Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Colony Count, Microbial
Cell Membrane Permeability
Molecular Sequence Data
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Centrifugation, Density Gradient
Tissue Culture Techniques
Evaluation Studies as Topic
Rats, Inbred Strains
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
Staining and Labeling
Immobility Response, Tonic
Mice, Inbred Strains
Colony-Forming Units Assay
Disease Models, Animal
Fetal Tissue Transplantation
Bone Marrow Cells
Serum Albumin, Bovine
Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
Oral bioequivalence of three ciprofloxacin formulations following single-dose administration: 500 mg tablet compared with 500 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/5 mL suspension and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension. (1/353)The oral bioequivalence and tolerability of two ciprofloxacin formulations (tablet and suspension) and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension were investigated. Sixty-eight young, healthy male subjects participated in two separate, randomized, crossover studies. In study 1, ciprofloxacin as a single 500 mg tablet or as 500 mg/10 mL oral suspension was administered in a fasted state on day 1. In study 2, subjects participated in a three-way crossover study in which ciprofloxacin suspension was administered as 500 mg/10 mL in a fasted state, or 500 mg/10 mL with food, or 500 mg/5 mL in a fasted state. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. In study 1, geometric mean Cmax values of ciprofloxacin following the single 500 mg tablet and 500 mg/10 mL suspension doses were 2.36 and 2.18 mg/L, respectively; corresponding geometric mean t(max) values were 1.1 and 1.6 h, respectively. Geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 12.0 and 11.8 mg x h/L, respectively. In study 2, geometric least squares mean Cmax values following ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL suspension during fasted conditions were 1.54 and 1.59 mg/L, respectively. Corresponding geometric least squares mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 7.3 and 8.0 mg x h/L. Administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL suspension, in either a fasted or fed state, was not associated with significant changes in Cmax (1.54 mg/L for fasted vs 1.37 mg/L for fed) or AUC(0-infinity) values (7.28 mg x h/L for fasted vs 8.19 mg x h/L for fed). Each ciprofloxacin formulation was well tolerated for the duration of each study. These studies demonstrated bioequivalence between ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablet and two strengths of ciprofloxacin suspension (500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL). Bioavailability was unaltered by food. (+info)
Modulation of vascular cell growth kinetics by local cytokine delivery from fibrin glue suspensions. (2/353)PURPOSE: Fibrin glue (FG) has been used as a delivery system for bioactive agents on grafts and angioplasty sites. Reports from two different institutions suggest that heparin concentrations of 500 U/mL in FG inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, but do not effect endothelial cell (EC) proliferation. The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify the diffusive release of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and heparin from FG; (2) determine the effect of heparin and FGF-1 on SMC proliferation when the cells are immediately plated on the FG; and (3) by means of the diffusive release data, design a new in vitro model that may differentiate the effect of FG-incorporated FGF-1 and heparin, rather than the released, solubilized components of these two factors, on SMC and EC proliferation. METHODS: 125I-FGF-1 or 3H-heparin release from FG into the overlying media was measured serially in a 96-hour period, either with or without cells. SMCs were immediately plated on FG containing various concentrations of FGF-1 and heparin. SMCs or ECs were plated on identical groups of FG containing FGF-1 and heparin 24 hours after the FG was made to exclude the effect on cell growth of the initial release of FGF-1 into the media. RESULTS: In the first 24 hours, 70% +/- 1% of the FGF-1 and 59% +/- 2% of the heparin in the FG was released into the overlying media, with minimal release occurring thereafter. The cell type or absence of cells did not affect release, but there was five times more FGF-1 and four times more heparin in the media at 72 hours for the immediate plating versus the delayed plating because of a diffusive release primarily in the first 24 hours. A heparin concentration of 500 U/mL inhibited SMC proliferation, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin, only when immediate plating of SMCs was used. Comparing immediate versus delayed SMC plating, at equivalent FGF-1 and heparin doses, immediate plating induced greater proliferation than delayed plating; this was likely