Suspensions: Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Cell SeparationCell Culture Techniques: Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Colloids: Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Microspheres: Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Kveim Test: Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Weightlessness Simulation: Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)Cytological Techniques: Methods used to study CELLS.Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Filtration: A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Rheology: The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Centrifugation: Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Preservation, Biological: The process of protecting various samples of biological material.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Virus Cultivation: Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sonication: The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultrasonics: A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.Freeze Drying: Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Adsorption: The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.Micropore Filters: A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Buffers: A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Spermatozoa: Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Microscopy, Phase-Contrast: A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Disinfection: Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Daucus carota: A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.Bentonite: A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.Taxus: Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Weightlessness: Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Povidone: A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Food-Drug Interactions: The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gravitation: Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Tissue Culture Techniques: A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.Tissue Preservation: The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Spheroids, Cellular: Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Staining and Labeling: The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Immobility Response, Tonic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Sperm Capacitation: The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.Pharmaceutical Solutions: Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.Pregnenes: Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Anoikis: APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Colony-Forming Units Assay: A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Dictyostelium: A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.Hydrodynamics: The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Magnets: Objects that produce a magnetic field.Fetal Tissue Transplantation: Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Datura stramonium: A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.Methylene Blue: A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Serum Albumin, Bovine: Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Dosage Forms: Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.Spores: The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.Cryopreservation: Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Streptococcus sanguis: A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.TritiumDextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Succinates: Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC

Oral bioequivalence of three ciprofloxacin formulations following single-dose administration: 500 mg tablet compared with 500 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/5 mL suspension and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension. (1/353)

The oral bioequivalence and tolerability of two ciprofloxacin formulations (tablet and suspension) and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension were investigated. Sixty-eight young, healthy male subjects participated in two separate, randomized, crossover studies. In study 1, ciprofloxacin as a single 500 mg tablet or as 500 mg/10 mL oral suspension was administered in a fasted state on day 1. In study 2, subjects participated in a three-way crossover study in which ciprofloxacin suspension was administered as 500 mg/10 mL in a fasted state, or 500 mg/10 mL with food, or 500 mg/5 mL in a fasted state. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. In study 1, geometric mean Cmax values of ciprofloxacin following the single 500 mg tablet and 500 mg/10 mL suspension doses were 2.36 and 2.18 mg/L, respectively; corresponding geometric mean t(max) values were 1.1 and 1.6 h, respectively. Geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 12.0 and 11.8 mg x h/L, respectively. In study 2, geometric least squares mean Cmax values following ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL suspension during fasted conditions were 1.54 and 1.59 mg/L, respectively. Corresponding geometric least squares mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 7.3 and 8.0 mg x h/L. Administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL suspension, in either a fasted or fed state, was not associated with significant changes in Cmax (1.54 mg/L for fasted vs 1.37 mg/L for fed) or AUC(0-infinity) values (7.28 mg x h/L for fasted vs 8.19 mg x h/L for fed). Each ciprofloxacin formulation was well tolerated for the duration of each study. These studies demonstrated bioequivalence between ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablet and two strengths of ciprofloxacin suspension (500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL). Bioavailability was unaltered by food.  (+info)

Modulation of vascular cell growth kinetics by local cytokine delivery from fibrin glue suspensions. (2/353)

