Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Kosovo: Independence from SERBIA was declared on February 17, 2008.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).CD40 Ligand: A membrane glycoprotein and differentiation antigen expressed on the surface of T-cells that binds to CD40 ANTIGENS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and induces their proliferation. Mutation of the gene for CD40 ligand is a cause of HYPER-IGM IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME, TYPE 1.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mentors: Senior professionals who provide guidance, direction and support to those persons desirous of improvement in academic positions, administrative positions or other career development situations.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Freedom: The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.Semicircular Canals: Three long canals (anterior, posterior, and lateral) of the bony labyrinth. They are set at right angles to each other and are situated posterosuperior to the vestibule of the bony labyrinth (VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH). The semicircular canals have five openings into the vestibule with one shared by the anterior and the posterior canals. Within the canals are the SEMICIRCULAR DUCTS.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Immune System Diseases: Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.Respiratory Burst: A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.Peer Group: Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.Video Games: A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.Videotape Recording: Recording of visual and sometimes sound signals on magnetic tape.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Peer Review: An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.Plasmodiophorida: A group of EUKARYOTES that are parasites of plants. Life cycle stages include zoospores and plasmodia.Rhizaria: A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Bacteroidaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family BACTEROIDACEAE.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Gingiva: Oral tissue surrounding and attached to TEETH.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Periodontitis: Inflammation and loss of connective tissues supporting or surrounding the teeth. This may involve any part of the PERIODONTIUM. Periodontitis is currently classified by disease progression (CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS; AGGRESSIVE PERIODONTITIS) instead of age of onset. (From 1999 International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions, American Academy of Periodontology)Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Porphyromonas: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, nonsporeforming, nonmotile rods or coccobacilli. Organisms in this genus had originally been classified as members of the BACTEROIDES genus but overwhelming biochemical and chemical findings indicated the need to separate them from other Bacteroides species, and hence, this new genus was created.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Police: Agents of the law charged with the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing law and order among the citizenry.National Library of Medicine (U.S.): An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
"Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Research. 15 (11-12): 923-34. doi ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (April 2004). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47-53 ... Other interactions[edit]. CD4 has also been shown to interact with SPG21,[9] Lck[10][11][12][13][14] and Protein unc-119 ... entry into host cell. • T cell activation. • positive regulation of T cell activation. • maintenance of protein location in ...
"Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34. doi: ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... The binding to CD4 creates a shift in the conformation of gp120 allowing HIV-1 to bind to a co-receptor expressed on the host ... In CD4 the interaction involves its extracellular D1 domain. The resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 ( ...
"Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34. doi: ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... Association of the TCR of a naive T cell with MHC:antigen complex without CD28:B7 interaction results in a T cell that is ... "Grb2 forms an inducible protein complex with CD28 through a Src homology 3 domain-proline interaction". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (33 ...
2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34. ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... 1991). "Interaction of CD4 with HLA class II antigens and HIV gp120". Immunogenetics. 34 (2): 121-8. doi:10.1007/BF00211424. ... 1990). "Genetic variability in HIV-1 gp120 affects interactions with HLA molecules and T cell receptor". J. Immunol. 144 (9): ...
PHI-base: a database of multiple pathogen-host interactions.[7]. GM protest[edit]. In 2012 Rothamsted started testing ... "GM trial survives - but 'war' goes on". BBC News.. *^ Shiv Malik (27 May 2012). "Anti-GM protesters kept from tearing up wheat ... Additions to the pathogen host interaction database". Nucleic Acids Research. 36 (Database issue): D572-D576. doi:10.1093/nar/ ...
... virus-host interactions and genomic features". J. Virol. 79 (14): 8677-86. doi:10.1128/JVI.79.14.8677-8686.2005. PMC 1168784 . ... Indeed, some archaea survive high temperatures, often above 100 °C (212 °F), as found in geysers, black smokers, and oil wells ... No clear examples of archaeal pathogens or parasites are known, but they are often mutualists or commensals. One example is the ... Archaea host a new class of potentially useful antibiotics. A few of these archaeocins have been characterized, but hundreds ...
