karger, 2006, p. 150-160. (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short ... so-called myoneural junctions connected with the true sympathetic or thoracic-lumbar division of the autonomic nervous system ... A. Dahlström; K. Fuxe (1964). "Evidence for the existence of monoamine neurons in the central nervous system. I. Demonstration ...
... by pain-induced sympathetic nervous system stimulation; in the early postanesthesia period, e.g. by pain-induced sympathetic ... the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal gland. The specific mechanism involved is increased release of the "stress ... decreased perfusion of renal tissue due to stenosis of a main or branch renal artery activates the renin-angiotensin system. ... and epinephrine which promotes vasoconstriction resulting from chronic high activity of the sympathoadrenal system, ...
It triggers the body to activate its sympathetic nervous system. This process takes place when the body releases adrenaline ... Why should I be nervous on opening night? The people who paid for tickets for a new play, they're the ones who should be ... When someone starts to feel the sensation of being scared or nervous they start to experience anxiety. According to a Harvard ... nervous. Camera shyness Counterphobic attitude Glossophobia Test anxiety Notes Guyon, Amélie J. A. A.; R. K. Studer; H. ...
Excess activity of the sympathetic nervous system increases blood pressure and contributes to hypertension. The mechanisms of ... Mark AL (December 1996). "The sympathetic nervous system in hypertension: a potential long-term regulator of arterial pressure ... Lohmeier TE (June 2001). "The sympathetic nervous system and long-term blood pressure regulation". American Journal of ... increased sympathetic nervous system activity in hypertension involve alterations in baroreflex and chemoreflex pathways at ...
The new FHLBB chair was M. Danny Wall, who was more sympathetic to Keating and took no action on the report, saying its ... DeConcini told Keating that McCain was nervous about interfering. Keating called McCain a "wimp" behind his back, and on March ... Keating and Lincoln Savings became convenient symbols for arguments about what had gone wrong in America's financial system and ...
Coniine acts directly on the central nervous system through inhibitory action on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In high ... In addition, alkaloid was also found to stimulate the sympathetic ganglia and reduce the influence of the parasympathetic ...
... the body hyperactivates the sympathetic nervous system which leads to changes in heart rate variability. Due to these changes ... The neuroendocrine hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a system of hormones that culminates in the release of cortisol from ... Changes in HPA axis regulation lead to drastic over/underproduction of important stress response hormones because the system is ... essential aspect of sleep is that it provides the human body with a period of reduced functioning that allows for the systems ...
In the same over, the nervous Yuvraj was out for a duck, putting India five wickets down with more than a session remaining. ... The Umpire Decision Review System for referring the on-field umpire's decision to a TV umpire gained momentum, although India ... Simon Barnes - The Australian Oliver Brett of BBC Sport was sympathetic towards the Indians. Brett claimed that Ponting's word ...
Arthur S.P. Jansen: Central Command Neurons of the Sympathetic Nervous System: Basis of the Fight-or-Flight Response, Science ...
His manner was perfect, almost too elaborate; so nervous and sympathetic that every fibre of him seemed electric... He talked ... He worked as though between the intricate systems of a ship and the vague horizon of a vast sea. This irreconcilable distance ... He... suffer[ed] from severe headaches and nervous attacks... Conrad had been at the establishment for just over a year when in ... Since the boy's illness was clearly of nervous origin, the physicians supposed that fresh air and physical work would harden ...
... s are expressed in the central nervous system and to a lesser extent the peripheral nervous system, where ... calcium mediates the histamine H3-receptor-induced attenuation of norepinephrine exocytosis from cardiac sympathetic nerve ... Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Heart Lungs Gastrointestinal tract Endothelial cells Like all histamine ... because it is linked to the central nervous system and its regulation of other neurotransmitters. Examples of such disorders ...
The sympathetic nervous system and a variety of hormones, for instance, both exert some degree of control over vascular tone. ... This is an example of control at the organ system level as this group of organs all receive blood flow from one central source ... Many organs or organ systems have their own unique mechanism of local blood flow regulation, as explained below. There are two ... Below are several examples of differing types of local blood flow regulation by specific organ type or organ system. In each ...
The sympathoadrenal system is a physiological connection between the sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal medulla and is ... the brain acts on the central nervous system by crossing the blood-brain barrier and affecting the sympathetic nervous system. ... When the body receives sensory information, the sympathetic nervous system sends a signal to preganglionic nerve fibers, which ... These stimuli travel through the sympathetic nervous system by means of preganglionic nerve fibers that emerge from the ...
... the effects of various drugs upon the heart and on the autonomic and sympathetic nervous systems, experimenting with ...
A neurolytic agent such as alcohol, phenol, or glycerol is typically injected into the nervous system. Chemical neurolysis ... Lumbar sympathetic neurolysis is performed between the L1-L4 vertebrae with separate injections at each vertebra junction. The ... Lumbar sympathetic neurolysis is performed by using absolute alcohol, but other chemicals such as phenol, or other techniques ... Lumbar sympathetic neurolysis alters the ischemic rest pain transmission by changing norepinephrine and catecholamine levels or ...
Several areas of the nervous system (such as the autonomic nervous system and numerous regions of the brain) can be affected by ... MIBG is taken up by sympathetic nerve endings, such as those that innervate the heart, and is labeled for scintigraphy with ... No trigger for the build-up of alpha-synuclein deposits in the central nervous system has been conclusively identified. ... Also affected are the hypothalamus, spinal cord and peripheral nervous system-autonomic dysfunction. The European Federation of ...
