Colloids with liquid continuous phase and solid dispersed phase; the term is used loosely also for solid-in-gas (AEROSOLS) and other colloidal systems; water-insoluble drugs may be given as suspensions.
Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Relating to the size of solids.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Two-phase systems in which one is uniformly dispersed in another as particles small enough so they cannot be filtered or will not settle out. The dispersing or continuous phase or medium envelops the particles of the discontinuous phase. All three states of matter can form colloids among each other.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Intradermal injection of a heated (pasteurized) saline suspension of sarcoid tissue obtained from a sarcoid spleen or lymph node. In patients with active sarcoidosis a dusky red nodule develops slowly over the next few weeks at the injection site. Histologic examination, an essential part of the complete test, reveals sarcoid tissue.
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Condition under normal Earth gravity where the force of gravity itself is not actually altered but its influence or effect may be modified and studied. (From ASGSB Bull 1992;5(2):27)
Methods used to study CELLS.
Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.
A process of separating particulate matter from a fluid, such as air or a liquid, by passing the fluid carrier through a medium that will not pass the particulates. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Basic functional unit of plants.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
The process of protecting various samples of biological material.
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Process of growing viruses in live animals, plants, or cultured cells.
A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)
Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subfield of acoustics dealing in the radio frequency range higher than acoustic SOUND waves (approximately above 20 kilohertz). Ultrasonic radiation is used therapeutically (DIATHERMY and ULTRASONIC THERAPY) to generate HEAT and to selectively destroy tissues. It is also used in diagnostics, for example, ULTRASONOGRAPHY; ECHOENCEPHALOGRAPHY; and ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, to visually display echoes received from irradiated tissues.
Method of tissue preparation in which the tissue specimen is frozen and then dehydrated at low temperature in a high vacuum. This method is also used for dehydrating pharmaceutical and food products.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A membrane or barrier with micrometer sized pores used for separation purification processes.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A chemical system that functions to control the levels of specific ions in solution. When the level of hydrogen ion in solution is controlled the system is called a pH buffer.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
A form of interference microscopy in which variations of the refracting index in the object are converted into variations of intensity in the image. This is achieved by the action of a phase plate.
A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of PHENYLALANINE to form trans-cinnamate and ammonia.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE that is widely cultivated for the edible yellow-orange root. The plant has finely divided leaves and flat clusters of small white flowers.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
Genus of coniferous yew trees or shrubs, several species of which have medicinal uses. Notable is the Pacific yew, Taxus brevifolia, which is used to make the anti-neoplastic drug taxol (PACLITAXEL).
The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Condition in which no acceleration, whether due to gravity or any other force, can be detected by an observer within a system. It also means the absence of weight or the absence of the force of gravity acting on a body. Microgravity, gravitational force between 0 and 10 -6 g, is included here. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A polyvinyl polymer of variable molecular weight; used as suspending and dispersing agent and vehicle for pharmaceuticals; also used as blood volume expander.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
The pharmacological result, either desirable or undesirable, of drugs interacting with components of the diet. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Acceleration produced by the mutual attraction of two masses, and of magnitude inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two centers of mass. It is also the force imparted by the earth, moon, or a planet to an object near its surface. (From NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A technique for maintaining or growing TISSUE in vitro, usually by DIFFUSION, perifusion, or PERFUSION. The tissue is cultured directly after removal from the host without being dispersed for cell culture.
The process by which a tissue or aggregate of cells is kept alive outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Spherical, heterogeneous aggregates of proliferating, quiescent, and necrotic cells in culture that retain three-dimensional architecture and tissue-specific functions. The ability to form spheroids is a characteristic trait of CULTURED TUMOR CELLS derived from solid TUMORS. Cells from normal tissues can also form spheroids. They represent an in-vitro model for studies of the biology of both normal and malignant cells. (From Bjerkvig, Spheroid Culture in Cancer Research, 1992, p4)
Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The marking of biological material with a dye or other reagent for the purpose of identifying and quantitating components of tissues, cells or their extracts.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.
An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by complete loss of muscle strength.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The structural and functional changes by which SPERMATOZOA become capable of oocyte FERTILIZATION. It normally requires exposing the sperm to the female genital tract for a period of time to bring about increased SPERM MOTILITY and the ACROSOME REACTION before fertilization in the FALLOPIAN TUBES can take place.
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
APOPTOSIS triggered by loss of contact with the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
A cytologic technique for measuring the functional capacity of stem cells by assaying their activity.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.
Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Objects that produce a magnetic field.
Transference of fetal tissue between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.
A plant species of the genus DATURA, family SOLANACEAE, that contains TROPANES and other SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS.
A compound consisting of dark green crystals or crystalline powder, having a bronze-like luster. Solutions in water or alcohol have a deep blue color. Methylene blue is used as a bacteriologic stain and as an indicator. It inhibits GUANYLATE CYCLASE, and has been used to treat cyanide poisoning and to lower levels of METHEMOGLOBIN.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Serum albumin from cows, commonly used in in vitro biological studies. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Completed forms of the pharmaceutical preparation in which prescribed doses of medication are included. They are designed to resist action by gastric fluids, prevent vomiting and nausea, reduce or alleviate the undesirable taste and smells associated with oral administration, achieve a high concentration of drug at target site, or produce a delayed or long-acting drug effect.
The reproductive elements of lower organisms, such as BACTERIA; FUNGI; and cryptogamic plants.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A gram-positive organism found in dental plaque, in blood, on heart valves in subacute endocarditis, and infrequently in saliva and throat specimens. L-forms are associated with recurrent aphthous stomatitis.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen used in medical applications such as radiation therapy and as a tracer in diagnostic imaging.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Pyruvates are end products of glucose metabolism in cells, which can be used for energy production or converted into other molecules for the synthesis of amino acids and fatty acids.
Thymidine is a nucleoside that is a building block of DNA and RNA.

Oral bioequivalence of three ciprofloxacin formulations following single-dose administration: 500 mg tablet compared with 500 mg/10 mL or 500 mg/5 mL suspension and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension. (1/353)

The oral bioequivalence and tolerability of two ciprofloxacin formulations (tablet and suspension) and the effect of food on the absorption of ciprofloxacin oral suspension were investigated. Sixty-eight young, healthy male subjects participated in two separate, randomized, crossover studies. In study 1, ciprofloxacin as a single 500 mg tablet or as 500 mg/10 mL oral suspension was administered in a fasted state on day 1. In study 2, subjects participated in a three-way crossover study in which ciprofloxacin suspension was administered as 500 mg/10 mL in a fasted state, or 500 mg/10 mL with food, or 500 mg/5 mL in a fasted state. Plasma ciprofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods. In study 1, geometric mean Cmax values of ciprofloxacin following the single 500 mg tablet and 500 mg/10 mL suspension doses were 2.36 and 2.18 mg/L, respectively; corresponding geometric mean t(max) values were 1.1 and 1.6 h, respectively. Geometric mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 12.0 and 11.8 mg x h/L, respectively. In study 2, geometric least squares mean Cmax values following ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL suspension during fasted conditions were 1.54 and 1.59 mg/L, respectively. Corresponding geometric least squares mean AUC(0-infinity) values were 7.3 and 8.0 mg x h/L. Administration of ciprofloxacin 500 mg/10 mL suspension, in either a fasted or fed state, was not associated with significant changes in Cmax (1.54 mg/L for fasted vs 1.37 mg/L for fed) or AUC(0-infinity) values (7.28 mg x h/L for fasted vs 8.19 mg x h/L for fed). Each ciprofloxacin formulation was well tolerated for the duration of each study. These studies demonstrated bioequivalence between ciprofloxacin 500 mg tablet and two strengths of ciprofloxacin suspension (500 mg/10 mL and 500 mg/5 mL). Bioavailability was unaltered by food.  (+info)

Modulation of vascular cell growth kinetics by local cytokine delivery from fibrin glue suspensions. (2/353)