Fungi are capable of showing different interactions with their host and different lifestyles depending upon the interaction. ... Cochliobolus carbonum survives as mycelium and resistant chlamydospores on maize debris in the field and on infected seed. ... Infected seed is the major source of inoculum of C. carbonum internationally, so it is a quarantined pathogen in Europe and ... HC toxin produced by C. carbonum race 1 and T toxin produced by C. heterostrophus are host-specific toxins while ophiobolins ...
This interaction leads to the formation of oospores that can survive for long periods in or outside the host. Phytophthora ... The pathogen is shown to be able to survive in plants displaying no symptoms or in tolerant plants. Some possible cultural ... It is a root pathogen that causes root rot and death of host plants. Some symptoms include: wilting, decreased fruit size, ... The host range for Phytophythora cinnamomi is very broad. It is distributed worldwide and causes disease on hundreds of hosts. ...
... maydis may assist the pathogen in surviving DNA damage arising from the host's oxidative defensive response to infection, as ... This allows researchers to study the interaction between the fungus and its host with relative ease. The availability of the ... This response protects U. maydis from the host attack, and is necessary for the pathogen's virulence. Furthermore, U. maydis ... The fungus itself infects all parts of the host plant by invading the ovaries of its host. The infection causes the corn ...
Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease ... Depending on how the pathogen interacts with the host, it can be involved in one of three host-pathogen interactions. ... Virus-Host protein-protein interaction Networks knowledgebase PHI-base - Pathogen-Host Interaction Database Virus Human ... The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, ...
... maydis may assist the pathogen in surviving DNA damage arising from the host's oxidative defensive response to infection, as ... This allows researchers to study the interaction between the fungus and its host with relative ease. The availability of the ... Host/pathogen conflict[edit]. Plants, in general, have evolved efficient defense systems against pathogenic microbes. A rapid ... This response protects U. maydis from the host attack, and is necessary for the pathogen's virulence.[11] Furthermore, U. ...
PHI-base (Pathogen-Host-Interaction database). *Phytopathology. *Plant disease forecasting. ReferencesEdit. *^ Interaction of 2 ... as strains that are slightly less sensitive to the fungicide may survive. ... Pathogens respond to the use of fungicides by evolving resistance. In the field several mechanisms of resistance have been ... The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ...
... able to survive in a variety of cells, cross multiple host barriers, and spreads through ActA, the protein responsible for ... She is currently a Professor and Head of the Unité des Interactions Bactéries Cellules at the Pasteur Institute. In 1998, she ... Listeria is a food-borne bacterial pathogen responsible for numerous illnesses and a mortality rate of 30%. The bacteria is one ... The mouse carried a human version of a host cell membrane receptor that L. monocytogenes used to enter cells. Cellular ...
The larvae have also been seen to feed on their hosts when they die.[47]. Nematodes can survive desiccation, and in C. elegans ... Main article: Host microbe interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans. The different Caenorhabditis species occupy various nutrient ... including human pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus,[44] Pseudomonas aeruginosa,[45] Salmonella enterica or Enterococcus ... C. elegans made news when specimens were discovered to have survived the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster in February 2003.[85] ...
... allows TCRs to detect host cells that are infected by pathogens, contains non-self proteins or bears foreign ... such that both germline-encoded interactions between TCR and MHC and co-receptor interactions with CD4 or CD8 to signal T cell ... During thymic selection, only the T cells with affinity to MHC are signaled to survive after the CD4 or CD8 co-receptors also ... The surface consisting of two α helices from the MHC and a bound peptide sequence is projected away from the host cell to the T ...
... such as changes in host pathogen associations, changes in body condition because of predator-prey interaction, changed in ... Many marine mammal species require specific temperature ranges to survive. Ocean warming will therefore lead to increased ... exposure to toxins, and increased human interactions. Marine mammals that have been affected by climate change include walruses ...
Some vacuolar pathogens appear to co-opt the process of autophagy for survival in host cells. Alternatively, xenophagy is an ... although there are few data on these interactions. While the specific molecules controlling this process are poorly understood ... pestis to survive in macrophages activated with the cytokine IFNγ. ... In microbiology, xenophagy is the process by which a cell directs autophagy against pathogens, as reflected in the study of ...