Sympathetic nervous system, Stress (biology), Anxiety). ... This is interesting to note, since there was a sympathetic ... However, since it is difficult to measure these sympathetic responses to fear stimuli, studies are typically confined to simple ...
The sympathetic nervous system consists of nerve plexuses in the epidermis and alimentary canal. (A plexus is a web of ... closed circulatory system. It has a central and peripheral nervous system. Its central nervous system consists of two ganglia ... The nerve cord is required to connect the nervous systems of the segments. The giant axons carry the fastest signals along the ... "Earthworm-nervous system". Cronodon. Retrieved April 3, 2015. Elwood, R.W. (2011). "Pain and suffering in invertebrates?". ILAR ...
DeQuattro, V., & Hamad, R. (1985). The role of stress and the sympathetic nervous system in hypertension and ischemic heart ...
"Parliamentary Voting Systems in New Zealand and the Referendum on MMP". New Zealand Parliament. Retrieved 18 September 2017. " ... Many of the Liberal Party's policies were described as "socialist" by both its opponents and sympathetic international ... who disagreed with Reeves's intellectual view of political matters and was nervous about public toleration of the Liberals' ... The Liberal Government also established the basis of the later welfare state, with old age pensions, developed a system for ...
The RVLM is a primary regulator of the sympathetic nervous system; it sends catecholaminergic projections to the sympathetic ... Sympathetic nervous system, Reflexes, Medulla oblongata, Cardiovascular physiology). ... a critical brain region for basal and reflex control of sympathetic activity. The RVLM is implicated in elevated sympathetic ... Abnormally elevated sympathetic activity in the RVLM is associated with various cardiovascular diseases, such as heart failure ...
... therefore causes a decrease in sympathetic nervous system activity and, therefore, a decrease in blood pressure. ... No evidence has been found of serious adverse effects on organs or organ systems, and the drug has not been shown to have ... 2003). "Adverse mortality effect of central sympathetic inhibition with sustained-release moxonidine in patients with heart ...
The signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those related to sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity. The classic triad ... Central Nervous System) SDHx (Succinate Dehydrogenase Subunit x) MAX (MYC Associated Factor X); TMEM127 (Transmembrane Protein ... The cardiovascular system is the most commonly involved. In pregnancy, pheochromocytoma is associated with significant maternal ... While tumors of the head and neck are parasympathetic, their sympathetic counterparts are predominantly located in the abdomen ...
Stress causing over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases noradrenaline release in hair follicles. This ...
Carpenter's Lectures on the Physiology of the Nervous System", Supplement to The Manchester Examiner and Times, Vol. 5, No. 471 ... I consider it not so much the optic, as the motor and sympathetic nerves, and the mind, through which the impression is made. ... and mobility of the nervous system, which render the patient liable to be directed so as to manifest the mesmeric phenomena. ... Braid thought of hypnotism as producing a "nervous sleep" which differed from ordinary sleep. The most efficient way to produce ...
The cause of death was apoplexy, apparently the result of the toll years of rheumatism had exacted on his nervous system. He is ... maintained a more sympathetic view of the southern cause than legislators from more northern states. During his term as ... The reforms enacted during Powell's term as governor gave Kentucky one of the top educational systems in the antebellum South. ... He also improved Kentucky's transportation system and vetoed legislation that he felt would have created an overabundance of ...
The nervous system consists of central and peripheral nervous systems and coordinates the actions of an animal by transmitting ... Synchrony between slow pulse fluctuations (related to sympathetic activity) and brain fMRI signal has revealed a network of ... The brain-body interactions are supported by peripheral nervous system that connects the CNS to the limbs and organs. These ... Brain-body interactions are patterns of neural activity in the central nervous system to coordinate the activity between the ...
He is a nervous man that perpetually wipes his forehead with a dark-blue cloth. Written and illustrated by Shin Takahashi, ... She was an officer who was badly wounded in an attack, but returned to the battlefield because of the prototype weapon system. ... She was one of the very few people sympathetic (and empathetic since she, too, was a weapon) towards Chise. Take Voiced by: ... her body has the highest degree of compatibility with the weapon system. This story focuses primarily on Chise's fading ...
... extraversion or Strength of the nervous system) as based on a nonspecific general arousal of the nervous system. Many models of ... "sympathetic-indifferent", "responsive-inhibited", "subjective-objective"), Rothbart, Ahadi, and Evans (2000) ("orienting ... Neurophysiological (cortical) systems regulating probabilistic aspects of actions gradually pass control to the "habit" systems ... After the functions of the ARAS and limbic systems were linked to physical and emotional arousal, Eysenck named this golden ...
Early developments in the field of treating hypertension included quaternary ammonium ion sympathetic nervous system blocking ... It has been argued that the pricing of pharmaceuticals is becoming a major challenge for health systems. Ben Goldacre has ... There are several different schemes used to defraud the health care system which are particular to the pharmaceutical industry ... National Vital Statistics System. 47 (28): 1-37. PMID 10635683. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 October 2020. Retrieved ...
