Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Transcriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding transcription factors that contain a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription Factor AP-2: A family of DNA binding proteins that regulate expression of a variety of GENES during CELL DIFFERENTIATION and APOPTOSIS. Family members contain a highly conserved carboxy-terminal basic HELIX-TURN-HELIX MOTIF involved in dimerization and sequence-specific DNA binding.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors: A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. They contain a highly conserved seven amino acid spacer sequence in between their ZINC FINGER MOTIFS.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Transcription Factors, TFII: The so-called general transcription factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE II and that are required to initiate transcription. They include TFIIA; TFIIB; TFIID; TFIIE; TFIIF; TFIIH; TFII-I; and TFIIJ. In vivo they apparently bind in an ordered multi-step process and/or may form a large preinitiation complex called RNA polymerase II holoenzyme.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.STAT3 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERLEUKIN-6 family members. STAT3 is constitutively activated in a variety of TUMORS and is a major downstream transducer for the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR GP130.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.YY1 Transcription Factor: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Transcription Factor TFIID: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Sp3 Transcription Factor: A specificity protein transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE INHIBITOR P27.Zinc Fingers: Motifs in DNA- and RNA-binding proteins whose amino acids are folded into a single structural unit around a zinc atom. In the classic zinc finger, one zinc atom is bound to two cysteines and two histidines. In between the cysteines and histidines are 12 residues which form a DNA binding fingertip. By variations in the composition of the sequences in the fingertip and the number and spacing of tandem repeats of the motif, zinc fingers can form a large number of different sequence specific binding sites.Paired Box Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that control EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT within a variety of cell lineages. They are characterized by a highly conserved paired DNA-binding domain that was first identified in DROSOPHILA segmentation genes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Activating Transcription Factor 2: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of GENES including C-JUN GENES; CYCLIN A; CYCLIN D1; and ACTIVATING TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR 3.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Transcription Factor TFIIB: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It plays a role in assembly of the pol II transcriptional preinitiation complex and has been implicated as a target of gene-specific transcriptional activators.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.E2F1 Transcription Factor: An E2F transcription factor that interacts directly with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN and CYCLIN A and activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION required for CELL CYCLE entry and DNA synthesis. E2F1 is involved in DNA REPAIR and APOPTOSIS.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain regions rich in basic residues, LEUCINE ZIPPER domains, and HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIFS.MEF2 Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.GATA3 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is found predominately in LYMPHOID CELL precursors and has been implicated in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of HELPER T-CELLS. Haploinsufficiency of GATA3 is associated with HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS; and renal anomalies syndrome.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.GATA1 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages and plays an important role in the CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROID CELLS and MEGAKARYOCYTES.Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Mice, Inbred C57BLGATA2 Transcription Factor: An essential GATA transcription factor that is expressed primarily in HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS.TCF Transcription Factors: A family of DNA-binding proteins that are primarily expressed in T-LYMPHOCYTES. They interact with BETA CATENIN and serve as transcriptional activators and repressors in a variety of developmental processes.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor that regulates the CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development of a variety of cell types including MELANOCYTES; OSTEOCLASTS; and RETINAL PIGMENT EPITHELIUM. Mutations in MITF protein have been associated with OSTEOPETROSIS and WAARDENBURG SYNDROME.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Activating Transcription Factors: Activating transcription factors were originally identified as DNA-BINDING PROTEINS that interact with early promoters from ADENOVIRUSES. They are a family of basic leucine zipper transcription factors that bind to the consensus site TGACGTCA of the cyclic AMP response element, and are closely related to CYCLIC AMP-RESPONSIVE DNA-BINDING PROTEIN.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.E2F Transcription Factors: A family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that control expression of a variety of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE regulation. E2F transcription factors typically form heterodimeric complexes with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR DP1 or transcription factor DP2, and they have N-terminal DNA binding and dimerization domains. E2F transcription factors can act as mediators of transcriptional repression or transcriptional activation.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs: Recurring supersecondary structures characterized by 20 amino acids folding into two alpha helices connected by a non-helical "loop" segment. They are found in many sequence-specific DNA-BINDING PROTEINS and in CALCIUM-BINDING PROTEINS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Activating Transcription Factor 4: An activating transcription factor that regulates the expression of a variety of GENES involved in amino acid metabolism and transport. It also interacts with HTLV-I transactivator protein.GATA6 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Transcription Factor 7-Like 1 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway where it may play a role in the differentiation of KERATINOCYTES. The transcriptional activity of this protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN.Activating Transcription Factor 1: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Transcription Factor TFIIIA: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. It is a zinc finger (ZINC FINGERS) protein and is required for transcription of 5S ribosomal genes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.TATA Box: A conserved A-T rich sequence which is contained in promoters for RNA polymerase II. The segment is seven base pairs long and the nucleotides most commonly found are TATAAAA.NFI Transcription Factors: Transcription factors that were originally identified as site-specific DNA-binding proteins essential for DNA REPLICATION by ADENOVIRUSES. They play important roles in MAMMARY GLAND function and development.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets: A family of transcription factors that share a unique DNA-binding domain. The name derives from viral oncogene-derived protein oncogene protein v-ets of the AVIAN ERYTHROBLASTOSIS VIRUS.