The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of sweet clover, MEDICAGO SATIVA, and fenugreek.
The formation of a nitrogen-fixing cell mass on PLANT ROOTS following symbiotic infection by nitrogen-fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. This genus was formerly known as Tetragonolobus. The common name of lotus is also used for NYMPHAEA and NELUMBO.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus ALIIVIBRIO, which exhibits LUMINESCENCE. A. fischeri is found in a symbiotic relationship with the SQUID Euprymna scolopes.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
A phylum of fungi that are mutualistic symbionts and form ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAE with PLANT ROOTS.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria usually containing granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. They characteristically invade the root hairs of leguminous plants and act as intracellular symbionts.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
Flagellate EUKARYOTES, found mainly in the oceans. They are characterized by the presence of transverse and longitudinal flagella which propel the organisms in a rotating manner through the water. Dinoflagellida were formerly members of the class Phytomastigophorea under the old five kingdom paradigm.
A family of gram-negative bacteria which are saprophytes, symbionts, or plant pathogens.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria in the family PHYLLOBACTERIACEAE. They are able to invade root-hairs of a wide range of plants, inciting the production of PLANT ROOT NODULES.
Genus of BACTERIA in the family Frankiaceae. They are nitrogen-fixing root-nodule symbionts of many species of woody dicotyledonous plants.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is found in soil and which causes formation of root nodules on some, but not all, types of field pea, lentil, kidney bean, and clover.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and nitrogen innoculant of PHASEOLUS VULGARIS.
A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A class in the phylum CNIDARIA, comprised mostly of corals and anemones. All members occur only as polyps; the medusa stage is completely absent.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A genus of white-spored mushrooms in the family Tricholomataceae. They form symbiotic partnerships (MYCORRHIZAE) with trees.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A genus of fungi of the family Agaricaceae, order Agaricales; most species are poisonous.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A species of AZORHIZOBIUM which forms nodules on the roots of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Any of a group of plants formed by a symbiotic combination of a fungus with an algae or CYANOBACTERIA, and sometimes both. The fungal component makes up the bulk of the lichen and forms the basis for its name.
A genus of PROCHLOROPHYTES containing unicellular, spherical bacteria without a mucilaginous sheath. They are found almost exclusively as extracellular symbionts of colonial ASCIDIANS on subtropical or tropical marine shores.
The body of a fungus which is made up of HYPHAE.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Membrane proteins that are involved in the active transport of phosphate.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain piperidine alkaloids (PIPERIDINES).
A genus of gram-negative bacteria existing symbiotically with nematodes of the family Heterorhabditidae (see RHABDITOIDEA). These nematodes infect a variety of soil-dwelling insects. Upon entering an insect host, the nematode releases Photorhabdus from its intestinal tract and the bacterium establishes a lethal septicemia in the insect.
Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.
Common member of the Gramineae family used as cattle FODDER. It harbors several fungi and other parasites toxic to livestock and people and produces allergenic compounds, especially in its pollen. The most commonly seen varieties are L. perenne, L. multiflorum, and L. rigidum.
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is most notable for the members, Cannabis and Hops.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that contains crotalarin.
A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE that is distinguished from birch (BETULA) by its usually stalked winter buds and by cones that remain on the branches after the small, winged nutlets are released.
A plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. Members are trees and shrubs of temperate regions that have watery sap and alternate leaves which are lopsided at the base. The flowers lack petals.
A class in the phylum PROTEOBACTERIA comprised mostly of two major phenotypes: purple non-sulfur bacteria and aerobic bacteriochlorophyll-containing bacteria.
The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.
Marine ridges composed of living CORALS, coral skeletons, calcareous algae, and other organisms, mixed with minerals and organic matter. They are found most commonly in tropical waters and support other animal and plant life.
A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of ascomycetous fungi in the family Clavicipitaceae, order HYPOCREALES, which are fungal symbionts of grasses. Anamorphic forms are in the genus NEOTYPHODIUM.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, obligate aerobes which are motile by peritrichous flagella on solid medium and one lateral flagellum in liquid medium. Under microaerobic conditions Azorhizobium fixes nitrogen. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is a fast-growing and soybean-nodulating innoculant.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
The anamorphic form of the fungus EPICHLOE. Many Neotyphodium species produce ERGOT ALKALOIDS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
A species of gram-negative bacteria and an nitrogen inoculum that displays a high intrinsic tolerance to acidity.
A hemoglobin-like oxygen-binding hemeprotein present in the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of leguminous plants. The red pigment has a molecular weight approximately 1/4 that of hemoglobin and has been suggested to act as an oxido-reduction catalyst in symbiotic nitrogen fixation.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.
An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the PSEUDOMONAS genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Pseudomonas species, and hence, this new genus was created.
A genus of bacteria comprised of a heterogenous group of gram-negative small rods and coccoid forms associated with arthropods. (From Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, vol 1, 1984)
Nonmotile unicellular green algae potentially valuable as a source of high-grade protein and B-complex vitamins.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, facultatively methylotrophic rods occurring singly or occasionally in rosettes. Members of this genus are usually motile and are isolated from soil, dust, fresh water, lake sediments, leaf surfaces, rice, air, and hospital environments. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The common name of rock rose is used with several plants of this family.

Sodalis gen. nov. and Sodalis glossinidius sp. nov., a microaerophilic secondary endosymbiont of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans. (1/4230)

A secondary intracellular symbiotic bacterium was isolated from the haemolymph of the tsetse fly Glossina morsitans morsitans and cultured in Aedes albopictus cell line C6/36. Pure-culture isolation of this bacterium was achieved through the use of solid-phase culture under a microaerobic atmosphere. After isolation of strain M1T, a range of tests was performed to determine the phenotypic properties of this bacterium. Considering the results of these tests, along with the phylogenetic position of this micro-organism, it is proposed that this intracellular symbiont from G. m. morsitans should be classified in a new genus Sodalis gen. nov., as Sodalis glossinidius gen. nov., sp. nov. Strain M1T is the type strain for this new species.  (+info)

Diversity of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes of bacteria associated with the deep-sea hydrothermal vent polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana. (2/4230)

A unique community of bacteria colonizes the dorsal integument of the polychaete annelid Alvinella pompejana, which inhabits the high-temperature environments of active deep-sea hydrothermal vents along the East Pacific Rise. The composition of this bacterial community was characterized in previous studies by using a 16S rRNA gene clone library and in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes. In the present study, a pair of PCR primers (P94-F and P93-R) were used to amplify a segment of the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase gene from DNA isolated from the community of bacteria associated with A. pompejana. The goal was to assess the presence and diversity of bacteria with the capacity to use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor. A clone library of bisulfite reductase gene PCR products was constructed and characterized by restriction fragment and sequence analysis. Eleven clone families were identified. Two of the 11 clone families, SR1 and SR6, contained 82% of the clones. DNA sequence analysis of a clone from each family indicated that they are dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes most similar to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes of Desulfovibrio vulgaris, Desulfovibrio gigas, Desulfobacterium autotrophicum, and Desulfobacter latus. Similarities to the dissimilatory bisulfite reductases of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii, the sulfide oxidizer Chromatium vinosum, the sulfur reducer Pyrobaculum islandicum, and the archaeal sulfate reducer Archaeoglobus fulgidus were lower. Phylogenetic analysis separated the clone families into groups that probably represent two genera of previously uncharacterized sulfate-reducing bacteria. The presence of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes is consistent with recent temperature and chemical measurements that documented a lack of dissolved oxygen in dwelling tubes of the worm. The diversity of dissimilatory bisulfite reductase genes in the bacterial community on the back of the worm suggests a prominent role for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria in the ecology of A. pompejana.  (+info)

Novel genes induced during an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and Glomus versiforme. (3/4230)

Many terrestrial plant species are able to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here we have identified three cDNA clones representing genes whose expression is induced during the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis formed between Medicago truncatula and an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Glomus versiforme. The three clones represent M. truncatula genes and encode novel proteins: a xyloglucan endotransglycosylase-related protein, a putative arabinogalactan protein (AGP), and a putative homologue of the mammalian p110 subunit of initiation factor 3 (eIF3). These genes show little or no expression in M. truncatula roots prior to formation of the symbiosis and are significantly induced following colonization by G. versiforme. The genes are not induced in roots in response to increases in phosphate. This suggests that induction of expression during the symbiosis is due to the interaction with the fungus and is not a secondary effect of improved phosphate nutrition. In situ hybridization revealed that the putative AGP is expressed specifically in cortical cells containing arbuscules. The identification of two mycorrhiza-induced genes encoding proteins predicted to be involved in cell wall structure is consistent with previous electron microscopy data that indicated major alterations in the extracellular matrix of the cortical cells following colonization by mycorrhizal fungi.  (+info)

Further studies of the role of cyclic beta-glucans in symbiosis. An NdvC mutant of Bradyrhizobium japonicum synthesizes cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-glucosyl. (4/4230)

The cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-D-glucan synthesis locus of Bradyrhizobium japonicum is composed of at least two genes, ndvB and ndvC. Mutation in either gene affects glucan synthesis, as well as the ability of the bacterium to establish a successful symbiotic interaction with the legume host soybean (Glycine max). B. japonicum strain AB-14 (ndvB::Tn5) does not synthesize beta-glucans, and strain AB-1 (ndvC::Tn5) synthesizes a cyclic beta-glucan lacking beta-(1-->6)-glycosidic bonds. We determined that the structure of the glucan synthesized by strain AB-1 is cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl, a cyclic beta-(1-->3)-linked decasaccharide in which one of the residues is substituted in the 6 position with beta-laminaribiose. Cyclodecakis-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucosyl did not suppress the fungal beta-glucan-induced plant defense response in soybean cotyledons and had much lower affinity for the putative membrane receptor protein than cyclic beta-(1-->3),beta-(1-->6)-glucans produced by wild-type B. japonicum. This is consistent with the hypothesis presented previously that the wild-type cyclic beta-glucans may function as suppressors of a host defense response.  (+info)

Sugar- and nitrogen-dependent regulation of an Amanita muscaria phenylalanine ammonium lyase gene. (5/4230)

The cDNA of a key enzyme of secondary metabolism, phenylalanine ammonium lyase, was identified for an ectomycorrhizal fungus by differential screening of a mycorrhizal library. The gene was highly expressed in hyphae grown at low external monosaccharide concentrations, but its expression was 30-fold reduced at elevated concentrations. Gene repression was regulated by hexokinase.  (+info)

LB-AUT7, a novel symbiosis-regulated gene from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, Laccaria bicolor, is functionally related to vesicular transport and autophagocytosis. (6/4230)

We have identified LB-AUT7, a gene differentially expressed 6 h after ectomycorrhizal interaction between Laccaria bicolor and Pinus resinosa. LB-Aut7p can functionally complement its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homolog, which is involved in the attachment of autophagosomes to microtubules. Our findings suggest the induction of an autophagocytosis-like vesicular transport process during ectomycorrhizal interaction.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (7/4230)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

Isolation and characterization of the catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata. (8/4230)

A catalase gene from Rhizobium sp. SNU003, a root nodule symbiont of Canavalia lineata, was cloned and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The Rhizobium DNA of about 280 bp was amplified using two PCR primers synthesized from the conserved sequences of the type I catalase gene. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified fragment revealed three regions that were conserved in the catalase, showing it as being part of the catalase gene. A genomic Southern hybridization using this fragment as a probe showed that the 5.5 kb PstI, 1.8 kb EcoRI, and 0.7 kb StyI fragments hybridized strongly with the probe. The Rhizobium genomic library constructed into the EMBL3 vector was screened, and one catalase clone was selected. The nucleotide sequence of the 5.5 kb PstI fragment from the clone revealed an open reading frame of 1455 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 485 amino acids with a molecular mass of 54,958 Da and a pI of 6.54. The predicted amino acid sequence of the catalase is 66.3% identical to that of Bacteroides fragilis, but was only 53.3% identical to the Rhizobium meliloti catalase.  (+info)