The emission phase of the ejaculatory reflex is under control of the sympathetic nervous system, while the ejaculatory phase is ... Single-male breeding systems-or monogamous societies-tend to show smaller testis size than do multi-male breeding systems or ... Physiologically, urination involves coordination between the central, autonomic, and somatic nervous systems. In infants, some ... It is a passage both for urination and ejaculation of semen (see male reproductive system.) Most of the penis develops from the ...
He then tested her nervous system and he thrust the needle into her navel, which caused Betty agonizing pain, whereupon the ... When she mentioned them to Barney, he was sympathetic, but not too concerned, and the matter was dropped. Betty did not mention ... Intrigued by the "star map," Fish wondered if it might be "deciphered" to determine which star system the UFO came from. ... the only one that seemed to match the Hill map was from the viewpoint of the double star system of Zeta Reticuli (about 39 ...
What role the sympathetic nervous system plays in determining who gets HACE is unclear, but it may have an effect. Another ... Rosenberg, Gary (2012). Molecular Physiology and Metabolism of the Nervous System (5 ed.). Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0- ...
Tag: sympathetic nervous system. Healthy Living: 13 Surprising Benefits of Getting Enough Sleep. by Sharon Rondeau. Sunday, May ...
... the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system comprise the autonomic nervous system in the body. It ... The autonomic nervous system is continuously active and is responsible for unconscious regulation of our glands and organs. The ... The sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system comprise the autonomic ... adjustments have been known to affect the autonomic nervous system by helping to down-regulate the sympathetic nervous system ...
Sympathetic Nervous System: Anatomy (Nursing) & boost your knowledge! Study for your classes, USMLE, MCAT or MBBS. Learn ... The lecture Sympathetic Nervous System: Anatomy (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - ...
Senescent Cells Recruit Sympathetic Nerves. Researchers publishing in Frontiers of Aging Neuroscience Journal have discovered a ...
... stress and emotional regulatory systems. If these systems fail to fully develop in childhood, we become increasingly dependent ... nervous projections shrivel and retract Continue reading ...
rest and digest? The sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems are channels of neurons that work together to control your ...
Post Navigation ← Sympathetic And Parasympathetic Nervous System. Difference. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address ...
Panyathanya R, Shuangshoti S. Neoplasms of sympathetic nervous system: study of 152 cases. Journal of the Medical Association ...
SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. Substances that activate the sympathetic nervous system are frequently referred to as ... The central nervous system branches into the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system entails the sensory ... lets look at the nervous system as a whole. The nervous system starts with the central nervous system, which includes the ... The autonomic nervous system is then divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. These divisions of the ...
The processing of secretogranin II in the peripheral nervous system : release of secretoneurin from porcine sympathetic nerve ... To evaluate the processing of SgII in sympathetic neurons, boiled tissue extracts (coeliac ganglia and splenic nerve) and ...
Determining Your Sympathetic Nervous System Response Type If youre looking to recover from childhood trauma or C-PTSD then I ... our nervous systems switch from calm parasympathetic mode into stressed-out sympathetic mode. Stressed-out sympathetic mode is ... Determining Your Sympathetic Nervous System Response Type. If youre looking to recover from childhood trauma or C-PTSD then I ... Your particular F*er type is derived from the 4 types of sympathetic nervous system response, also known as the "4 Fs" in ...
Sympathetic Nervous System. Elevated sympathetic nerve activity is a hallmark observation in essential HTN.[1] Sympathetic ... Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are associated with HTN and activation of the sympathetic nervous system.[12,13,140] ... Reductions in sympathetic outflow after exercise have been reported in both animals and humans.[80,109,164] How sympathetic ... Recent studies of the central nervous system have shown an augmented GABAA signaling at the rostral ventrolateral medulla may ...
Sleep and the Immune System (Continued). *Impacts on Metabolism and Endocrine Function ...
Your sympathetic nervous system is activated.. From the moment a panic attack sets in, it activates the sympathetic nervous ... The sympathetic nervous system also releases adrenaline into the body when a panic attack sets in. As the American Psychiatric ... Since the body thinks that its in danger, it will send signals to the enteric nervous system (which governs the function of ... the blood in the extremities is often rerouted to the other parts of the body that the central nervous system deems more ...
Role of sympathetic nervous system in hypotensive action of taurine in DOCA-salt rats. Hypertension 1987; 9:81-87. ... Catecholamines and the sympathetic nervous system. Surprisingly little is known about the effects of taurine on norepinephrine ... Possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system and endogenous opiates. J Clin Invest 1988; 82:993-997. ... and the human sympathetic nervous system.78 Humans with borderline hypertension given 6 g of taurine orally for 7 days79 ...
Central regulation of cardiac output via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system allows ... Central regulation of cardiac output via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system allows ... suggesting that this response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. Together, these results demonstrate that at the ... output to changes in their environment using both the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system ...
Observe an example of sympathetic nervous system activation ("fight or flight" response). ... Blood pressure is a measure of the changing fluid pressure within the circulatory system. It varies from a peak pressure ... which is maintained by closure of the aortic valve and elastic recoil of the arterial system. The peak pressure is called ...
The balance of nicotinic and muscarinic effects on the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system ... Which of the following are true about the central nervous system effects of cholinesterase inhibitors (Choose the ONE BEST ... Which of the following central nervous system signs and symptoms have been reported in cases of cholinesterase inhibitor ... In the central nervous system. *In the sympathetic, peripheral nervous system. *In the parasympathetic, peripheral nervous ...