caused by the higher soluble FGF-1 concentration. Heparin doses as high as 500 U/mL had little effect on SMC proliferation. In contrast, ECs died with delayed plating on FG containing 500 U/mL heparin, and their growth was inhibited at 50 U/mL heparin, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin. CONCLUSION: The differences in SMC proliferation when comparing immediate versus delayed plating are likely caused by diffusive release of heparin and FGF-1 into the media. Our ongoing work uses an optimized in vitro FG system that minimizes the effects of soluble factors. This is an important distinction, because the cytokines that are released in vivo will be removed by blood flow and, thus, may not exert an effect unless they are contained within the FG. (+info)
The effects on intragastric acidity of per-gastrostomy administration of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole. (3/353)BACKGROUND: It may be difficult to administer proton pump inhibitors via gastrostomy. Previous studies have examined the effect of intact proton pump inhibitor granules in orange juice. This study examined the effect of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole (simplified omeprazole suspension (SOS)) on 24-h intragastric acidity. METHODS: Six men with an established gastrostomy had a baseline 24-h intragastric pH study using methodology we have previously described. They then received 20 mg SOS o.d. for 7 days and had a repeat pH study at the end of this period. Four of the patients then received 20 mg SOS with 30 cc of liquid antacid (Mylanta) per gastrostomy o.d. for a further 7 days and then underwent a third pH study. RESULTS: SOS raised mean pH from 2.2 to 4.1. Intragastric pH was above 3, 4 and 5 for 35, 28 and 17% of the 24-h period at baseline, respectively; corresponding values after SOS were 63, 51 and 39%, respectively. Addition of liquid antacid to SOS did not further increase its pH-controlling effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significant effect of o.d. SOS on intragastric pH when administered via gastrostomy. We found no additional benefit of administering SOS with liquid antacid. (+info)
Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and selenate by cell suspensions of selenium-respiring bacteria. (4/353)Washed-cell suspensions of Sulfurospirillum barnesii reduced selenate [Se(VI)] when cells were cultured with nitrate, thiosulfate, arsenate, or fumarate as the electron acceptor. When the concentration of the electron donor was limiting, Se(VI) reduction in whole cells was approximately fourfold greater in Se(VI)-grown cells than was observed in nitrate-grown cells; correspondingly, nitrate reduction was approximately 11-fold higher in nitrate-grown cells than in Se(VI)-grown cells. However, a simultaneous reduction of nitrate and Se(VI) was observed in both cases. At nonlimiting electron donor concentrations, nitrate-grown cells suspended with equimolar nitrate and selenate achieved a complete reductive removal of nitrogen and selenium oxyanions, with the bulk of nitrate reduction preceding that of selenate reduction. Chloramphenicol did not inhibit these reductions. The Se(VI)-respiring haloalkaliphile Bacillus arsenicoselenatis gave similar results, but its Se(VI) reductase was not constitutive in nitrate-grown cells. No reduction of Se(VI) was noted for Bacillus selenitireducens, which respires selenite. The results of kinetic experiments with cell membrane preparations of S. barnesii suggest the presence of constitutive selenate and nitrate reduction, as well as an inducible, high-affinity nitrate reductase in nitrate-grown cells which also has a low affinity for selenate. The simultaneous reduction of micromolar Se(VI) in the presence of millimolar nitrate indicates that these organisms may have a functional use in bioremediating nitrate-rich, seleniferous agricultural wastewaters. Results with (75)Se-selenate tracer show that these organisms can lower ambient Se(VI) concentrations to levels in compliance with new regulations proposed for release of selenium oxyanions into the environment. (+info)
Structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of an arabinogalactan protein from Pyrus communis suspension-cultured cells. (5/353)Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans of higher plants, which are implicated in growth and development. We recently have shown that two AGPs, NaAGP1 (from Nicotiana alata styles) and PcAGP1 (from Pyrus communis cell suspension culture), are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. However, paradoxically, both AGPs were buffer soluble rather than membrane associated. We now show that pear suspension cultured cells also contain membrane-bound GPI-anchored AGPs. This GPI anchor has the minimal core oligosaccharide structure, D-Manalpha(1-2)-D-Manalpha(1-6)-D-Manalpha(1-4)-D-GlcN -inositol, which is consistent with those found in animals, protozoa, and yeast, but with a partial beta(1-4)-galactosyl substitution of the 6-linked Man residue, and has a phosphoceramide lipid composed primarily of phytosphingosine and tetracosanoic acid. The secreted form of PcAGP1 contains a truncated GPI lacking the phosphoceramide moiety, suggesting that it is released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase D. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potential mechanisms by which GPI-anchored AGPs may be involved in signal transduction pathways. (+info)