If microorganisms can cause disease in a host they are known as pathogens and then they are sometimes referred to as microbes. ... and survive at 130 °C (266 °F).[1] Some Psychrophilic bacteria can grow at −17 °C (1 °F)),[2] and can survive near absolute ... A network of interactions among diverse types of molecules including DNA, RNA, proteins and metabolites, is utilised by the ... Individuals near the corpses were exposed to the pathogen and were likely to spread that pathogen to others. In modern times, ...
This occurs in host-pathogen interactions, where a high frequency of a defensive allele among the host means that it is more ... When a population's habitat changes, the population may have to adapt to survive; the ability of the population to adapt to the ... Those individuals are more likely to survive to produce offspring bearing that allele. The population will continue for more ... By planting rows of unrelated, or genetically distinct crops as barriers between herbivores and their preferred host plant, the ...
In general, sanguivorous leeches are non host-specific, and do little harm to their host, dropping off after consuming a blood ... Interactions with humansEdit. Leeches can be removed by hand, since they do not burrow into the skin or leave the head in the ... Nevertheless, only a few cases of leeches transmitting pathogens to humans have been reported.[28] ... which cannot survive in humans and do not pose a threat; however, bacteria, viruses, and parasites from previous blood sources ...
The pathogen A. euteiches does best in warm, wet soil conditions, but can survive at a range of moderate temperatures. ... standing water in the soil increases host infection by making it easier for zoospores to move to host cells. After infection, ... In alfalfa, there is evidence that another interaction can occur between A. euteiches and P. medicaginis, another important ... two other root rot-causing pathogens. Thus although A. euteiches had been known as a pathogen of pea since the 1920s, in ...
... these cells can be called upon to respond quickly if the same pathogen re-infects the host, while the host experiences few, if ... Upon interaction with a previously encountered antigen, the appropriate memory cells are selected and activated. In this manner ... About 10% of plasma cells survive to become long-lived antigen-specific memory B cells. Already primed to produce specific ... In general, Th1 responses are more effective against intracellular pathogens (viruses and bacteria that are inside host cells ...
Pathogen-Host-Interaction database) Phytopathology Plant disease forecasting Interaction of 2,4,5-trich, ... as strains that are slightly less sensitive to the fungicide may survive.[citation needed] It is also recommended[by whom?] ... The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ... In instances where resistance occurs more gradually, a shift in sensitivity in the pathogen to the fungicide can be seen. Such ...
Class I MHC is expressed by all host cells. When these cells are infected with a virus (or another intracellular pathogen), the ... Those cells that survive positive and negative selection differentiate into single-positive T cells (either CD4+ or CD8+), ... However, this Fas-Fas ligand interaction is thought to be more important to the disposal of unwanted T lymphocytes during their ... A simple activation of naive CD8+ T cells requires the interaction with professional antigen-presenting cells, mainly with ...
Campylobacter infections are transmitted to a host via contaminated water and food, sexual activity, and interaction with ... Botulism spores can survive in unproperly canned or ill-prepared foods. Even ingesting trace amounts of the spores can lead to ... Salmonella can also be transmitted to humans via reptiles like turtles and iguanas, which are known carriers of pathogen. ... Additionally, exogenous bacteria can enter a secondary host through an intermediate host such as insects and parasites. ...
These were the first findings on hosts other than Fraxinus anywhere in the world.[47] All three new hosts are in the same ... Trees now believed to have been infected with this pathogen were reported dying in large numbers in Poland in 1992,[13] and by ... "Ash trees that can survive the emerging infectious die-back disease". NBforest.info. 9 February 2010. Retrieved 31 October 2012 ... "Chalara ash dieback on different ash species and non-ash hosts". Forest Research. 7 August 2018. Retrieved 9 August 2018.. ...
Inside job: Staphylococcus aureus host-pathogen interactions. Int J Med Microbiol 308:607-624. ... Teichoic acids and related cell-wall glycopolymers in Gram-positive physiology and host interactions. Nat Rev Microbiol 6:276. ... in mediating interactions with host cell receptors (17), in controlling susceptibility and/or resistance to antimicrobial ... Compound-gene interaction mapping reveals distinct roles for Staphylococcus aureus teichoic acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111 ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most notorious pathogens on earth, causing the death of approximately 1.5 million ... One key to the success of M. tuberculosis as a pathogen is its ability to circumvent host immune responses at different levels ... Surviving the Macrophage: Tools and Tricks Employed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rajesh Jayachandran, Somdeb BoseDasgupta, ... Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the most notorious pathogens on earth, causing the death of approximately 1.5 million ...