INTERSPECIFIC MUTUALISTIC RELATIONSHIPS. Reciprocally beneficial interactions. Photo of clownfish & anemone from Wikipedia Photo of fig & fig wasps from Mutualisms. Benefits that accrue to one or both mutualists: Cleaning Defense against enemies Slideshow 5720624 by imelda
MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS by DAVIS, GORDON B Publication: NEW YORK MC GRAW HILL 1974 . IX,482 Date: 1974 Availability: Items available: Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Symbiosis International University Central Library (1), Withdrawn (1), ...
Nodule primordia induced by rhizobial glycan mutants often remain uninfected. To identify processes involved in infection and organogenesis we used forward genetics to identify plant genes involved in perception and responses to bacterial glycans. To dissect the mechanisms underlying the negative plant responses to the Mesorhizobium loti R7AexoU and ML001cep mutants, a screen for genetic suppressors of the nodulation phenotypes was performed on a chemically mutagenized Lotus population. Two mutant lines formed infected nitrogen-fixing pink nodules, while five mutant lines developed uninfected large white nodules, presumably altered in processes controlling organogenesis. Genetic mapping identified a mutation in the cytokinin receptor Lhk1 resulting in an alanine to valine substitution adjacent to a coiled-coil motif in the juxta-membrane region of LHK1. This results in a spontaneous nodulation phenotype and increased ethylene production. The allele was renamed snf5, and segregation studies of ...
Host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution have already been discovered in obligate endocellular insect symbionts, but simply no such example continues to be discovered from extracellular types. obligate endocellular insect symbionts. These results suggest that not really the endocellular circumstances themselves however the inhabitants genetic qualities of the vertically transmitted symbionts are most likely in charge of the peculiar hereditary traits of the insect symbionts. We suggested the designation Ishikawaella capsulata for the plataspid symbionts. The plataspid stinkbugs, wherein the host-symbiont organizations could be manipulated quickly, give a novel system that allows experimental methods to untouched areas of the insect-microbe mutualism previously. Furthermore, comparative analyses from the sister groupings, the endocellular as well as the extracellular would result in insights into the way the different symbiotic life-style have got affected their genomic ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Scholarship and practice in industrial symbiosis. T2 - 1989-2014. AU - Chertow, Marian. AU - Park, Joo Young. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Industrial symbiosis, a subfield of industrial ecology, engages traditionally separate industries and entities in a collaborative approach to resource sharing that benefits both the environment and the economy. This chapter examines the period 1989-2014 to take stock of industrial symbiosis. First, we look at the earliest days to discuss what inspired industrial symbiosis both in the scholarly literature and in practice. Next, we draw attention to certain dilemmas and sharpen the distinctions between industrial symbiosis and some related concepts such as eco-industrial parks and environmentally balanced industrial complexes. With regard to dissemination of industrial symbiosis ideas, we found that at the country level, China has now received the most attention in industrial symbiosis academic research and this continues to grow ...
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But the story can get more complicated. Imagine a symbiosis with four co-evolving partners: three of them are engaged in a mutualistic relationship, while the fourth one is a parasite. Thats the beautiful case of fungus-growing ants. In their underground nests, the ants grow a mushroom-like fungus by feeding it with plant materials or other organic matter. In turn, the fungus serves as food for the ants (yes, this is agriculture!). But every garden has its pests, and the ants farm is home for the Escovopsis mold. Escovopsis is a specialized pest, found only on the crop of farming ants. To battle the parasite, the ants combine special behaviors and microbial symbionts. These insects carry a bunch of antibiotic-producing actinomycetes in elaborate cuticular crypts, supported by unique exocrine glands. The symbiotic bacteria produce substances that specifically inhibit Escovopsis growth. Although initially identified as Streptomyces, the actinomycete symbionts appear to belong to the ...
Symbiosis (pl. symbioses) means living together. It describes close and long-term relationships between different species. The term was used by Albert Bernhard Frank to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens. and by Anton de Bary in 1879, as the living together of unlike organisms.. A symbiont is an organism living in a relationship with another species in which one or both get benefits. When one species lives inside another species, or a microscopic symbiont lives inside the cells of a host, it is called an endosymbiont.. The relevance of symbiosis is its frequency and its evolutionary significance. There appear to be no higher plants or animals without symbionts. Those symbionts are of great importance to the larger organisms, who in most cases would be unable to live as they do without their symbionts. Mycorrhiza in higher plants, and gut flora in insects and vertebrates are examples. Humans are no exception.. Furthermore, most of these associations are between organisms not just ...
The Symbiosis Entrance Test is commonly known as SET. SET is the first step for the admission in Symbiosis Bachelor level in Law, Symbiosis Bachelor level in IT & Computer Applications, Symbiosis Bachelor level in Management, Symbiosis Bachelor degree in plan and Symbiosis bachelor degree in Science and Medical Technology.. Date ...
Although several species have been found that are thought to have moved from being mutual partners to free-living, the reduction in genome size and host dependency means that once a relationship with the host is established, it tends to remain (occasionally breaking down into parasitism). In fact, once becoming so established that the host carried part (or all) of the bacterial genome, mutualist relationships can often evolve into organellar relationships, where the bacteria become part of the surrounding host cell, and is unable to survive on its own. Established mutualistic bacteria often lose the mobile elements that helped them establish in the first place, and the genome begins to break down as unnecessary genes are slowly lost. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An AT mutational bias in the tiny GC-rich endosymbiont genome of Hodgkinia. AU - Van Leuven, James T.. AU - McCutcheon, John P.. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - The fractional guanine p cytosine (GC) contents of sequenced bacterial genomes range from 13% to 75%. Despite several decades of research aimed at understanding this wide variation, the forces controlling GC content are not well understood. Recent work has suggested that a universal adenine + thymine (AT) mutational bias exists in all bacteria and that the elevated GC contents found in some bacterial genomes is due to genome-wide selection for increased GC content. These results are generally consistent with the low GC contents observed in most strict endosymbiotic bacterial genomes, where the loss of DNA repair mechanisms combined with the population genetic effects of small effective population sizes and decreased recombination should lower the efficacy of selection and shift the equilibrium GC content in the ...
To address questions about how a healthy symbiosis is established and regulated and how environmental perturbations result in a breakdown of the symbiosis, I am examining the problem at two levels: the organismal level and the molecular level. At the organismal level, I am examining the onset of symbiosis in host species who are initially nonsymbiotic to determine when and how these hosts acquire their first complement of symbionts from the environment. At different stages of development, larvae are introduced to zooxanthellae from different sources and rates of infection are determined. At the molecular level, I am examining the role of p30, a protein unique to the symbiotic condition and thought to be involved in cell-cell signaling between symbiont and host. Using RNA in situ hybridization techniques, I will determine when, and in which cells, the p30 gene begins to be expressed after the onset of symbiosis in larvae. Using immunocytochemical techniques, I will determine the location of p30 ...
An S. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary (such as the symbiosis biol.2a-rev lab manual site title, abstract, and list of authors), clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text. In particular, mutations in any of the symbiosis biol.2a-rev lab manual site vir genes as well as in two genes flanking virD4, msi and symbiosis biol.2a-rev lab manual site msi, allowed strain R7A to nodulate L.A recent study of Bu. Mar 16, · 2 National Key Laboratory of Plant Molecular Genetics, CAS Center for Excellence in Molecular Plant Sciences, Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, symbiosis biol.2a-rev lab manual site Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; 3 Collaborative Innovation Center of Crop Stress Biology, Institute of Plant Stress Biology, Henan symbiosis biol.2a-rev lab manual site University, Kaifeng, China.Cited by: The aphid, Schizaphis graminum, contains a prokaryotic, obligately ...
Symbiosis is a new development project for the transformation and requalification of a historical industrial area at the very heart of Milan through the construction of a new Business district, with a surface of 125.000 square meters of GLA, structures with high technological profile and maximum sustainability. Taking place on an enormous site, different components of Symbiosis will be launched gradually to keep pace with the market. The 1st phase of the program, 19,000 m² pre-let to Fastweb, has been launched in 2015 for a delivery planned in 2018. Located across from the Fondazione Prada, close to Bocconi University and Parco Sud in a booming district, the Symbiosis projects aim is to become a showcase for high-performance office concepts. Ideally, in tune with innovative companies looking for green buildings, Symbiosis offers flexible spaces to foster smart working and co-working.. Symbiosis is intended to be an innovative model of a building, combining productivity and well-being while ...
Symbiosis: Mutualism, Commensalism, and Parasitism, Symbiosis, Symbiosis In The Sea | JONATHAN BIRDS BLUE WORLD, 10 Incredible Organisms Working Together In Nature, Petran - Symbiosis, Symbiotic Relationships-Definition and Examples-Mutualism,Commensalism,Parasitism
Doctoral thesis (2016). For decades, the mutualistic relationship that ant and aphids may present has fascinated entomologists, as evidenced by the abundant literature on the subject. The principles of this interaction are ... [more ▼]. For decades, the mutualistic relationship that ant and aphids may present has fascinated entomologists, as evidenced by the abundant literature on the subject. The principles of this interaction are simple: as long as their colony remains, aphids provide ants with a stable and abundant source of sugars, honeydew. In exchange, ants tend aphid colonies and provide them cleaning and protection against various natural enemies. Nevertheless, some aspects of this relationship remain misunderstood. This is for example the case of the factors influencing the search and the discovery of a potential partner, first step to any potential mutualistic interaction. The role held by volatile chemical cues, called semiochemicals, in this relationship is also misunderstood. The ...
Symbiosis is an intimate association between two different organisms. In fact, most animals and plants live symbiotically with microorganisms. The larger organism is called the host and smaller organism or organisms the symbionts. Examples include bacterial colonization of the skin and digestive tract of animals and the roots of plants. For the microorganism, the benefits of the association can be a stable protective environment provided by the host. The bacteria may also obtain nutrients from the host. On the other hand, the symbionts can protect the host by making it more difficult for colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Some symbionts supply the host with nutrients that the host cannot synthesize themself nor obtain from their food.. The original definition of symbiosis by deBary (1879) did not include a judgment on whether the partners benefit or harm each other. Currently, most people use the term symbiosis to describe interactions between the symbiont and the host from which both ...
Figure 5.6 (Color figure follows p. 238.) Light and electron microscopy of the midgut sections of Megacopta punctatissima. (A) Thin crypt-bearing midgut section (TCM) . (B) Crypts of TCM, where numerous symbiont cells (asterisks) and thin epithelium are seen . (C) Swollen crypt-bearing midgut section (SCM) . (D) Crypt of SCM, where the matrix is secreted . In the main tract of the midgut, a number of symbiont cells (asterisks) are embedded in the matrix . (E) Brownish enlarged midgut end section (BEM) . (F) Crypts of BEM, whose cavity is filled with filament-like materials of the capsule envelope . Abbreviations: EP, epithelium; FM, filament-like material; GC, gut content . Bars show 50 ¡um in (A), (C), and (E), and 2 ¡urn in (B), (D), and (F) . (From Hosokawa, T., Kikuchi, Y., Meng, X .Y., and Fukatsu T. [2005] . FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 54: 471-477. With permission .). Figure 5.6 (Color figure follows p. 238.) Light and electron microscopy of the midgut sections of Megacopta punctatissima. (A) ...
Insofar as plants essentially trade carbohydrates [carbon compounds -- aka sugars -- generated from photosynthesis] for nutrients from animals or microbes in nitrogen fixation and ant-fed myrmecophily [ant-plant mutually beneficial relationships], the question naturally arises as to whether the same cost-benefit considerations and expected pattern of distribution apply to species with these associations as to carnivorous plants. With regard to nitrogen fixation, the answer is probably a qualified yes. Sunny, moist, nitrogen-poor conditions are most likely to favor nitrogen-fixing symbioses, as they do carnivores. However, the conditions favoring these two groups should differ in three important respects. First, because highly anaerobic [oxygen-deprived, as in bogs] conditions in the soil are inimical to nitrogen fixation in root nodules (Pate, 1986), nitrogen-fixing symbioses are more likely to occur in well-drained or seasonally arid sites than carnivores. Second, legumes and other ...
Insofar as plants essentially trade carbohydrates [carbon compounds -- aka sugars -- generated from photosynthesis] for nutrients from animals or microbes in nitrogen fixation and ant-fed myrmecophily [ant-plant mutually beneficial relationships], the question naturally arises as to whether the same cost-benefit considerations and expected pattern of distribution apply to species with these associations as to carnivorous plants. With regard to nitrogen fixation, the answer is probably a qualified yes. Sunny, moist, nitrogen-poor conditions are most likely to favor nitrogen-fixing symbioses, as they do carnivores. However, the conditions favoring these two groups should differ in three important respects. First, because highly anaerobic [oxygen-deprived, as in bogs] conditions in the soil are inimical to nitrogen fixation in root nodules (Pate, 1986), nitrogen-fixing symbioses are more likely to occur in well-drained or seasonally arid sites than carnivores. Second, legumes and other ...