Preparation of a clofazimine nanosuspension for intravenous use and evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy in murine Mycobacterium avium infection. (6/353)Clofazimine nanosuspensions were produced by high pressure homogenization and the formulation was optimized for lyophilization. Characterization of the product by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction and Coulter counter analysis showed that the clofazimine nanosuspensions were suitable for iv injection with a particle size permitting passive targeting to the reticuloendothelial system. Following iv administration to mice of either the nanocrystalline or a control liposomal formulation at a dose of 20 mg clofazimine/kg bodyweight, drug concentrations in livers, spleens and lungs reached comparably high concentrations, well in excess of the MIC for most Mycobacterium avium strains. When C57BL/6 mice were experimentally infected with M. avium strain TMC 724, nanocrystalline clofazimine was as effective as liposomal clofazimine in reducing bacterial loads in the liver, spleen and lungs of infected mice. Nanocrystalline suspensions of poorly soluble drugs such as riminophenazines are easy to prepare and to lyophilize for extended storage and represent a promising new drug formulation for intravenous therapy of mycobacterial infections. (+info)
beta1 integrins regulate keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation by distinct mechanisms. (7/353)In keratinocytes, the beta1 integrins mediate adhesion to the extracellular matrix and also regulate the initiation of terminal differentiation. To explore the relationship between these functions, we stably infected primary human epidermal keratinocytes and an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma line, SCC4, with retroviruses encoding wild-type and mutant chick beta1 integrin subunits. We examined the ability of adhesion-blocking chick beta1-specific antibodies to inhibit suspension-induced terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes and the ability of the chick beta1 subunit to promote spontaneous differentiation of SCC4. A D154A point mutant clustered in focal adhesions but was inactive in the differentiation assays, showing that differentiation regulation required a functional ligand-binding domain. The signal transduced by beta1 integrins in normal keratinocytes was "do not differentiate" (transduced by ligand-occupied receptors) as opposed to "do differentiate" (transduced by unoccupied receptors), and the signal depended on the absolute number, rather than on the proportion, of occupied receptors. Single and double point mutations in cyto-2 and -3, the NPXY motifs, prevented focal adhesion targeting without inhibiting differentiation control. However, deletions in the proximal part of the cytoplasmic domain, affecting cyto-1, abolished the differentiation-regulatory ability of the beta1 subunit. We conclude that distinct signaling pathways are involved in beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion and differentiation control in keratinocytes. (+info)
Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli. (8/353)Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days. (+info)
In the medical field, a suspension is a type of medication that is administered as a liquid or powder that is suspended in a liquid. Suspensions are typically used when a medication needs to be given in a form that is not available as a tablet, capsule, or other solid form. Suspensions can be made from a variety of ingredients, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and stabilizers. APIs are the active ingredients that provide the therapeutic effect of the medication, while excipients are substances that help to improve the stability, texture, or taste of the suspension. Stabilizers are added to prevent the API from settling out of the suspension and to ensure that the suspension remains homogeneous. Suspensions are commonly used to deliver medications to children, as well as to patients who have difficulty swallowing solid forms of medication. They can also be used to deliver medications that are not available in solid form, such as certain vaccines or antiviral medications. It is important to note that suspensions can be more prone to contamination and degradation than solid forms of medication, so they must be stored and handled properly to maintain their effectiveness and safety.