However, instead of being destroyed by the latter, the bacterium survives and multiplies within its host. ... She is involved in several projects dealing with the host-pathogen relationships in the lung (Bordetella pertussis) and in the ... She is involved in several projects dealing with the host-pathogen relationships of the Gram-negative bacteria, Brucella. She ... Thus, only surviving yeasts equipped with an effective complex are selected. The genes coding for the protein complex are then ...
This understanding of host-pathogen interactions should build on knowledge of model systems. Thus, we conducted a genome-wide ... have difficulty surviving in mucus (18), or have difficulty growing on mucus (16, 18, 19). Thus, the ability of E. coli to grow ... It is important to understand how gastrointestinal pathogens acquire the nutrients necessary to infect their hosts and initiate ... Freter, R. (1988) in Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens (Am. Soc. Microbiol., Washington, DC), pp. 45-60.. ...
Articles covering host-parasite relationships and parasitic diseases will be considered, as well as studies on disease vectors ... and possibly by other intracellular pathogens as a strategy of the parasites to interact and survive within their hosts. In L. ... The interaction and survival of pathogens in hostile environments and in confrontation with host immune responses are important ... Little is known about the role of ecto-phosphatases in host-pathogen interactions. The present paper provides an overview of ...
S. aureus has long been considered an extracellular pathogen, but there is accumulating evidence that it can also survive and ... Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model ... Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model ... Macrophage-pathogen interactions in infectious diseases: new therapeutic insights from the zebrafish host model ...
Viability of survived bacteria was maintained. On the other hand, temperature has shown a synergistic effect with voltage. When ... Microbial biotechnology and host-pathogen interaction. About. 1. Structure and function of bacterial proteins that modulate ... Antonio Juárezs Microbial Technology and Host-Pathogen Interaction lab has formed a consortium with CZV Veterinaria, a leader ... Eduard Torrents, senior researcher in IBECs Microbial Biotechnology and Host-pathogen Interaction group, has been announced as ...
Subsequently we assessed the effect of increasing dosages of drugs targeting metabolism on the metabolic state of the pathogen ... Subsequently we assessed the effect of increasing dosages of drugs targeting metabolism on the metabolic state of the pathogen ... sMtb-RECON and used this model to predict the metabolic state of Mtb during infection of the host. Amino acids are predicted to ... sMtb-RECON and used this model to predict the metabolic state of Mtb during infection of the host. Amino acids are predicted to ...
"Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Research. 15 (11-12): 923-34. doi ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (April 2004). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 1 (1): 47-53 ... Other interactions[edit]. CD4 has also been shown to interact with SPG21,[9] Lck[10][11][12][13][14] and Protein unc-119 ... entry into host cell. • T cell activation. • positive regulation of T cell activation. • maintenance of protein location in ...
Because of this, the definition has been expanded to how known pathogens survive within their host, whether they cause disease ... Depending on how the pathogen interacts with the host, it can be involved in one of three host-pathogen interactions. ... Virus-Host protein-protein interaction Networks knowledgebase PHI-base - Pathogen-Host Interaction Database Virus Human ... The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, ...
Kanury Rao shared his insights with the students and faculty about his groundbreaking work on the host-pathogen interplay ... Mtb has a set of tricks up its sleeve that help it survive and evade the host immune system. In order to find a suitable drug ... Kanury Rao shared his insights with the students and faculty about his groundbreaking work on the host-pathogen interplay ... There is a pressing need to combat this pathogen since it is notorious in developing resistance, both to individual and ...
... relationship has been clearly established in the case of the interaction between Legionella pneumophila and its protozoan hosts ... It is becoming apparent that several intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans can also survive within protozoa. This ... The interaction of intracellular bacterial pathogens and protozoa highlights this conservation and may constitute a simplified ... From protozoa to mammalian cells: a new paradigm in the life cycle of intracellular bacterial pathogens.. Harb OS1, Gao LY, Abu ...