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Histones: Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.Transcription Factor TFIIH: A general transcription factor that is involved in basal GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and NUCLEOTIDE EXCISION REPAIR. It consists of nine subunits including ATP-DEPENDENT DNA HELICASES; CYCLIN H; and XERODERMA PIGMENTOSUM GROUP D PROTEIN.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Transcription Factor TFIIA: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.STAT5 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to a variety of CYTOKINES. Stat5 activation is associated with transcription of CELL CYCLE regulators such as CYCLIN KINASE INHIBITOR P21 and anti-apoptotic genes such as BCL-2 GENES. Stat5 is constitutively activated in many patients with acute MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Transcription Factor DP1: A transcription factor that possesses DNA-binding and E2F-binding domains but lacks a transcriptional activation domain. It is a binding partner for E2F TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and enhances the DNA binding and transactivation function of the DP-E2F complex.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.T-Box Domain Proteins: Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). These proteins are transcription factors that control developmental pathways. The prototype of this family is the mouse Brachyury (or T) gene product.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Octamer Transcription Factor-1: A ubiquitously expressed octamer transcription factor that regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of SMALL NUCLEAR RNA; IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES; and HISTONE H2B genes.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Guanosine Tetraphosphate: Guanosine 5'-diphosphate 2'(3')-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5' position and the other two in the 2' or 3' position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Acetylation: Formation of an acetyl derivative. (Stedman, 25th ed)TATA-Box Binding Protein: A general transcription factor that plays a major role in the activation of eukaryotic genes transcribed by RNA POLYMERASES. It binds specifically to the TATA BOX promoter element, which lies close to the position of transcription initiation in RNA transcribed by RNA POLYMERASE II. Although considered a principal component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID it also takes part in general transcription factor complexes involved in RNA POLYMERASE I and RNA POLYMERASE III transcription.Transcription Factor RelB: A transcription factor that takes part in the NF-kappa-B complex by interacting with NF-KAPPA B P50 SUBUNIT or NF-KAPPA B P52 SUBUNIT. It regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION that is involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Erythroid-Specific DNA-Binding Factors: A group of transcription factors that were originally described as being specific to ERYTHROID CELLS.Gene Regulatory Networks: Interacting DNA-encoded regulatory subsystems in the GENOME that coordinate input from activator and repressor TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS during development, cell differentiation, or in response to environmental cues. The networks function to ultimately specify expression of particular sets of GENES for specific conditions, times, or locations.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Early Growth Response Protein 1: An early growth response transcription factor that has been implicated in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS.Transcription Factor 7-Like 2 Protein: A transcription factor that takes part in WNT signaling pathway. The activity of the protein is regulated via its interaction with BETA CATENIN. Transcription factor 7-like 2 protein plays an important role in the embryogenesis of the PANCREAS and ISLET CELLS.Transcription Factors, TFIII: Factors that bind to RNA POLYMERASE III and aid in transcription. They include the assembly factors TFIIIA and TFIIIC and the initiation factor TFIIIB. All combine to form a preinitiation complex at the promotor that directs the binding of RNA POLYMERASE III.GA-Binding Protein Transcription Factor: A heterotetrameric transcription factor composed of two distinct proteins. Its name refers to the fact it binds to DNA sequences rich in GUANINE and ADENINE. GA-binding protein integrates a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS and regulates expression of GENES involved in CELL CYCLE control, PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS, and cellular METABOLISM.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHigh Mobility Group Proteins: A family of low-molecular weight, non-histone proteins found in chromatin.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Deoxyribonuclease I: An enzyme capable of hydrolyzing highly polymerized DNA by splitting phosphodiester linkages, preferentially adjacent to a pyrimidine nucleotide. This catalyzes endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA yielding 5'-phosphodi- and oligonucleotide end-products. The enzyme has a preference for double-stranded DNA.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-1: An ets proto-oncogene expressed primarily in adult LYMPHOID TISSUE; BRAIN; and VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Reverse Transcription: The biosynthesis of DNA carried out on a template of RNA.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)NF-kappa B p50 Subunit: A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Twist Transcription Factor: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that was originally identified in DROSOPHILA as essential for proper gastrulation and MESODERM formation. It plays an important role in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT and CELL DIFFERENTIATION of MUSCLE CELLS, and is found in a wide variety of organisms.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.NF-E2 Transcription Factor, p45 Subunit: A tissue-specific subunit of NF-E2 transcription factor that interacts with small MAF PROTEINS to regulate gene expression. P45 NF-E2 protein is expressed primarily in MEGAKARYOCYTES; ERYTHROID CELLS; and MAST CELLS.Embryo, Mammalian: The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-rel: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the rel gene (GENES, REL). They are expressed predominately in hematopoietic cells and may play a role in lymphocyte differentiation. Rel frequently combines with other related proteins (NF-KAPPA B, I-kappa B, relA) to form heterodimers that regulate transcription. Rearrangement or overexpression of c-rel can cause tumorigenesis.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Transcription Factor TFIIIB: One of several general transcription factors that are specific for RNA POLYMERASE III. TFIIIB recruits and positions pol III over the initiation site and remains stably bound to the DNA through multiple rounds of re-initiation by RNA POLYMERASE III.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Silencing: Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.Activating Transcription Factor 6: One of the BASIC-LEUCINE ZIPPER TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that is synthesized as a membrane-bound protein in the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress it translocates to the GOLGI APPARATUS. It is activated by PROTEASES and then moves to the CELL NUCLEUS to regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in the unfolded protein response.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
"BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit". The ... Venkitaraman AR (Jan 2002). "Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2". Cell. 108 (2): 171-82. doi:10.1016/ ... The BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ubiquitinates RNA polymerase II, preventing the transcription of the damaged DNA, and restoring ... Kleiman FE, Manley JL (Sep 1999). "Functional interaction of BRCA1-associated BARD1 with polyadenylation factor CstF-50". ...
... nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ... Li Z, Nabel GJ (October 1997). "A new member of the I kappaB protein family, I kappaB epsilon, inhibits RelA (p65)-mediated NF- ... Male homozygotes showed an increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection, while homozygotes of both sex had decreased IgG1 ... NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free ...
The degree to which the ETS1 transcription factor can bind to its binding sites on the PARP1 promoter depends on the ... PARP1 has been shown to interact with: APTX, MYBL2 RELA, P53, POLA1, POLA2, XRCC1, and ZNF423. DNA damage theory of aging ... different outcomes in terms of single-strand break repair and radiation susceptibility". Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (13): 4454- ... Bi FF, Li D, Yang Q (2013). "Hypomethylation of ETS transcription factor binding sites and upregulation of PARP1 expression in ...
... primary transcription factors, i.e., transcription factors that are present in cells in an inactive state and do not require ... The NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase and longevity factor SIRT1 inhibits NF-κB gene expression by deacetylating the RelA/p65 ... Defects in NF-κB results in increased susceptibility to apoptosis leading to increased cell death. This is because NF-κB ... Escárcega RO, Fuentes-Alexandro S, García-Carrasco M, Gatica A, Zamora A (March 2007). "The transcription factor nuclear factor ...
In addition, IκBα blocks the ability of NF-κB transcription factors to bind to DNA, which is required for NF-κB's proper ... Hansen SK, Baeuerle PA, Blasi F (April 1994). "Purification, reconstitution, and I kappa B association of the c-Rel-p65 (RelA) ... Sun XF, Zhang H (2007). "NFKB and NFKBI polymorphisms in relation to susceptibility of tumour and other diseases". Histol. ... is one member of a family of cellular proteins that function to inhibit the NF-κB transcription factor. IκBα inhibits NF-κB by ...
"BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit". J. ... BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been described as "breast cancer susceptibility genes" and "breast cancer susceptibility proteins". The ... "Direct interaction between BRCA1 and the estrogen receptor regulates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) transcription ... The first evidence for the existence of a gene encoding for a DNA repair enzyme involved in breast cancer susceptibility was ...
Pastorcic M, Das HK (November 2000). "Regulation of transcription of the human presenilin-1 gene by ets transcription factors ... Many studies have investigated a genetic link between this variation and cancer susceptibility; however, the results have been ... RELA, Reprimo RPA1, RPL11, S100B, SUMO1, SMARCA4, SMARCB1, SMN1, STAT3, TBP, TFAP2A, TFDP1, TIGAR, TOP1, TOP2A, TP53BP1, ... A tandem of nine-amino-acid transactivation domains (9aaTAD) was identified in the AD1 and AD2 regions of transcription factor ...
"BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit". J. ... Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BRCA1 (/ˌbrækəˈwʌn/) gene.[5] ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of G0 to G1 transition. • transcription from ... transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter. • fatty acid biosynthetic process ...
Pastorcic M, Das HK (November 2000). "Regulation of transcription of the human presenilin-1 gene by ets transcription factors ... Sun Z, Pan J, Hope WX, Cohen SN, Balk SP (August 1999). "Tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein represses androgen receptor ... RELA, SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD7, SNIP1, SS18, STAT3, STAT6, TAL1, TCF3, TFAP2A, TGS1, TRERF1, TSG101, THRA, TWIST1, YY1, and Zif268. ... The p300 protein carries out its function of activating transcription by binding to transcription factors, and the ...
It may participate in melting of DNA:RNA hybrids, such as those that occur during transcription, and may play a role in X- ... RELA, and SMN1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000135829 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000042699 ... gene maps to the prostate cancer susceptibility locus at chromosome band 1q25 and its pseudogene (DDX9P) to 13q22, respectively ... "RNA helicase A interacts with nuclear factor kappaB p65 and functions as a transcriptional coactivator". European Journal of ...
BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit». J. ... Venkitaraman AR (2002). «Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2». Cell. 108 (2): 171-82. PMID 11832208. doi ... regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter. • negative regulation of G0 to G1 transition. • transcription from ... transcription, DNA-templated. • regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase III promoter. • fatty acid biosynthetic process ...
Interferon regulatory factor 7, also known as IRF7, is a member of the interferon regulatory factor family of transcription ... The IRF7 gene and product were shown to be defective in a patient with severe susceptibility to H1N1 influenza, while ... transcription regulatory region DNA binding. • RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. ... IRF7 encodes interferon regulatory factor 7, a member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family. IRF7 has ...