PURPOSE: Fibrin glue (FG) has been used as a delivery system for bioactive agents on grafts and angioplasty sites. Reports from two different institutions suggest that heparin concentrations of 500 U/mL in FG inhibit smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, but do not effect endothelial cell (EC) proliferation. The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify the diffusive release of fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and heparin from FG; (2) determine the effect of heparin and FGF-1 on SMC proliferation when the cells are immediately plated on the FG; and (3) by means of the diffusive release data, design a new in vitro model that may differentiate the effect of FG-incorporated FGF-1 and heparin, rather than the released, solubilized components of these two factors, on SMC and EC proliferation. METHODS: 125I-FGF-1 or 3H-heparin release from FG into the overlying media was measured serially in a 96-hour period, either with or without cells. SMCs were immediately plated on FG containing various concentrations of FGF-1 and heparin. SMCs or ECs were plated on identical groups of FG containing FGF-1 and heparin 24 hours after the FG was made to exclude the effect on cell growth of the initial release of FGF-1 into the media. RESULTS: In the first 24 hours, 70% +/- 1% of the FGF-1 and 59% +/- 2% of the heparin in the FG was released into the overlying media, with minimal release occurring thereafter. The cell type or absence of cells did not affect release, but there was five times more FGF-1 and four times more heparin in the media at 72 hours for the immediate plating versus the delayed plating because of a diffusive release primarily in the first 24 hours. A heparin concentration of 500 U/mL inhibited SMC proliferation, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin, only when immediate plating of SMCs was used. Comparing immediate versus delayed SMC plating, at equivalent FGF-1 and heparin doses, immediate plating induced greater proliferation than delayed plating; this was likely caused by the higher soluble FGF-1 concentration. Heparin doses as high as 500 U/mL had little effect on SMC proliferation. In contrast, ECs died with delayed plating on FG containing 500 U/mL heparin, and their growth was inhibited at 50 U/mL heparin, as compared with 5 U/mL heparin. CONCLUSION: The differences in SMC proliferation when comparing immediate versus delayed plating are likely caused by diffusive release of heparin and FGF-1 into the media. Our ongoing work uses an optimized in vitro FG system that minimizes the effects of soluble factors. This is an important distinction, because the cytokines that are released in vivo will be removed by blood flow and, thus, may not exert an effect unless they are contained within the FG.  (+info)

The effects on intragastric acidity of per-gastrostomy administration of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole. (3/353)

BACKGROUND: It may be difficult to administer proton pump inhibitors via gastrostomy. Previous studies have examined the effect of intact proton pump inhibitor granules in orange juice. This study examined the effect of an alkaline suspension of omeprazole (simplified omeprazole suspension (SOS)) on 24-h intragastric acidity. METHODS: Six men with an established gastrostomy had a baseline 24-h intragastric pH study using methodology we have previously described. They then received 20 mg SOS o.d. for 7 days and had a repeat pH study at the end of this period. Four of the patients then received 20 mg SOS with 30 cc of liquid antacid (Mylanta) per gastrostomy o.d. for a further 7 days and then underwent a third pH study. RESULTS: SOS raised mean pH from 2.2 to 4.1. Intragastric pH was above 3, 4 and 5 for 35, 28 and 17% of the 24-h period at baseline, respectively; corresponding values after SOS were 63, 51 and 39%, respectively. Addition of liquid antacid to SOS did not further increase its pH-controlling effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found a statistically significant effect of o.d. SOS on intragastric pH when administered via gastrostomy. We found no additional benefit of administering SOS with liquid antacid.  (+info)

Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and selenate by cell suspensions of selenium-respiring bacteria. (4/353)

Washed-cell suspensions of Sulfurospirillum barnesii reduced selenate [Se(VI)] when cells were cultured with nitrate, thiosulfate, arsenate, or fumarate as the electron acceptor. When the concentration of the electron donor was limiting, Se(VI) reduction in whole cells was approximately fourfold greater in Se(VI)-grown cells than was observed in nitrate-grown cells; correspondingly, nitrate reduction was approximately 11-fold higher in nitrate-grown cells than in Se(VI)-grown cells. However, a simultaneous reduction of nitrate and Se(VI) was observed in both cases. At nonlimiting electron donor concentrations, nitrate-grown cells suspended with equimolar nitrate and selenate achieved a complete reductive removal of nitrogen and selenium oxyanions, with the bulk of nitrate reduction preceding that of selenate reduction. Chloramphenicol did not inhibit these reductions. The Se(VI)-respiring haloalkaliphile Bacillus arsenicoselenatis gave similar results, but its Se(VI) reductase was not constitutive in nitrate-grown cells. No reduction of Se(VI) was noted for Bacillus selenitireducens, which respires selenite. The results of kinetic experiments with cell membrane preparations of S. barnesii suggest the presence of constitutive selenate and nitrate reduction, as well as an inducible, high-affinity nitrate reductase in nitrate-grown cells which also has a low affinity for selenate. The simultaneous reduction of micromolar Se(VI) in the presence of millimolar nitrate indicates that these organisms may have a functional use in bioremediating nitrate-rich, seleniferous agricultural wastewaters. Results with (75)Se-selenate tracer show that these organisms can lower ambient Se(VI) concentrations to levels in compliance with new regulations proposed for release of selenium oxyanions into the environment.  (+info)

Structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of an arabinogalactan protein from Pyrus communis suspension-cultured cells. (5/353)

Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are proteoglycans of higher plants, which are implicated in growth and development. We recently have shown that two AGPs, NaAGP1 (from Nicotiana alata styles) and PcAGP1 (from Pyrus communis cell suspension culture), are modified by the addition of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. However, paradoxically, both AGPs were buffer soluble rather than membrane associated. We now show that pear suspension cultured cells also contain membrane-bound GPI-anchored AGPs. This GPI anchor has the minimal core oligosaccharide structure, D-Manalpha(1-2)-D-Manalpha(1-6)-D-Manalpha(1-4)-D-GlcN -inositol, which is consistent with those found in animals, protozoa, and yeast, but with a partial beta(1-4)-galactosyl substitution of the 6-linked Man residue, and has a phosphoceramide lipid composed primarily of phytosphingosine and tetracosanoic acid. The secreted form of PcAGP1 contains a truncated GPI lacking the phosphoceramide moiety, suggesting that it is released from the membrane by the action of a phospholipase D. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the potential mechanisms by which GPI-anchored AGPs may be involved in signal transduction pathways.  (+info)

Preparation of a clofazimine nanosuspension for intravenous use and evaluation of its therapeutic efficacy in murine Mycobacterium avium infection. (6/353)

Clofazimine nanosuspensions were produced by high pressure homogenization and the formulation was optimized for lyophilization. Characterization of the product by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction and Coulter counter analysis showed that the clofazimine nanosuspensions were suitable for iv injection with a particle size permitting passive targeting to the reticuloendothelial system. Following iv administration to mice of either the nanocrystalline or a control liposomal formulation at a dose of 20 mg clofazimine/kg bodyweight, drug concentrations in livers, spleens and lungs reached comparably high concentrations, well in excess of the MIC for most Mycobacterium avium strains. When C57BL/6 mice were experimentally infected with M. avium strain TMC 724, nanocrystalline clofazimine was as effective as liposomal clofazimine in reducing bacterial loads in the liver, spleen and lungs of infected mice. Nanocrystalline suspensions of poorly soluble drugs such as riminophenazines are easy to prepare and to lyophilize for extended storage and represent a promising new drug formulation for intravenous therapy of mycobacterial infections.  (+info)

beta1 integrins regulate keratinocyte adhesion and differentiation by distinct mechanisms. (7/353)

In keratinocytes, the beta1 integrins mediate adhesion to the extracellular matrix and also regulate the initiation of terminal differentiation. To explore the relationship between these functions, we stably infected primary human epidermal keratinocytes and an undifferentiated squamous cell carcinoma line, SCC4, with retroviruses encoding wild-type and mutant chick beta1 integrin subunits. We examined the ability of adhesion-blocking chick beta1-specific antibodies to inhibit suspension-induced terminal differentiation of primary human keratinocytes and the ability of the chick beta1 subunit to promote spontaneous differentiation of SCC4. A D154A point mutant clustered in focal adhesions but was inactive in the differentiation assays, showing that differentiation regulation required a functional ligand-binding domain. The signal transduced by beta1 integrins in normal keratinocytes was "do not differentiate" (transduced by ligand-occupied receptors) as opposed to "do differentiate" (transduced by unoccupied receptors), and the signal depended on the absolute number, rather than on the proportion, of occupied receptors. Single and double point mutations in cyto-2 and -3, the NPXY motifs, prevented focal adhesion targeting without inhibiting differentiation control. However, deletions in the proximal part of the cytoplasmic domain, affecting cyto-1, abolished the differentiation-regulatory ability of the beta1 subunit. We conclude that distinct signaling pathways are involved in beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion and differentiation control in keratinocytes.  (+info)

Some observations on the effects produced in white mice following the injection of certain suspensions of corroding bacilli. (8/353)

Strictly anaerobic and facultatively anaerobic strains of "corroding bacilli" failed to produce any pathological symptoms when injected into white mice and no viable organisms could be recovered after 7 days. However, when these same strains were coupled with certain other living bacteria or certain sterile bacterial extracts, lesions developed from which corroding bacilli could be isolated even after 21 days.  (+info)

In the medical field, a suspension is a type of medication that is administered as a liquid or powder that is suspended in a liquid. Suspensions are typically used when a medication needs to be given in a form that is not available as a tablet, capsule, or other solid form. Suspensions can be made from a variety of ingredients, including active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and stabilizers. APIs are the active ingredients that provide the therapeutic effect of the medication, while excipients are substances that help to improve the stability, texture, or taste of the suspension. Stabilizers are added to prevent the API from settling out of the suspension and to ensure that the suspension remains homogeneous. Suspensions are commonly used to deliver medications to children, as well as to patients who have difficulty swallowing solid forms of medication. They can also be used to deliver medications that are not available in solid form, such as certain vaccines or antiviral medications. It is important to note that suspensions can be more prone to contamination and degradation than solid forms of medication, so they must be stored and handled properly to maintain their effectiveness and safety.