In addition, we have validated the use of global proteomic analyses to simultaneously evaluate the host-pathogen interaction of ... many intracellular pathogens can survive within D. discoideum cells using molecular mechanisms also required to survive within ... discoideum during host-pathogen interaction via global proteomic profiling. The analysis of our results allowed the ... many intracellular pathogens can survive within D. discoideum cells using molecular mechanisms also required to survive within ...
The differential expression also affects host-pathogen interaction. Such data may explain both the recovery of the primary ... 2) reported that differential expression of genetic respiratory determinants enables C. jejuni to survive in a variety of ... Respiratory proteins contribute differentially to Campylobacter jejunis survival and in vitro interaction with hosts ... with susceptible hosts being those with liver disease, hypogammaglobulinemia, HIV infection, or other immune deficiency (3). ...
Genetic Mechanisms of Host-Pathogen Interactions for Charcoal Rot in Soybean was published in an issue of Plant Molecular ... He explained that biotrophic pathogens such as SCN need plant tissue to survive, but the fungus that causes charcoal rot is ... Those that are tolerant to drought survive. "If we screen for drought stress, we hope to find some cultivars that are charcoal ... One intriguing direction Radwan described that shows promise is that there may be interactions between M. phaseolina and other ...
Both approaches have so far been used exclusively for investigating pathogen-host interactions, but they should be easily ... unable to survive specified environmental conditions and has been used to identify genes critical for survival in the host. ... but they frequently cannot replicate the complex environment encountered by pathogens during infection. The information gained ... typically that encountered in a host. Signature-tagged mutagenesis uses comparative hybridization to isolate mutants ...
Outcome of infection depends upon complex interactions between the invading pathogen and the host. As part of the hosts innate ... The ability of the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica to survive reactive oxygen and nitrogen species is central to its ... Using Caco-2 cells to model the host-parasite interaction, we verified that host cell killing was dependent on live ameba. ... Upon host infection, E. histolytica is confronted with various oxygen tensions in the host intestine, as well as increased ...
Cellular Microbiology: Pathogen-Host Cell Molecular Interactions. Staphylococcus aureus Survives in Cystic Fibrosis Macrophages ... Host Response and Inflammation. Antibodies to Protein but Not Glycolipid Structures Are Important for Host Defense against ... Host Response and Inflammation. Overlapping Roles for Interleukin-36 Cytokines in Protective Host Defense against Murine ... Host Response and Inflammation. The cGAS/STING Pathway Detects Streptococcus pneumoniae but Appears Dispensable for ...
... which together act to enable the pathogens to replicate and survive. Strains that lack individual effectors often do not ... Commentary , Host-Microbe Biology. Host-Pathogen Interactions: What the EHEC Are We Learning from Host Genome-Wide Screens?. ... Host-Pathogen Interactions: What the EHEC Are We Learning from Host Genome-Wide Screens? ... Host-Pathogen Interactions: What the EHEC Are We Learning from Host Genome-Wide Screens? ...
Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens which can survive and multiply within the phagocytic cells of their hosts ... Brucellae are gram-negative intracellular pathogens that survive and multiply within host phagocytic cells. Smooth organisms ... The modulation of host cell apoptosis by intracellular bacterial pathogens. Trends Microbiol. 8:306-313. ... may prevent them from surviving long enough to protect the host cell from the apoptotic stimulus. This interpretation would be ...
Here, the authors synthesize a series of oligosaccharides that mimic the lipopolysaccharides present on the pathogens surface ... and play a central role in host-pathogen interactions20, 21. Importantly, levels of anti-LPS antibodies are significantly ... higher in melioidosis patients who survive in comparison to those who succumb to disease22. Additionally, LPS-specific ... The interaction between mAb 4C7, which recognizes the Bm-like capping residue, and disaccharides 6 and 7 was further ...
Interaction between the host and pathogen genetics in susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis. ... Some people remain well with dormant infections; some get lung disease and survive, while others die. The research team are ... "Our project is important for the insights it will provide on how the host and the bacteria interact to cause TB disease. ... Understanding this interaction is crucial to drive developments in vaccine and drug design. With the ever-increasing ...
"Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions". Cell Res. 15 (11-12): 923-34. doi: ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS reports. 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... The binding to CD4 creates a shift in the conformation of gp120 allowing HIV-1 to bind to a co-receptor expressed on the host ... In CD4 the interaction involves its extracellular D1 domain. The resulting close proximity between the TCR complex and CD4 ( ...
Li L, Li HS, Pauza CD, et al. (2006). "Roles of HIV-1 auxiliary proteins in viral pathogenesis and host-pathogen interactions ... Anderson JL, Hope TJ (2005). "HIV accessory proteins and surviving the host cell". Current HIV/AIDS reports 1 (1): 47-53. doi: ... Interactions. CD4 has been shown to interact with SPG21,[6] Lck[7][8] and Protein unc-119 homolog.[9] ... CD4 is a co-receptor that assists the T cell receptor (TCR) to activate its T cell following an interaction with an antigen ...
... transcriptome of uropathogenic Escherichia coli-infected mouse macrophages reveals new insights into host-pathogen interactions ... In in vitro assays, CFT073 was able to survive within primary mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) up to 24h post- ... Conversely, TLR-inducible host defence mechanisms subject intramacrophage pathogens to stress, thus altering pathogen gene ... To understand the UPEC transcriptional programme associated with intramacrophage survival, we performed host-pathogen co- ...
  • HIV and Hepatitis B are viral infections caused by blood borne pathogens, and Aspergillis is the most common pathogenic fungi that secretes aflatoxin which acts as a carcinogen and contaminates many foods, especially those grown underground (nuts, potatoes, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • which plays a key role in cell signaling, intracellular trafficking and migration of invasive weaponries (i.e. candidate effectors) in pathogenic interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How host cells discriminate commensal from pathogenic microbial species and why this ability seems to differ between individuals is currently unknown. (intechopen.com)
  • For example, and in contrast to the requirements of many parasites, there is no evidence that environmentally acquired pathogenic fungi, such as Cryptococcus neoformans and Histoplasma capsulatum , require residence in a living animal host. (asm.org)
  • The interaction between "B. bronchiseptica" and its host is pathogenic. (kenyon.edu)
  • Dimorphism is extensively exploited by both plant and animal pathogenic fungi, where the encounter with the host prompts a shift in the mode of growth. (nih.gov)
  • The polymorphic yeast Candida albicans , like many pathogens, has both a benign and pathogenic association with its host. (asm.org)
  • Some plasmodiophorids cause additional damage to their host by serving as vectors for viruses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, but the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. (unl.pt)
  • Because climate change effects on most VBZDs act through wildlife hosts and vectors, understanding these effects will require multi-disciplinary teams to conduct and interpret ecosystem-based studies of VBZD pathogens in host and vector populations and to identify the hosts, vectors, and pathogens with the greatest potential to affect human populations under climate change scenarios. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, the interaction of hosts, vectors, pathogens and the environment are poorly understood in the Arctic ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, changes in trading and commercial policies have created optimal conditions for the movement of infected vertebrate hosts and invertebrate vectors over wide geographical areas. (prolekare.cz)
  • Vectors are mediums with which any pathogens are transmitted. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the significance of this system in overall defense, pathogens affect and/or manipulate immune cells and responses in favor of their own survival. (diva-portal.org)
  • Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) are key components of the first line of defense against bacterial and fungal pathogens. (hindawi.com)
  • The host inhales "B. bronchiseptica" and colonizes on the muccous membranes lining the respiratory tract and produces factors that counteract the host's defense mechanisms. (kenyon.edu)
  • In vertebrates, successful host defense against viral infections relies heavily on the early production of IFN-α/β, which promotes an antiviral state in adjacent noninfected cells as well as the activation of antiviral cytotoxic lymphocytes ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The anti- T. gondii defense response of the feline host was mediated by Major Histocompatibility Complex class I, proteasomes, heat-shock proteins and fatty acid binding proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our results provide new insights into retromer assembly and underscore the power of using pathogens to discover disease-related cell biology. (elifesciences.org)
  • To provide insight into the biology of the pathogen and its interaction with its primary host B. napus , we produced a draft genome of P. brassicae pathotypes 3 and 6 (Pb3 and Pb6) that differ in their host range. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An important component of this project is improving our understanding of the biology and ecology of the pathogen that causes anthracnose. (uconn.edu)