Stirling-based Symbiosis Pharmaceutical Services has secured £1million of finance from Allied Irish Bank (GB) to support its 2020 growth strategy.. Symbiosis provides niche, sterile manufacturing services to global biotechnology and pharmaceutical company clients that are developing novel drug therapies and vaccines for use in clinical trials or the commercial market.. Symbiosiss facility at Stirling Innovation Park was purpose built in 2011 to manufacture deliberately small batches of clinical trial injectable drug products.. Since then, the company has grown significantly and has positioned itself to supply commercial pharmaceutical products and specialise in emerging medicinal technologies like Advanced Therapeutic Medicinal Products (ATMPs).. Allied Irish Bank (GB) will provide £1million of debt funding to enable physical, operational and commercial development of the business, including enhanced manufacturing output, improved business process efficiency and a strengthened IT ...
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The origin of energy-conserving organelles, the mitochondria of all aerobic eukaryotes and the plastids of plants and algae, is commonly thought to be the result of endosymbiosis, where a primitive eukaryote engulfed a respiring α-proteobacterium or a phototrophic cyanobacterium, respectively. While present-day heterotrophic protists can serve as a model for the host in plastid endosymbiosis, the situation is more difficult with regard to (the preceding) mitochondrial origin: Two chapters describe these processes and theories and inherent controversies. However, the emphasis is placed on the evolution of phototrophic eukaryotes: Here, intermediate stages can be studied and the enormous diversity of algal species can be explained by multiple secondary and tertiary (eukaryote-eukaryote) endosymbioses superimposed to the single primary endosymbiotic event. Steps crucial for the establishment of a stable, mutualistic relationship between host and endosymbiont, as metabolic symbiosis, recruitment of ...
Traditionally, virology has been focused in studying the pathogenic effect of viruses. In the recent years, however, this perception is changing and viruses are being studied as mutualistic
In all of the four species, the adult emergence rate without symbiont capsules was drastically reduced in comparison to that with symbiont capsules . In M.
Copper effect on photosynthetic performance, symbiotic efficiency and biosorption of rhizobia associated with Horse gram [Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.]
Warinner commented that the meaning of the term pathogenic in the context of the oral microbiome has evolved as well. With respect to the microbiome as a whole, the word dysbiosis is more commonly applied, she said. Microbiomes are thought to generally evolve in mutualistic symbiosis with their hosts, but drastic shifts in behaviour or diet can cause microbial imbalances and initiate a state of dysbiosis, or dys‐symbiosis. This is generally described as a state of microbial imbalance in which the formerly mutualistic relationship between microbes and the host has turned harmful. Dental caries and periodontitis (gum disease) have been described as diseases of oral dysbiosis.. Although events such as the introduction of farming leave a clear signature on the oral microbiome, the specific casual factors need to be determined. The classical hypothesis has been that an increase in carbohydrates, that is wheat, barley or rice, impacted the microbiome, but in reality, there are lots of ...
A key process in nodule development is the developmental transition involving coordinated differentiation of plant and bacterial cells. This step is critical in generating the appropriate micro-environment for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and involves a massive reprogramming of gene expression, with thousands of genes affected in successive waves. We are investigating how these late stages of nodule development are controlled, both by genome-wide approaches and in depth functional analyses of specific transcriptional regulators.. Indeterminate nodules are formed in M. truncatula and related legume species via persistent apical meristematic activity. The spatial zonation of subtending nodule cells corresponds to successive developmental stages, leading ultimately to the nitrogen-fixation zone. A particularly fruitful approach conducted by our team in the framework of a collaborative project involving all the LIPM teams working on the rhizobium-legume symbiosis (SYMbiMICS ANR-funded project), ...
Symbiotic bacteria are bacteria living in symbiosis with another organism or each other. For example, Zoamastogopera, found in the stomach of termites, enable them to digest cellulose. Symbiosis was first defined by Anton de Bary in 1869 in a work entitled Die Erscheinung der Symbiose in which he defined the term as namely, the living together of parasite and host. Associated with the term symbiosis are terms: mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and amensalism. This may define or limit the type of living together of two organisms, be they plant, animal, protist or bacteria they practice. Some types of cyanobacteria are endosymbiont Certain plants establish a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, enabling them to produce nodules that facilitate the conversion of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia. In this connection, cytokinins have been found to play a role in the development of root fixing nodules. It appears that not only must the plant have a need for nitrogen fixing bacteria, but they ...
ARLINGTON Va. -- Researchers examining plants growing in the geotherm...The research was funded in part through the National Science Founda...Biologists Regina Redman of the University of Washington and Joan H...The researchers suggest that thermotolerance may occur through symb...The researchers grew sample plants with and without the symbiotic f...,Plant-fungal,symbiosis,found,in,high-heat,extreme,environment,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Legume plants benefit from their symbiosis with rhizobial bacteria because the bacteria are able to fix molecular nitrogen and share it with the plant, allowing legumes to grow under nitrogen-limiting conditions. In exchange, the plant provides the rhizobia residing in root nodules with fixed carbon from photosynthesis. The interaction is complex and involves multiple layers of regulation by both partners. Genetic analysis of nodulation, initially begun because of the potential for agricultural improvement offered by understanding nitrogen-fixing symbioses, has revealed regulators relevant both to nodule formation and to nonleguminous plants (Kouchi et al., 2010).. The establishment of the symbiosis follows a similar pattern in most legumes. Legume roots secrete flavonoid signals into the rhizosphere. Rhizobia respond to flavonoids by producing a lipochitin oligosaccharide termed Nod factor. Perception of species-specific Nod factor by the compatible species of legume triggers Ca2+ spiking in ...
One such example is mycorrhizal fungi, which can be found at your typical garden supply store. Mycorrhizal fungi colonize the roots of plants, where they absorb mycelium, moisture and carbohydrates from the plant. In turn, they supply the plant with nutrients from the surrounding soil, making it easier for the plant to absorb essential minerals and also helping to protect it from harmful pathogens. The symbiotic relationship between mycorrhizal fungi and plants is one of the most prevalent on Earth, as it exists in more than 90 percent of all vascular land plants [source: New York Botanical Garden].. The phenomenon isnt limited to fungi, though. Rhizobium, a common type of soil bacteria, forms a similar relationship with soybean plants. By itself, the soybean plant cant fix nitrogen, so it depends on the rhizobium bacteria, which is found in the roots of the plant, to fix atmospheric nitrogen and make it available to the plant. In return, the bacteria, like mycorrhizal fungi, receive ...
SYMBIOSIS CONCEPT Symbiosis is a biological relationship in which two species live in close proximity to each other and interact regularly in such a way as to benefit one or both of the organisms. When both partners benefit, this variety of symbiosis is known as mutualism.
Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, and Azorhizobium species are able to elicit the formation of unique structures, called nodules, on the roots or stems of the leguminous host. In these nodules, the rhizobia convert atmospheric N2 into ammonia for the plant. To establish this symbiosis, signals are produced early in the interaction between plant and rhizobia and they elicit discrete responses by the two symbiotic partners. First, transcription of the bacterial nodulation (nod) genes is under control of the NodD regulatory protein, which is activated by specific plant signals, flavonoids, present in the root exudates. In return, the nod-encoded enzymes are involved in the synthesis and excretion of specific lipooligosaccharides, which are able to trigger on the host plant the organogenic program leading to the formation of nodules. An overview of the organization, regulation, and function of the nod genes and their participation in the determination of the host specificity is presented.. ...
Industrial symbiosis is a form of brokering to bring companies together in innovative collaborations, finding ways to use the waste from one as raw materials for another.. SYMBI project will contribute to improve the implementation of regional development policies and programmes related to the promotion and dissemination of Industrial Symbiosis and Circular Economy. It addresses 7 participating countries facing the need for policies alignment with the Circular Economy Strategy of the European Commission to transform Europe into a more competitive resource-efficient economy. INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS looks at interactions between the environment, the economy and industry, and promotes the sharing of materials to minimize waste, following the example of a natural ecosystem, where everything is reused.. ...
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The oath of the Vayuputras by Tripathi, Amish Publication: New Delhi Westland Ltd 2013 . 575 , Novel Date: 2013 Availability: Items available: ELTIS & SIFIL library (1), Symbiosis Centre for Information Technology (1), Symbiosis Institute of Technology, Lavale hill base, Pune (1), Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts (1), ...
Symbiosis International University (Established Under section 3 of The UGC Act, 1956) Re-accredited by NAAC with A Grade SID is one of the premier design institutes of the country. The... (research)
The aim of this project is to understand the molecular mechanisms of plant flavonoids in nitrogen fixing symbioses of legumes. Flavonoids are a class of secondary plant metabolites that have a range of functions in signalling, defence, and gene and protein regulation. We are investigating how certain plant flavonoids control root symbioses as regulators of auxin transport in the plant and in the signalling between plants and microbes. We are using RNA interference, gene profiling and fluorescence microscopy to manipulate the flavonoid pathway and unravel their targets in plants.
Dive into the research topics of Move over, bacteria! viruses make their mark as mutualistic microbial symbionts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Nitrogen fixing bacteria isolated from hot arid areas in Asia, Africa and America but from diverse leguminous plants have been recently identified as belonging to a possible new species of Ensifer (Si
Scale insects are commonly associated with obligate, intracellular microorganisms which play important roles in complementing their hosts with essential nutrients. Here we characterized the symbiotic system of Greenisca brachypodii, a member of the family Eriococcidae. Histological and ultrastructural analyses have indicated that G. brachypodii is stably associated with coccoid and rod-shaped bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses have revealed that the coccoid bacteria represent a sister group to the secondary symbiont of the mealybug Melanococcus albizziae, whereas the rod-shaped symbionts are close relatives of Arsenophonus symbionts in insects - to our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of Arsenophonus bacterium in scale insects. As a comparison of 16S and 23S rRNA genes sequences of the G. brachypodii coccoid symbiont with other gammaprotebacterial sequences showed only low similarity (∼90%), we propose the name Candidatus Kotejella greeniscae for its tentative classification. ...
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Author: Devers, E. A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011; Open Access; Keywords: medicago-truncatula roots|br/|abiotic stress responses|br/|argonaute silencing complex|br/|plant development|br/|small rnas|br/|arabidopsis-thaliana|br/|glomus-intraradices|br/|gene-expression|br/|mirna targets|br/|phosphate homeostasis; Title: Stars and Symbiosis: MicroRNA- and MicroRNA*-Mediated Transcript Cleavage Involved in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbiosis
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is a root endosymbiosis between plants and glomeromycete fungi. It is the most widespread terrestrial plant symbiosis, improving plant uptake of water and mineral nutrients. Yet, despite its crucial role in land ecosystems, molecular mechanisms leading to its formation are just beginning to be unravelled. Recent evidence suggests that AM fungi produce diffusible symbiotic signals. Here we show that Glomus intraradices secretes symbiotic signals that are a mixture of sulphated and non-sulphated simple lipochitooligosaccharides (LCOs), which stimulate formation of AM in plant species of diverse families (Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Umbelliferae). In the legume Medicago truncatula these signals stimulate root growth and branching by the symbiotic DMI signalling pathway. These findings provide a better understanding of the evolution of signalling mechanisms involved in plant root endosymbioses and will greatly facilitate their molecular dissection. They also open the way to using
Author Summary Facultative mutualisms are relationships between two species that can live independently, but derive benefits when living together with their mutualistic partners. The facultative mutualism between rhizobial bacteria and legume plants contributes approximately half of all biologically fixed nitrogen, an essential plant nutrient, and is an important source of nitrogen to both natural and agricultural ecosystems. We resequenced the genomes of 44 strains of two closely related species of the genus Sinorhizobium that form facultative mutualisms with the model legme Medicago truncatula. These data provide one of the most complete examinations of genomic diversity segregating within microbial species that are not causative agents of human illness. Our analyses reveal that horizontal gene transfer, a common source of new genes in microbial species, disproportionately affects genes with direct roles in the rhizobia-plant symbiosis. Analyses of nucleotide diversity segregating within each species