PURPOSE: Fibrin glue (FG) has been used as a delivery system for bioactive agents on grafts and angioplasty sites. Reports from two different institutions suggest that heparin concentrations of 500 U/mL in FG inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, but do not effect endothelial cell (EC) proliferation. The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify the diffusive release of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and heparin from FG; (2) determine the effect of heparin and FGF-1 on SMC proliferation when the cells are immediately plated on the FG; and (3) by means of the diffusive release data, design a new in vitro model that may differentiate the effect of FG-incorporated FGF-1 and heparin, rather than the released, solubilized components of these two factors, on SMC and EC proliferation. METHODS: 125I-FGF-1 or 3H-heparin release from FG into the overlying media was measured serially in a 96-hour period, either with or without cells. SMCs were immediately plated on FG containing various concentrations of FGF-1 and heparin. SMCs or ECs were plated on identical groups of FG containing FGF-1 and heparin 24 hours after the FG was made to exclude the effect on cell growth of the initial release of FGF-1 into the media. RESULTS: In the first 24 hours, 70% +/- 1% of the FGF-1 and 59% +/- 2% of the heparin in the FG was released into the overlying media, with minimal release occurring thereafter. The cell type or absence of cells did not affect release, but there was five times more FGF-1 and four times more heparin in the media at 72 hours for the immediate plating versus the delayed plating because of a diffusive release primarily in the first 24 hours. A heparin concentration of 500 U/mL inhibited SMC proliferation, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin, only when immediate plating of SMCs was used. Comparing immediate versus delayed SMC plating, at equivalent FGF-1 and heparin doses, immediate plating induced greater proliferation than delayed plating; this was likely caused by the higher soluble FGF-1 concentration. Heparin doses as high as 500 U/mL had little effect on SMC proliferation. In contrast, ECs died with delayed plating on FG containing 500 U/mL heparin, and their growth was inhibited at 50 U/mL heparin, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin. CONCLUSION: The differences in SMC proliferation when comparing immediate versus delayed plating are likely caused by diffusive release of heparin and FGF-1 into the media. Our ongoing work uses an optimized in vitro FG system that minimizes the effects of soluble factors. This is an important distinction, because the cytokines that are released in vivo will be removed by blood flow and, thus, may not exert an effect unless they are contained within the FG.  (+info)

The effects on intragastric acidity of per-gastrostomy administration of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole. (3/353)

BACKGROUND: It may be difficult to administer proton pump inhibitors via gastrostomy. Previous studies have examined the effect of intact proton pump inhibitor granules in orange juice. This study examined the effect of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole (simplified omeprazole suspension (SOS)) on 24-h intragastric acidity. METHODS: Six men with an established gastrostomy had a baseline 24-h intragastric pH study using methodology we have previously described. They then received 20 mg SOS o.d. for 7 days and had a repeat pH study at the end of this period. Four of the patients then received 20 mg SOS with 30 cc of liquid antacid (Mylanta) per gastrostomy o.d. for a further 7 days and then underwent a third pH study. RESULTS: SOS raised mean pH from 2.2 to 4.1. Intragastric pH was above 3, 4 and 5 for 35, 28 and 17% of the 24-h period at baseline, respectively; corresponding values after SOS were 63, 51 and 39%, respectively. Addition of liquid antacid to SOS did not further increase its pH-controlling effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significant effect of o.d. SOS on intragastric pH when administered via gastrostomy. We found no additional benefit of administering SOS with liquid antacid.  (+info)

Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and selenate by cell suspensions of selenium-respiring bacteria. (4/353)

Washed-cell suspensions of Sulfurospirillum barnesii reduced selenate [Se(VI)] when cells were cultured with nitrate, thiosulfate, arsenate, or fumarate as the electron acceptor. When the concentration of the electron donor was limiting, Se(VI) reduction in whole cells was approximately fourfold greater in Se(VI)-grown cells than was observed in nitrate-grown cells; correspondingly, nitrate reduction was approximately 11-fold higher in nitrate-grown cells than in Se(VI)-grown cells. However, a simultaneous reduction of nitrate and Se(VI) was observed in both cases. At nonlimiting electron donor concentrations, nitrate-grown cells suspended with equimolar nitrate and selenate achieved a complete reductive removal of nitrogen and selenium oxyanions, with the bulk of nitrate reduction preceding that of selenate reduction. Chloramphenicol did not inhibit these reductions. The Se(VI)-respiring haloalkaliphile Bacillus arsenicoselenatis gave similar results, but its Se(VI) reductase was not constitutive in nitrate-grown cells. No reduction of Se(VI) was noted for Bacillus selenitireducens, which respires selenite. The results of kinetic experiments with cell membrane preparations of S. barnesii suggest the presence of constitutive selenate and nitrate reduction, as well as an inducible, high-affinity nitrate reductase in nitrate-grown cells which also has a low affinity for selenate. The simultaneous reduction of micromolar Se(VI) in the presence of millimolar nitrate indicates that these organisms may have a functional use in bioremediating nitrate-rich, seleniferous agricultural wastewaters. Results with (75)Se-selenate tracer show that these organisms can lower ambient Se(VI) concentrations to levels in compliance with new regulations proposed for release of selenium oxyanions into the environment.  (+info)

Structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of an arabinogalactan protein from Pyrus communis suspension-cultured cells. (5/353)

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans of higher plants, which are implicated in growth and development. We recently have shown that two AGPs, NaAGP1 (from Nicotiana alata styles) and PcAGP1 (from Pyrus communis cell suspension culture), are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. However, paradoxically, both AGPs were buffer soluble rather than membrane associated. We now show that pear suspension cultured cells also contain membrane-bound GPI-anchored AGPs. This GPI anchor has the minimal core oligosaccharide structure, D-Manalpha(1-2)-D-Manalpha(1-6)-D-Manalpha(1-4)-D-GlcN -inositol, which is consistent with those found in animals, protozoa, and yeast, but with a partial beta(1-4)-galactosyl substitution of the 6-linked Man residue, and has a phosphoceramide lipid composed primarily of phytosphingosine and tetracosanoic acid. The secreted form of PcAGP1 contains a truncated GPI lacking the phosphoceramide moiety, suggesting that it is released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase D. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potential mechanisms by which GPI-anchored AGPs may be involved in signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Preparation of a clofazimine nanosuspension for intravenous use and evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy in murine Mycobacterium avium infection. (6/353)

Clofazimine nanosuspensions were produced by high pressure homogenization and the formulation was optimized for lyophilization. Characterization of the product by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction and Coulter counter analysis showed that the clofazimine nanosuspensions were suitable for iv injection with a particle size permitting passive targeting to the reticuloendothelial system. Following iv administration to mice of either the nanocrystalline or a control liposomal formulation at a dose of 20 mg clofazimine/kg bodyweight, drug concentrations in livers, spleens and lungs reached comparably high concentrations, well in excess of the MIC for most Mycobacterium avium strains. When C57BL/6 mice were experimentally infected with M. avium strain TMC 724, nanocrystalline clofazimine was as effective as liposomal clofazimine in reducing bacterial loads in the liver, spleen and lungs of infected mice. Nanocrystalline suspensions of poorly soluble drugs such as riminophenazines are easy to prepare and to lyophilize for extended storage and represent a promising new drug formulation for intravenous therapy of mycobacterial infections.  (+info)

beta1 integrins regulate keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation by distinct mechanisms. (7/353)

In keratinocytes, the beta1 integrins mediate adhesion to the extracellular matrix and also regulate the initiation of terminal differentiation. To explore the relationship between these functions, we stably infected primary human epidermal keratinocytes and an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma line, SCC4, with retroviruses encoding wild-type and mutant chick beta1 integrin subunits. We examined the ability of adhesion-blocking chick beta1-specific antibodies to inhibit suspension-induced terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes and the ability of the chick beta1 subunit to promote spontaneous differentiation of SCC4. A D154A point mutant clustered in focal adhesions but was inactive in the differentiation assays, showing that differentiation regulation required a functional ligand-binding domain. The signal transduced by beta1 integrins in normal keratinocytes was "do not differentiate" (transduced by ligand-occupied receptors) as opposed to "do differentiate" (transduced by unoccupied receptors), and the signal depended on the absolute number, rather than on the proportion, of occupied receptors. Single and double point mutations in cyto-2 and -3, the NPXY motifs, prevented focal adhesion targeting without inhibiting differentiation control. However, deletions in the proximal part of the cytoplasmic domain, affecting cyto-1, abolished the differentiation-regulatory ability of the beta1 subunit. We conclude that distinct signaling pathways are involved in beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion and differentiation control in keratinocytes.  (+info)

Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli. (8/353)

Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days.  (+info)