In the medical field, colloids are suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a liquid medium. They are often used as a means of delivering medication or nutrients to the body, particularly in cases where the patient is unable to absorb nutrients through their digestive system. Colloids can be classified into two main categories: hydrophilic colloids and hydrophobic colloids. Hydrophilic colloids are those that are soluble in water and are often used as plasma expanders to increase blood volume. Examples of hydrophilic colloids include gelatin, dextran, and albumin. Hydrophobic colloids, on the other hand, are insoluble in water and are often used to deliver medications or nutrients directly to the bloodstream. Examples of hydrophobic colloids include liposomes and micelles. Colloids are commonly used in medical treatments such as chemotherapy, blood transfusions, and fluid replacement therapy. They are also used in diagnostic procedures such as radiography and computed tomography (CT) scans. However, it is important to note that colloids can also have potential side effects and risks, and their use should be carefully monitored by medical professionals.

In the medical field, acetates refer to compounds that contain the acetate ion (CH3COO-). Acetates are commonly used in the treatment of various medical conditions, including: 1. Hyperkalemia: Acetate is used to treat high levels of potassium (hyperkalemia) in the blood. It works by binding to potassium ions and preventing them from entering cells, which helps to lower potassium levels in the blood. 2. Acidosis: Acetate is used to treat acidosis, a condition in which the blood becomes too acidic. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the blood. 3. Respiratory failure: Acetate is used to treat respiratory failure, a condition in which the lungs are unable to provide enough oxygen to the body. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to support the respiratory system. 4. Metabolic acidosis: Acetate is used to treat metabolic acidosis, a condition in which the body produces too much acid. It works by increasing the production of bicarbonate ions, which helps to neutralize excess acid in the body. 5. Hyperammonemia: Acetate is used to treat hyperammonemia, a condition in which the blood contains too much ammonia. It works by providing an alternative source of energy for the body's cells, which helps to reduce the production of ammonia. Overall, acetates are a useful tool in the treatment of various medical conditions, and their use is closely monitored by healthcare professionals to ensure their safe and effective use.

In the medical field, "latex" refers to a type of rubber that is commonly used to make medical equipment and supplies, such as gloves, catheters, and surgical instruments. Latex is a natural polymer that is derived from the sap of the rubber tree, and it is known for its strength, elasticity, and resistance to chemicals and heat. However, some people may be allergic to latex, which can cause a range of symptoms from mild itching to severe allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. As a result, many medical facilities have started to use alternative materials, such as nitrile or vinyl, for medical equipment and supplies to accommodate individuals with latex allergies.

In the medical field, water is a vital substance that is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is a clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that makes up the majority of the body's fluids, including blood, lymph, and interstitial fluid. Water plays a crucial role in maintaining the body's temperature, transporting nutrients and oxygen to cells, removing waste products, and lubricating joints. It also helps to regulate blood pressure and prevent dehydration, which can lead to a range of health problems. In medical settings, water is often used as a means of hydration therapy for patients who are dehydrated or have fluid imbalances. It may also be used as a diluent for medications or as a component of intravenous fluids. Overall, water is an essential component of human health and plays a critical role in maintaining the body's normal functions.

Calcium is a chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It is a vital mineral for the human body and is essential for many bodily functions, including bone health, muscle function, nerve transmission, and blood clotting. In the medical field, calcium is often used to diagnose and treat conditions related to calcium deficiency or excess. For example, low levels of calcium in the blood (hypocalcemia) can cause muscle cramps, numbness, and tingling, while high levels (hypercalcemia) can lead to kidney stones, bone loss, and other complications. Calcium supplements are often prescribed to people who are at risk of developing calcium deficiency, such as older adults, vegetarians, and people with certain medical conditions. However, it is important to note that excessive calcium intake can also be harmful, and it is important to follow recommended dosages and consult with a healthcare provider before taking any supplements.

Immune sera refers to a type of blood serum that contains antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection or vaccination. These antibodies are produced by B cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune response. Immune sera can be used to diagnose and treat certain infections, as well as to prevent future infections. For example, immune sera containing antibodies against a specific virus or bacteria can be used to diagnose a current infection or to prevent future infections in people who have been exposed to the virus or bacteria. Immune sera can also be used as a research tool to study the immune response to infections and to develop new vaccines and treatments. In some cases, immune sera may be used to treat patients with severe infections or allergies, although this is less common than using immune sera for diagnostic or preventive purposes.

Blepharoptosis, also known as drooping eyelid, is a medical condition in which the upper eyelid droops or falls down, usually affecting only one eye. This can cause the eyelashes to touch the cornea, which can lead to irritation, redness, and even vision problems if left untreated. Blepharoptosis can be caused by a variety of factors, including muscle weakness, nerve damage, or problems with the eyelid structure. Treatment options for blepharoptosis may include surgery, physical therapy, or the use of artificial eyelid lifts.

Plant proteins are proteins that are derived from plants. They are an important source of dietary protein for many people and are a key component of a healthy diet. Plant proteins are found in a wide variety of plant-based foods, including legumes, nuts, seeds, grains, and vegetables. They are an important source of essential amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins and are necessary for the growth and repair of tissues in the body. Plant proteins are also a good source of fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and are generally lower in saturated fat and cholesterol than animal-based proteins. In the medical field, plant proteins are often recommended as part of a healthy diet for people with certain medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

Glucose is a simple sugar that is a primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is also known as blood sugar or dextrose and is produced by the liver and released into the bloodstream by the pancreas. In the medical field, glucose is often measured as part of routine blood tests to monitor blood sugar levels in people with diabetes or those at risk of developing diabetes. High levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycemia, can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, nerve damage, and kidney damage. On the other hand, low levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hypoglycemia, can cause symptoms such as weakness, dizziness, and confusion. In severe cases, it can lead to seizures or loss of consciousness. In addition to its role in energy metabolism, glucose is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in newborns to detect neonatal hypoglycemia.

Polystyrenes are a class of synthetic polymers that are commonly used in the medical field due to their unique properties, such as their lightweight, durability, and ability to be molded into a variety of shapes and sizes. In the medical field, polystyrenes are used in a variety of applications, including as components of medical devices, such as syringes, catheters, and test tubes, as well as in packaging materials for medical equipment and supplies. Polystyrene is also used in the production of medical implants, such as hip and knee replacements, and as a component of dental prosthetics. Polystyrenes are also used in the production of medical laboratory equipment, such as centrifuges and microtiter plates, and in the manufacturing of medical instruments, such as scalpels and forceps. Additionally, polystyrene is used in the production of medical packaging materials, such as trays and bags, to protect medical equipment and supplies during transportation and storage.

Sucrose is a disaccharide sugar that is commonly found in many foods and beverages, including fruits, vegetables, and sweetened beverages. In the medical field, sucrose is often used as a source of energy for patients who are unable to consume other sources of calories, such as solid foods. It is also used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, such as in the measurement of blood glucose levels in people with diabetes. In some cases, sucrose may be used as a medication to treat certain medical conditions, such as low blood sugar levels. However, it is important to note that excessive consumption of sucrose can lead to weight gain and other health problems, so it should be consumed in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of phenylalanine, an amino acid found in many proteins. PAL catalyzes the conversion of phenylalanine to cinnamic acid, which is then further metabolized into other compounds such as flavonoids and lignins. In the medical field, PAL is of interest because it is involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine in individuals with phenylketonuria (PKU), a genetic disorder that results in the accumulation of phenylalanine in the blood and brain. PKU is treated by a strict low-phenylalanine diet, and individuals with PKU may also require supplementation with PAL inhibitors to help lower their blood phenylalanine levels. In addition to its role in PKU, PAL is also involved in the metabolism of phenylalanine in plants, where it plays a role in the biosynthesis of lignins, which provide structural support to plant cells. In plants, PAL is also involved in the biosynthesis of other compounds such as flavonoids and alkaloids, which have a range of biological activities.

Edetic acid, also known as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), is a synthetic organic acid that is commonly used in the medical field as a chelating agent. It is a colorless, water-soluble solid that is used to dissolve minerals and other metal ions in solution. In medicine, EDTA is often used to treat heavy metal poisoning, such as lead or mercury poisoning, by binding to the metal ions and facilitating their excretion from the body. It is also used as an anticoagulant in blood tests and as a component of certain contrast agents used in diagnostic imaging procedures. EDTA is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and intravenous solutions. It is generally considered safe when used as directed, but high doses or prolonged use can cause side effects such as nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions.