When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did ... It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous ... of this study was to examine the effects of moderate intensity interval training from the change of the autonomic nervous ... Exercise is likely to improve the central and peripheral mechanisms of the sympathetic nervous system. ...
Tag: sympathetic branch of nervous system Soothe the Stress Response with these Triple Warmer Self Care Tools Published 08/04/ ...
... activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammation, systemically hypercoagulable state, immune suppression and effects of ... Sympathetic nervous system activation. The autonomic nervous system primarily regulates the bodys unconscious physiologic ... The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the bodys fight-or-flight response, modifying blood flow and cytokine secretion [31 ... Sympathetic nervous system regulation of the tumour microenvironment. Nat Rev Cancer. 2015;15:563-72. ...
... activation of the sympathetic nervous system, hyperkalemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multiple organ ... The extreme temperature elevation, hyperkalemia, acidosis, and cerebral edema can affect the central nervous system (CNS), ... Tachycardia, dysrhythmias, and a sympathetic catecholamine surge occur. The hypermetabolism evokes a massive exothermic ...
Etiologic theories of idiopathic scoliosis: autonomic nervous system and the leptin-sympathetic nervous system concept for the ... possible dependency on sympathetic nervous system and hormones with implications for medical therapy Scoliosis. 4(October), 24 ... a double neuro-osseous theory involving disharmony between two nervous systems, somatic and autonomic expressed in the spine ... with a specific interest in leptin and the endocannabinoid system. ...
It develops from the tissues that form the sympathetic nervous system. This is the part of the nervous system that controls ...
IV Sympathetic nervous system tumors 41 IV(a) Neuroblastoma and ganglioneuroblastoma 42 IV(b) Other sympathetic nervous system ... Brain and Other Nervous System [63-64] 63 Brain [63] 64 Cranial Nerves Other Nervous System [64] 65-66 Endocrine System [65-66 ... Brain and Other Nervous System 46 Breast * 47 Cervix Uteri 15-26 Colon and Rectum 48 Corpus Uteri 11 Esophagus 31 Gallbladder ... Female Genital System [47-53] 47 Cervix Uteri [47] 48 Corpus Uteri [48] 49 Uterus, NOS [49] 50 Ovary [50] 51 Vagina [51] 52 ...
Try these practices to help activate the parasympathetic nervous system so that our bodies and minds can cope with stress in ... the parasympathetic nervous system is our bodys brake system when no danger is present. The sympathetic nervous system will ... The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are the two parts of whats known as our autonomic nervous system. The ... How do the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems Work?. Understanding how to make use of your parasympathetic nervous ...
Here, the authors discuss the complex interactions between renal, hormonal and nervous system factors that link excess ... For example, leptin increases RSNA by stimulating the central nervous system proopiomelanocortin-melanocortin 4 receptor ... metabolic and other obesity-associated diseases could overwhelm health-care systems in the future. Hypertension is one of the ... pathway, and kidney compression and RSNA contribute to renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation. Glucocorticoids and/or ...
The central nervous system works closely with the bodys endocrine system to regulate these mechanisms. The sympathetic nervous ... The ANS is composed of the parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system, two branches that are both tonically ... The immune system may be heavily influenced by stress. The sympathetic nervous system innervates various immunological ... The activity of the sympathetic nervous system drives what is called the "fight or flight" response. The fight or flight ...
Two methods of bio-monitoring the potential effects of stress on the sympathetic nervous system were used: vibrotactile ... Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Dentistry; Dentists; Health-care-personnel; Health-care-facilities; Biomechanics; Job-stress ... Psychological-stress; Author Keywords: Job stress; biomechanical exposures; psychosocial exposures; sympathetic nervous system ...
  • The primary catecholamine responsible for activating the sympathetic nervous system is a neurotransmitter called norepinephrine. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system causes a state of alert or agitation through the release of a hormone called norepinephrine. (
  • Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) is a persistent neurological syndrome that's also called Complicated Regional Ache Syndrome (CRPS). (
  • CRPS was formerly called reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and shoulder-hand syndrome. (
  • Because the ANS is made up of both the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems, dysautonomia presents in a wide variety of ways. (
  • The parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems are the two parts of what's known as our autonomic nervous system. (
  • The primary cholinergic agent responsible for activating the parasympathetic nervous system is a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine, though there are other cholinergic agents that activate the parasympathetic nervous system. (
  • The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • Nerve fibers of the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system originate in which of the following segments of the central nervous system? (
  • Which of the following ganglia are associated with the parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system? (
  • Nerve fibers of the _______________ division of the autonomic nervous system arise from the brainstem and the sacral region of the spinal cord. (
  • Preganglionic axons of this division of the autonomic nervous system originate in the brainstem and from the sacral region of the spinal cord. (
  • The central nervous system branches into the peripheral nervous system. (
  • The peripheral nervous system entails the sensory division that brings information to the brain, and the motor division that sends information from the brain to the body. (
  • The main conference day included 10 themed presentations (addressing key central and peripheral nervous system topics) as well as an introductory presentation and a concluding panel. (
  • Where are the paired sympathetic trunk ganglia located? (
  • To evaluate the processing of SgII in sympathetic neurons, boiled tissue extracts (coeliac ganglia and splenic nerve) and boiled spleen perfusate (used as a suitable source for vesicle derived peptides) were analysed by gel filtration chromatography followed by SN-RIA. (