RNA polymerase II transcription factor activity, sequence-specific DNA binding. Cellular component. • cell nucleus. ... "A genome-wide linkage scan in a Dutch family identifies a premature ovarian failure susceptibility locus". Human Reproduction. ... regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • transcription, DNA-templated. • oogenesis. • regulation of transcription from RNA ...
Transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB/rel (NF-κB) family may be important in cell survival by regulating unidentified ... cells lacking NF-κB subunit RelA (p65) or overexpressing a mutated inhibitor IκBα gene showed enhanced susceptibility to TNF- ... synthesis and the genes involved appear to be transcriptionally activated by transcription factors of the nuclear factor-κB/rel ... and that RelA gene knockout mice died at 15 days of gestation (14). However, unlike RelA−/− mice, mice lacking the c-rel gene ...
RAI protein is an inhibitor of RelA, a subunit of the transcription factor NF-κB [20, 21]. NF-κB has long been implicated in ... Chen X, Kandasamy K, Srivastava RK: Differential role of RelA (p65) and c-Rel subunits of nuclear factor kappa B in tumor ... Takada N, Sanda T, Okamoto H, Yang JP, Asamitsu K, Sarol L, et al: RelA-associated inhibitor blocks transcription of human ... Yang JP, Hori M, Sanda Y, Okamoto T: Identification of a novel inhibitor if nuclear factor.kappaB, RelA-associated inhibitor. J ...
The transcription factor NF-kappaB: control of oncogenesis and cancer therapy resistance. Biochim Biophys Acta 2000;270: M55- ... Absence of tumor necrosis factor rescues RelA-deficient mice from embryonic lethality. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96: 2994-9. ... Control of apoptosis by Rel/NF-kB transcription factor. Oncogene 1999;18: 6910-24.. *CrossRef, ... E1A sensitizes cells to tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis through inhibition of IkappaB kinases and nuclear factor kappaB ...
... modifying factor (BMF). The rs539846-A risk allele alters a conserved RELA-binding motif, disrupts RELA binding, and is ... These findings are consistent with rs539846 influencing CLL susceptibility through differential RELA binding, with direct ... and transcription factor binding. SNP rs539846 C>A, the most highly associated variant (p = 1.42 × 10(-13), odds ratio = 1.35 ... Factors related to unfavorable outcome were age >18 years; activated B-cell (ABC) DLBCL profile, HGBCL, NOS, high genetic ...
In mammals the NF-κB family of transcription factors contains five members: NF-κB1 (p105/p50), NF-κB2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), ... Resistance and Susceptibility to PathogensWhat is clear is that NF-κB is required for resistance to a variety of viral, ... B lymphocytes differentially use the Rel and nuclear factor κB1 (NF-κB1) transcription factors to regulate cell cycle ... Neisseria gonorrhoeae epithelial cell interaction leads to the activation of the transcription factors nuclear factor κB and ...
... such as Sigma factors or transcription factors (4, 17, 24, 33, 44, 46). Here, we focused on the analysis of genes belonging to ... Ribosomes associated with mRNA act as protective barriers and influence the susceptibility of mRNA to RNase attack (11). These ... Transcription activity of individual rrn operons in Bacillus subtilis mutants deficient in (p)ppGpp synthetase genes, relA, ... Northern blot analysis revealed that transcription of infB (coding for translation initiation factor IF-2), guaC (coding for ...
GATA-3 is the transcription factor inTh2 cells that stimulates the production of IL-4, IL 13, and IL-8. ... It is the ligand that activates the NK cell receptor NKG2D.Alleles of this gene determine rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility. ... These complexes stimulate NIK which then phosphorylates IkB-alpha which is then ubiquinated and destroyed releasing p65 (RelA) ... The precursor is modified into a 17-kDa transcription factor, and cytosolic protein which acts as a damage-associated molecular ...
These results suggested that augmented phosphorylation and acetylation of RelA/p65 are important contributing factors in CS- ... such as kinases and redox-sensitive transcription factors. A previous study has shown that Glrx1 deficiency led to reduced NF- ... Absence of glutaredoxin1 increases lens susceptibility to oxidative stress induced by UVR-B. Exp Eye Res 89: 833-839, 2009. ... NF-kappaB RelA phosphorylation regulates RelA acetylation. Mol Cell Biol 25: 7966-7975, 2005. ...
"BRCA1 augments transcription by the NF-kappaB transcription factor by binding to the Rel domain of the p65/RelA subunit". The ... Venkitaraman AR (Jan 2002). "Cancer susceptibility and the functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2". Cell. 108 (2): 171-82. doi:10.1016/ ... The BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ubiquitinates RNA polymerase II, preventing the transcription of the damaged DNA, and restoring ... Kleiman FE, Manley JL (Sep 1999). "Functional interaction of BRCA1-associated BARD1 with polyadenylation factor CstF-50". ...