In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.
In the medical field, acetates refer to compounds that contain the acetate ion (CH3COO-). Acetates are commonly used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including: 1. Hyperkalemia: Acetate is used to treat high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. It works by binding to potassium ions and preventing them from entering cells, which helps to lower potassium levels in the blood. 2. Acidosis: Acetate is used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the blood becomes too acidic. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the blood. 3. Respiratory failure: Acetate is used to treat respiratory failure, a condition in which the lungs are unable to provide enough oxygen to the body. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to support the respiratory system. 4. Metabolic acidosis: Acetate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the body. 5. Hyperammonemia: Acetate is used to treat hyperammonemia, a condition in which the blood contains too much ammonia. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to reduce the production of ammonia. Overall, acetates are a useful tool in the treatment of various medical conditions, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare professionals to ensure their safe and effective use.
In the medical field, "latex" refers to a type of rubber that is commonly used to make medical equipment and supplies, such as gloves, catheters, and surgical instruments. Latex is a natural polymer that is derived from the sap of the rubber tree, and it is known for its strength, elasticity, and resistance to chemicals and heat. However, some people may be allergic to latex, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild itching to severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. As a result, many medical facilities have started to use alternative materials, such as nitrile or vinyl, for medical equipment and supplies to accommodate individuals with latex allergies.
In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.
Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.
Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.
Blepharoptosis, also known as drooping eyelid, is a medical condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls down, usually affecting only one eye. This can cause the eyelashes to touch the cornea, which can lead to irritation, redness, and even vision problems if left untreated. Blepharoptosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness, nerve damage, or problems with the eyelid structure. Treatment options for blepharoptosis may include surgery, physical therapy, or the use of artificial eyelid lifts.
Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.
Polystyrenes are a class of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their lightweight, durability, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In the medical field, polystyrenes are used in a variety of applications, including as components of medical devices, such as syringes, catheters, and test tubes, as well as in packaging materials for medical equipment and supplies. Polystyrene is also used in the production of medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, and as a component of dental prosthetics. Polystyrenes are also used in the production of medical laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges and microtiter plates, and in the manufacturing of medical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps. Additionally, polystyrene is used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as trays and bags, to protect medical equipment and supplies during transportation and storage.
Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.
Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of phenylalanine, an amino acid found in many proteins. PAL catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, which is then further metabolized into other compounds such as flavonoids and lignins. In the medical field, PAL is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine in individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that results in the accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood and brain. PKU is treated by a strict low-phenylalanine diet, and individuals with PKU may also require supplementation with PAL inhibitors to help lower their blood phenylalanine levels. In addition to its role in PKU, PAL is also involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine in plants, where it plays a role in the biosynthesis of lignins, which provide structural support to plant cells. In plants, PAL is also involved in the biosynthesis of other compounds such as flavonoids and alkaloids, which have a range of biological activities.
Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is a synthetic organic acid that is commonly used in the medical field as a chelating agent. It is a colorless, water-soluble solid that is used to dissolve minerals and other metal ions in solution. In medicine, EDTA is often used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury poisoning, by binding to the metal ions and facilitating their excretion from the body. It is also used as an anticoagulant in blood tests and as a component of certain contrast agents used in diagnostic imaging procedures. EDTA is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but high doses or prolonged use can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.