In the medical field, carbon isotopes are atoms of carbon that have a different number of neutrons than the most common isotope, carbon-12. There are two stable isotopes of carbon, carbon-12 and carbon-13, and several unstable isotopes that are used in medical applications. Carbon-13, in particular, is used in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and positron emission tomography (PET). In MRS, carbon-13 is used to study the metabolism of certain compounds in the body, such as glucose and amino acids. In PET, carbon-13 is used to create images of the body's metabolism by tracing the movement of a radioactive tracer through the body. Carbon-11, another unstable isotope of carbon, is used in PET imaging to study various diseases, including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. Carbon-11 is produced in a cyclotron and then attached to a molecule that is specific to a particular target in the body. The tracer is then injected into the patient and imaged using a PET scanner to detect the location and extent of the disease. Overall, carbon isotopes play an important role in medical imaging and research, allowing doctors and researchers to better understand the functioning of the body and diagnose and treat various diseases.

Bentonite is a type of clay that is commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes. It is a natural clay that is formed from volcanic ash and is rich in minerals such as silica, aluminum, and iron. Bentonite has a high adsorption capacity, which means that it can absorb and hold onto other substances, including toxins and heavy metals. In the medical field, bentonite is often used as a detoxifying agent to help remove toxins and heavy metals from the body. It is sometimes used in conjunction with other detoxifying agents, such as activated charcoal, to enhance its effectiveness. Bentonite is also sometimes used as a binding agent to help bind together other substances in the body, such as medications or supplements. Bentonite is available in various forms, including powders, capsules, and suppositories. It is typically taken orally, although it can also be applied topically to the skin or used in enemas. It is important to note that bentonite should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment and should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

In the medical field, aerosols refer to tiny particles or droplets of liquid or solid matter that are suspended in the air and can be inhaled into the respiratory system. Aerosols can be generated by various sources, including human activities such as talking, coughing, and sneezing, as well as natural phenomena such as volcanic eruptions and dust storms. Aerosols can contain a variety of substances, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, pollutants, and other particles. When inhaled, these particles can enter the lungs and potentially cause respiratory infections, allergies, and other health problems. In the context of infectious diseases, aerosols are of particular concern because they can transmit pathogens over long distances and remain suspended in the air for extended periods of time. To prevent the spread of infectious diseases, it is important to take measures to reduce the generation and dispersion of aerosols in indoor environments, such as wearing masks, practicing good respiratory hygiene, and improving ventilation systems.

Povidone is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as an antiseptic and disinfectant. It is also known as polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and is a white, odorless powder that is easily soluble in water. Povidone is used in a variety of medical applications, including wound care, surgical procedures, and the treatment of skin infections. It is effective against a wide range of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi, and is often used in combination with other antiseptic agents to enhance its effectiveness. Povidone is available in a variety of forms, including solutions, gels, and ointments, and is typically applied topically to the skin or applied to medical devices and surfaces to disinfect them. It is generally considered to be safe and well-tolerated by most people, although it may cause skin irritation or allergic reactions in some individuals.

Methylcellulose is a water-soluble polymer that is commonly used in the medical field as a thickening agent, emulsifier, and stabilizer. It is derived from cellulose, which is a natural polymer found in plant cell walls. Methylcellulose is often used in medical applications such as drug delivery systems, ophthalmic solutions, and wound dressings. It can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of certain drugs, and can also be used to create gels and other formulations that are easy to apply and absorb. In addition to its use in medical applications, methylcellulose is also used in a variety of other industries, including food and cosmetics. It is generally considered to be safe for use in humans, although high doses may cause digestive upset in some people.

Sodium chloride, also known as table salt, is a chemical compound composed of sodium and chlorine ions. It is a white, odorless, and crystalline solid that is commonly used as a seasoning and preservative in food. In the medical field, sodium chloride is used as a medication to treat a variety of conditions, including dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and certain types of heart failure. It is also used as a contrast agent in diagnostic imaging procedures such as X-rays and CT scans. Sodium chloride is available in various forms, including oral solutions, intravenous solutions, and topical ointments. It is important to note that excessive consumption of sodium chloride can lead to high blood pressure and other health problems, so it is important to use it only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is a naturally occurring compound that is commonly used in the medical field. It is a hard, white, crystalline solid that is composed of silicon and oxygen atoms. In the medical field, silicon dioxide is used in a variety of applications, including as a pharmaceutical excipient, a food additive, and a wound dressing material. It is often used as a carrier for other active ingredients in medications, as it can help to improve the stability and bioavailability of the drug. Silicon dioxide is also used in the production of various medical devices, such as implants and prosthetics, as well as in the manufacturing of dental materials and orthopedic implants. In addition to its use in medical applications, silicon dioxide is also used in a variety of other industries, including electronics, construction, and cosmetics.

Muscular atrophy refers to the loss of muscle mass and strength due to various factors such as disuse, injury, disease, or genetic disorders. It can result in a decrease in muscle size, decreased muscle strength, and a decrease in muscle tone. There are different types of muscular atrophy, including: 1. Neurogenic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is damage to the nerves that control the muscles. It can be caused by conditions such as spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). 2. Myogenic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is damage to the muscle fibers themselves. It can be caused by conditions such as muscular dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy, or polymyositis. 3. Metabolic muscular atrophy: This type of atrophy occurs when there is a problem with the body's metabolism that affects muscle function. It can be caused by conditions such as diabetes, thyroid disorders, or vitamin deficiencies. Muscular atrophy can have a significant impact on a person's quality of life, as it can lead to decreased mobility, difficulty with daily activities, and reduced independence. Treatment for muscular atrophy depends on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, or surgery.

Hemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream. This process can occur due to various factors, including mechanical stress, exposure to certain medications or toxins, infections, or inherited genetic disorders. When RBCs are damaged or destroyed, their contents, including hemoglobin, are released into the bloodstream. Hemoglobin is a protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs. When hemoglobin is released into the bloodstream, it can cause the blood to appear dark brown or black, a condition known as hemoglobinuria. Hemolysis can lead to a variety of symptoms, including jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), fatigue, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, and dark urine. In severe cases, hemolysis can cause life-threatening complications, such as kidney failure or shock. Treatment for hemolysis depends on the underlying cause. In some cases, treatment may involve medications to slow down the breakdown of RBCs or to remove excess hemoglobin from the bloodstream. In other cases, treatment may involve blood transfusions or other supportive therapies to manage symptoms and prevent complications.

In the medical field, agar is a gelatinous substance that is commonly used as a growth medium for bacteria, fungi, and other microorganisms. It is made from seaweed and is composed of agarose, a polysaccharide that forms a gel when heated. Agar is often used in microbiology laboratories to culture and isolate microorganisms, as well as to study their growth and behavior. It is also used in some medical treatments, such as in the preparation of certain types of vaccines and in the treatment of certain skin conditions.

In the medical field, "Neoplasms, Experimental" refers to the study of neoplasms (abnormal growths of cells) in experimental settings, such as in laboratory animals or in vitro cell cultures. These studies are typically conducted to better understand the underlying mechanisms of neoplasms and to develop new treatments for cancer and other types of neoplastic diseases. Experimental neoplasms may be induced by various factors, including genetic mutations, exposure to carcinogens, or other forms of cellular stress. The results of these studies can provide valuable insights into the biology of neoplasms and help to identify potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In the medical field, oxygen is a gas that is essential for the survival of most living organisms. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including respiratory disorders, heart disease, and anemia. Oxygen is typically administered through a mask, nasal cannula, or oxygen tank, and is used to increase the amount of oxygen in the bloodstream. This can help to improve oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs, which is important for maintaining normal bodily functions. In medical settings, oxygen is often used to treat patients who are experiencing difficulty breathing due to conditions such as pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), or asthma. It may also be used to treat patients who have suffered from a heart attack or stroke, as well as those who are recovering from surgery or other medical procedures. Overall, oxygen is a critical component of modern medical treatment, and is used in a wide range of clinical settings to help patients recover from illness and maintain their health.

In the medical field, "pregnenes" refers to a group of hormones that are synthesized from cholesterol in the adrenal cortex and placenta. These hormones include cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which play important roles in various physiological processes such as metabolism, blood pressure regulation, and sexual development. The term "pregnenes" is derived from the fact that these hormones are all synthesized from the same precursor molecule, pregnenolone.

Glutaral is a colorless, crystalline compound that is a derivative of glutaric acid. It is used in the medical field as a disinfectant and antiseptic, particularly for the treatment of skin and mucous membrane infections. Glutaral is also used as a preservative in some medical products, such as eye drops and contact lens solutions. It is a strong oxidizing agent and can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions in some people.

In the medical field, carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas that is produced as a byproduct of cellular respiration and is exhaled by the body. It is also used in medical applications such as carbon dioxide insufflation during colonoscopy and laparoscopic surgery, and as a component of medical gases used in anesthesia and respiratory therapy. High levels of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia) can be a sign of respiratory or metabolic disorders, while low levels (hypocapnia) can be caused by respiratory failure or metabolic alkalosis.