  • However, the Chlamydia factors and host cell proteins that mediate these interactions are largely unknown. (elifesciences.org)
  • Legionella remodel the cell compartment by putting a system in place that acts like a syringe transporting bacterial proteins across the hijacked compartment and into the host cell. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • In conditions where candidate effectors are recognized by the host disease resistance ( R ) proteins, hallmark resistance occurs via programmed cell death. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Dependency on the host for essential nutrients is evident from the loss of genes for the biosynthesis of thiamine and some amino acids and the presence of a wide range of transport proteins, including some unique to P. brassicae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This difference in autotransporter proteins could possibly contribute to the bacteria's host specificity and the different diseases they cause . (kenyon.edu)
  • There are many genes included in the genomic island that is excised by the halo-bright strains studied here, and these other genes may well encode proteins that allow the pathogen to survive optimally in the light-intensive regions of eastern and southern Africa where these strains are found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The numerous proteins and metabolites expressed by these pathogens further dysregulate human gene expression in a manner that promotes imbalance and immunosuppression. (mpkb.org)
  • Analysis of the network indicated a role of HEV proteins in modulating multiple host biological processes such as stress and immune responses, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, energy and iron metabolism, and protein translation. (asm.org)
  • In this study, we identified the direct host interaction partners of all HEV proteins and generated a PPI network. (asm.org)
  • Although with less skill, M is able to enter the PMN so that phenotypic differences could lead PMN to be a reservoir allowing some pathogens to prevail and persist over other strains in the community. (hindawi.com)
  • Researchers will focus on identifying the geographic distribution of anthracnose and also use various methods to determine differences among strains of the pathogen. (uconn.edu)
  • Recently, we established that S . Typhimurium is able to survive intracellularly in D. discoideum and identified relevant genes linked to virulence that are crucial for this process. (frontiersin.org)
  • In vivo expression technology is a promoter-trap strategy designed to identify genes whose expression is induced in a specific environment, typically that encountered in a host. (nih.gov)
  • Signature-tagged mutagenesis uses comparative hybridization to isolate mutants unable to survive specified environmental conditions and has been used to identify genes critical for survival in the host. (nih.gov)
  • By using a whole-animal model and screening for host survival, we revealed genes involved in physiologies different from those that were found in previous screens, which all had defects in defensive immune signaling. (genetics.org)
  • Further investigation into the remaining SCOTS-identified genes, as well as putative secreted effectors, will provide a better understanding of the adaptive responses of intracellular B. cenocepacia , leading to life in a phagosomal niche and host cell cytotoxicity. (uwo.ca)
  • Our study also provided significant data on the differential expression of genes in the survived WSSV infected P. monodon that will help to improve understanding of host-virus interactions in this species. (peerj.com)
  • In contrast to the human host, V. cholerae requires a different set of genes to survive in this hostile environment. (asm.org)
  • Further, a surprising percentage of the genes that respond specifically to macrophage contact have no known homologs, suggesting that the organism has undergone substantial evolutionary adaptations to the commensal or pathogen lifestyle. (asm.org)
  • B. bronchiseptica" infects healthy ciliated epithelial cells whereas most respiratory pathogens cannot. (kenyon.edu)
  • In addition to determining the distribution and spread of the pathogen, experiments will be conducted to elucidate important biological aspects of C. cereale . (uconn.edu)
  • The fungus produces its sexual gametes (pycniospores and receptive hyphae) on the alternate host. (metos.at)
  • Here we summarize the historical literature on C. gattii and recent literature supporting the world-wide occurrence of the primary pathogen C. gattii. (nih.gov)
  • B. brochiseptica" is the primary pathogen of swine. (kenyon.edu)
  • This transcriptional reprogramming is almost wholly absent in the related, but nonpathogenic, yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae , suggesting that these large-scale and coordinated changes contribute significantly to the ability of this organism to survive and cause disease in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Importantly, levels of anti-LPS antibodies are significantly higher in melioidosis patients who survive in comparison to those who succumb to disease 22 . (nature.com)
  • It is becoming apparent that several intracellular bacterial pathogens of humans can also survive within protozoa. (nih.gov)