The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays a critical role in mediating inflammatory responses to bacterial ... Moreover, phosphorylation of RelA was reduced in macrophages from IkkαAA/AA mice, and the half-life of RelA and c-Rel was ... IkkαAA/AA mice exhibited increased expression of NF-κB target genes and enhanced susceptibility to septic shock. Experiments in ... Although NF-κB DNA binding activity and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits RelA and c-Rel were initially comparable in ...
Several transcription factors, especially nuclear factor-κB, are activated. In addition, the accumulation of abnormally ... The p38 and ERK/MAPKs pathways are activated in some CF cell lines with a high abundance of classical NF-κB, p65 (RelA) and NF- ... 15 Susceptibility to P aeruginosa infections was shown in Cftr-deficient mice.S29 In addition, depending on the location and ... Dysregulated activity of transcription factors has been suggested to underlie the proinflammatory properties of the CF airway ...
ENCODE ChIP-seq data from GM12878 cells show the correspondence between loop formation and CTCF and RELA transcription factor ... These findings are consistent with rs539846 influencing CLL susceptibility through differential RELA binding, with direct ... modifying factor (BMF). The rs539846-A risk allele alters a conserved RELA-binding motif, disrupts RELA binding, and is ... RELA Expression and the rs539846 Genotype Are Correlated with BMF Transcript Levels. (A) siRNA knockdown of RELA reduces ...
Interactions with nuclear factor I/CCAAT box transcription factor as well as B cell lymphoma 3-encoded oncoprotein suggest the ... pirin = quercetin 2,3-dioxygenase; p65 (zeige GORASP1 Antikörper) = RELA (zeige NFkBP65 Antikörper) proto-oncogene (zeige RAB1A ... showed altered susceptibility to cryptoccocal infections, suggesting roles for this pathway in cryptococcal defense. ... The NRF2 transcription factor binds to this element in vivo and drives the basal PIR expression. ...
Our study increases the number of established susceptibility loci for SLE in Han Chinese population and has further ... transcription factor binding sites)-RELA, CTCF, CEBPB, RAD21, ZNF143, and SMC3-that were detected by ChIP-Seq analysis in ... Transcription factor binding sites of rs5913992 SNP (ENCODE). The transcription track from the UCSC (University of California, ... genome browser showed regions where transcription factors responsible for modulating gene transcription bind to DNA as assayed ...
The nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factors (p50, p52, RelA, c-Rel, and RelB) play important roles in many physiological ... found that the IKKβ-deficient cardiomyocytes were more susceptible to isoproterenol-induced death and that the susceptibility ... Organ-specific roles for transcription factor NF-κB in reovirus-induced apoptosis and disease. J Clin Invest. 2005; 115: 2341- ... A series of transcription factors, such as specificity protein-1, activator protein-2, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein, p53, and ...
Involvement of additional transcription factors, particularly partners for c-Jun and RelA in unstimulated cells, remain to be ... and culminating in susceptibility to infection and cancer, inefficient hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization, and ... p50 and RelA, and the architectural protein HMGA1 (not pictured). The binding of these factors to their specific regions (IRF-3 ... including the transcription factors STAT1, STAT2, IRF5, IRF7, and IRF9 (center). Appropriate expression allows a balance ...
... is a receptor for glucocorticoids and can act as both a transcription factor and a regulator of other transcription factors.. ... The five NF-B subunits are RelA (p65), RelB, c-Rel, p50, and p52, and these fall into two groups. Class 1 comprises p50 and p52 ... as the gene responsible for the psoriasis susceptibility phenotype locus 2 (and mice to further elucidate the part of these ... is a receptor for glucocorticoids and can act as both a transcription factor and a regulator of other transcription factors.. ...
To this end, we have recently shown that the transcription factor NF-κB activates a survival program that protects mammalian ... The anti-RelA-supershifted complex is not seen in these autoradiograms as it can often be too large to enter the gel (12). B, ... increases susceptibility to oncolysis by encephalomyocarditis virus (22). In this study, we took advantage of the NF-κB ... NF-κB, however, is a master transcription factor with multiple functions, and agents that inhibit NF-κB therefore have numerous ...
... nuclear factor-kappaB, and serum response factor as novel target molecules of the cancer-amplified transcription coactivator ... Li Z, Nabel GJ (October 1997). "A new member of the I kappaB protein family, I kappaB epsilon, inhibits RelA (p65)-mediated NF- ... Male homozygotes showed an increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection, while homozygotes of both sex had decreased IgG1 ... NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free ...
transcription factors 21. The CSk induction of reporter plasmids 21 driven by the Rtp801 2.5 kB promoter 21 involved the ... Post-translational modification of RelA(p65) NF-kappaB. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2004;32:1087-1089. [PubMed] ... Genetic ablation of Nrf2 enhances susceptibility to cigarette smoke-induced emphysema in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 2004;114:1248- ... Decreased mTOR activity downregulates hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) - 1 - dependent vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF ...
... and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype ... such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, ... RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel. These proteins form homo or heterodimers to determine gene transcription. RelA, RelB, and c-Rel ... The interferon regulatory factor 5 gene confers susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis and influences its erosive phenotype. ...