In the medical field, an emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible liquids, such as oil and water, that are dispersed in the form of small droplets. These droplets are typically stabilized by an emulsifying agent, which prevents the two liquids from separating and allows them to remain in a stable mixture. Emulsions are commonly used in the medical field for a variety of purposes, including drug delivery, imaging, and therapy. For example, oil-in-water emulsions are often used to deliver drugs or other therapeutic agents to specific areas of the body, such as the lungs or the eye. They can also be used in imaging studies to help visualize certain structures or tissues within the body. Emulsions can be prepared in a variety of ways, including mechanical agitation, high-pressure homogenization, and ultrasonication. The choice of preparation method depends on the specific properties of the emulsifying agent and the liquids being mixed, as well as the desired properties of the final emulsion.

In the medical field, "Disease Models, Animal" refers to the use of animals to study and understand human diseases. These models are created by introducing a disease or condition into an animal, either naturally or through experimental manipulation, in order to study its progression, symptoms, and potential treatments. Animal models are used in medical research because they allow scientists to study diseases in a controlled environment and to test potential treatments before they are tested in humans. They can also provide insights into the underlying mechanisms of a disease and help to identify new therapeutic targets. There are many different types of animal models used in medical research, including mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, and monkeys. Each type of animal has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the choice of model depends on the specific disease being studied and the research question being addressed.

Methylene blue is a synthetic organic compound that is commonly used in the medical field as a medication and a dye. It is a blue-colored compound that is soluble in water and has a molecular formula of C16H18N3S. In the medical field, methylene blue is used for a variety of purposes, including: 1. Treatment of methemoglobinemia: Methylene blue is used to treat methemoglobinemia, a condition in which the amount of methemoglobin (a form of hemoglobin that is not able to carry oxygen) in the blood is increased. This can cause symptoms such as shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and blue or purple skin. 2. Treatment of cyanide poisoning: Methylene blue is also used to treat cyanide poisoning, a condition in which the body is exposed to high levels of cyanide. Cyanide can interfere with the body's ability to use oxygen, leading to symptoms such as confusion, dizziness, and rapid heartbeat. 3. Antimicrobial agent: Methylene blue has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as an antiseptic or disinfectant. 4. Dye: Methylene blue is also used as a dye in various industries, including textiles, leather, and printing. It is important to note that methylene blue can cause side effects, including nausea, vomiting, and allergic reactions. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Phosphates are a group of inorganic compounds that contain the phosphate ion (PO4^3-). In the medical field, phosphates are often used as a source of phosphorus, which is an essential nutrient for the body. Phosphorus is important for a variety of bodily functions, including bone health, energy production, and nerve function. Phosphates are commonly found in foods such as dairy products, meats, and grains, as well as in some dietary supplements. In the medical field, phosphates are also used as a medication to treat certain conditions, such as hypophosphatemia (low levels of phosphorus in the blood) and hyperphosphatemia (high levels of phosphorus in the blood). Phosphates can also be used as a component of intravenous fluids, as well as in certain types of dialysis solutions for people with kidney disease. In these cases, phosphates are used to help regulate the levels of phosphorus in the body. It is important to note that high levels of phosphorus in the blood can be harmful, and it is important for people with kidney disease to carefully manage their phosphorus intake. In some cases, medications such as phosphate binders may be prescribed to help prevent the absorption of excess phosphorus from the diet.

Serum Albumin, Bovine is a type of albumin, which is a type of protein found in the blood plasma of mammals. It is derived from the blood of cows and is used as a source of albumin for medical purposes. Albumin is an important protein in the body that helps to maintain the osmotic pressure of blood and transport various substances, such as hormones, drugs, and fatty acids, throughout the body. It is often used as a plasma expander in patients who have lost a significant amount of blood or as a replacement for albumin in patients with liver disease or other conditions that affect albumin production.

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a molecule that serves as the primary energy currency in living cells. It is composed of three phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar and an adenine base. In the medical field, ATP is essential for many cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and the synthesis of macromolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. ATP is produced through cellular respiration, which involves the breakdown of glucose and other molecules to release energy that is stored in the bonds of ATP. Disruptions in ATP production or utilization can lead to a variety of medical conditions, including muscle weakness, fatigue, and neurological disorders. In addition, ATP is often used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing, as levels of ATP can be measured in various bodily fluids and tissues to assess cellular health and function.

In the medical field, hydrogen is not typically used as a standalone treatment or medication. However, there is some research being conducted on the potential therapeutic uses of hydrogen gas (H2) in various medical conditions. One area of interest is in the treatment of oxidative stress and inflammation, which are underlying factors in many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders. Hydrogen gas has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a therapeutic agent in these conditions. Another area of research is in the treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydrogen gas has been shown to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of TBI, and some studies have suggested that it may have potential as a neuroprotective agent in humans. However, it's important to note that the use of hydrogen gas in medicine is still in the early stages of research, and more studies are needed to fully understand its potential therapeutic benefits and risks. As such, hydrogen gas should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatments without the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional.

Tritium is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with the atomic number 3 and the symbol T. It is a beta emitter with a half-life of approximately 12.3 years. In the medical field, tritium is used in a variety of applications, including: 1. Medical imaging: Tritium is used in nuclear medicine to label molecules and track their movement within the body. For example, tritium can be used to label antibodies, which can then be injected into the body to track the movement of specific cells or tissues. 2. Radiation therapy: Tritium is used in radiation therapy to treat certain types of cancer. It is typically combined with other isotopes, such as carbon-14 or phosphorus-32, to create a radioactive tracer that can be injected into the body and targeted to specific areas of cancerous tissue. 3. Research: Tritium is also used in research to study the behavior of molecules and cells. For example, tritium can be used to label DNA, which can then be used to study the process of DNA replication and repair. It is important to note that tritium is a highly radioactive isotope and requires careful handling to minimize the risk of exposure to radiation.

Dextrans are a group of polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) that are derived from cornstarch. They are used in a variety of medical applications, including as a thickening agent in intravenous fluids, as a diagnostic tool for measuring kidney function, and as a component of certain medications. Dextrans are also used in some medical devices, such as catheters and wound dressings. They are generally considered safe and well-tolerated, but like all medications and medical treatments, they can have potential side effects and risks.

Succinates are a class of organic compounds that contain the succinate functional group, which is a dicarboxylic acid with the chemical formula C4H6O4. In the medical field, succinates are often used as intermediates in the production of other chemicals and drugs, as well as in the treatment of certain medical conditions. One of the most well-known succinates in medicine is sodium succinate, which is used as a metabolic intermediate in the production of energy in the body. It is also used as a treatment for certain types of metabolic disorders, such as lactic acidosis, which is a condition characterized by an excess of lactic acid in the blood. Another example of a succinate used in medicine is propofol, which is a sedative and anesthetic medication that is commonly used in hospitals and medical procedures. Propofol is a derivative of the succinate molecule and is used to induce and maintain anesthesia in patients. Overall, succinates play an important role in the medical field as intermediates in the production of other chemicals and drugs, as well as in the treatment of certain medical conditions.

Trypsin is a proteolytic enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and is responsible for breaking down proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids. It is a serine protease that cleaves peptide bonds on the carboxyl side of lysine and arginine residues. Trypsin is an important digestive enzyme that helps to break down dietary proteins into smaller peptides and amino acids that can be absorbed and used by the body. It is also used in medical research and in the development of diagnostic tests and therapeutic agents.

Pyruvates are organic compounds that are produced during the metabolism of carbohydrates in the body. They are the end product of glycolysis, the first stage of cellular respiration, which occurs in the cytoplasm of cells. In the medical field, pyruvates are often used as a source of energy for cells. They can be converted into acetyl-CoA, which enters the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle or TCA cycle) and is further metabolized to produce ATP, the primary energy currency of the cell. Pyruvates are also used in the production of certain amino acids, such as alanine and glutamate, and in the synthesis of other important molecules, such as lipids and nucleotides. In some cases, pyruvates can also be converted into lactic acid, which can accumulate in the muscles during periods of intense exercise and contribute to muscle fatigue. This process is known as anaerobic glycolysis. Overall, pyruvates play a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates and the production of energy in the body.

Thymidine is a nucleoside that is a building block of DNA and RNA. It is composed of a deoxyribose sugar molecule and a thymine base. Thymidine is an essential component of DNA and is involved in the replication and transcription of genetic material. It is also a precursor to the synthesis of thymine triphosphate (dTTP), which is a nucleotide used in DNA and RNA synthesis. In the medical field, thymidine is used as a diagnostic tool to detect and measure the activity of certain enzymes involved in DNA synthesis, and it is also used as a component of certain antiviral drugs.