Hamiltonella defensa has an extremely dynamic genome. It is relatively small, only 2.1 Mb with circular chromosome. It encodes 2,100 protein-coding genes, has a relatively large number of pseudogenes, and is littered with mobile DNA, insertion sequences, and phage remnants. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a role in its dynamic genome. An example of HGT at work in H. defensas genome is the fact that approximately half of H. defensas DNA comes from toxin-encoding bacteriophages called APSEs. APSEs are similar to lamda-like phages, which are bacterial viruses that infect E. coli (it has other similarities to the E. coli bacterium, including a similar number of pseudogenes). DNA from different strains of APSEs can be horizontally transferred to H. defensa. Depending on which strain of APSE H. defensa obtains its DNA from, the development stage at which the parasitoid wasps are killed varies. H. defensa is auxotrophic for 8 of its 10 essential amino acids. It relies on Buchnera, a primary ...
Hamiltonella defensa has an extremely dynamic genome. It is relatively small, only 2.1 Mb with circular chromosome. It encodes 2,100 protein-coding genes, has a relatively large number of pseudogenes, and is littered with mobile DNA, insertion sequences, and phage remnants. Horizontal gene transfer plays a role in its dynamic genome. Additionally, approximately half of H. defensas DNA comes from toxin-encoding bacteriophages called APSEs. APSEs are similar to lamda-like phages, which are bacterial viruses that infect E. coli. It has other similarities to the E. coli bacterium, including a similar number of pseudogenes. Depending on which strain of APSE H. defensa obtains its DNA from, the development stage at which the parasitoid wasps are killed varies. H. defensa is auxotrophic for 8 of its 10 essential amino acids. It relies on Buchnera, a primary endosymbiont of aphids, to synthesize these amino acids. However, despite H. defensas limited biosynthetic capabilities, it has considerably more ...
Cities are responsible for more than 60 percent of global energy consumption and three-fourth of world greenhouse gas emissions. Industrial and urban symbiosis can be an effective solution for resource recycling and energy conservation. Numerous studies (eg., Kawasaki, Japan) have verified the greenhouse gas emission reduction and economic benefits of industrial and urban symbiosis. However, the energy exchange between waste management and urban energy system and efficient cascade use of the energy are seldom taken into account. In fact, the coupling effect of urban symbiosis on the urban metabolism process needs to be further investigated. In this study, we propose and assess an urban symbiosis network by integrating the biomass power plant, the MSW treatment and district heating system. The purpose is to optimize symbiosis network as well as operational parameters (technology and scale effect etc.). In the proposed symbiosis network, biomass such as food waste, sewage sludge and waste woods ...
Ferrous oxygenated hemoglobins (Hb2+O2) autoxidize to ferric Hb3+, but Hb3+ is reduced to Hb2+ by enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. We characterized the interaction between the soybean ferric leghemoglobin reductase 2 (FLbR2) and ferric rice non-symbiotic Hb1 (Hb13+). Spectroscopic analysis showed that FLbR2 reduces Hb13+. Analysis by tryptophan fluorescence quenching showed that FLbR2 interacts with Hb13+, however the use of ITC and IEF techniques revealed that this interaction is weak. In silico modeling showed that predicted FLbR2 and native Hb13+ interact at the FAD-binding domain of FLbR2 and the CD-loop and helix F of Hb13+ ...
Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a ...
Previously, we reported that recA was probably lost in the early stage of RGE in Calyptogena clam symbionts [8]. The present study showed that some of the extant clam symbionts still have intact recA (Figure 2). We hypothesized that in the early phase of RGE of the clam symbionts before the loss of recA, large-sized deletions occurred due to RecA-dependent recombination [8]. This type of deletion requires repeated sequences larger than 200 bp, which have been depleted from the genomes of Rma and Vok [8, 19]. It is still not clear whether the genomes of the Calyptogena clam symbionts containing recA have large-sized (, 200 bp) repeated sequences. The presence of intact or of nearly intact recA and of mutY in clade II symbionts except for Rma suggests that the genomes of clade II symbionts are larger than those of clade I symbionts and that their RGE is in an earlier stage than in clade I symbionts. To resolve these questions, we must await their genome sequence analyses.. The coding region of ...
Moscatiello, R., Sello, S., Novero, M., Negro, A., Bonfante, P. and Navazio, L. (2014), The intracellular delivery of TAT-aequorin reveals calcium-mediated sensing of environmental and symbiotic signals by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Gigaspora margarita. New Phytologist, 203: 1012-1020. doi: 10.1111/nph.12849 ...
Little, Ainslie E. F., Murakami, Takahiro, Mueller, Ulrich Gerhard, and Currie, Cameron Robert. 2006. ,a,Defending Against Parasites: Fungus-Growing Ants Combine Specialized Behaviours and Microbial Symbionts to Protect Their Fungus Gardens,/a,. ,em,Biology Letters,/em,. 12–16. ,a href=,,/a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population dynamics of defensive symbionts in aphids. AU - Oliver, Kerry M.. AU - Campos, Jaime. AU - Moran, Nancy A.. AU - Hunter, Martha S.. PY - 2008/2/7. Y1 - 2008/2/7. N2 - Vertically transmitted micro-organisms can increase in frequency in host populations by providing net benefits to hosts. While laboratory studies have identified diverse beneficial effects conferred by inherited symbionts of insects, they have not explicitly examined the population dynamics of mutualist symbiont infection within populations. In the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, the inherited facultative symbiont, Hamiltonella defensa, provides protection against parasitism by the wasp, Aphidius ervi. Despite a high fidelity of vertical transmission and direct benefits of infection accruing to parasitized aphids, Hamiltonella remains only at intermediate frequencies in natural populations. Here, we conducted population cage experiments to monitor the dynamics of Hamiltonella and of another common A. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Polyamines as potential regulators of nutrient exchange across the peribacteroid membrane in soybean root nodules. AU - Whitehead, Lynne F.. AU - Tyerman, Stephen D.. AU - Day, David A.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The effect of cytoplasmic polyamines on peribacteroid membrane transport processes in soybean (Glycine max L.) was investigated. The concentration of free polyamines in soybean nodule cytoplasm has been estimated by others to be in the micromolar range. The H+-ATPase was inhibited by 37 and 54% by 200 μM spermidine and putrescine, respectively. Spermine applied to the cytoplasmic face of the peribacteroid membrane was found to inhibit both inward and outward currents through a non-selective cation channel permeable to ammonium (Kd 2.1 μM at - 100 mV). Malate transport into intact symbiosomes was reduced by 15-30% by 15 mM spermidine, cadaverine and putrescine. A non-specific stimulation of malate transport by polycations was found to occur at concentrations in the ...
Many plants allow intracellular accommodation of symbiotic microorganisms in order to improve nutrient uptake. The most ubiquitous example is vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) which are specific organs contributed by plant roots and fungi [1]. VAM are probably as old as the common ancestor of all land plants [2] and most of them are described as generalist (i.e. many distantly related fungi can associate with a given plant). In contrast, only plants of the Fabaceae family (legumes), plus the Ulmaceae Parasponia, harbor nitrogen-fixing bacteria in specific root organs (nodules). A polyphyletic group of symbiotic bacteria collectively named rhizobia are able to trigger nodule organogenesis [3]. The legume-rhizobium symbiosis is characterized by host-symbiont specificity controlled by stringent partner recognition. As a result, only a limited range of bacteria can nodulate a given legume species. Despite their differences in levels of specificity, VAM and rhizobial symbioses exhibit the same ...
A major limitation to plant growth is the restricted access to nutrients in the soil. To improve nutrient acquisition, the majority of land plants enter a beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The accommodation of fungal hyphae in roots requires the extensive transcriptional reprogramming of host cells. Several GRASdomain proteins, including NSP1 (NODULATION SIGNALLING PATHWAY 1), NSP2, and RAM1 (REQUIRED FOR ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZATION 1), have emerged as important transcriptional regulators during mycorrhization. Interaction studies suggest that these proteins form multicomponent complexes, raising the question whether they regulate similar or different mycorrhizal processes. Here, the functions of NSP1, NSP2 and RAM1 during AM development were investigated by detailed phenotypic and transcriptional analyses of the corresponding loss‐of‐function mutants. Global gene expression profiling of nsp1‐1 revealed that NSP1 is required for the expression of a large number of ...
Maize plants are well colonized with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which contribute mineral nutrients absorption from soil. However little is known about their role in nitrogen (N) absorption especially from amino acids, which reach a considerable quantity in soils. This experiment was conducted to investigate N acquisition from amino acids through AMF symbiosis. AMF inoculation clearly increased the N content of maize supplied with amino acids (Glu, Ala and Pro). Further study of xylem sap revealed that the composition of amino acids was changed by AMF inoculation. These results indicate that AMF contribute N from amino acids, and may affect the nitrogen assimilation of host plants.
Attine ants live in symbiosis with a basidiomycetous fungus that they rear on a substrate of plant material. This indirect herbivory implies that the symbiosis is likely to be nitrogen deprived, so that specific mechanisms may have evolved to enhance protein availability. We therefore hypothesized that fungal proteinase activity may have been under selection for efficiency and that different classes of proteinases might be involved. We determined proteinase activity profiles across a wide pH range for fungus gardens of 14 Panamanian species of fungus-growing ants, representing eight genera. We mapped these activity profiles on an independently obtained molecular phylogeny of the symbionts and show that total proteinase activity in lower attine symbionts peaks at ca. pH 6. The higher attine symbionts that have no known free-living relatives had much higher proteinase activities than the lower attine symbionts. Their total in vitro proteinase activity peaked at pH values around 5, which is close to the pH
Infestation pattern of P. indica in barley roots. (a) By 8 dai, hyphae excessively occupy rhizodermal and cortical cells of the differentiation zone. The elongation zone is less colonized, with occasional intercellular subepidermal hyphal structures. The root cap is heavily infested with hyphae. (b-e) After penetration (arrows) fungal hyphae colonize the subepidermal layer. (b) To better visualize the position of hyphae in the z axis, a confocal laser scanning image consisting of 30 frames of adjacent focal planes (z axis) was displayed as a maximum projection with the fluorescent signal of the wheat germ agglutinin-stained fungal hyphae displayed in red for the upper (abaxial) 15 frames and in green for the lower (adaxial, subepidermal) 15 frames. (c and d) For visualization of plant cell walls, two close-up bright-field images of two different focal planes are superimposed with the respective frames of the fluorescence images. Intercellular hyphae start branching and proliferate within the ...
Genetically modified bacterial symbionts of arthropod disease vectors are potential tools for the delivery of proteins that interfere with pathogen development in the vector and may serve as a powerful complementary approach to control disease transmission [2]. Furthermore, the use of bacterial symbionts expressing foreign proteins in disease-carrying arthropods has also an intriguing potential for studying insect-pathogen interactions. The advent of Nanobody® technology has offered new prospects for the development of new effector molecules applicable for the paratransgenesis approach. These single-domain antigen-binding fragments represent exquisite targeting tools because of their small size (13-15 kDa) and stability properties [17, 22]. Despite the interest for a paratransgenesis approach in tsetse flies to control transmission of African trypanosomiasis, little progress has been made on the identification and expression of trypanosome-interfering proteins in the tsetse fly bacterial ...
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Although algal symbionts can become a source of reactive oxygen species under stressful conditions, symbiotic planulae of the coral Pocillopora damicornis are highly tolerant to thermal stress compared with non-symbiotic planulae of Acropora tenuis. As a first step to understand how P. damicornis planulae attain high stress tolerance, we compared the respiration rate and temperature dependence between symbiotic planulae of P. damicornis and non-symbiotic planulae of A. tenuis, as well as between larvae and adult branches within each species. Larvae and adult branches of both species had similar temperature dependency of respiration rate, with the temperature coefficient (Q10) values of about 2. Planula larvae of P. damicornis had a significantly lower respiration rate than that of A. tenuis larvae at 25-30 °C, but not at 32 °C, whereas adult branches of P. damicornis had a significantly higher respiration rate than that of A. tenuis branches at all temperatures. Thus, P. damicornis larvae appear to
Symbiotic associations with microorganisms are ubiquitously found in a variety of insects, which are rated among the important factors underpinning their adaptation, diversity, and prosperity (1⇓-3). Many bacterial symbionts are indispensable for growth, survival, and reproduction of their insect hosts via, for example, provisioning of essential nutrients like amino acids and vitamins, where the host and the symbiont are integrated into an almost inseparable biological entity (4, 5). In such obligate symbiotic associations, the symbiont genomes tend to exhibit conspicuous structural degeneration, massive gene losses, and drastic size reduction, which are attributable to relaxed natural selection acting on many symbiont genes no longer necessary for the permanent intrahost lifestyle, and also to accumulation of deleterious mutations driven by attenuated natural selection acting on the symbiont genomes due to strong population bottlenecks and restricted horizontal gene acquisitions associated ...
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The mechanisms whereby the endosymbiont Wolbachia impacts apoptosis in host cells have been poorly studied. Preferential infection and high accumulation. of Wolbachia in region 2a of the germarium [26] where the checkpoint is located in Drosophila was thought-provoking. We raised the question: Can bacteria Wolbachia in region 2a of the germarium affect the frequency of apoptosis there? Using MLN2238 fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy we compared germaria from ovaries of two D. melanogaster stocks infected with either the wMel or wMelPop strains with germaria from two uninfected counterparts. It was established that the presence of wMel did not alter apoptosis frequency in germaria from D. melanogaster Canton S. In contrast, the number of PLX4032 mw germaria containing apoptotic cells in the checkpoint was considerably increased. selleck compound in the wMelPop-infected flies as compared with their uninfected counterparts. Thus, evidence was obtained indicating that the virulent ...