  • They pass into sympathetic ganglia which are organized into two chains that run parallel to and on either side of the spinal cord. (
  • are sympathetic ganglia which lie between the paravertebral ganglia and the target organ. (
  • What organs would be affected by injury to the cervical sympathetic ganglia? (
  • Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. (
  • First published in 1994, the Polyvagal Theory explains the great importance of 3 parts of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • Link to a discussion of the mechanism by which the commands of the motor neurons of the sensory-somatic system are executed by skeletal muscles . (
  • The contraction of both smooth muscle and cardiac muscle is controlled by motor neurons of the autonomic system. (
  • It also differs from the sensory-somatic system is using two groups of motor neurons to stimulate the effectors instead of one. (
  • The preganglionic motor neurons of the sympathetic system (shown in black) arise in the spinal cord. (
  • Here it may synapse with postganglionic sympathetic neurons running to the smooth muscular walls of the viscera. (
  • The neurotransmitter of the preganglionic sympathetic neurons is acetylcholine ( ACh ). (
  • In the sympathetic NS and parasympathetic NS where are the preganglionic neurons located? (
  • Sympathetic preganglionic axons originate from neurons in the _______________ of the spinal cord. (
  • Which of the following is true about the nerve fibers of sympathetic motor neurons? (
  • These activities are complementary to those of the parasympathetic nervous system, which activates processes associated with the "rest and recover" response, such as such as salivation, tears, sexual arousal, urination, digestion and defecation. (
  • Because chronic stress activates the sympathetic nervous system by stimulating the HPA axis, it causes many physiological changes in the body. (
  • While the sympathetic nervous system is like a gas pedal that activates the stress response in times of danger to protect us, the parasympathetic nervous system is our body's brake system when no danger is present. (
  • NIR activates the color sensitive chemicals (chromophores & cytochrome systems) to depths of 23 centimeters, stimulating the energy processes in cells. (
  • It also activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to the release of stress hormones like cortisol. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system activates the adrenal glands. (
  • For example, caffeine increases dopamine levels in the brain because it binds with and activates receptors in the central nervous system that trigger reward activity in response to certain stimuli and substances (like food). (
  • This resting state is also supportive of the immune system, which is highly sensitive to stress and stress hormones. (
  • Too much of this hormone ends up suppressing the immune system, causing an inflammatory response in the skin. (
  • Hostility and anger are considered to be risk factors for, or to co-occur with, many health problems of older adults such as cardiovascular diseases, all-cause mortality, and altered immune system function, 7- , 9 although studies have not found uniformly positive associations with these outcomes. (
  • Opportunistic fungal infections take advantage of the weakened immune system. (
  • Primary fungal infections can occur in people with a normal immune system. (
  • For most people with a normal immune system, the fungal infections do not spread to organs deep in the body. (
  • A person with a weakened immune system is more likely to develop a fungal infection. (
  • Some people are born with a weak immune system. (
  • Others may have an illness that attacks the immune system such as HIV or AIDS. (
  • Fungal infections in healthy people with a normal immune system do not normally affect the internal organs. (
  • Together, we propose a gut microbe-nervous system-immune system regulatory axis in modulating autoimmune hepatitis. (
  • Recent studies indicate a crosstalk between nervous system and immune system. (
  • The next step following on from this work is to find out the precise mechanism through which orexin regulates the responses of the immune system. (
  • By inserting needles into trigger points on the body, the muscles relax, boosting blood flow, diminishing inflammation, and triggering an immune system response. (
  • A new scientific frontier of affective immunology is uncovering the close interaction between our emotions and immune system. (
  • The lecture Sympathetic Nervous System: Anatomy (Nursing) by Jasmine Clark is from the course Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) - Physiology (Nursing). (
  • In this video, I discuss the general anatomy and functions of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • [3] In humans and most mammals, the autonomic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are the two major systems that respond to stress. (
  • Substances that activate the parasympathetic nervous system are referred to as cholinergic agents. (
  • Here are some simple practices to help activate the parasympathetic nervous system so that our bodies and minds can cope with stress in more sustainable ways. (
  • Yoga, or any movement where you're mindfully connecting movement and breath, will activate the parasympathetic nervous system and combat stress. (
  • Central regulation of cardiac output via the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system allows the organism to respond to environmental changes. (
  • The complex nature of the autonomic nervous system allows for tight unconscious control of digestions, respiratory rate, urination, heart rate, blood pressure, and many other critical body functions. (
  • The parasympathetic nervous system calms the body down and returns it to a state of homeostasis through the release of a neurotransmitter called acetylcholine. (
  • He told the press, "It's clear we have only a minimal understanding of what is going on in terms of where the renal sympathetic nerves actually are and whether we really are accomplishing denervation. (
  • Persistent ache is usually attributable to sympathetic nerves that regulate blood move, sweating and glandular operate. (
  • For instance, ache within the legs and ft will be relieved when the lumbar sympathetic nerves on the backbone within the decrease again are blocked. (
  • Olfactory nerves transport the aroma of essential oils to the limbic system and the olfactory sensory center at the base of the brain. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the adrenal glands to release adrenalin and cortisol. (
  • In addition to the mental effects of chronic stress, the overexposure to cortisol that results from the ongoing activation of the sympathetic nervous system disrupts almost every organ system in the body. (