Suspensions of high-profile individuals from YouTube are unusual and when they occur, often attract attention in the media. ... Deplatforming Twitter suspensions Pickard, Anna (19 November 2007). "The five-second movies and why you should watch them". The ... "YouTube Lifts Logan Paul's Ad Suspension After 18 Days". The Wrap. 2018-02-27. Retrieved 13 June 2019. "GoP Youtube channel ... "Pakistan govt's YouTube channel back online after temporary suspension". Retrieved 13 June 2019. "Family from banned ' ...
Suspensions of high-profile accounts often attract media attention, and Twitter's use of suspensions has been controversial. ... Between 2014 and 2016, Twitter suspensions were frequently linked to ISIL-related accounts. A "Twitter suspension campaign" ... of voters chose lifting the suspensions immediately over 41.3% who voted to have the suspensions be lifted after 7 more days. ... The suspensions were condemned by the United Nations, while the European Union threatened sanctions against Twitter under the ...
Olbermann's suspension occurred shortly after he had criticized the suspension of other journalists. Rupar's suspension came ... The suspensions came after an incident that occurred on December 14, when a stalker followed Elon's 2-year-old son while he was ... Immediately after the suspension, Rupar said he was given no information about why the action occurred, saying he hadn't "been ... The suspensions were labeled by Alex Stamos, a security researcher, and Micah Lee from The Intercept, as the "Thursday Night ...
... or suspended may refer to: Car suspension Cell suspension or suspension culture, in biology Guarded suspension, a ... The superstructure of a suspension bridge Suspension (punishment), temporary exclusion as a punishment Suspension from the UK ... Administrative License Suspension (ALS), US, driving license suspension without a court hearing Suspension (music), one or more ... in mathematics Suspension (dynamical systems), in mathematics Suspension of a ring, in mathematics Suspension (chemistry), ...
Gatewood was still on indefinite suspension from the football team due to his arrest less than a month earlier. The 2007 Texas ... Pittman said in response to the suspension, "I want to apologize to my coaches, teammates, fans and everyone at the university ... issued a statement concerning the suspensions and the team discipline. Powers said in part: I applaud Coach Mack Brown for ... The 2007 Texas Longhorns football suspensions were separate incidents resulting in college football players being suspended ...
... , also known as Horstman, Vickers-Horstman and rarely Slow Motion, is a type of tracked suspension devised ... Christie suspensions are generally more difficult to maintain because the wheels and suspension are mounted separately, and a ... This led to a new design using multiple coil springs in automotive suspension, and the creation of the Slow Motion Suspension ... The same suspension was then used on the larger Cruiser Mk II which came to its ultimate form as the Valentine tank. A further ...
All music is composed by Djam Karet Adapted from Suspension & Displacement liner notes. Huey, Steve. "Djam Karet: Suspension ... "Djam Karet Discography: Suspension & Displacement". HC Productions. 2014. Retrieved March 22, 2016. Suspension & Displacement ( ... Suspension & Displacement is the fourth studio album by Djam Karet, released in 1991 by HC Productions. ... 1991.{{cite AV media notes}}: CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Suspension & Displacement at Discogs (list of ...
... is a type of secondary suspension for railway vehicles, typically having steel coil springs between the ... Suspension systems using steel springs are more common than those with air springs, as steel springs are less costly to make, ... In Germany, Flexicoil suspensions were first used in the 1950s under high-speed electric locomotives, notably the DB Class 103 ... The springs in a flexicoil suspension are made of steel. Protruding from above and below, and into, each spring is a spherical ...
In automotive suspensions, a suspension link, control link or link is a suspension member, that attaches at only two points. ... In the attached photo of a 5-link live axle suspension, the different types of links can be seen. These links work in tandem ... Control arm Radius rod Panhard rod Multi-link suspension stabilizer link v t e (Articles lacking sources from April 2014, All ... of two links per wheel in a MacPherson strut-style suspension and a minimum of three links per wheel in a multi-link suspension ...
1] 2016 Beverly Article on Harness Suspension Stress Suspension Trauma Article on the Prevention and Treatment of Suspension ... Suspension shock can also occur in medical environments, for similar reasons.[citation needed] In the UK the term "suspension ... Suspension trauma, also known as orthostatic shock while suspended, harness hang syndrome (HHS), suspension syndrome, or ... "suspension syndrome". People at risk of suspension trauma include people using industrial harnesses (fall arrest systems, ...
... hyo-mandibular suspension, hyo-thyroid suspension, and genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy. In hyo-mandibular suspension ... Hyoid suspension, also known as hyoid myotomy and suspension or hyoid advancement, is a surgical procedure or sleep surgery in ... Outcomes of hyoid myotomy and suspension using a mandibular screw suspension system. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2011 Feb;144(2 ... Published clinical experience with hyoid suspension can be summarized into three different approaches to the hyoid suspension ...
Self-anchored suspension bridge - combining elements of a suspension bridge and a cable-stayed bridge. Simple suspension bridge ... Category: Suspension bridges - for articles about specific suspension bridges. List of longest suspension bridge spans Timeline ... A suspension bridge is a type of bridge in which the deck is hung below suspension cables on vertical suspenders. The first ... John A. Roebling Suspension Bridge (USA, 1866), then the longest wire suspension bridge in the world at 1,057 feet (322 m) main ...
... (also known as air suspension, a closed box, or a sealed box) is a method of loudspeaker cabinet design and ... Acoustic suspension systems reduce bass distortion that can be caused by stiff motor suspensions in conventional loudspeakers. ... The two most common types of speaker enclosure are acoustic suspension (sometimes called pneumatic suspension) and bass reflex ... Acoustic suspension woofers remain popular in hi-fi systems due to their low distortion. They also have lower group delay at ...
The guarded suspension pattern is typically applied to method calls in object-oriented programs, and involves suspending the ... Because it is blocking, the guarded suspension pattern is generally only used when the developer knows that a method call will ... If the developer knows that the method call suspension will be indefinite or for an unacceptably long period, then the balking ... In concurrent programming, guarded suspension is a software design pattern for managing operations that require both a lock to ...
In-school suspension (ISS) (also called by other names) is a form of suspension that, in contrast to out-of-school suspension, ... Suspension is a punishment in sport where players are banned from playing a certain number of future games. These suspensions ... Suspensions may be challenged by employees in unionized organizations through the filing of a grievance. Suspension on full pay ... Generally, suspensions are deemed most effective if the affected worker remains unpaid. Suspensions are usually given after ...
Image of WP coil over suspension units in the Benetton B194 front suspension Image of WP coil over suspension units in the ... WP Suspension GmbH is a manufacturer of components for motorcycle suspension systems based in Austria. The company was founded ... Herder, Klaus (2010-08-19). "Porträt: WP Suspension" [Portrait: WP Suspension]. Motorrad Online (in German). Motorrad Magazine ... A visual characteristic of the brand are the white coil springs on the coilover suspension struts, which also led to the ...
"Suspension". Metroactive - Cinequest. Retrieved 28 August 2015. Suspension at IMDb Suspension at AllMovie ( ... Suspension is a 2007 American science-fiction film directed by Alec Joler and Ethan Shaftel. In 2007, Suspension won the ' ... "Suspension (2008)". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 28 August 2015. Cornelius, David. "Suspension (2008)". eCritic ... "Suspension" Brings SciFi to SIFF". Sedona Red Rocks News. Retrieved 2 September 2015. "Suspension". Sci Fi London 2008 Catalog ...
A cell suspension or suspension culture is a type of cell culture in which single cells or small aggregates of cells are ... Suspension cells are often passaged outright without changing the media. In order to change the media for a suspension culture ... Suspension cell cultures must be agitated to maintain cells in suspension, and may require specialized equipment (e.g. magnetic ... Most large scale suspension culture involves non-mammalian cells and takes place in bioreactors. Some examples of suspension ...
The Christie suspension is a suspension system developed by American engineer J. Walter Christie for his tank designs. It ... suspension. Later wartime developments simplified the suspension. By 1939, the Soviets found that the BT tank's convertible ... The real Christie suspension was used only[citation needed] on a few designs, notably the Soviet BT tanks and T-34, the British ... The original Christie suspension used large rubber-rimmed road wheels but wartime rubber shortages forced some T-34 factories ...
The Hook Isometrics/Suspension Trainer by Sierra Exercise Equipment enables the user to use it for either suspension training ... Burns, Nick (2007-02-01). "Suspension Training: How Risky Is It?". The New York Times. Retrieved 2015-05-24. Suspension ... "suspension trainer" to allow users to work against their own body weight. The field of suspension training is a form of ... The term suspension training refers to an approach to strength training that uses a system of ropes and webbing called a " ...
Electromagnetic suspension Electrodynamic wheel Inductrack Suspension (mechanics) Laithwaite, Eric R. (February 1975). "Linear ... Electrodynamic suspension (EDS) is a form of magnetic levitation in which there are conductors which are exposed to time- ... Electrodynamic suspension can also occur when an electromagnet driven by an AC electrical source produces the changing magnetic ... A Review of Dynamic Stability of Repulsive-Force Maglev Suspension System Y. Cai and D. M. Rote Energy Technology Division ...