  • That's why puppies should be wormed every fortnight, up to 12 weeks of age and with its highly palatable, easily administered liquid formulation, Drontal Puppy Suspension is ideal. (
  • Constipation, Hepatic encephalopathy, Constipation , Hepatic encephalopathy , Palliative Care , Directions for use and dosage of DUPHALAC 10 g / 15 mL oral suspension 20Sachets / 15ml Introducing DUPHALAC 10 g / 15 mL oral suspension 20Sachets / 15ml Warnings Warning on drugs, the drug DUPHALAC 10 g / 15 mL oral suspension 20Sachets / 15ml without prescription is not a product like any other. (
  • Oral suspensions are delivered in amber bottles containing an easy to use cap and an oral syringe, to prevent waste and mess. (
  • FOB Price Inquiry Min.Order Quantity 20,000 bottles Supply Ability 1,000,000 bottles/Month Port Shanghai Payment Terms T/T in advance Product Detail Product name Dihydroartemisinin for oral suspension Specification 160mg/80ml Description Sweet white powder Standard Factory Standard Package 1bottle/box Transportation Ocean,Land,Air Certificate GMP Price Inquiry Quality guaranteeperiod for 36 months Product Description [Therapeutic Indication] This medici. (
  • In conclusion, the incidence of breakthrough IFIs was low among patients receiving posaconazole prophylaxis and not significantly different between patients receiving the tablet formulation and those receiving the oral suspension formulation. (
  • The Winter Games kicks off with several suspensions, including eight cross-country skiers suspended for five days because they had high red blood cell counts. (
  • SIEGEL: Now, the other piece of suspension news involves an American who's going to miss competition. (
  • Commissioner David Stern ( search ), who issued the suspensions, has sole discretion under collective bargaining rules over penalties for on-court behavior, and all appeals go through him, too. (
  • I think it reflects our most current research knowledge that there are more effective ways to improve kids' behavior that also lead to higher achievement and higher graduation rates and that in the long term are far less costly," says Daniel J. Losen, who recently wrote a study of suspension and racial disparities for the National Education Policy Center at University of Colorado. (
  • As our report found, a mix of factors is at play that give rise to the soaring suspension rate, including racial bias and stereotyping, cultural mismatches between teachers and students, and, in some elementary schools, a lack of tolerance for noisy, boy-type behavior. (
  • In the School District of Philadelphia, for example, Gray said school officials revised the code of suspension for non-violent behavior. (
  • We hold our players to a very high standard and these suspensions should serve notice that the behavior exhibited at the end of Tuesday's game will not be tolerated. (
  • Mrs. President, you cannot say you are going to "serve notice" against this type of behavior by handing out one game suspensions for the very act you are trying to reprimand. (
  • The models have also been used to describe the rheological behavior of dilute bubble suspensions. (
  • They found that while behaviors like fighting and bullying were the most powerful predictors of receiving a suspension, a positive school climate was associated with a reduction in a student's likelihood of receiving a suspension, no matter their race, economic status or behavior in school. (
  • The Senate is constitutionally charged with the duty to review the Governor's executive suspensions and, upon such review, either reinstate the suspended official or … remove him from office. (
  • From the basics to the most recent developments - A concise review of suspensions, emulsions, and foams Updating and expanding their highly popular Colloidal Systems and Interfaces, Ian Morrison and Sydney Ross now provide authoritative coverage of the concepts and techniques applicable to suspensions, emulsions, and foams. (
  • Concisely yet thoroughly encompassing the significant developments of the past fourteen years, Colloidal Dispersions: Suspensions, Emulsions, and Foams describes a wide range of topics, including particles in liquids, interactions at interfaces, surfactants, and the technology of emulsions and foams. (
  • This new edition includes: _Updated material and major advances in the field, including the development of new equipment _In-depth instruction on methods for producing emulsions and suspensions Extensive industrial and practical applications of general principles _Expanded sections on particle sizing, nonpolar dispersions, and polymer stabilization. (
  • The calculations are based on the constitutive equation that was originally derived for dilute emulsions and further developed for concentrated suspensions containing bubbles. (
  • In the following, the constitutive equation derived by Oldroyd for dilute emulsions and further developed by Pal for concentrated suspensions of bubbles is presented. (