  • The fear that you will not survive goes into overdrive, and our adrenal glands dump a ton of adrenaline and cortisol, readying the nervous system for the fight of its life. (
  • What are the effects of sympathetic stimulation? (
  • Parasympathetic stimulation causes bronchoconstriction while sympathetic stimulation causes bronchodilation . (
  • I would think that, during physical illness, in a patient who cannot increase their breathing rate at rest when awake [like Paula, Like Kraepelin's patients], the body will need sympathetic stimulation [the fight flight response] to send blood to the respiratory muscles in order to keep moving air in and out of the body AND at the same time will prevent parasympathetic stimulation in order to maintain maximum bronchodilation. (
  • Breathing rate and depth [minute ventilation] will unmask the cause of the sympathetic stimulation - the inability to increase breathing rate during a respiratory crisis plus a lower than normal volume of air passing through the body and brain. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system, and the enteric nervous system comprise the autonomic nervous system in the body. (
  • Since the body thinks that it's in danger, it will send signals to the enteric nervous system (which governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract) to slow down or even halt the digestive system. (
  • The enteric nervous system governs the gastrointestinal functions. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the body to feed and breed, while the parasympathetic nervous system encourages rest and digest, maintaining balance in the body. (
  • After this initial surge, the hypothalamus stimulates the HPA axis to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged in the event of a real threat. (
  • It is clarified that the exercise as well as activating the vagus nerve activity stimulates the total autonomic nervous activity. (
  • Red light stimulates sympathetic, is good at night. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system stimulates the body's "fight or flight" response. (
  • And the parasympathetic nervous system stimulates the body's "rest and digest" response. (
  • Reductions in central sympathetic nerve outflow or circulating NE attenuate vasoconstriction and lead to reductions in BP. (
  • These investigators suggested that other effects associated with the inhibition of the renal sympathetic outflow may be important in reducing BP after training (e.g., decreased renin release). (
  • Because of its location, the parasympathetic system is commonly referred to as having 'craniosacral outflow,' which stands in contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, which is said to have 'thoracolumbar outflow. (
  • For keeping people healthy, it is necessary to find an exercise to suppress the sympathetic activity and to increase the autonomic nervous activity especially vagus nerve activity. (
  • The vagus is a major component of the parasympathetic system. (
  • As mentioned in my last blog, the vagus nerve stretches from the brainstem all the way into the belly, carrying incoming information from the nervous system to the brain and from the brain back to the nervous system. (
  • When we're feeling safe and balanced, the vagus nerve, which is a part of our rest and relax/digest or parasympathetic nervous system, allows us to connect easily with others-to turn on our healing capacity. (
  • 1) Sympathetic nervous system: flight-or-flight, which causes panic attacks and anxiety, 2) Dorsal vagus - parasympathetic nervous system. (
  • Tachycardia, dysrhythmias, and a sympathetic catecholamine surge occur. (
  • Most postganglionic sympathetic fibers release norepinephrine. (
  • The somatic nervous system controls body functions that are voluntary. (
  • Compared to the somatic nervous system, which of the following describes the neuron arrangement from the central nervous system (CNS) to the effector in the autonomic nervous system? (
  • The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system , prefrontal cortex , amygdala , hypothalamus , and stria terminalis . (
  • When something traumatic happens to us, enough that we believe we might be in danger (or worse, die), our limbic system goes nuts. (
  • It's buried in the limbic system portion of our brain. (
  • The limbic system (lizard brain) is wired to only use what your brain and body need to stay alive. (
  • Early interactions between infants and primary carers stimulate the development of our reward, stress and emotional regulatory systems. (
  • One of the pillars to healing trauma is to retrain your nervous system to have a more healthy baseline, a "normal" that looks like being in parasympathetic (calm) mode most of the time instead of sympathetic (stress) mode. (
  • In this review, we revisit the literature on surgical stress, and outline the mechanisms by which surgical stress, including ischemia/reperfusion injury, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammation, systemically hypercoagulable state, immune suppression and effects of anesthetic agents, promotes tumor metastasis. (
  • Surgery-induced stress is a systemic effect, involving inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), sympathetic nervous system activation, and increased cytokine release, altogether significantly increasing cancer recurrence risk (Fig. 1 ). (
  • Two methods of bio-monitoring the potential effects of stress on the sympathetic nervous system were used: vibrotactile perception thresholds and nerve conduction velocity. (
  • Understanding how to make use of your parasympathetic nervous system to manage stress and anxiety can promote better mental health as well as lasting sobriety by reducing the urge to turn to addictive substances. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system will release hormones during intense stress to keep us on high alert known as corticotropin until the threat subsides. (
  • We can handle our stress better when we put practices into place which activate our parasympathetic nervous system (which is sometimes called the "rest and digest" nervous system). (
  • The sympathoadrenal medullary (SAM) axis may activate the fight-or-flight response through the sympathetic nervous system , which dedicates energy to more relevant bodily systems to acute adaptation to stress, while the parasympathetic nervous system returadrenaliney to homeostasis. (
  • Once the stress subsides, your parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) - the "rest-and-digest" system - takes over to help your body recover and relax. (
  • Chronic stress can cause continuous activation of both systems, which can be draining on your body. (
  • Prolonged stress impacts all bodily systems and, in some cases, can cause serious harm. (
  • If our bodies are in a constant state of stress due to trauma , cultural climate, or present life stressors, the impacts of stress can only promote exhaustion for our system," says Anna Boyd , a licensed professional counselor with Mindpath Health . (