In accordance with studies on pea aphids (Henter & Via 1995; Ferrari et al. 2001), we detected significant clonal variation for susceptibility to parasitoids in the peach potato aphid, M. persicae. In aphids, reduced susceptibility to parasitoids can be conferred by the endosymbiotic bacteria H. defensa and S. symbiotica (Oliver et al. 2003), yet neither of these secondary symbionts was detected in our collection of clones. Instead, we found that the one entirely resistant clone harboured R. insecticola. This secondary endosymbiont has so far not been implicated in defence against parasitoids, but it was shown to decrease susceptibility to a fungal pathogen and to affect host plant specialization in the pea aphid (Tsuchida et al. 2004; Scarborough et al. 2005). Our finding suggests that certain strains of R. insecticola may also provide protection against parasitoids, although the critical experiments of curing clone 5.15 from R. insecticola and/or transferring the symbiont to susceptible M. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population dynamics and rapid spread of Cardinium, a bacterial endosymbiont causing cytoplasmic incompatibility in Encarsia pergandiella (Hymenoptera. T2 - Aphelinidae). AU - Harris, L. R.. AU - Kelly, S. E.. AU - Hunter, M. S.. AU - Perlman, S. J.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank Josh Garcia, Tamica Montgomery, Hyomin Kim, Jen White, Amaranta Kozuch, Nick Doidge and Dan Fernandez for assistance in the lab and greenhouse; Pat Gregory, John Volpe, Rob McGregor and three anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions and comments; and Amer Shreim, Laura Cowen, Finn Hamilton and Pavel Kratina for help with statistical analysis. This research was supported by an NSERC CGS to LH and an NSF DEB Grant (DEB-0542961) to MSH and SP. SP is a member of the Integrated Microbial Biodiversity Program of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research.. PY - 2010/3. Y1 - 2010/3. N2 - Cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) is a common phenotype of maternally inherited bacterial symbionts of arthropods; in ...
Legumes are able to establish symbioses with nitrogen‐fixing soil bacteria called rhizobia, which enable them to grow in nitrogen‐poor soil. This symbiosis involves a complex interplay between host and bacterial partners, resulting in the formation of a novel organ, the root nodule, within which the microbial symbiont is accommodated and fixes nitrogen to the benefit of the host plant. Root nodule development is accompanied by major changes in gene expression, involving a number of regulatory transcription factor (TF) proteins which are presumed to coordinate gene expression changes during bacterial infection and nodule organogenesis. Recent genome wide analyses have revealed that legumes, as is the case for many plant species, possess a large number of TF families in which many members are specifically expressed during nodulation. Among these, the APETALA2/Ethylene Response Factor (AP2/ERF) family defined by the presence of a typical DNA binding domain of about 60 amino acids, is widely represented
Interactions among microbial symbionts have multiple roles in the maintenance of insect-microbe symbiosis. However, signals mediating microbial interactions have been scarcely studied. In the classical model system of bark beetles and fungal associates, fungi increase the fitness of insects. However, not all interactions are mutualistic, some of these fungal symbionts compete for sugars with beetle larvae. How this antagonistic effect is alleviated is unknown, and recent research suggests potential roles of bacterial symbionts. Red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, is an invasive pest in China, and it leads to wide spread, catastrophic mortality to Chinese pines. In the symbiotic system formed by RTB, fungi and bacteria, volatiles from predominant bacteria regulate the consumption sequence of carbon sources D-pinitol and D-glucose in the fungal symbiont Leptographium procerum, and appear to alleviate the antagonistic effect from the fungus against RTB larvae. However, active ...
Eukaryotes often form intimate endosymbioses with prokaryotic organisms. Cases in which these symbionts are transmitted cytoplasmically to host progeny create the potential for co-speciation or congruent evolution among the distinct genomes of these partners. If symbionts do not move horizontally between different eukaryotic hosts, strict phylogenetic congruence of their genomes is predicted and should extend to relationships within a single host species. Conversely, even rare host shifts among closely related lineages should yield conflicting tree topologies at the intraspecific level. Here, we investigate the historical associations among four symbiotic genomes residing within an aphid host: the mitochondrial DNA of Uroleucon ambrosiae aphids, the bacterial chromosome of their Buchnera bacterial endosymbionts, and two plasmids associated with Buchnera. DNA sequence polymorphisms provided a significant phylogenetic signal and no homoplasy for each data set, yielding completely and ...
The term symbiont plasticity describes the mechanisms by which symbiotic microbes adapt to changes in host development, immune responses, and the changing external environment. Jennifer Wernegreen, PhD, from the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, MA, and Diana Wheeler, PhD, from the University of Arizona, in Tucson, use the example of mutualism between Blochmannia and their ant hosts to illustrate how the bacteria rely on genetic, ecological, and physiological means to maintain the functional flexibility that allows them to meet the needs of an ant colony rather than the individual ants that make up the colony. Their thought-provoking review of the impact of symbiotic lifestyle on genetic variation and microbial adaptation is entitled, Remaining Flexible in Old Alliances: Functional Plasticity in Constrained Mutualisms.. Adam Silver and Joerg Graf from the University of Connecticut, in Storrs, explore the role of virulence factors and specific toxins produced by members of the ...
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi associate with the majority of terrestrial plants, influencing their growth, nutrient uptake and defence chemistry. Conse
By Francis Galibert, Turlough M. Finan, Sharon R. Long, Alfred Pühler, Pia Abola, Frédéric Ampe, Frédérique Barloy-Hubler, Melanie J. Barnett, Anke Becker, Pierre Boistard, Gordana Bothe, Marc Boutry, Leah Bowser, Jens Buhrmester, Edouard Cadieu, Delphine Capela, Patrick Chain, Alison Cowie, Ronald W. Davis, Stéphane Dréano, Nancy A. Federspiel, Robert F. Fisher, Stéphanie Gloux, Thérèse Godrie, André Goffeau, Brian Golding, Jérôme Gouzy, Mani Gurjal, Ismael Hernandez-Lucas, Andrea Hong, Lucas Huizar, Richard W. Hyman, Ted Jones, Daniel Kahn, Michael L. Kahn, Sue Kalman, David H. Keating, Ernö Kiss, Caridad Komp, Valérie Lelaure, David Masuy, Curtis Palm, Melicent C. Peck, Thomas M Pohl, Daniel Portetelle, Bénédicte Purnelle, Uwe Ramsperger, Raymond Surzycki, Patricia Thébault, Micheline Vandenbol, Frank-J. Vorhölter, Stefan Weidner, Derek H. Wells, Kim Wong, Kuo-Chen Yeh, Jacques Batut. Science ...
Chemoautotrophic symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria are the major source of organic carbon for the host, are found in marine habitats where sulfide and oxygen coexist. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of pH, alternate sulfur sources, and electron acceptors on carbon fixation and to investigate which form(s) of inorganic carbon is taken up and fixed by the gamma-proteobacterial endosymbionts of the protobranch bivalve Solemya velum. Symbiont-enriched suspensions were generated by homogenization of S. velum gills, followed by velocity centrifugation to pellet the symbiont cells. Carbon fixation was measured by incubating the cells with (14)C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon. When oxygen was present, both sulfide and thiosulfate stimulated carbon fixation; however, elevated levels of either sulfide (|0.5 mM) or oxygen (1 mM) were inhibitory. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate did not enhance carbon fixation rates when sulfide was present. Symbionts fixed carbon most rapidly
Symbiosis International (Deemed University) participated in the Global India Education Forum at the 30thEuropean Association for International Educations Annual Conference which took place from September 11-14, 2018 in Geneva, Switzerland, to promote Internationalization of Indian Education. Dr. Vidya Yeravdekar, Pro-Chancellor, Symbiosis International (Deemed University), has been awarded the Exemplary Leader in Internationalization of Indian Education and Symbiosis International (Deemed University) was adjudged as the Most Promising University in West India. ...
As humans have evolved, microbes have always been their guests. And as microbial hosts, humans have developed microbe-controlling mechanisms (like the immune system) and have selected microbes that perform certain jobs for them. Humans and microbes thus depend on each other for survival - so can we gain a better understanding of how this symbiosis arose in the first place, and what might trigger a shift to a dysbiotic state?. Dr. Alejandro Frank (AF), a scientist at Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, in Mexico City (Mexico) recently addressed similar questions in a paper in Frontiers in Physiology, co-authored with Mexican colleagues, that proposed a mathematical model of the general mechanisms of holobiont evolution. In this interview, Frank tells Microbiome Times about his groups approach and how models like theirs could be used to increase knowledge of both symbiosis and dysbiosis and of microbe-host interactions for health.. What unique ...
Host-symbiont associations are widespread in nature and exhibit a variety of interactions ranging from parasitism to mutualism. Insects living on nutritionally unbalanced diets are prone to establish long-term mutualistic relationships with vertically transmitted intracellular bacteria (endosymbionts) that complement their diet, improve their metabolism and reproduction, and impact many host adaptive traits, including immunity and defense against pathogens [1-7]. While the metabolic, ecological and evolutionary features of these interactions have been well described [8-10], the mechanisms allowing the persistence of such associations remain largely unexplored. Beneficial bacteria are essential for the associations survival but represent a constant immune challenge for the host. Insect immunity must preserve endosymbionts and control their load and location while being able to cope with potential environmental infections by microbial intruders. This dilemma is more puzzling considering that both ...
p,Plants and mycorrhizal fungi form a mutualism in which plants donate carbon to the fungus and, in return, receive benefits such as increased nutrient uptake and water. Mycorrhizal fungi colonize plant roots, forming nutrient exchange structures. The fungi also colonize the soil by growing long strands of hyphae that forage for nutrients and attach plants, forming a common mycorrhizal network (CMN). Plants attached to a well-supported CMN will receive greater benefits than those attached to a lesser CMN because the more carbon donations the fungal partner receives, the more it can grow and colonize the soil, accessing hard to reach soil nutrients. Kin selection theory predicts that relatives should donate more carbon to the fungal partner than non-relatives because benefits gained by neighbouring relatives through the CMN lead to inclusive fitness gains. Thus, social environment, i.e. relatedness of the group, could affect the mycorrhizal mutualism. Moreover, the presence of mycorrhizal fungi ...
On average, a soybean crop needs 315 lb N per acre, about 60% of which (190 lb) goes to seed production and 40% (125 lb) goes to stover and roots. In most cases all of this need can be supplied from the environment and additional nitrogen isnt necessary. (In sandy or low organic soils or for yields over 70 bu/ac additional nitrogen may be recommended.) Soybeans fix nitrogen from the atmosphere when nitrogen-fixing rhizobia bacteria are present in the soil. Nitrogen fixation is a result of the symbiotic relationship between rhizobia and the soybean plant and is evident in nodules on soybean plant roots. Most studies show that between 50% and 60% of the nitrogen is from N fixation. A well nodulated plant should have five to seven nodules on the primary root. Checking for nodulation now can help you assess your field and make adjustments for the next crop; however, checking as early as two weeks after emergence allows you time to apply nitrogen during the season if plants are not developing ...
Bacterial symbionts may be used as vehicles for expressing foreign genes in arthropods. Expression of selected genes can render an arthropod incapable of transmitting a second microorganism that is pathogenic for humans and is an alternative approach to the control of arthropod-borne diseases. We discuss the rationale for this alternative approach, its potential applications and limitations, and the regulatory concerns that may arise from its use in interrupting disease transmission in humans and animals.
The main question motivating this study was whether the elimination of ancestral regulatory genes in reduced and rearranged symbiont genomes corresponds to less responsive transcriptional control or whether these organisms have novel mechanisms for regulating gene expression. Specifically, we addressed whether amino acid biosynthetic genes are subject to transcriptional regulation in response to changes in amino acid concentrations encountered by the hosts. The amino acid biosynthetic pathways, some of the best-studied systems of transcriptional regulation, show dramatic responses in E. coli and related bacteria; for example, the combined mechanisms of trp operon regulation in E. coli can effect a change in transcription rates of up to 500-fold (38). In B. aphidicola, amino acid biosynthesis is central to its symbiotic role, yet the underlying genes have lost most of their ancestral regulatory systems (Table 1). Expression of these genes is relevant to the ecology of aphids/B. aphidicola. For S. ...
Mycorrhizal fungi are critical members of the plant microbiome, forming a symbiosis with the roots of most plants on Earth. Most plant species partner with either arbuscular or ectomycorrhizal fungi, and these symbioses are thought to represent plant adaptations to fast and slow soil nutrient cycling rates. This generates a second hypothesis, that arbuscular and ectomycorrhizal plant species traits complement and reinforce these fungal strategies, resulting in nutrient acquisitive vs. conservative plant trait profiles. Here we analyzed 17,764 species level trait observations from 2,940 woody plant species to show that mycorrhizal plants differ systematically in nitrogen and phosphorus economic traits. Differences were clearest in temperate latitudes, where ectomycorrhizal plant species are more nitrogen use- and phosphorus use-conservative than arbuscular mycorrhizal species. This difference is reflected in both aboveground and belowground plant traits and is robust to controlling for ...