In the medical field, carbon isotopes are atoms of carbon that have a different number of neutrons than the most common isotope, carbon-12. There are two stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-13, and several unstable isotopes that are used in medical applications. Carbon-13, in particular, is used in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In MRS, carbon-13 is used to study the metabolism of certain compounds in the body, such as glucose and amino acids. In PET, carbon-13 is used to create images of the body's metabolism by tracing the movement of a radioactive tracer through the body. Carbon-11, another unstable isotope of carbon, is used in PET imaging to study various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Carbon-11 is produced in a cyclotron and then attached to a molecule that is specific to a particular target in the body. The tracer is then injected into the patient and imaged using a PET scanner to detect the location and extent of the disease. Overall, carbon isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and researchers to better understand the functioning of the body and diagnose and treat various diseases.
Bentonite is a type of clay that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a natural clay that is formed from volcanic ash and is rich in minerals such as silica, aluminum, and iron. Bentonite has a high adsorption capacity, which means that it can absorb and hold onto other substances, including toxins and heavy metals. In the medical field, bentonite is often used as a detoxifying agent to help remove toxins and heavy metals from the body. It is sometimes used in conjunction with other detoxifying agents, such as activated charcoal, to enhance its effectiveness. Bentonite is also sometimes used as a binding agent to help bind together other substances in the body, such as medications or supplements. Bentonite is available in various forms, including powders, capsules, and suppositories. It is typically taken orally, although it can also be applied topically to the skin or used in enemas. It is important to note that bentonite should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.
In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.
Povidone is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and is a white, odorless powder that is easily soluble in water. Povidone is used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, surgical procedures, and the treatment of skin infections. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used in combination with other antiseptic agents to enhance its effectiveness. Povidone is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and ointments, and is typically applied topically to the skin or applied to medical devices and surfaces to disinfect them. It is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by most people, although it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.
Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.
Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.
Muscular atrophy refers to the loss of muscle mass and strength due to various factors such as disuse, injury, disease, or genetic disorders. It can result in a decrease in muscle size, decreased muscle strength, and a decrease in muscle tone. There are different types of muscular atrophy, including: 1. Neurogenic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is damage to the nerves that control the muscles. It can be caused by conditions such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 2. Myogenic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is damage to the muscle fibers themselves. It can be caused by conditions such as muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or polymyositis. 3. Metabolic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is a problem with the body's metabolism that affects muscle function. It can be caused by conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or vitamin deficiencies. Muscular atrophy can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, as it can lead to decreased mobility, difficulty with daily activities, and reduced independence. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.
Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream. This process can occur due to various factors, including mechanical stress, exposure to certain medications or toxins, infections, or inherited genetic disorders. When RBCs are damaged or destroyed, their contents, including hemoglobin, are released into the bloodstream. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. When hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream, it can cause the blood to appear dark brown or black, a condition known as hemoglobinuria. Hemolysis can lead to a variety of symptoms, including jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and dark urine. In severe cases, hemolysis can cause life-threatening complications, such as kidney failure or shock. Treatment for hemolysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to slow down the breakdown of RBCs or to remove excess hemoglobin from the bloodstream. In other cases, treatment may involve blood transfusions or other supportive therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
In the medical field, agar is a gelatinous substance that is commonly used as a growth medium for bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. It is made from seaweed and is composed of agarose, a polysaccharide that forms a gel when heated. Agar is often used in microbiology laboratories to culture and isolate microorganisms, as well as to study their growth and behavior. It is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the preparation of certain types of vaccines and in the treatment of certain skin conditions.
In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of neoplasms (abnormal growths of cells) in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or in vitro cell cultures. These studies are typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of neoplasms and to develop new treatments for cancer and other types of neoplastic diseases. Experimental neoplasms may be induced by various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, or other forms of cellular stress. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of neoplasms and help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.
In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.
In the medical field, "pregnenes" refers to a group of hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex and placenta. These hormones include cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which play important roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism, blood pressure regulation, and sexual development. The term "pregnenes" is derived from the fact that these hormones are all synthesized from the same precursor molecule, pregnenolone.