  • This is just a small list to add to the never-ending list of how chronic stress can negatively impact our systems. (
  • Caffeine works synergistically with stress hormones to increase alertness and focus, triggering an even greater response from our sympathetic nervous system. (
  • When we encounter stress, our sympathetic nervous systems kicks in. (
  • To understand how the Apollo Neuro helps relieve stress, we need to talk about the autonomic nervous system . (
  • When humans experience chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system's fight or flight response is overactivitated. (
  • PALMAROSA - Strengthens ones feeling s of security, helps reduce stress and tension and promotes recovery from nervous exhaustion. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system is part of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the body's involuntary processes. (
  • The parasympathetic system regulates the sympathetic. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system is a part of the complex system that regulates involuntary bodily functions. (
  • Elevated sympathetic nerve activity is a hallmark observation in essential HTN. (
  • [ 1 ] Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and the subsequent release of norepinephrine (NE) mediate vasoconstriction and increase vascular resistance. (
  • When the heart rate during exercise is maintained to less than 120 beats/min, sympathetic nerve activity during exercise did not work actively compared to the baseline. (
  • Exercise is associated with increased sympathetic tone and decreased cardiac vagal nerve activity, leading to decreased heart rate variability [ 1 - 4 ]. (
  • Relationship of fatigue and sympathetic nerve activity has been pointed out. (
  • Studies of sympathetic control of orthostasis in conscious humans began in earnest with the use of microneurography to measure peripheral sympathetic nerve activity. (
  • The physical reactions associated with the sympathetic nervous system are facilitated by the activation of cellular receptors. (
  • Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are associated with HTN and activation of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Observe an example of sympathetic nervous system activation ("fight or flight" response). (
  • This hypermetabolism causes increased carbon dioxide production, metabolic and respiratory acidosis, accelerated oxygen consumption, heat production, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, hyperkalemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and multiple organ dysfunction and failure. (
  • Activation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs early. (
  • Eating healthy keeps us fit, but avoiding stimulants such as caffeine and sugar can also help in the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system. (
  • Blood pressure and heart rate will show sympathetic activation. (
  • Both are closely associated with enhanced activation of the parasympathetic nervous system, and its associated healing effects throughout the body. (
  • The autonomic nervous system is continuously active and is responsible for unconscious regulation of our glands and organs. (
  • The nerve fibers of the sympathetic nervous system are close to the spine, while those of the parasympathetic nervous system are near the organs to which they connect. (
  • Tumor cells have been known to disseminate into the vascular and lymphatic system, migrating to distant organs and initiating tumor regrowth and recurrence [ 3 ]. (
  • Your sympathetic nervous system speeds up your heart rate, constricts your blood vessels, sends blood to your vital organs, raises your blood pressure, raises your blood sugar level, and increases sweating. (
  • The human nervous system is complex, and it doesn't take a brain surgeon to recognize that it controls just about every function within our bodies. (
  • The nervous system starts with the central nervous system, which includes the brain and spinal column. (
  • Central Nervous System includes Brain & Spinal Cord . (
  • At which point, the parasympathetic nervous system releases its own hormones to relax the brain and body and inhibit or slow many of the high energy functions of the body. (
  • We found that peripherally administered orexin penetrates the blood-brain barrier under endotoxin shock, and that central administration of orexin also suppresses the cytokine production and improves the survival, indicating orexin's direct action in the central nervous system (CNS). (
  • Those breaths are a signal to your brain, and your sympathetic nervous system, that you are safe. (
  • It varies from a peak pressure produced by contraction of the left ventricle, to a low pressure, which is maintained by closure of the aortic valve and elastic recoil of the arterial system. (
  • This tech was born from the research of University of Pittsburgh scientists David Rabin MD, PhD, and Greg Siegle PhD, who discovered that certain combinations of inaudible low frequency sound waves can trigger a "rest and digest" response from the parasympathetic nervous system through our sense of touch. (
  • How will "rest and digest" function of the parasympathetic system occur if this emergency persists. (
  • While the parasympathetic nervous system is also known as the rest and digest response. (
  • The only time your body regenerates and heals is when it's in the rest and digest / parasympathetic nervous system mode. (
  • That's your rest and digest operating system. (
  • The transient bradycardia is blocked by the muscarinic antagonist atropine, suggesting that this response is mediated by the parasympathetic system, while the following tachycardia is specifically blocked by the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, suggesting that this response is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • The amygdala sends its message to the hypothalamus, which acts as a command center and uses the autonomic nervous system to elicit involuntary responses in the body. (
  • The major function of the hypothalamus is to control the endocrine and the central nervous system. (
  • This can cause pain in the child because the autonomic nervous system increases heart rate, restricts the diaphragm, disrupts digestion, and elicits other unsettling symptoms. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system takes charge of "fight or flight" activities, such as pupil dilation, increased heart rate, increased sweating, and increased blood pressure. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system is a subdivision of the autonomic nervous system that is typically associated with expending energy and the "fight-or-flight" response. (
  • Many people refer to the sympathetic nervous system as the "fight or flight" system. (