Symbiosis refers to two species that have a close relationship with each other. The relationship can be mutualistic, when both ...
Cyanobacterial symbiosis[edit]. At least some species of Gunnera host endosymbiotic cyanobacteria such as Nostoc punctiforme ... Bergman, B.; Johansson, C.; Söderbäck, E. (1992). "The Nostoc-Gunnera symbiosis". New Phytologist. 122 (3): 379. doi:10.1111/j. ... Establishment of a functional symbiosis between the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme and the bryophyte Anthoceros punctatus ... This intracellular interaction is unique in flowering plants and may provide insights to allow the creation of novel symbioses ...
Symbiosis[edit]. The photosynthetic cyanobacterium Hyella caespitosa (round shapes) with fungal hyphae (translucent threads) in ... A lichen is a symbiosis of a macroscopic fungus with photosynthetic microbial algae or cyanobacteria.[85][86] ... For example, microbial symbiosis plays a crucial role in the immune system. The microorganisms that make up the gut flora in ...
Symbiosis[edit]. Symbiosis refers to two or more biological species that interact closely, often over a long period of time. ... Symbiosis may be obligate or facultative. In obligate symbiosis, one or both species depends on the other for survival. In ... Zhang, F; Smith, D. L (2002). Interorganismal signaling in suboptimum environments: The legume-rhizobia symbiosis. Advances in ... Symbiosis includes three types of interactions-mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism-of which only mutualism can sometimes ...
Symbiosis. Main article: Symbiosis. An Indian study of seven bee species and 9 plant species found 45 yeast species from 16 ... Yeast in symbiosis with acetic acid bacteria is used in its preparation. Species of yeasts found in the tea can vary, and may ...
Cleaning symbiosis[edit]. Main article: Cleaning symbiosis. Cleaning symbiosis is an association between individuals of two ... symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in ... The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for 130 years.[6] In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the term symbiosis to ... TED-Education video - Symbiosis: a surprising tale of species cooperation.. *. Media related to Symbiosis at Wikimedia Commons ...
Symbiosis[edit]. Some species of Paramecium form mutualistic relationships with other organisms. Paramecium bursaria and ...
Symbiosis. Some small fish are immune to the stings of the jellyfish and live among the tentacles, serving as bait in a fish ...
Actinorhizal symbioses account for roughly the same amount of nitrogen fixation as rhizobial symbioses.[16] All of these orders ... Symbiosis[edit]. Leguminous family[edit]. Plants that contribute to nitrogen fixation include the legume family - Fabaceae - ... vary significantly from those formed in the legume-rhizobia symbiosis. In these symbioses the bacteria are never released from ... Dawson, J. O. (2008). "Ecology of actinorhizal plants". Nitrogen-fixing Actinorhizal Symbioses. 6. Springer. pp. 199-234. doi: ...
A long-term interaction is called a symbiosis. Symbioses range from mutualism, beneficial to both partners, to competition, ... Close and long-term interactions are described as symbiosis;[a] symbioses that are mutually beneficial are called mutualistic.[ ... The cleaning symbiosis of the red-billed oxpecker and the giraffe may be mutualistic or parasitic.[14] ... Further information: Symbiosis § Amensalism. Amensalism (a term introduced by Haskell)[21] is an interaction where an organism ...
Symbioses[edit]. A lower pitcher of N. attenboroughii supporting a large population of mosquito larvae. The upright lid of this ...
Mollusc/algal chloroplast symbiosis". Plant Physiology. 123 (1): 29-38. doi:10.1104/pp.123.1.29. PMC 1539252. PMID 10806222.. ... An even closer form of symbiosis may explain the origin of chloroplasts. Chloroplasts have many similarities with ... "Photosynthetic symbioses in animals". Journal of Experimental Botany. 59 (5): 1069-1080. doi:10.1093/jxb/erm328. PMID 18267943 ...
2020). "Metagenomic data reveal diverse fungal and algal communities associated with the lichen symbiosis". Symbiosis. 82 (1-2 ...
There is evidence from DNA analysis that dinoflagellate symbiosis with radiolarians evolved independently from other ... Predation was the most common interaction (39%), followed by symbiosis (29%), parasitism (18%), and unresolved interactions (14 ... in symbiosis with dinoflagellates The dinoflagellate Dinophysis acuta Dinoflagellates Dinoflagellates often live in symbiosis ... symbiosis (green), and parasitism (purple). The network is undirected, meaning that a node can contain both parasites/symbionts ...
Subsequent work has involved the application of molecular genetics to symbiosis and marine biology research (e.g. corals and ... Besides the well-known symbiosis, Lopez initially hypothesized that sponge microbiomes could serve as indicators for the ... Wilkinson, Clive (1987). "Significance of microbial symbionts in sponge evolution and ecology". Symbiosis. Pace, Norm (1997). " ... Symbiosis Insights Derived From A Basal Metazoan Phylum". Nature Communications. 7 (11870): 11870. doi:10.1038/ncomms11870. PMC ...
The most notable examples are plant root-arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and legume-rhizobial symbioses, both of which greatly ... Symbiosis. 75: 39-50. doi:10.1007/s13199-017-0506-3. S2CID 4819178. Wicaksono, Wisnu Adi; Jones, E. Eirian; Monk, Jana; Ridgway ...
2020). "Metagenomic data reveal diverse fungal and algal communities associated with the lichen symbiosis". Symbiosis. doi: ...
... , also known as Candidatus Epixenosoma are a genus of bacteria in the phylum Verrucomicrobia that form a symbiosis ... Symbiosis. 26: 1-23. Petroni, Giulio; Spring, Stefan; Schleifer, Karl-Heinz; Verni, Franco; Rosati, Giovanna (2000-02-15). " ...
Symbiosis works so that R. pachyptila provides nutrients such as HS−, O2, CO2 to bacteria, and in turn it receives organic ... In order to avoid this issue, several microbes have evolved to make symbiosis with eukaryotic hosts. In fact, R. pachyptila is ... Therefore, the production of in H2S in anaerobic conditions is common among thiotrophic symbiosis. H2S can be damaging for some ... Minic Z (2004). "Biochemical and enzymological aspects of the symbiosis between the deep-sea tubeworm Riftia pachyptila and its ...
"Multiple microalgal partners in symbiosis with the acantharian Acanthochiasma sp. (Radiolaria)" (PDF). Symbiosis. 58 (1-3): 233 ... "An original mode of symbiosis in open ocean plankton". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (44): 18000-18005. ... F acantharians have a more specific symbiosis and primarily host symbionts from the haptophyte genus Phaeocystis, although they ...
Symbiosis. 49 (2): 87-94. doi:10.1007/s13199-009-0018-x. Moe, Annika M. (2011). From pattern to process: Ecology and evolution ...
Symbiosis. 45. ISSN 0334-5114. Shanahan, M.; Compton, S. G.; So, Samson; Corlett, Richard (2001). "Fig-eating by vertebrate ... "60 million years of co-divergence in the fig-wasp symbiosis". Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. 272 ( ...
Symbiosis. 75: 39-50. doi:10.1007/s13199-017-0506-3. S2CID 4819178. Wicaksono, Wisnu Adi; Jones, E. Eirian; Monk, Jana; Ridgway ...
Symbiosis. 45 (1-3): 45-56. Berg, Cornelis C. (May 2003). "(1587-1590) Proposals to conserve the names Ficus citrifolia against ...
Am3, an actinobacterium isolated from root nodules of Alnus nepalensis in India". Symbiosis. 70 (1-3): 49-58. doi:10.1007/ ...
The symbiosis between anemonefish and anemones depends on the presence of the fish drawing other fish to the anemone, where ... "Amphiprion percula"(Online). Mebs D (1994). "Anemonefish Symbiosis: Vulnerability and Resistance of Fish to the Toxin of the ... Symbiosis. 14: 143-160. Elliott JK, Mariscal RN (2001). "Coexistance of nine anemonefish species: differential host and habitat ...
Vessey JK, Pawlowski, K and Bergman B (2005). "Root-based N2-fixing symbioses: Legumes, actinorhizal plants, Parasponia sp and ... Examples of organisms that do this are rhizobia and Frankia (in symbiosis) and Azospirillum. All diazotrophs contain iron- ... Symbiosis. 69 (2): 123-129. doi:10.1007/s13199-016-0385-z. S2CID 17870808. Padda, Kiran Preet; Puri, Akshit; Chanway, Chris P ( ...
Symbiosis. 65 (2): 85-92. doi:10.1007/s13199-015-0320-8. S2CID 8550654. Bacon, C.W. & Hinton, D.M. (2007). "Bacterial ...
and other potential symbionts in the mantle cavity of the penshell Pinna carnea in the Dominican Republic". Symbiosis. 50 (3): ...
and Haplodiscus sp". Symbiosis. 3 (1): 1-21. INIST:8265704. Banaszak, Anastazia T.; Iglestas-Prieto, Roberto; Trench, Robert K ... Trench, RK; Winsor, H (1987). "Symbiosis with dinoflagellates in two pelagic flatworms, Amphiscolops sp. ... Symbiosis. 12 (1): 19-31. INIST:5092729. Wakefield, Timothy S.; Farmer, Mark A.; Kempf, Stephen C. (August 2000). "Revised ... and Specificity in its Symbiosis with Marine Invertebrates. I. Isoenzyme and Soluble Protein Patterns of Axenic Cultures of ...
Cleaning symbiosis[edit]. Main article: Cleaning symbiosis. Cleaning symbiosis is an association between individuals of two ... symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in ... The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for 130 years.[6] In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the term symbiosis to ... TED-Education video - Symbiosis: a surprising tale of species cooperation.. *. Media related to Symbiosis at Wikimedia Commons ...
Examples of cleaning symbioses in different groups of animals Habitat. Cleaner. Description. Client. Image ... Cleaning symbiosis is known from several groups of animals both in the sea and on land (see table). Cleaners include fish, ... Cleaning symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association between individuals of two species, where one (the cleaner) removes and ... Limbaugh, C. (1961). "Cleaning symbiosis". Scientific American. 205 (2): 42-49. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0861-42.. ...
Symbiosis publishes original research that contributes to the understanding of symbiotic interactions in a wide range of ... International Symbiosis Society The goals of the International Symbiosis Society are to disseminate information to the public, ... Since 1985, Symbiosis publishes original research that contributes to the understanding of symbiotic interactions in a wide ... Reviews and short communications on well-known or new symbioses are welcomed as are book reviews. This spectrum of papers aims ...
Symbiosis is everywhere. From the Greek for "living with," symbiosis is simply a close association between two different ... tags: symbiosis, humor, The Onion Those of you who havent noticed this yet, The Onion has a really amusing article about ... At worst, she said, it feels like she and the rhino have been trapped in the same dead-end symbiosis for "countless millions of ... My two great thesis project loves are hydrogen and symbiosis, and as such, the recent news of a multicellular organism that ...
When both partners benefit, this variety of symbiosis is known as mutualism. ... SYMBIOSIS CONCEPT Symbiosis is a biological relationship in which two species live in close proximity to each other and ... Symbiosis Science of Everyday Things COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. SYMBIOSIS. CONCEPT. Symbiosis is a biological ... Symbiosis Environmental Encyclopedia COPYRIGHT 2003 The Gale Group Inc.. Symbiosis. In the broad sense, symbiosis means simply ...
Symbiosis (living together) is a close and long lasting relationship. Not to be confused with mutualism, which can be but isnt ... symbiosis type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms ... Media in category "Symbiosis". The following 152 files are in this category, out of 152 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
The term symbiosis is used to describe any permanent or long-lasting association between two or more different species of ... Created by Sarah Bordenstein, Marine Biological Laboratory What is Symbiosis? ... Marine Symbiosis. Created by Sarah Bordenstein, Marine Biological Laboratory What is Symbiosis?. The term symbiosis is used to ... Dependence on the symbiosis. *Facultative symbiont - independent, able to exist in a free-living condition. ...
Trophic interactions in symbioses in marine plankton communities are discussed on the basis of our own studies. Some alveolates ... Symbiosis in marine plankton communities with a special reference to their trophic relationships Susumu OHTSUKA (Hiroshima ...
Beneficial endophytes (microbes living in plants) have been shown to enhance Phragmites performance compared to those grown without (Ernst et al. 2003). ...
Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. Infoplease is a reference and learning site, combining the contents of an encyclopedia, a dictionary, an atlas and several almanacs loaded with facts. Our editors update and regularly refine this enormous body of information to bring you reliable information ...
Evolutionary transitions in bacterial symbiosis. Joel L. Sachs, Ryan G. Skophammer, and John U. Regus ...
... symbiosis for life". The event will focus on the reciprocal relationship between soils and pulses, while also discussing how ...
If such symbiosis exists for nitrate respiration, does it also exist for other compounds? How did this symbiosis, which has ... "A symbiosis that is based on respiration and transfer of energy is to this date unprecedented".. In general, among eukaryotes, ... New form of symbiosis discovered. Dr. Fanni Aspetsberger Presse- und Öffentlichkeitsarbeit. Max-Planck-Institut für Marine ... Are there similar symbioses that have existed much longer and where the endosymbiont has already crossed the boundary to an ...
Symbiosis publishes the results of original research contributing to the understanding of symbiotic interactions at the ... International Symbiosis Society. The goals of the International Symbiosis Society are to disseminate information to the public ... Symbiosis aims to introduce new or unknown symbioses for research in symbiology and intends to provide a central information ... evolutionary consequences of symbiosis, culture and other specific methods used for symbiotic research. Symbiosis publishes ...
... borderlands-2-walkthrough-symbiosis-side-missions-part-5 Type Level Reward Side Mission 5 $39 362 XP Head Customization Midge ... Symbiosis Edit Page Last Edit: June 15, 2015 - 2 years 6 months ago. ...
Symbiosis. Printed media puts a pressure on our environment. Solutions like soya ink or natural pigments are a way in the good ... 10,000 Rado Prize at the Dutch Design Awards last week for a body of work including Symbiosis, an experimental project that ...
The types of symbiosis show the degree of benefit that one organism gets from another. Learn more about the types of symbiosis ... In this article were going to focus on mutually beneficial symbiosis.. There are several forms of symbiosis. In some instances ... This is known as obligate symbiosis. In other cases, the symbiotic relationship gives each organism a greater chance of ... This is known as facultative symbiosis. Symbiotic relationships arent always symmetrical -- they can be obligate for one ...
But this latest article from the SYMBIOSIS RESEARCH COLLECTIVE examines how winning the election was just the first step ... The latest on our series on radical municipalism from the SYMBIOSIS RESEARCH COLLECTIVE ...
Symbiosis: Directed by Win Phelps. With Patrick Stewart, Jonathan Frakes, LeVar Burton, Denise Crosby. The Enterprise ...