NF-kappaB is a family of signal activated transcription factors comprised of hetero- or homo-dimers from 5 different subunits, ... In vitro susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from cialis price a Veterans Administration Medical Center. ... NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB2, RELA, cREL and RELB. High levels of collagen type III are biochemically detectable in biopsies of non- ... Studies on etiological factors contributing to the development of thrombosis will be reviewed in this article. The databases ...
... κB transcription factor family consists of five members: NF-κB1 (p105/p50), NF-κB2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel, ... and increased tumor susceptibility. Thus, NF-κB has a tumor suppressor function in liver parenchymal cells. On the contrary, NF ... The transcription factor NF-κB is a key orchestrator of innate immunity and inflammation, and recent evidence suggests that it ... Experimental evidence gathered in genetic mouse models over the past few years identified the transcription factor NF-κB, ...
... artesunate has been shown to inhibit the virus-induced activation of the cellular transcription factors NF-κB and Sp1, as well ... Antiviral drug susceptibility assays. (i) PR assay.In vitro sensitivity phenotypes were determined by the PR assay as ... pathway by targeting RelA/p65. Antiviral Res 124:101-109. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.10.003. ... Risk factors and outcomes of ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus infection in solid organ transplant recipients. Clin Infect ...
Because phosphorylation of RelA is also important for optimal NF-κB-mediated transcription, we examined whether RelA ... The mammalian nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family contains five proteins, RelA/p65, NF-κB1 (p50), NF-κB2 (p52), c-Rel, and RelB, ... Mutations in the INK4a/ARF melanoma susceptibility locus functionally impair p14ARF. J Biol Chem 2001; 276: 41424-34. ... The nuclear factor κB subunits RelA/p65 and c-Rel potentiate but are not required for Ras-induced cellular transformation. ...
  • In mammals the NF-κB family of transcription factors contains five members: NF-κB 1 (p105/p50), NF-κB 2 (p100/p52), RelA (p65), RelB, and c-Rel (Fig. 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The nuclear factor (NF)-κB transcription factors (p50, p52, RelA, c-Rel, and RelB) play important roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. (ahajournals.org)
  • NF-kappaB is a family of signal activated transcription factors comprised of hetero- or homo-dimers from 5 different subunits, NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB2, RELA, cREL and RELB. (bangboat.icu)
  • The mammalian nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family contains five proteins, RelA/p65, NF-κB1 (p50), NF-κB2 (p52), c-Rel, and RelB, which can form a variety of homodimers and heterodimers to differently control gene expression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The 50- and 52-kD forms of NF-κB1 and NF-κB2, respectively, comprise the RHD and lack intrinsic transcriptional transactivating properties, whereas Rel, RelA, and RelB all possess transactivation domains within their divergent COOH termini ( 3 ). (rupress.org)
  • Furthermore, lack of RelA leads to embryonic lethality and liver degeneration in knockout mice, whereas mice lacking p50 or RelB are immunodeficient but otherwise develop normally to adulthood. (jci.org)
  • In mammals, the Rel family is composed of RelA/p65, c-Rel, RelB, p50 (NF-κB1), and p52 (NF-κB2), which have sequence similarity over approximately 300 amino acids in the amino-terminal half of the protein. (asm.org)
  • Although all Rel members bind DNA, only RelA/p65 (hereafter referred to as p65), c-Rel, and RelB have extended carboxy termini harboring transactivation function ( 70 ). (asm.org)
  • For example, studies of Leishmania major suggest that disease susceptibility is a result of Leishmania homolog of receptors for activated C kinase Ag-specific Vβ4 + Vα8 + CD4 + T cells producing an early IL-4-driven Th2 response that down-regulates IL-12 and IFN-γ production and IL-12R expression ( 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Neutrophil influx in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and proinflammatory cytokine release in lung were increased in Glrx1 KO mice compared with WT mice exposed to CS, which was associated with augmented nuclear translocation of RelA/p65 and its phospho-acetylation. (physiology.org)
  • Although NF-κB DNA binding activity and nuclear translocation of the NF-κB subunits RelA and c-Rel were initially comparable in Ikkα AA/AA and wild-type mice, increased nuclear content of RelA and c-Rel persisted in Ikkα AA/AA mice, as did their association with a target gene promoter. (sciencemag.org)
  • The canonical function of Bcl-2 is linked to its ability to inhibit mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, thereby regulating apoptosome assembly and activation by blocking the cytosolic translocation of death amplification factors. (nus.edu.sg)
  • The BRCA1/BARD1 heterodimer ubiquitinates RNA polymerase II, preventing the transcription of the damaged DNA, and restoring genetic stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our study increases the number of established susceptibility loci for SLE in Han Chinese population and has further demonstrated the important role of X-linked genetic risk variants in the pathogenesis of SLE in Chinese Han population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Besides confirming the previously reported associations within IRAK1-MECP2 (rs1059702) and L1CAM-MECP2 loci, we also identified a genetic variant (rs7062536) in PRPS2 on Xp22.3 as a novel susceptibility locus and novel independent associations within the NAA10 (rs2070028) and TMEM187 (rs17422) loci. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Other risk factors to liver carcinogenesis include chronic alcohol abuse, biliary disease, metabolic disorders, drugs, toxins, and genetic conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis and 1-antitrypsin deficiency [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Histone marks around transcription start sites of HSV-1-induced and constitutively transcribed antisense transcripts are highly similar, indicating that the genetic loci are already poised to transcribe these novel RNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated whether asthma and COPD have common underlying genetic factors, performing genome-wide association studies for both asthma and COPD and combining the results in meta-analyses. (ersjournals.com)