  • A federal judge halted suspensions if people can't afford to pay traffic fines. (
  • The NFL sent a memo Wednesday to all 32 teams warning of fines, suspensions and loss of draft picks if the league determines players faked injuries during a game. (
  • The decision to overturn the suspensions of the Saints players for their role in the bounty scandal won't affect Payton or any of the other coaches that are scheduled to miss games. (
  • BREAKING: A 3-member appeals panel has overturned the player suspensions in the Saints bounty case, says a source. (
  • For example, if an indefinite suspension is imposed by a Department analyst for a medical reason, the driver must submit a favorable medical statement for evaluation before relicensure is authorized. (
  • Former defensive coordinator Greg Williams' indefinite suspension and general manager Micky Loomis' eight-game ban will also stand. (
  • therefore the Registry of Motor Vehicles (RMV) cannot alter these suspensions/revocations. (
  • therefore, hearings for Junior Operator suspensions/revocations are not required. (
  • If you have any of the suspensions/revocations listed above, you have the right to see an RMV Hearings Officer, but only to address the accuracy of your driving record. (
  • Among other things, Twitter promised to provide "a better experience for Suspension Appeals," including a detailed description to the user of how a suspended account violated the rules. (
  • Appeals officer Derrick Brooks heard Crabtree's case and cut his suspension in half, meaning the Raiders' wide receiver will only miss this Sunday's game at home against the Giants. (
  • Nystatin oral suspension is also available without a brand name, ie as the generic medicine. (
  • Nystatin oral suspension is used to treat infections of the mouth, throat and intestines with Candida species of fungi, in particular Candida albicans . (
  • People with rare hereditary problems of fructose intolerance, glucose-galactose malabsorption or sucrase-isomaltase insufficiency (Nystan oral suspension contains sucrose). (
  • Anti-discipline advocates claim that suspensions can be replaced by "restorative justice" and "healing circles. (
  • The National Education Association and its members have been working hard for years to shut down the school-to-prison pipeline by providing educators with tools and training around alternatives to out-of-school suspensions, including restorative practices. (
  • After Norwegian announced its latest suspension, a prominent market analyst blamed the CDC for bias against the cruise industry. (
  • In the NFL, coaches spend the entire offseason emphasizing the importance of getting off to a quick start when the regular season opens, but the suspensions of three prominent players, as well as the pending bans of two others, will make that an arduous task for some coaches guiding postseason contenders in 2010. (
  • For bubble suspensions, where the ratio of the dispersed-phase viscosity to the continuous-phase viscosity is essentially zero, the viscosity ratio is simply set equal to zero. (
  • Education researcher Dominic Zarecki studied the effects of suspension bans in several California districts: Los Angeles, Oakland, San Francisco, and Pasadena. (
  • the Bha yesterday dismissed as a blip the issuing of 38 days of whip bans by stewards last week, and revealed the number of suspensions for whip offences had dropped by 30 per cent since the rules were revised just less than a year ago, writes Jon Lees. (
  • It is common for the left and right sides of the suspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. (
  • Both sides will be back in court Thursday in New York, where Judge George B. Daniels will consider the merits of the NBA's lawsuit and whether O'Neal will have to serve the remaining 10 games of his suspension. (
  • To connect the two sides, he built a suspension bridge with hemp rope and wooden planks. (
  • On top of that, if this "agreement" is reached between both sides, it's possible that these suspensions given to Gibbons and Guillen will just be thrown out all together. (
  • ALAMEDA - Michael Crabtree's appeal was successful in reducing his two-game suspension to one, the NFL announced Tuesday afternoon. (
  • Vilma and Smith's punishments went unchanged.Vilma is still set to be suspended a full season, Fujita will now serve a one-game suspension instead of three, Smith will be suspended for four games and Hargrove will be out for seven games instead of eight.The players can appeal the ruling handed down by NFL Commissioner Roger Goodell.The NFL Player's Association disagreed with the commissioner's ruling. (
  • Needless to say, the continued suspension of the dividend has reduced its appeal to such investors even more. (
  • The fifth and sixth suspensions were a NIOSH magnetorheological (MR) semi-active damper design based on the pneumatic (air bladder) and one of the coil spring suspensions above. (