Types of symbioses. A. Classification based on location of symbionts relative to host. One manner of classifying symbioses is ... Defense symbioses. An example of defense symbiosis is exemplified by the relationship between clownfish of the genus Amphiprion ... Transport symbioses. In transport symbiosis, one mutual takes advantage of the fast and secure movement of another mutual, ... Symbiosis (plural: "symbioses") is the close, interactive association (living together) of members of two or more species. The ...
... The battle between plants and crystals continues! Destroy the crystals on each map by planting seeds and ...
Cleaning symbiosisEdit. Main article: Cleaning symbiosis. Cleaning symbiosis is an association between individuals of two ... The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for 130 years.[6] In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the term symbiosis to ... For other uses, see Symbiosis (disambiguation).. Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις, sumbíōsis, "living together", from σύν, sún ... TED-Education video - Symbiosis: a surprising tale of species cooperation.. *. Media related to Symbiosis at Wikimedia Commons ...
Some think symbiosis is a more important factor in our evolution than currently believed. Developmental biologist Scott Gilbert ... Thursday: Chemical Heritage Foundation Features Symposium On Symbiosis Updated: May 1, 2012 - 6:14 PM EDT * ... Symbiosis rules, and we are all lichens. What would "individual selection" entail if there were no real "individuals" to select ... I know he has some interesting thoughts on symbiosis - mutually beneficial relationships between species. ...
Udvardi M, Poole PS (2013) Transport and metabolism in Legume-Rhizobia symbioses. Annu Rev Plant Biol 64:781-805PubMedCrossRef ... Medicago-Sinorhizobium Symbiosis Symbiotic genes Nitrogen fixation This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Van de Velde W, Guerra JC, De Keyser A, De Rycke R, Rombauts S, Maunoury N et al (2006) Aging in legume symbiosis. A molecular ... Berrabah F., Salem E.H.A., Garmier M., Ratet P. (2018) The Multiple Faces of the Medicago-Sinorhizobium Symbiosis. In: Cañas L ...
Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that ... 720 Ma), likely facilitating terrestriality through endomycorrhizal and possibly endophytic symbioses. The largest radiation of ... 1) form symbioses with early embryophytes (i.e., Endogone-like symbioses with Haplomitriopsida, Jungermanniopsida, ... for AM and endophytic symbioses; and the mycobiont, for AL symbioses. No Glomeromycotina, endophytic Leotiomyceta, green algae ...
Our results portray an evolutionary scenario of evolution of mycorrhizal symbiosis with a prominent role for Mucoromycotina in ... Mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and land plants is one of the most widespread and ecologically important mutualisms on ... Similar to Maherali et al.45 we reconstructed a regain of symbiosis from a non-mycorrhizal ancestor for a few lineages. Because ... Mycorrhizal symbiosis is found in over 90% of extant land plant species, and all major lineages of land plants, except for ...
Buy Symbiosis art prints by Tami Elaine Prince at Shop Thousands of Canvas and Framed Wall Art Prints and ...
Omnisphere Symbiosis is a collection of 80 patches for Spectrasonics Omnisphere, aimed at electronic film and game scoring, ...
Symbiosis is a new series from Chicago, IL based artist Rik Garrett exploring ideas regarding love, relationships, magic, ... Symbiosis is a new series from Chicago, IL based artist Rik Garrett exploring ideas regarding love, relationships, magic, ...
But if you think about it, the Lords church is a great example of symbiosis in which one person or group helps other people or ... When we think about symbiosis, we should not forget that humans can be very helpful to their fellow humans. Those of us who are ...
  • Industrial symbiosis a subset of industrial ecology. (
  • Although geographic proximity is often associated with industrial symbiosis, it is neither necessary nor sufficient-nor is a singular focus on physical resource exchange. (
  • In practice, using industrial symbiosis as an approach to commercial operations-using, recovering and redirecting resources for reuse-results in resources remaining in productive use in the economy for longer. (
  • The industrial symbiosis model devised and managed by International Synergies Limited is a facilitated model operating at the national scale in the United Kingdom (NISP-National Industrial Symbiosis Programme), and at other scales around the world. (
  • Industrial symbiosis is a subset of industrial ecology, with a particular focus on material and energy exchange. (
  • Notably, this definition and the stated key aspects of industrial symbiosis, i.e., the role of collaboration and geographic proximity, in its variety of forms, has been explored and empirically tested in the UK through the research and published activities of the National Industrial Symbiosis Programme. (
  • Industrial symbiosis systems collectively optimize material and energy use at efficiencies beyond those achievable by any individual process alone. (
  • Kalundborg is the poster child for what academics call self-organizing industrial symbiosis, a model where an industrial ecosystem organically emerges out of the profit-seeking mindset of individual firms rather than a conscious decision to initiate industrial symbiosis. (
  • This is in contrast with other ways that industrial symbiosis may develop, which include a top-down model, where governments mandate the construction of certain facilities and the exchange of byproducts, or a facilitated approach, where a third party helps incorporate existing businesses into a symbiotic network. (
  • This "systems view" of industry gave rise to the proliferation of numerous subfields within industrial ecology, including industrial symbiosis. (
  • The academic study of industrial symbiosis has flourished through the past two decades - but it's not necessarily an entirely new concept to industries. (
  • Whether companies are calling it industrial symbiosis or not, barriers remain to attracting industries that still operate on a linear production model. (
  • The Kalundborg eco industrial park in Denmark is widely considered the world's first and most advanced example of industrial symbiosis. (
  • The aim was to gather regional actors for industrial symbiosis in Paper Province through a number of activities. (
  • Looking at obstacles and solutions for industrial symbiosis. (
  • Interviews to gather information about symbiosis collaborations and actors´ intended roles in an industrial symbiosis network. (
  • Interview results with actors´ intended roles in a regional industrial symbiosis network will be used in the ongoing work. (
  • During an intense afternoon at IVA the focus was on industrial symbiosis and recycling. (
  • Emma Dalväg, a sustainability consultant at Coest, talked about the Win Win Gothenburg Sustainability Award, which went to Kalundborg Symbiosis, a successful Danish industrial symbiosis park. (
  • He also mentioned Sotenäs and Helsingborg, municipalities that have seen success in industrial symbiosis, and the company British Sugar as a good private sector example. (
  • A key factor for success in industrial symbiosis, according to Emma Dalväg, is leadership that drives the process forward, even where others lack the time or resources. (
  • Mats Eklund, a professor at Linköping University spoke on the theme of "Barriers and Facilitators - What makes industrial symbiosis happen? (
  • As a particularly successful example of industrial symbiosis, Eklund mentioned Elleholms tomater, Sweden's most climate-efficient tomato production operation. (
  • A workshop then began for the purpose of finding ways to increase recycling and industrial symbiosis in plastics, textiles, food, mobility and space sharing. (
  • For the plastics group the workshop was an important means of examining industrial symbiosis for the industry and taking a look at emerging technologies for chemical recycling. (
  • The mobility group focused, among other things, on raising awareness of the value of a sharing economy for transport/mobility to promote industrial symbiosis and recycling in business and industry, society and the environment. (
  • Proposals were produced on how to optimise transport/mobility to promote industrial symbiosis and recycling for small and medium-sized enterprises. (
  • Clustering industries near one another, and near renewable raw materials and energy resources, encourages industrial symbiosis where the wastes or byproducts of one company become the raw materials for another. (
  • Scion is quantifying opportunities for greater industrial symbiosis utilising geothermal energy and wood processing capabilities in the central North Island. (
  • Industrial symbiosis in Kawerau in New Zealand's Bay of Plenty takes advantage of nearby planted forests, geothermal energy, and its proximity to the Port of Tauranga (and Scion). (
  • Opportunities for further industrial symbiosis in New Zealand have been identified by looking at forestry and energy resources, and wood processing and other industry region by region. (
  • Full industrial symbiosis around the Marsden Point oil refinery and Golden Bay Cement/Portland in Northland warrant further investigation. (
  • Since 1985, Symbiosis publishes original research that contributes to the understanding of symbiotic interactions in a wide range of associations at the molecular, cellular and organismic level. (
  • The goals of the International Symbiosis Society are to disseminate information to the public, students, educators and researchers about symbiotic interactions, advance scientific research, and serve as a forum where researchers can interact. (
  • Trophic interactions in symbioses in marine plankton communities are discussed on the basis of our own studies. (
  • Symbiosis publishes results of original research contributing to the understanding of symbiotic interactions at the molecular, cellular and organismic levels. (
  • Topics of particular interest are: Nutritional interactions, mutual regulatory and morphogenic effects, structural coadaptations, interspecific recognition and specificity, ecological adaptations, evolutionary consequences of symbiosis, culture and other specific methods used for symbiotic research. (
  • Like other symbiotic interactions, actinorhizal nodulation involves elaborate signalling between both partners of the symbiosis, leading to specific recognition between the plant and its compatible microbial partner, its accommodation inside plant cells and the development of functional root nodules. (
  • Microbial Symbioses is devoted to communicating cutting-edge research on symbiotic microbial interactions where symbiosis is defined as any permanent or stable association between a microbe and at least one other organism. (
  • Microbial Symbioses is a specialty section of Frontiers in Microbiology devoted to communicating cutting-edge research on symbiotic microbial interactions. (
  • This specialty aims to accelerate the field of symbiosis research by providing a platform for outstanding publications related to understanding complex microbial interactions with other organisms. (
  • RIVERSIDE, Calif. - Scientists at the University of California, Riverside and Oregon State University have received a grant of $1.24 million from the National Science Foundation to study the health and sustainability of critical symbioses between plants and bacteria across California, focusing on the evolution, ecology, and genetics of these interactions. (
  • In studying the relationships between these organisms, the Symbiosis Ecology and Evolution Laboratory is describing the basic biology of these animal-microbe interactions. (
  • Traditionally, symbiosis research has been undertaken by researchers working independently of one another and often focused on a few host-symbiont interactions. (
  • New model systems are emerging that will enable us to fill fundamental gaps in symbiosis research and theory, focusing on a broad range of symbiotic interactions ranging from bi-partite microbial consortia to multicellular hosts and their complex microbial communities. (
  • Not to be confused with mutualism , which can be but isn't necessarily a form of symbiosis. (
  • Many of these relationships are difficult to see, but pollination is a form of symbiosis that can be observed quite easily. (
  • There are three basic types of symbiosis, differentiated as to how the benefits (and the detriments, if any) are distributed. (
  • Mutualism is distinguished from the other two types of symbiosis, because in this variety both creatures benefit. (
  • The three types of symbiosis are mutualism, commensalism, and parasitism. (
  • Our results portray an evolutionary scenario of evolution of mycorrhizal symbiosis with a prominent role for Mucoromycotina in the early stages of land plant diversification. (
  • Indeed, many scientists believe that most major evolutionary leaps were 'jump-started' by symbiosis. (
  • The minimum age of the associated Coccus was estimated to be half that of the ants, at 7-9Myr, suggesting that they were latecomers in the evolutionary history of the symbiosis. (
  • Like its predecessors, Volume 3 illustrates how symbiosis research has important ramifications for evolutionary biology, microbiology, parasitology, physiology, genetics, and animal behavior, and is especially relevant to the control of agricultural and disease-carrying pests worldwide. (
  • These original contributions by symbiosis biologists and evolutionary theorists address the adequacy of the prevailing neo-Darwinian concept of evolution in the light of growing evidence that hereditary symbiosis, supplemented by the gradual accumulation of heritable mutation, results in the origin of new species and morphological novelty. (
  • the restrictive definition where symbiosis means only mutualism is no longer used. (
  • The mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and plant roots is a ubiquitous mutualism that plays key roles in plant nutrition, soil health, and carbon cycling. (
  • Cleaning symbiosis is a mutually beneficial association between individuals of two species, where one (the cleaner) removes and eats parasites and other materials from the surface of the other (the client). (
  • Cleaning symbiosis is well-known among marine fish, where some small species of cleaner fish , notably wrasses but also species in other genera, are specialised to feed almost exclusively by cleaning larger fish and other marine animals. (
  • Cleaning symbiosis is a relationship between a pair of animals of different species, involving the removal and subsequent ingestion of ectoparasites, diseased and injured tissue, and unwanted food items from the surface of the host organism (the client) by the cleaning organism (the cleaner). (
  • From the Greek for "living with," symbiosis is simply a close association between two different species in nature. (
  • Symbiosis is a biological relationship in which two species live in close proximity to each other and interact regularly in such a way as to benefit one or both of the organisms. (
  • When two species - that is, at least two individuals representing two different species - live and interact closely in such a way that either or both species benefit, it is symbiosis. (
  • The term symbiosis is used to describe any permanent or long-lasting association between two or more different species of organisms. (
  • The traditional definition of symbiosis is a mutually beneficial relationship involving close physical contact between two organisms that aren't the same species. (