  • When you're in fight-or-flight mode, your physiological system goes into high gear. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. (
  • The sympathetic/adrenergic receptors that will be addressed in this article are Alpha1, Alpha2, Beta1 and Beta2 receptors. (
  • aka adrenergic drugs and adrenergic amines are stimulant compounds which mimic the effects of agonists of the sympathetic nervous system such as the catecholamines. (
  • The skeletal muscles are innervated mostly by the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • The autonomic nervous system controls involuntary body responses like the heart, lungs and digestion. (
  • The parasympathetic nervous system is responsible for controlling functions when the body is at rest. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system also releases adrenaline into the body when a panic attack sets in. (
  • For those suffering from a panic attack, the blood in the extremities is often rerouted to the other parts of the body that the central nervous system deems more important. (
  • This is the part of the nervous system that controls body functions, such as heart rate and blood pressure, digestion, and levels of certain hormones. (
  • [2] Stimuli that alter an organism's environment are responded to by multiple systems in the body. (
  • Traumatic events trapped in the mind-body system can have a negative impact on a person' s outlook, experiences, emotional regulation, and ability to relate to others, and it is believed energy psychology techniques can help a person in therapy release these events more rapidly than they might with talking therapies alone. (
  • However, if you can figure out a way to trigger a response from the parasympathetic nervous system , your body will naturally return to a state of calm. (
  • It is found throughout the urinary system where it functions to help rid the body of toxins and works in electrolyte balance. (
  • Apollo Neuroscience has created the first wearable system that upgrades your body instead of just tracking it. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system is where our flight or fight distributes itself into the body. (
  • If that doesn't work, our body goes into fight/flight mode-the sympathetic nervous system mode. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system rapidly directs the body's involuntary response to a perceived and/or actual dangerous situation. (
  • The actions of the autonomic nervous system are largely involuntary (in contrast to those of the sensory-somatic system). (
  • Which of the following indicates the correct path sympathetic nerve fibers take when leaving the spinal cord before returning to a spinal nerve on their way to stimulate arrector pili muscles and sweat glands in the skin? (
  • Limited occupational data show the cardiovascular and gastrointestinal systems were not susceptible to thallium. (
  • Inhibition of sympathetic nervous system by acupuncture. (
  • In terms of digestion we have 2 nervous systems that perform 2 very different processes when it comes to eating. (
  • The autonomic nervous system is responsible for controlling bodily functions that we don't perform consciously such as breathing, digestion, and our heartbeat. (
  • For example, pain receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • The nervous system instead uses hormones, neurotransmitters, and other receptors to control smooth muscle spontaneously. (
  • Together, these results demonstrate that at the larval stage, zebrafish actively regulate cardiac output to changes in their environment using both the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system, a behavioral response that is markedly similar to that observed in mammals to similar sudden onset stimuli. (
  • Diabetic cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (DCAN) was first described in 1975 by Low et al, after determining that diabetic neuropathy also compromised autonomic control of the cardiovascular system, as evidenced by orthostatic hypotension (OH) and abnormal autonomic responses to different stimuli [1]. (
  • In this humble offering before the next longer post, I wanted to share this simple but calming tool to soothe your nervous system. (
  • Chemical and neurological sympathetic nervous systems, chemical and neurological parasympathetic. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Neoplasms of sympathetic nervous system: study of 152 cases. (
  • Most of these studies did not detect the vCJD agent outside the nervous system (central, peripheral, and autonomic) and lymphoid tissues. (
  • Link to discussion of the central nervous system. (
  • Recent studies have revealed the regulation and integration of inflammatory responses by the central nervous system (CNS) through the neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous systems ( Tracey, 2002 ). (
  • When you slow your breath and start controlling its rate, you make a direct connection to your central nervous system. (
  • Childhood central nervous system tumours. (
  • It is associated with an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, caused by a dysregulation of the autonomic nervous system. (
  • When the fight, flight, or freeze response kick in, the sympathetic nervous system works like a gas pedal. (
  • Your particular F*er type is derived from the 4 types of sympathetic nervous system response, also known as the "4 Fs" in physiology. (
  • When we are in a chronic state of hyperactivated sympathetic states for too long, the polyvagal theory states that we can drop down into our dorsal vagal response system," she adds. (
  • 9 Moreover, the response includes constriction of the peripheral (superficial) vascular system, which may result in non-freezing injuries or hasten the onset of actual freezing of tissues (frostbite). (
  • The sympathetic nervous system is our fight/flight response. (
  • Anxiety can also manifest itself physically due to arousal of the sympathetic nervous system. (
  • Researchers suspect that changes in the sympathetic nervous system lead to poor regulation of blood flow, sensation, and temperature. (
  • Hyperglycemia leads to sympathetic denervation, changes in myocardial autonomic neurotransmitter levels, altered expression of neuropeptides and their signaling pathways, together with an altered beta-receptor density. (
  • 10 The sympathetic nervous system mediates further vasoconstriction to minimize heat loss by reducing blood flow to the extremities, where the most cooling occurs. (
  • When the sympathetic nervous system is affected, this condition often presents as hypertension or a rapid heart rate. (
  • Its beneficial effects in hypertension and heart failure appear to result primarily from suppression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. (
  • Hypertension and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity. (
  • The sympathetic nervous system as a target for the treatment of hypertension and cardiometabolic diseases. (