Note 2: Monomer or monomer-solvent droplets in suspension polymerization have diameters usually exceeding 10 μm. Suspension ... R. Arshady (1992). "Suspension, Emulsion, and Dispersion Polymerization: A Methodological Survey". Colloid Polym. Sci. 270 (8 ... Note 1: In suspension polymerization, the initiator is located mainly in the monomer phase. ... ISBN 978-1-4822-2379-8. Vivaldo-Lima, E., Wood, P., and Hamielec, A. (1997). "An Updated Review on Suspension Polymerization". ...
... s of a 110 kV power line in Germany A suspension tower of a 330 kV powerline in Ukraine A suspension tower of a ... it is common to bend lines at suspension towers with single insulators pulled to the side A suspension tower, UK Suspension ... In an electric power transmission line, a suspension tower is where the conductors are simply suspended from the tower, the ... 1150 kV powerline in Russia A suspension tower of a 35 kV powerline in Ukraine A guyed tower in Russia In France, ...
Bullock County Road 40 crosses the now-abandoned railway at Suspension, though nothing remains of the settlement. "Suspension ... Suspension is a ghost town in Bullock County, Alabama, United States. The settlement began as an ancient Muscogee village ... Because the track laying was temporarily suspended at Stewarts Mill, the location became known as "Suspension". The track was ... called "Chananagi". The name "Suspension" derives from the temporary suspension of railroad construction at the settlement. The ...
A suspension railway is a form of elevated monorail in which the vehicle is suspended from a fixed track (as opposed to a cable ... The Memphis Suspension Railway was opened in the United States in 1982. The Skybus Metro was a prototype suspended railway in ... The Chiba Urban Monorail, also in Japan, is the world's largest suspension railway; it is owned and operated by Chiba Urban ... A work, Description of the suspension railway invented by Maxwell Dick: with engravings By Maxwell Dick, published in Irvine, ...
A multi-link suspension is a type of vehicle suspension design typically used in independent suspensions, using three or more ... Suspension is the only component that separates the driver and/or passenger from the ground. The suspension in a vehicle helps ... Independent suspension is any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to move vertically (i.e. ... A fully independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels. Some early independent systems used swing axles, ...
Active suspensions are divided into two classes: true active suspensions, and adaptive or semi-active suspensions. While semi- ... Toyota Active Control Suspension Hydropneumatic suspension Active Body control Qazizadeh, Alireza (2017). On Active Suspension ... An active suspension is a type of automotive suspension that uses an onboard control system to control the vertical movement of ... Active suspensions, the first to be introduced, use separate actuators which can exert an independent force on the suspension ...
If suspension is externally controlled, then it is a semi-active or active suspension - the suspension is reacting to signals ... How Car Suspensions Work Robert W. Temple, The ABCs of Chassis Frame and Suspensions, September 1969 Suspension Geometry ... Multi-link suspension Semi-trailing arm suspension Swinging arm Transverse leaf springs when used as a suspension link, or four ... The tuning of suspensions involves finding the right compromise. It is important for the suspension to keep the road wheel in ...
In partial suspension, the person is bound in a way that part of their body weight is held by suspension ropes, cables or ... Suspension bondage is a form of sexual bondage where a bound person is hung from one or more overhead suspension points. It ... Suspension tops will often work with spotters who can help get the person down in an emergency. Suspension bondage is a ... In full suspension, the person is completely supported by suspension ropes, cables or chains, and they have no contact with the ...
... a suspension comportment which is mounted at two points on the body of a vehicle suspension link, a suspension component which ... mounted at only one point on the body of a vehicle This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Suspension ... Suspension arm may refer to: control arm, ...
Retropubic suspension is surgery to help control stress incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough ... Retropubic suspension is surgery to help control stress incontinence. This is urine leakage that happens when you laugh, cough ... Retropubic suspension surgery for incontinence in women. In: Partin AW, Dmochowski RR, Kavoussi LR, Peters CA, eds. Campbell- ... There are 2 ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. Either way, surgery may take up to 2 hours. ...
... requests assistance in preventing worker injuries and deaths caused by falls from suspension scaffolds. "Suspension scaffold" ... Suspension ropes were located at each end of the center platform and at the outer ends of the two other platforms. The platform ... The victim was standing on an outer end of the platform and was pulling on the suspension rope to raise that end of the ... The victim was a member of a three-man crew that was using an improvised suspension scaffold to paint the interior of the 68- ...
Temporary Suspension of Joshua Tree Adoptions Accreditation Has Been Lifted. This Notice Supersedes the Notice Issued on ... Travel.State.Gov > Intercountry Adoption News and Notices , Adoption Notice: Joshua Tree Adoptions - Temporary Suspension ... Travel.State.Gov > Intercountry Adoption News and Notices , Adoption Notice: Joshua Tree Adoptions - Temporary Suspension ... The Council on Accreditation (COA) announced effective October 19, 2017, the temporary suspension placed on Joshua Tree ...
Employee suspension is one of those actions, but its not always easy to keep employee suspension legal. Disciplinary actions ... If the suspension goes on too long, the suspension might be seen as a dismissal. In any event, federal law requires that ... Employee suspension is one of those actions, but its not always easy to keep employee suspension legal. ... Decide whether to pay or not to pay. An unpaid suspension could be seen as a temporary firing. The key is whether the employee ...
Suspension. Disciplinary Suspension is a separation from the university for one or more semesters. ... Students under disciplinary suspension may not be present on University premises unless authorized in writing in advance under ... During the period of suspension, a student may not attend classes (either in person or online), or participate in University ... At the conclusion of their disciplinary suspension, students must petition for re-enrollment. Re-enrollment may be granted, ...
encoded search term (Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis) and Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis What to Read Next on ... Static Suspension for Facial Paralysis. Updated: Mar 02, 2023 * Author: Suzanne K Doud Galli, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Arlen D ... Ma H, Zhou YL, Wang WJ, Chen G, Ding W, Wang W. Masseteric-to-facial nerve transfer combined with static suspension: Evaluation ... Mitek anchor-augmented static facial suspension. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010 May-Jun. 12(3):159-65. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Shop for Delphi Suspension Position Sensor ER10028 with confidence at Parts are just part of what we do. Get ... Auto Parts∕Electrical and Lighting∕Electrical Connectors∕Suspension, Steering, Tire and Wheel Electrical Connectors∕Suspension ... Located behind each tire, the sensors deliver ride control and suspension leveling ...
... and Mickey Spagnola react to the breaking Ezekiel Elliott news regarding his suspension being reinstated. ... Ezekiel Elliott Suspension Reaction Podcast Rob Phillips, Nick Eatman, and Mickey Spagnola react to the breaking Ezekiel ...
Innovative diagnostic tools engineered to help mechanics identify suspension problems. Read more! ... suspension tools. Monroe® handheld suspension tools help users save time by accurately diagnosing a wide range of common ... steering and suspension Catalogue. Find all of the Monroe parts you need for any steering and suspension repair through our ... Monroe suspension tools are engineered to help vehicle workshops provide exceptional quality, service and value while ...
Absorbing the shock of bumps and suspension loading is actually performed by the springs in the suspension. The shocks real ... Absorbing the shock of bumps and suspension loading is actually performed by the springs in the suspension. The shocks real ... Shock absorbers, or spring dampers as it is called everywhere else except in the U.S., control the rate at which suspension ... Shock absorbers, or spring dampers as it is called everywhere else except in the U.S., control the rate at which suspension ...
AMPICILLIN injection, powder, for suspension. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ... Ampicillin for injectable suspension is a broad-spectrum penicillin which has bactericidal activity against a wide range of ... Ampicillin for injectable suspension has proved effective in the treatment of many infections previously beyond the spectrum of ... Ampicillin for injectable suspension is supplied in vials containing 25 grams ampicillin activity as ampicillin trihydrate. ...
A criminal record suspension used to be called a pardon.. If you get a suspension, your criminal record is kept confidential by ... What is a criminal record suspension (used to be called a pardon)? This article explains: *the effects of a suspension (on work ... Guide and resources for requesting a suspension The Parole Boards website has a guide on applying for a record suspension and ... Effect of a criminal record suspension Suspension of your criminal record doesnt erase the fact that you were found guilty of ...
Thanks to the powerful suspension systems available in each and every EarthRoamer, you can expect a comfortable ride, no matter ... Air ride suspension is standard on every LTS. Air bags at each corner provide the ability to raise and lower each wheel or axle ... The suspension is outfitted with adjustable King remote reservoir shocks which are custom designed to work cohesively with the ... air ride suspension. Heavy duty sway bars are added front and rear to improve on road handling characteristics. This ...
Call (757) 585-4492 or schedule an online appointment for steering & suspension service at our Williamsburg Meineke Car Care ... Why Are Steering and Suspension Important?. Steering and suspension may not be at the top of the list whenever you think about ... The Steering and Suspension Repair Process. SAS problems not only can cause a bumpy ride, but can also lead to other problems ... Common Signs of Steering and Suspension Problems. A bumpy ride is the most common sign of a vehicle having SAS issues. If your ...