  • Drawing a link to achievement gaps, the board also endorsed findings that out-of-school suspensions disproportionately affect minorities and special education students. (
  • This recent string of widely publicized suspensions has raised questions about whether school officials are overreacting in the enforcement of policies designed to protect their students. (
  • Moderator Evan Stone, co-founder and co-CEO of Educators for Excellence said researchers, policy experts and practitioners should highlight ways to keep students in school, perhaps through in-house suspensions. (
  • Data shows that at those schools having a more collaborative climate, students had a significant lower suspension rate and higher rate of achievement on test scores. (
  • In a zero-tolerance era, at least one principal, armed with studies that show how suspensions disengage students and funnel them into a "school to prison" pipeline, is taking a different approach. (
  • Alaska's legalization of marijuana came with a huge spike in suspensions of Anchorage students for using or carrying pot at school. (
  • Furthermore, only 49 percent of students with three or more suspensions graduate high school. (
  • Huang and co-author Dewey Cornell, a professor of education at the University of Virginia, analyzed school climate survey responses from more than 75,000 students from 310 middle schools in the state of Virginia to determine the relationship between student behaviors, the likelihood of suspensions and overall school climate. (
  • Research shows that overwhelmingly, the students who are most at risk of receiving a suspension are either male, non-white, of low socioeconomic status, have a disability or a combination of these characteristics," Huang said. (
  • Mandatory vaccinations: Unvaccinated public school students face suspension. (
  • 750 students face suspension in the Winston-Salem/Forsyth County school system in North Carolina for not having their TDaP (tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis) booster. (
  • Students must have up-to-date vaccinations or face suspension by state law. (
  • Email notification is sent by the Office of the Registrar to students who are placed on academic suspension. (
  • The panel, meeting in Copenhagen ahead of U.N.-backed climate talks, also lifted a suspension on emissions verifier SGS UK, one of the biggest players in the $6.5 billion carbon offset market, the panel's chairman Lex de Jonge told Reuters. (
  • The term 'swing bridge' is in popular use in New Zealand for suspension bridges that act as footbridges. (
  • One of the oldest of engineering forms, suspension bridges were constructed by primitive peoples using vines for cables and mounting the roadway directly on the cables. (
  • The technique of cable spinning for suspension bridges was invented by the French engineer Louis Vicat, a contemporary of Roebling. (
  • By the late 1980s, three suspension bridges (the Golden Gate , in San Francisco, the Verrazano-Narrows , in New York City, and the Humber Bridge , near Hull, England) had main-span lengths of more than 4,000 feet (1,200 metres). (
  • Though suspension bridges can be made strong enough to support freight trains, they have nearly all been designed for automobile traffic. (
  • Houston linebacker Brian Cushing and New York Jets wide receiver Santonio Holmes will open the regular season serving four-game suspensions, while Pittsburgh's Ben Roethlisberger could be forced to miss the first six games (his suspension could be dropped to four pending his completion of counseling). (
  • Thirty-seven years after Amar Bose imagined an electromagnetic suspension system, Bose is selling its algorithms, patents, and trucker seat technology to ClearMotion, another MIT spinoff. (
  • Junior Operators with alcohol or drug convictions should follow policies detailed in the Alcohol or drug suspension hearings section above. (
  • Implications of the seat suspension designs relative to their capabilities for isolating vehicle operators from vibration exposure are discussed. (
  • Brett Okamoto reports the NSAC has voted to extend Conor McGregor and Khabib Nurmagomedov's suspensions and release half of Khabib's $2M purse. (
  • LAS VEGAS -- The Nevada State Athletic Commission voted unanimously on Wednesday to extend its temporary suspensions of UFC stars Khabib Nurmagomedov and Conor McGregor for their postfight actions at UFC 229 on Oct. 6 at T-Mobile Arena. (
  • The NSAC voted to extend those suspensions indefinitely, until the investigation is over and formal complaints are filed. (
  • Suspension ropes extend from the pillars at intervals up the building, each set supporting three to five floors. (
  • For additional information related to alcohol and drug suspension hearings, refer to the Apply for a hardship license section. (
  • They are using a "10 day hold on suspensions" which will give the players and owners more time to try and toughen their drug suspension policy. (