  • Symbiosis (plural: "symbioses") is the close, interactive association (living together) of members of two or more species . (
  • In the narrowest sense of the term, as popularly used, symbiosis has been defined as the interactive association of two species in a mutually beneficial relationship. (
  • I know he has some interesting thoughts on symbiosis - mutually beneficial relationships between species. (
  • The PCS coordinates a core group of scientists working to develop an integrated Phragmites symbiosis research strategy which will improve management of this invasive plant and inform restoration strategies for native plant species. (
  • The PSC represents a unique and exciting opportunity for leading scientists involved in plant-fungal symbioses to collectively examine one of the most threatening invasive plants in North America and build a foundation for similar efforts for other species. (
  • Symbiosis is a biological description of two species that exploit each other for individual benefit, while simultaneously conveying a benefit to the other. (
  • When the two species have a close association with each other and which in turn benefits at least any one of them, this is called symbiosis. (
  • For symbiosis to take place, at least any one of the species must be benefited. (
  • Symbiosis farms contain 30 different species of tree, all of which grow quickly in the tropical Brazilian climate. (
  • Symbiosis refers to the relationship between two or more plants or animals of different species that depend on each other to survive. (
  • Evolutionists try hard (without success) to explain the existence of symbiosis in plant and animal species. (
  • Another amazing example of symbiosis involving completely different species of sea life is the "Watchman Goby" and the shrimp. (
  • This work allowed the scientists to discover that bystander IgA has the capacity to modulate gene expression and function of members of the gut microbial community, promoting symbiosis between commensal bacterial species required for colonic homeostasis. (
  • Symbiosis refers to the biological interaction between two organisms or species, living in close association. (
  • Two seemingly unrelated species, yeasts and flies, have developed an intricate symbiosis based on smell," said study author Kevin Verstrepen of KU Leuven and the VIB Laboratory of Systems Biology in Belgium. (
  • Today more than 230 species of fungus-farming ants participate in intricate symbioses with their cultivated fungi. (
  • Popp C, Ott T (2011) Regulation of signal transduction and bacterial infection during root nodule symbiosis. (
  • Plants able to establish a nitrogen-fixing root nodule symbiosis with the actinobacterium Frankia are called actinorhizal. (
  • Macroevolutionary specialization by fungi for specific symbioses involves diverse adaptations with regard to environmental and host-related factors. (
  • Mycorrhizal symbiosis between soil fungi and land plants is one of the most widespread and ecologically important mutualisms on earth. (
  • The genome of the AM glomeromycete Rhizophagus irregularis showed that despite enormous phylogenetic distance and morphological difference from the other two fungi, symbiosis can involve similar solutions as symbiosis-induced SSPs and loss of PCWDEs. (
  • But if you think about it, the Lord's church is a great example of symbiosis in which one person or group helps other people or groups. (
  • Symbiosis can be obligatory, which means that one or both of the symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival, or facultative (optional) when they can generally live independently. (
  • This is known as facultative symbiosis . (
  • Since the lightbulb is blue, this bacteria is probably expressing the Lux operon from Vibrio fischeri, which use their bioluminescence in an awesome underwater symbiosis. (
  • Dutch designer Jelte van Abbema won the €10,000 Rado Prize at the Dutch Design Awards last week for a body of work including Symbiosis, an experimental project that involved printing with bacteria. (
  • Summarizing current knowledge on symbiotic organisms in the biology of insects, Insect Symbiosis, Volume II describes the diversity of symbiotic bacteria associated with pests such as whiteflies, aphids, mealybugs, psyllids, and tsetse flies. (
  • Researchers at both universities will use the relationship between native California legumes and nitrogen-fixing Bradyrhizobium bacteria to study the drivers of variation in symbioses. (
  • Details of this work appeared July 24 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine , in an article titled, "IgA regulates the composition and metabolic function of gut microbiota by promoting symbiosis between bacteria. (
  • We knew that IgA contributed in some way to gut health, but it was exciting to discover this new mechanism-the MAFF system-that actually promotes symbiosis among the bacteria that inhabit the mucus membrane of the gut," said Keiichiro Suzuki, a researcher at Kyoto University and the leader of the study. (
  • For examples, go back to our bacteria animal symbiosis home page. (
  • Nutritional interaction in insect- microbial symbioses: aphids and their symbiotic bacteria Buchnera. (
  • Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen have now succeeded for the first time in simultaneously identifying individual bacteria in the symbiosis and measuring which metabolites they convert. (
  • The book provides analysis and synthesis of cutting-edge research in insect symbiosis that sheds light on the evolution of the host/symbiont relationship, and in turn, on the general study of evolution, physiology, and genetics. (
  • [6] In 1877, Albert Bernhard Frank used the term symbiosis to describe the mutualistic relationship in lichens . (
  • The term symbiosis was coined by the German botanist Anton de Bary in 1879 from the Greek symbioun (to live together), from the prefix sym (sum, together, or together with) and the word bios (life). (
  • symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis. (
  • When symbionts form a single body it is called conjunctive symbiosis, while all other arrangements are called disjunctive symbiosis. (
  • In this article we're going to focus on mutually beneficial symbiosis. (
  • Symbiosis is a new series from Chicago, IL based artist Rik Garrett exploring ideas regarding love, relationships, magic, Alchemy and mutually beneficial partnerships in nature. (
  • If there is negative effect on one of the partners, it is called a parasitic symbiosis and if there is no beneficial or negative effect it is a commensal symbiosis. (
  • Symbiosis: Art and the Community recognizes the mutually beneficial relationship between artists, the local community, and Communication. (
  • Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") [2] is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic , commensalistic , or parasitic . (
  • Harnessing the immunomodulatory capacity of symbiosis factors such as PSA might potentially provide therapeutics for human inflammatory disorders on the basis of entirely novel biological principles. (
  • I formulate in relational terms the ubiquitous biological interaction of symbiosis. (
  • Overall, our vision is to produce a volume of works that will help define general principles of symbiosis within a new conceptual framework, in the road to finally establish symbiology as an overdue central discipline of biological science. (
  • Commensalism is a type of relationship where one of the organisms benefits greatly from the symbiosis. (
  • In more popular usage, symbiosis usually refers to mutualistic relationships, and it is these, and the vital role they play in the Caledonian Forest, that we will explore below. (
  • One manner of classifying symbioses is according to the physical location of the symbionts. (
  • Insect Symbiosis, Volume 3 , includes pioneering chapters on Paratransgenesis in termites, Bacterial symbionts in anopheles spp. (
  • The Symbiosis Entrance Test (SET) results 2017 will be published tomorrow in the official website. (
  • The native legume Acmispon strigosus can grow under low nutrient conditions because of its symbiosis with nitrogen fixing Bradyrhizobium. (
  • Arrighi JF, Cartieaux F, Brown SC, Rodier-Goud M, Boursot M, Fardoux J et al (2012) Aeschynomene evenia , a model plant for studying the molecular genetics of the nod-independent rhizobium-legume symbiosis. (
  • We are currently seeking a highly motivated candidate with strong bioinformatics background to pursue Ph.D. Our group applies functional and comparative genomics techniques to investigate the molecular basis of symbiosis and adaptation in corals and related cnidarian model organisms. (
  • 2000. Common molecular mechanisms of symbiosis and pathogenesis. (
  • This project will build on recent work highlighting the changing view of the nature of the relationship between plant and fungus in the (near) ubiquitous symbiosis. (
  • Some biologists, however, consider any interspecies relationship involving frequent close contact to be symbiosis, regardless of which of the organisms benefits. (
  • Oldroyd GED, Murray JD, Poole PS, Downie JA (2011) The rules of engagement in the Legume-Rhizobial symbiosis. (
  • Gourion B, Berrabah F, Ratet P, Stacey G (2015) Rhizobium - legume symbioses: the crucial role of plant immunity. (
  • Udvardi M, Poole PS (2013) Transport and metabolism in Legume-Rhizobia symbioses. (
  • Van de Velde W, Guerra JC, De Keyser A, De Rycke R, Rombauts S, Maunoury N et al (2006) Aging in legume symbiosis. (
  • Suppression of plant defence in rhizobia-legume symbiosis. (
  • Symbiosis rules, and we are all lichens. (
  • For nearly 150 years, lichens have been the model organisms of symbiosis. (
  • Lichens have long been thought to be a symbiosis between a fungus and an alga, but it turned out that this relationship is not so exclusive. (
  • The role of cleaning symbioses has been debated by biologists for over thirty years. (
  • The definition of symbiosis was a matter of debate for 130 years. (
  • The original definition of symbiosis by deBary (1879) did not include a judgment on whether the partners benefit or harm each other. (
  • Here we evaluate the origins of plant-fungal symbioses and saprotrophy using a time-calibrated phylogenetic framework that reveals linked and drastic shifts in diversification rates of each kingdom. (
  • The ancestral symbiosis is assumed to have been replaced in several plant lineages by other types of symbiotic associations in multiple independent shifts 7 , 17 . (
  • Although rhizobia colonize roots in a way that is reminiscent of pathogenic microorganisms, no host plant defence reactions are triggered during successful symbioses. (
  • The prevalence of coccoids in ant-plant mutualisms suggest that they play an important role in the evolution of ant-plant symbioses. (
  • We have discovered a previously unknown plant-microbial symbiosis with global distribution. (
  • But these symbioses vary greatly in their effects on plant health and fitness. (
  • All manuscripts must be submitted directly to the section Microbial Symbioses, where they are peer-reviewed by the Associate and Review Editors of the specialty section. (
  • Articles published in the section Microbial Symbioses will benefit from the Frontiers impact and tiering system after online publication. (
  • The study of symbiosis has dramatically accelerated over recent decades with genetic and genomic approaches revealing an astounding array of novel and diverse relationships that are fundamentally challenging our understanding of basic biology and ecology. (
  • In this book, the authors present current research in the study of the evolution, biology and ecological effects of symbiosis. (
  • Symbiosis aims to introduce new or unknown symbioses for research in symbiology and intends to provide a central information point for this intriguing subfield to enhance interaction among researchers in its various sectors. (
  • Symbiosis is an interaction between two different organisms living in close physical association. (
  • Man-computer symbiosis is an expected evelopment in cooperative interaction between men and electronic computers. (
  • The symbiosis evolved repeatedly and independently as multiple morphotypes [e.g., arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM), ectomycorrhizal (ECM)] in multiple fungal clades (e.g., phyla Glomeromycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). (
  • Basically, all the CEOs lived and worked in Kalundborg, they met [up] after-hours and had some of the same interests," says Per Møller, head of Symbiosis Center Denmark, a symbiosis knowledge centre based out of Kalundborg. (
  • Symbiosis Gathering is an event offering music, art, workshops and seminars -- and it's the first time the festival has come to Oakdale's Woodward Reservoir.Photos: Peek inside Oakdale's version of Burning Man"It's been a good nine months of planning," said Bosque Hrbek, the festival director.Hrbek said event organizers have set up four different stages that will host 200 bands and DJs. (
  • Symbiosis Gathering is an event offering music, art, workshops and seminars -- and it's the first time the festival has come to Oakdale's Woodward Reservoir. (
  • To date, PSC members have convened in meetings to discuss their research and begin development of a research Phragmites symbiosis research strategy. (
  • To facilitate this research that advances the use of symbiotic control mechanisms for invasive plants, the USGS and the Great Lakes Commission (GLC) have initiated the Phragmites Symbiosis Collaborative (PSC). (
  • The objectives of the PSC are to: 1) establish the current state of the science and identify significant research gaps, 2) develop a vision document or agenda to guide future research, 3) provide support for research projects (e.g. supplemental funding, labor, infrastructure) to address the most pressing research needs, and 4) maximize collective progress toward an integrated Phragmites -control and habitat restoration strategy founded on microbial symbiosis relationships. (
  • Symbiosis publishes articles which are accounts of original studies, review articles, book reviews, meeting reports and a calendar of events. (
  • When we think about symbiosis, we should not forget that humans can be very helpful to their fellow humans. (
  • Fishing with dolphins: Symbiosis between humans and marine mammals to catch more fish. (
  • We will study the parameters that influence symbiosis and help guide how microbes can be better deployed to increase productivity of agricultural systems and promote health of humans and the planet. (
  • Thanks to direct and reverse genetic as well as transcriptomic approaches, numerous genes involved in this symbiosis have been described and improve our understanding of this fantastic association. (
  • The genome of the ECM ascomycete Tuber melanosporum showed that the ECM type can evolve without expansion of families as in Laccaria , and thus a different set of symbiosis genes. (
  • It was in botany class some years later that I came across 'symbiosis' and learned that it didn't apply to plants exclusively. (
  • An ancient tripartite symbiosis of plants. (
  • In the Asian tropics, a conspicuous radiation of Macaranga plants is inhabited by obligately associated Crematogaster ants tending Coccus (Coccidae) scale insects, forming a tripartite symbiosis. (
  • This was also the case with the symbiosis discovered by the Bremen scientists in Lake Zug in Switzerland. (
  • The Phragmites Symbiosis Collaborative (PSC) is a partnership with the US Geological Survey to facilitate cooperation and collaboration among scientists to better understand the use of endophytic communities to manage invasive Phragmites australis . (