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Buy the TRX Training TRX Strong Suspension Trainer online or shop all Training from ... TRX Strong System Suspension Trainer, TRX door anchor, TRX suspension anchor, mesh bag, 30-day free trial to TRX Training Club ... The TRX STRONG Suspension Trainer features wider black webbing on the straps for a more performance-driven feel. Suspension ...
Suspension of protest resented. UTTARKASHI: Members of the Sanyukt Sangarsh Samiti are divided over the decision taken by some ...
Simplicity suspension is adjustable and can be done on the road, however best bet is to find a truck alignment business and ... Do you have the phone number of the manufacturer of the suspension? They are very helpful. MM me if you would like contact name ... Tyre wear on simplicity suspension. Submitted: Saturday, Mar 20, 2010 at 01:06. ThreadID: 77018 Views:7689 Replies:3 FollowUps: ... So does anyone know if there is such a thing as a wheel alignment for simplicity suspensions .The tyres have only done 25000 ...
Get the best price for Bikers Choice Cruiser Suspension online at MotoSport. Make your next ride your best ride! Orders over $ ...
Indianas Supreme Court says the Hamilton Southeastern school district did not provide adequate facts on the suspension of a ... two years after 13News first asked the coach to give more details of the suspension - to say his unpaid suspension approved by ... "The 1-week suspension was for this same incident ... I was initially given a paid leave which converted to unpaid leave after ... Secret suspension exposed. Three months after the Wimmer investigation, Hamilton Southeastern Schools quietly voted to suspend ...
The three-time Pro Bowler is facing a potential year-long suspension and fine from the league for alleged sexual misconduct ... However, the league, which has been pushing for an indefinite suspension and fine, felt Robinsons penalty was too light and ...
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Browse our selection of front suspension forks from top brands. Since 1994. ... Shop our extensive collection of suspension & forks for bikes online. ... Suspension Forks: All of the top brands are represented in our line of suspension forks, including Fox Racing Shox, RockShox, ... Rear Suspension: Different frame manufacturers have widely varying rear suspension designs, but all rely on some type of shock ...
Home , Forums , Automotive Engineers , Activities , Automotive suspension engineering Forum Automotive suspension engineering ...
Punter Jake Bailey has filed a grievance over his suspension, which reportedly had to do with rehab protocols. ... Bill Belichick stays mum on curious Jake Bailey, Jack Jones suspensions. By Katie McInerney Globe Staff,Updated January 8, 2023 ... but did not reference the suspension. News of the suspensions broke Friday afternoon. ... We have filed a grievance to fight this unknown suspension.". On Sunday, after the Patriots lost to the Bills, Belichick was ...
  • Your steering and suspension system, also known as SAS, supports your vehicle, absorbs shocks and bumps, and allows your car to turn in response to your steering input. (
  • Our process always starts with a thorough evaluation of your steering and suspension, which includes your car's front and rear end, all coil springs, shocks and struts, all chassis parts and wheel bearings, the differential, and many more system components. (
  • If the initial evaluation shows suspension issues, our technicians have great experience in fixing bad spring coils, inspecting tires or replacing shocks and struts. (
  • The suspension is outfitted with adjustable King remote reservoir shocks which are custom designed to work cohesively with the air ride suspension. (
  • Your policies should have something written out about how long an ordinary disciplinary suspension should last. (
  • Disciplinary Suspension is a separation from the university for one or more semesters. (
  • Students under disciplinary suspension may not be present on University premises unless authorized in writing in advance under conditions approved by the Director of Community Standards and Student Responsibility (CSSR). (
  • All assigned educational sanctions must be completed prior to the conclusion of disciplinary suspension or the disciplinary suspension will remain in effect. (
  • At the conclusion of their disciplinary suspension, students must petition for re-enrollment. (
  • Discover our shock absorbers, mounting and protection kits, gas springs, coil springs, spheres and many other steering & suspension parts. (
  • Shock absorbers, or spring dampers as it is called everywhere else except in the U.S., control the rate at which suspension springs compress and rebound. (
  • Absorbing the 'shock' of bumps and suspension loading is actually performed by the springs in the suspension. (
  • The Council on Accreditation (COA) announced effective October 19, 2017, the temporary suspension placed on Joshua Tree Adoptions, which went into effect on September 11, 2017, has been lifted. (
  • An unpaid suspension could be seen as a temporary firing. (
  • Suspension Training creates hundreds of moves on two incredibly adjustable straps that act like a literal support system so you not only assist your form, you power up moves to be challenging with bodyweight. (
  • Simplicity suspension is adjustable and can be done 'on the road', however best bet is to find a truck alignment business and it will be easy for them and accurate with their equipment. (
  • The popular Monroe Ball Joint and Bush Diagnostic Tool provides the leverage needed to precisely move key suspension components - laterally and vertically - while the vehicle is on a lift. (
  • Monroe suspension tools are engineered to help vehicle workshops provide exceptional quality, service and value while completing more work every day. (
  • Due to the complexity of the steering and suspension system, there are many reasons why your vehicle may be showing certain symptoms. (
  • the effects of a suspension (on work, travel, etc. (
  • How does Mometamax Otic Suspension work? (
  • Every employer, supervisor, and worker involved in work from suspension scaffolds must comply with these regulations. (
  • In this work , strongly enhanced fluorescence was observed when 2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H-benzimidazole (HPBI) molecules were simply mixed with zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) colloidal suspensions . (
  • During the period of suspension, a student may not attend classes ( either in person or online ), or participate in University related activities, whether they occur on or off campus. (
  • If they should occur, ampicillin for injectable suspension should be discontinued and the subject treated with the usual agents (antihistamines, pressor amines, corticosteroids). (
  • To learn more about the impact of a criminal record and suspensions, read our article Impact of a Criminal Record . (
  • This article focus on the body suspension, which consists in the elevation of a person by means of hooks pierced on the skin. (
  • Employee suspension is one of those actions, but it's not always easy to keep employee suspension legal. (
  • While the Supreme Court's unanimous decision in WTHR-TV v. Hamilton Southeastern School District involves the suspension of former Fishers High School head football coach Rick Wimmer, the court's decision impacts thousands of public employees across Indiana, and legal experts say it establishes new precedent to cement the public's right to know why those employees are suspended, demoted or fired. (
  • Ampicillin for injectable suspension has proved effective in the treatment of many infections previously beyond the spectrum of penicillin therapy. (
  • Mometamax Otic Suspension is a once-a-day treatment for ear infections. (
  • The president of the Supreme Court, Brenda Hale, said Johnson's attempt was not a normal suspension and that it had taken place in exceptional circumstances. (
  • This suspension lowers the seat height approximately .75' while preserving ride quality. (
  • A smooth and safe ride is greatly dependent on your SAS system, so be sure to have it checked if you notice signs of a troubled steering and suspension system. (
  • Air ride suspension is standard on every LTS. (
  • The remaining teeth were randomly divided in 6 groups (n = 12) according to the irrigation solution: G1) 0.85% saline (control), G2) 1% NaOCl, G3) 5% NaOCl, G4) 2% CHX, G5) 1% Np Ag suspension, and G6) 26% Np ZnO suspension. (
  • Results showed that electrospray from a suspension of higher nanotube concentration produced a bimodal distribution of SWCNT aerosols. (
  • When Do I Need Steering and Suspension Service? (
  • If the suspension goes on too long, the suspension might be seen as a dismissal. (
  • The three-time Pro Bowler is facing a potential year-long suspension and fine from the league for alleged sexual misconduct against two dozen women while he played for the Houston Texans. (
  • Because it is a derivative of 6-aminopenicillanic acid, ampicillin for injectable suspension has the potential for producing allergic reactions. (
  • Find all of the Monroe parts you need for any steering and suspension repair through our convenient library of free, downloadable PDF catalogues and user-friendly electronic catalogue interface. (
  • The dosage of ampicillin for injectable suspension will vary according to the animal being treated, the severity of the infection and the animal's response. (
  • There are 2 ways to do retropubic suspension: open surgery or laparoscopic surgery. (
  • In any event, federal law requires that employees be suspended in increments of a day (i.e. no half-day suspensions). (
  • In order to comprehend it, we use a psychoanalitical aproach to emphasize the relation dynamics among the typical actors of a suspension event: the suspendee, the suspender and the audience. (
  • Easily identify excessive play, noise and related issues in ball joints, bushes and other steering and suspension components. (
  • Rob Phillips, Nick Eatman, and Mickey Spagnola react to the breaking Ezekiel Elliott news regarding his suspension being reinstated. (
  • Monroe offers a total steering & suspension solution for vehicles. (
  • We present a method to generate unagglomerated, fibrous particles of SWCNT aerosols using capillary electrospray of aqueous suspensions. (
  • The following are examples, but not limited to, reasons a student may be at risk for suspension. (
  • But Hamilton Southeastern Schools would not tell WTHR whether the suspension was related to the previous altercation that had been investigated by the school board and Fishers Police or for a separate incident that had never been made public. (
  • The system is very complex and comprised of hundreds of different parts, especially considering that there are many different types of suspension designs. (