Glutaral is a colorless, crystalline compound that is a derivative of glutaric acid. It is used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic, particularly for the treatment of skin and mucous membrane infections. Glutaral is also used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and contact lens solutions. It is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people.
In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.
In the medical field, an emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, that are dispersed in the form of small droplets. These droplets are typically stabilized by an emulsifying agent, which prevents the two liquids from separating and allows them to remain in a stable mixture. Emulsions are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, imaging, and therapy. For example, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to deliver drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. They can also be used in imaging studies to help visualize certain structures or tissues within the body. Emulsions can be prepared in a variety of ways, including mechanical agitation, high-pressure homogenization, and ultrasonication. The choice of preparation method depends on the specific properties of the emulsifying agent and the liquids being mixed, as well as the desired properties of the final emulsion.
In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.
Methylene blue is a synthetic organic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dye. It is a blue-colored compound that is soluble in water and has a molecular formula of C16H18N3S. In the medical field, methylene blue is used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Treatment of methemoglobinemia: Methylene blue is used to treat methemoglobinemia, a condition in which the amount of methemoglobin (a form of hemoglobin that is not able to carry oxygen) in the blood is increased. This can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and blue or purple skin. 2. Treatment of cyanide poisoning: Methylene blue is also used to treat cyanide poisoning, a condition in which the body is exposed to high levels of cyanide. Cyanide can interfere with the body's ability to use oxygen, leading to symptoms such as confusion, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. 3. Antimicrobial agent: Methylene blue has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as an antiseptic or disinfectant. 4. Dye: Methylene blue is also used as a dye in various industries, including textiles, leather, and printing. It is important to note that methylene blue can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.
Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.
Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.
In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.
Dextrans are a group of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are derived from cornstarch. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a thickening agent in intravenous fluids, as a diagnostic tool for measuring kidney function, and as a component of certain medications. Dextrans are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications and medical treatments, they can have potential side effects and risks.
Succinates are a class of organic compounds that contain the succinate functional group, which is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6O4. In the medical field, succinates are often used as intermediates in the production of other chemicals and drugs, as well as in the treatment of certain medical conditions. One of the most well-known succinates in medicine is sodium succinate, which is used as a metabolic intermediate in the production of energy in the body. It is also used as a treatment for certain types of metabolic disorders, such as lactic acidosis, which is a condition characterized by an excess of lactic acid in the blood. Another example of a succinate used in medicine is propofol, which is a sedative and anesthetic medication that is commonly used in hospitals and medical procedures. Propofol is a derivative of the succinate molecule and is used to induce and maintain anesthesia in patients. Overall, succinates play an important role in the medical field as intermediates in the production of other chemicals and drugs, as well as in the treatment of certain medical conditions.
Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. It is a serine protease that cleaves peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues. Trypsin is an important digestive enzyme that helps to break down dietary proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids that can be absorbed and used by the body. It is also used in medical research and in the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents.
Pyruvates are organic compounds that are produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. They are the end product of glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. In the medical field, pyruvates are often used as a source of energy for cells. They can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle) and is further metabolized to produce ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell. Pyruvates are also used in the production of certain amino acids, such as alanine and glutamate, and in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as lipids and nucleotides. In some cases, pyruvates can also be converted into lactic acid, which can accumulate in the muscles during periods of intense exercise and contribute to muscle fatigue. This process is known as anaerobic glycolysis. Overall, pyruvates play a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the production of energy in the body.
Thymidine is a nucleoside that is a building block of DNA and RNA. It is composed of a deoxyribose sugar molecule and a thymine base. Thymidine is an essential component of DNA and is involved in the replication and transcription of genetic material. It is also a precursor to the synthesis of thymine triphosphate (dTTP), which is a nucleotide used in DNA and RNA synthesis. In the medical field, thymidine is used as a diagnostic tool to detect and measure the activity of certain enzymes involved in DNA synthesis, and it is also used as a component of certain antiviral drugs.