  • ERCC5 rs17655 polymorphism might contribute to genetic susceptibility to colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Both environmental and genetic factors have been hypothesized to play a significant role in disease pathogenesis, possibly by leading to differences in innate inflammatory responses to infection in the lung ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • One of the TRIM family proteins, TRIM39, for which the gene has single nucleotide polymorphisms, has been identified as one of the genetic factors in Behcet's disease. (springer.com)
  • The transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) plays a critical role in mediating inflammatory responses to bacterial pathogens and proinflammatory cytokines. (sciencemag.org)
  • Neurohumoral factors and cytokines that are induced by mechanical stress on cardiomyocytes activate various intracellular signaling pathways, which regulate apoptotic cell death. (ahajournals.org)
  • NF-κB is a transcription factor that is activated by various intra- and extra-cellular stimuli such as cytokines, oxidant-free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral products. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we will briefly review our current understanding of macrophages and macrophage polarization in RA as well as the elements implicated in controlling polarization, such as cytokines and transcription factors like NFκB, IRFs and NR4A, and pro-resolving factors, such as LXA4 and other lipid mediators which may promote a non-inflammatory, pro-resolving phenotype, and may represent a novel therapeutic paradigm. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies indicate that, in the tumor microenvironment, TAMs acquire an M2-polarized phenotype and promote angiogenesis, metastasis, and suppression of adaptive immunity through the expression of cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and matrix metalloproteases. (hindawi.com)
  • In this paper, we discuss the current knowledge about the role of TAMs in HCC development, highlighting the role of TAM-derived cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors in the initiation and progression of liver cancer and outlining the signaling pathways involved in the interplay between cancer cells and TAMs. (hindawi.com)
  • HCC microenvironment consists of (a) stromal cells, such as carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), endothelial cells and immune cells, (b) growth factors and inflammatory cytokines, and (c) extracellular matrix proteins [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Over-expression of miR-124 could effectively attenuate the LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and promote the secretion of neuroprotective factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In response to cytokines and growth factors, STAT family members are phosphorylated by the receptor associated kinases, and then form homo- or heterodimers that translocate to the cell nucleus where they act as transcription activators. (ucsc.edu)
  • The mRNA levels of circulating cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-12p40, interferon-γ, IL-17A, IL-22, and IL-23R) were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. (bvsalud.org)
  • Three loci showed potential involvement in both diseases: chr2p24.3, chr5q23.1 and chr13q14.2, containing DDX1 , COMMD10 (both participating in the nuclear factor (NF) κβ pathway) and GNG5P5 , respectively. (ersjournals.com)
  • In vitro studies suggest that CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient airway epithelial cells display signalling abnormalities and aberrant intracellular processes which lead to transcription of inflammatory mediators. (bmj.com)
  • In vitro susceptibilities of Haemophilus influenzae isolates from cialis price a Veterans Administration Medical Center. (bangboat.icu)
  • In vitro , RelA deletion elicited opposing pro-regenerative shifts in active nuclear and inactive cytoplasmic moieties of Cdh1 and Id2. (biologists.org)
  • The relief of the supercoiling dependence closely correlates with increased promoter susceptibility to melting in vivo and a lesser requirement for initiating nucleotides in the formation of stable initiation complexes in vitro . (embopress.org)
  • The NF-κB members dimerize to form homo- or heterodimers, which are associated with specific responses to different stimuli and differential effects on transcription. (asm.org)
  • However, knowledge about growth conditions in vivo is still limited, and the interaction of the regulatory circuits leading to metabolic adaptation and to differential expression of virulence factors is not yet understood completely. (asm.org)
  • These findings are consistent with rs539846 influencing CLL susceptibility through differential RELA binding, with direct modulation of BMF expression impacting on anti-apoptotic BCL2, a hallmark of oncogenic dependency in CLL. (cdc.gov)
  • For example, NF-κB 1 (p50) and RelA are ubiquitously expressed, and the p50/RelA heterodimers constitute the most common inducible NF-κB binding activity. (asm.org)
  • Here, we addressed its role in adult axoneogenesis by generating mutations of RelA (p65) and p50 (also known as NFKB1) heterodimers of canonical NF-κB. (biologists.org)
  • Little is known about the stringent control in the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus , partly due to the essentiality of the major (p)ppGpp synthase/hydrolase enzyme RSH (RelA/SpoT homolog). (asm.org)
  • p)ppGpp is synthesized by cytoplasmic enzymes containing a conserved synthase domain first described in RelA and SpoT enzymes from proteobacteria. (asm.org)
  • Sequence analysis of the E. faecalis genome indicated that (p)ppGpp synthesis is catalyzed by the bifunctional synthetase/hydrolase RelA and the RelQ small synthase. (asm.org)