  • Cryptococcus gattii is an environmentally occurring pathogen that is responsible for causing cryptococcosis marked by pneumonia and meningoencephalitis in humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • B. burgdorferi infects humans as accidental host via tick bites. (iu.edu)
  • While most pathogens are species-specific, that is, restricted to either certain animals or humans, some, i.e. the zoonoses, are transmissible from animals to humans, often through close contact with animals or food products derived from these animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Humans (an intermediate host) can be infected not only via eating meat containing parasite cysts, but also via accidental ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts [ 6 ], ingestion of oocysts in contaminated food sources [ 7 ], or via gardening or cleaning cat litter. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mutualism occurs when both the pathogen and the host benefit from the interaction, as seen in the human stomach. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is thought, in large part, to be the result of natural selection through environmental amoebae, since virulence traits that the fungus has evolved to survive within such predators typically work just as effectively within human phagocytes. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Legionella pneumophila is an important human respiratory pathogen that survives and multiplies in biofilms or intracellularly within protists, such as amoebae. (asm.org)
  • This study highlights how ecology and virulence of an important human pathogen is affected by a defensive amoeba symbiont, with possibly major consequences for public health. (asm.org)
  • C. neoformans is a human pathogen currently responsible for almost 200,000 deaths annually, and we seek to understand how this yeast survives in the human host. (liberty.edu)
  • Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum is a well-known human pathogen that mainly causes respiratory disease and is associated with high mortality in compromised hosts. (scielo.br)
  • So far, available data on polygenetic virus-host interactions however are essentially all based on in vitro- and/or animal models crucially neglecting the human immune system with its individual genetic context. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an endemic human pathogen that establishes latency in neurons and can periodically reactivate over the lifetime of the host. (plos.org)
  • When taken together, these microbe-microbe and host-microbe interactions are capable of driving the large-scale failure of human metabolism characteristic of many different inflammatory conditions. (mpkb.org)
  • Although host immune evasion is a common strategy used by successful human fungal pathogens, C. albicans provokes recognition by host immune cells less capable of destroying it. (unl.edu)
  • Hallmarks of the life cycle of the clinically relevant V. cholerae isolates are the transitions between two dissimilar habitats, i.e., as a natural inhabitant of aquatic ecosystems and as a pathogen in the human gastrointestinal tract ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Subsequently we assessed the effect of increasing dosages of drugs targeting metabolism on the metabolic state of the pathogen and predict resulting metabolic adaptations and flux rerouting through various pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this area, we leverage our knowledge and understanding of bacterial metabolism and stress responses to increase the susceptibility of pathogens to killing by various immune antimicrobials, including reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species. (princeton.edu)
  • Nonetheless, the diseases caused by most environmentally acquired fungi occur predominantly in hosts with preexisting immune impairment and/or those that acquire large inocula. (asm.org)
  • This review seeks to provide an update on the progress made in host-fungi interactions as it relates to vaccine development. (scielo.br)
  • This creates a well-defined tolerance between the host and the fungi ( Cassone & Cauda 2012 ). (scielo.br)
  • Many fungi produce 'dormant' structures, which allow them to survive periods of unfavorable conditions. (nih.gov)
  • It is pertinent to study new strategies such as sulfone derivatives targeting the virulence attributes of C. albicans that differentiate them from the host. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, a large inoculum could also have the capacity to cause disease in healthy hosts, as illustrated by the dramatic example of self-experimentation in which a physician imbibed a C. albicans suspension that resulted in candidemia and candiduria ( 22 ). (asm.org)
  • Based on central nervous system (CNS) penetration or exceptional potency against one amebic species, we identified sixteen priority compounds for the treatment of meningoencephalitis caused by these pathogens. (stanford.edu)
  • Along with the monitoring of QPX distribution and abundance, he initiated an extensive research program on this environmentally opportunistic parasite to determine the species' life history traits, the environmental conditions under which it thrived and the dynamics involved in the host/parasite (clam/QPX) relationship. (stonybrook.edu)
  • The " ananatis ' species name derives from the first host of isolation, pineapple ( Ananas comosus ). (apsnet.org)
  • Although there have been a few studies utilizing RNA-Seq, the cellular processes of host-virus interaction in this species remain mostly anonymous. (peerj.com)