December 2022 Twitter suspensions
2007 Texas Longhorns football suspensions
Suspension & Displacement
Urinary incontinence - retropubic suspension: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Preventing Worker Injuries & Deaths Caused by Falls From Suspension Scaffolds | NIOSH | CDC
Adoption Notice: Joshua Tree Adoptions - Temporary Suspension Lifted
3 Tips to Keep Employee Suspensions Legal - FindLaw
Suspension | Ohio University
Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis: Background, History of the Procedure, Etiology
Delphi Suspension Position Sensor ER10028
Ezekiel Elliott Suspension Reaction Podcast
Suspension Tools | Monroe
Hydro Shocks - Skyjacker Suspensions
DailyMed - AMPICILLIN injection, powder, for suspension
Criminal Records Suspensions (pardons) | Éducaloi
Suspension - EarthRoamer
Steering & Suspension
Mometamax Otic Suspension 15 gm Bottle | 1800PetMeds
TRX Training TRX Strong Suspension Trainer - Training
Suspension of protest resented : The Tribune India
Tyre wear on simplicity suspension
Biker's Choice Cruiser Suspension | MotoSport
HSE must release more facts about coach suspension | wthr.com
Watson starting Browns' preseason opener as suspension looms
TeraFlex Suspension Lift Kits | 4wheelparts.com
Forks & Suspension On Sale | Jenson USA
Automotive suspension engineering Forum - Tipmaster MVPs
Bill Belichick stays mum on curious Jake Bailey, Jack Jones suspensions - The Boston Globe
- Your steering and suspension system, also known as SAS, supports your vehicle, absorbs shocks and bumps, and allows your car to turn in response to your steering input. (meineke.com)
- Our process always starts with a thorough evaluation of your steering and suspension, which includes your car's front and rear end, all coil springs, shocks and struts, all chassis parts and wheel bearings, the differential, and many more system components. (meineke.com)
- If the initial evaluation shows suspension issues, our technicians have great experience in fixing bad spring coils, inspecting tires or replacing shocks and struts. (meineke.com)
- The suspension is outfitted with adjustable King remote reservoir shocks which are custom designed to work cohesively with the air ride suspension. (earthroamer.com)
- Your policies should have something written out about how long an ordinary disciplinary suspension should last. (findlaw.com)
- Disciplinary Suspension is a separation from the university for one or more semesters. (ohio.edu)
- Students under disciplinary suspension may not be present on University premises unless authorized in writing in advance under conditions approved by the Director of Community Standards and Student Responsibility (CSSR). (ohio.edu)
- All assigned educational sanctions must be completed prior to the conclusion of disciplinary suspension or the disciplinary suspension will remain in effect. (ohio.edu)
- At the conclusion of their disciplinary suspension, students must petition for re-enrollment. (ohio.edu)
- Discover our shock absorbers, mounting and protection kits, gas springs, coil springs, spheres and many other steering & suspension parts. (monroe.com)
- Shock absorbers, or spring dampers as it is called everywhere else except in the U.S., control the rate at which suspension springs compress and rebound. (skyjacker.com)
- Absorbing the 'shock' of bumps and suspension loading is actually performed by the springs in the suspension. (skyjacker.com)
- Suspension Training creates hundreds of moves on two incredibly adjustable straps that act like a literal support system so you not only assist your form, you power up moves to be challenging with bodyweight. (backcountry.com)
- Simplicity suspension is adjustable and can be done 'on the road', however best bet is to find a truck alignment business and it will be easy for them and accurate with their equipment. (exploroz.com)
- The popular Monroe Ball Joint and Bush Diagnostic Tool provides the leverage needed to precisely move key suspension components - laterally and vertically - while the vehicle is on a lift. (monroe.com)
- Monroe suspension tools are engineered to help vehicle workshops provide exceptional quality, service and value while completing more work every day. (monroe.com)
- Due to the complexity of the steering and suspension system, there are many reasons why your vehicle may be showing certain symptoms. (meineke.com)