  • In order to determine the polymorphisms of nuclear factor-kappa B-1-94 ins/del ATTG and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (-308 G/A), polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed and serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (balkanmedicaljournal.org)
  • The (p)ppGpp profiles of Δ relA , Δ relQ , and Δ relAQ strains revealed that RelA is the major enzyme responsible for the accumulation of (p)ppGpp during antibiotic or physical stresses, while RelQ appears to be responsible for maintaining basal levels of alarmone during homeostatic growth. (asm.org)
  • The first evidence for the existence of a gene encoding a DNA repair enzyme involved in breast cancer susceptibility was provided by Mary-Claire King 's laboratory at UC Berkeley in 1990. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alen P, Claessens F, Verhoeven G, Rombauts W, Peeters B (1999) The androgen receptor amino-terminal domain plays a key role in p160 coactivator-stimulated gene transcription. (mitchmedical.us)
  • Compared to its parent, the Δ relA strain was more susceptible to several stress conditions, whereas complete elimination of (p)ppGpp in a Δ relAQ double mutant restored many of the stress-sensitive phenotypes of Δ relA . (asm.org)
  • A large body of evidence assigns the key effector role to guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp), a signal nucleotide that rapidly accumulates at the onset of the response in wild‐type strains but not in 'relaxed' ( relA − ) mutants ( Cashel and Gallant, 1969 ). (embopress.org)
  • In a healthy organism, low amounts of IFNβ are constitutively secreted, which maintains appropriate expression of IFN-inducible signaling intermediaries, including the transcription factors STAT1, STAT2, IRF5, IRF7, and IRF9 (center) . (nih.gov)
  • Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) comprises a family of inducible transcription factors that play a key role in the immediate-early process of the inflammatory response. (asm.org)
  • Tumor necrosis factor type α (TNF), a major inflammatory cytokine, simultaneously activates a cell suicide program and an anti-death activity that results in resistance of many cancer cells to TNF-mediated killing, thus limiting its use in cancer therapy ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • When macrophages encounter pathogens, they initiate inflammation by secreting pro-inflammatory factors such as the cytokine TNF. (prolekare.cz)
  • To ensure a rapid but transient inflammatory response, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcription, stability and translation of mRNAs. (prolekare.cz)
  • This is especially important in an era where the use of biological agents to block key inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1, tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα), and IL-6 is becoming routine. (bmj.com)
  • In this study, to elucidate the function of TRIM39 in inflammatory signaling, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using TRIM39 as a bait and identified Cactin, which has been reported to inhibit NFκB- and TLR-mediated transcriptions. (springer.com)
  • In order to have a preliminary evaluation method of the derivatives, we developed fast and cheap biochemical assay to study the effect of SLs in the binding capacity of NF-κB (heterodimer RelA/p50) to the DNA recognition target. (openrepository.com)
  • Interestingly, growth curves and time-kill studies indicated that tolerance to vancomycin is enhanced in the Δ relA strain but diminished in the Δ relQ and Δ relAQ strains. (asm.org)
  • Thus, insects are polyvalent tools for the identification and characterization of microbial virulence factors involved in mammalian infections. (jove.com)
  • A broad spectrum of pneumococcal virulence factors, which are adapted successfully to different host niches, is involved either predominantly in nasopharyngeal colonization or subsequently in dissemination and transmigration of host tissue barriers. (springer.com)
  • Hava DL, Camilli A (2002) Large-scale identification of serotype 4 Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors. (springer.com)
  • Arabidopsis mutants of the PRN1 gene, which is involved in abiotic and biotic signaling affecting phenylalanine-derived flavonoids, showed altered susceptibility to cryptoccocal infections, suggesting roles for this pathway in cryptococcal defense. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The aim of this review is to provide a background on the biology of NF-κB and to highlight areas of the innate and adaptive immune response in which these transcription factors have a key regulatory function and to review what is currently known about their roles in resistance to infection, the host-pathogen interaction, and development of human disease. (asm.org)
  • Male homozygotes showed an increased susceptibility to Salmonella infection, while homozygotes of both sex had decreased IgG1 and decreased regulatory T cell and NK cell numbers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that mitogen-induced expression of interferon (IFN) regulatory factor 4 ( IRF-4 ), a lymphoid-specific member of the IFN family of transcription factors, is Rel dependent. (rupress.org)
  • Among those surveyed, IFN regulatory factor 4 ( IRF-4 ), a lymphoid-restricted member of the IFN family of transcription factors, emerged as a promising candidate. (rupress.org)
  • The lack of CD8 infiltration in prostate cancer may be attributable to several factors, including the presence of suppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) [ 6 ], and/or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) that serve to dampen cytotoxic effects [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While antisense transcription from viral genomes has been described previously, e.g., in HIV-1 [ 17 ], and was also observed in our sequencing data from the HSV-1 genome, to our knowledge, modulation of host cell antisense transcription by virus infections has not been studied so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several studies have shown that chronic infections with hepatitis viruses (hepatitis B virus, HBV and hepatitis C virus, HCV) are major risk factors for HCC development. (hindawi.com)
  • Anthrax toxin, a major virulence factor of B. anthracis, impairs both the innate and adaptive immune systems and is important in the establishment of anthrax infections. (jove.com)