  • This paper deals with an active suspension control problem which does not require preview information. (
  • Or in other words, the active suspension is freed up to absorb trail-induced forces so that your body won't have to. (
  • A multi-link type rear independent suspension on an AWD car. (
  • Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. reacting to a bump on the road) independently of the others. (
  • A fully independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels. (
  • Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due to lower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activities of the other wheel on the vehicle. (
  • Independent suspension requires additional engineering effort and expense in development versus a beam or live axle arrangement. (
  • There are many systems and designs that do this, such as independent suspension. (
  • With independent suspension systems, the bump primarily affects only the contacted wheel. (
  • In automobiles, a double wishbone suspension is an independent suspension design using two (occasionally parallel) wishbone-shaped arms to locate the wheel. (
  • With FSR, we blazed the trail in active & independent suspension over 20 years ago, and we've been refining it ever since. (
  • The 2007 Texas Longhorns football suspensions were separate incidents resulting in college football players being suspended from the 2007 Texas Longhorn football team at the University of Texas at Austin. (
  • Suspensions of high-profile individuals from Twitter are unusual but when it happens this is often reported in the press. (
  • In addition to community guideline policy decisions, the Twitter DMCA and spam detection systems are sometimes abused to force a user's suspension. (
  • The Legislature has enacted procedural statutes which broadly address the executive suspension and removal process in Part V, Chapter 112, Florida Statutes . (
  • Most of the nation's largest school districts are actively trying to reduce out-of-school suspensions, but a reversal of Obama-era guidelines could be coming in 2018. (
  • Gray said about half of the districts in the U.S. are starting to recognize the disproportionality of suspensions. (
  • We recognize that some of these communities may adopt and submit the required documentation of legally enforceable floodplain management measures after this rule is published but prior to the actual suspension date. (
  • We recognize that suspension set up can be pretty confusing at times, and more often than not, this confusion leads to an improper tune. (
  • If the total institutional GPA falls below 2.0 at the end of a semester in which a student is on academic probation, then the student will be eligible for academic suspension. (
  • The weeklong suspensions, to take place in July, stem from the nurses' refusal to cross a picket line of striking hospital service workers on April 14, union officials said. (
  • This section explains the different types of suspension hearings the RMV conducts. (
  • The NSAC placed Nurmagomedov (27-0) and McGregor (21-4) on 10-day suspensions Oct. 15 -- a necessary administrative move as it conducts an investigation, which is ongoing. (
  • The key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels, the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system. (
  • A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more lateral arms, and one or more longitudinal arms. (
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  • The most secure design may be to have a grid of suspension buildings, each one suspended to its four adjacent pillars, and to the eight next pillars out. (
  • This design would secure the inner most building most, not only form a suspension perspective, but also from the fact that no plane is ever going to get even close to flying through that mess of wires. (
  • Laboratory Investigation of Seat Suspension Design Performan! (
  • By effectively isolating chain and brake loads, FSR technology delivers more comfort and efficiency than any other suspension design. (
  • Because the design increases tire contact with the ground for a greater percentage of time than with other suspension systems. (
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  • A 2012 study by the Everyone Graduates Center at John Hopkins University found that when a high school freshman receives a single suspension, their chances of dropping out of school can increase by a third. (
  • For example, in solid axle suspension systems, when one wheel hits a bump, it affects both wheels. (
  • While the BMW F90 M5 started to be delivered to customers worldwide, the next best thing in BMW's lineup - the BMW M550i xDrive - is getting a performance bump, thanks to KW Suspension. (
  • A detailed written plan the board unveiled would redefine the vocabulary of suspension - what is short, what is long - and require Maryland's 24 school systems to pay far closer attention to whom they suspend and why. (