- the effects of a suspension (on work, travel, etc. (educaloi.qc.ca)
- How does Mometamax Otic Suspension work? (1800petmeds.com)
- Every employer, supervisor, and worker involved in work from suspension scaffolds must comply with these regulations. (cdc.gov)
- In this work , strongly enhanced fluorescence was observed when 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (HPBI) molecules were simply mixed with zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) colloidal suspensions . (bvsalud.org)
- During the period of suspension, a student may not attend classes ( either in person or online ), or participate in University related activities, whether they occur on or off campus. (ohio.edu)
- If they should occur, ampicillin for injectable suspension should be discontinued and the subject treated with the usual agents (antihistamines, pressor amines, corticosteroids). (nih.gov)
- Employee suspension is one of those actions, but it's not always easy to keep employee suspension legal. (findlaw.com)
- While the Supreme Court's unanimous decision in WTHR-TV v. Hamilton Southeastern School District involves the suspension of former Fishers High School head football coach Rick Wimmer, the court's decision impacts thousands of public employees across Indiana, and legal experts say it establishes new precedent to cement the public's right to know why those employees are suspended, demoted or fired. (wthr.com)
- The president of the Supreme Court, Brenda Hale, said Johnson's attempt was not a normal suspension and that it had taken place in exceptional circumstances. (cnbc.com)
- This suspension lowers the seat height approximately .75' while preserving ride quality. (harley-davidson.com)
- A smooth and safe ride is greatly dependent on your SAS system, so be sure to have it checked if you notice signs of a troubled steering and suspension system. (meineke.com)
- Air ride suspension is standard on every LTS. (earthroamer.com)
- The remaining teeth were randomly divided in 6 groups (n = 12) according to the irrigation solution: G1) 0.85% saline (control), G2) 1% NaOCl, G3) 5% NaOCl, G4) 2% CHX, G5) 1% Np Ag suspension, and G6) 26% Np ZnO suspension. (bvsalud.org)
- Results showed that electrospray from a suspension of higher nanotube concentration produced a bimodal distribution of SWCNT aerosols. (cdc.gov)
- When Do I Need Steering and Suspension Service? (meineke.com)
- Because it is a derivative of 6-aminopenicillanic acid, ampicillin for injectable suspension has the potential for producing allergic reactions. (nih.gov)
- Find all of the Monroe parts you need for any steering and suspension repair through our convenient library of free, downloadable PDF catalogues and user-friendly electronic catalogue interface. (monroe.com)
- The dosage of ampicillin for injectable suspension will vary according to the animal being treated, the severity of the infection and the animal's response. (nih.gov)
- There are 2 ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
- In any event, federal law requires that employees be suspended in increments of a day (i.e. no half-day suspensions). (findlaw.com)
- In order to comprehend it, we use a psychoanalitical aproach to emphasize the relation dynamics among the typical actors of a suspension event: the suspendee, the suspender and the audience. (bvsalud.org)
- Easily identify excessive play, noise and related issues in ball joints, bushes and other steering and suspension components. (monroe.com)
- Rob Phillips, Nick Eatman, and Mickey Spagnola react to the breaking Ezekiel Elliott news regarding his suspension being reinstated. (dallascowboys.com)
- Monroe offers a total steering & suspension solution for vehicles. (monroe.com)
- We present a method to generate unagglomerated, fibrous particles of SWCNT aerosols using capillary electrospray of aqueous suspensions. (cdc.gov)
- The following are examples, but not limited to, reasons a student may be at risk for suspension. (ohio.edu)
- But Hamilton Southeastern Schools would not tell WTHR whether the suspension was related to the previous altercation that had been investigated by the school board and Fishers Police or for a separate incident that had never been made public. (wthr.com)
- The system is very complex and comprised of hundreds of different parts, especially considering that there are many different types of suspension designs. (meineke.com)