A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A CELL CYCLE and tumor growth marker which can be readily detected using IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY methods. Ki-67 is a nuclear antigen present only in the nuclei of cycling cells.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Eating other individuals of one's own species.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
All deaths reported in a given population.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
An order of nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA. Characteristics include an H-shaped excretory system with two subventral glands.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
The joining of objects by means of a cement (e.g., in fracture fixation, such as in hip arthroplasty for joining of the acetabular component to the femoral component). In dentistry, it is used for the process of attaching parts of a tooth or restorative material to a natural tooth or for the attaching of orthodontic bands to teeth by means of an adhesive.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Replacement for a hip joint.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Tumors or cancer of the NASOPHARYNX.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
Illicit use of chemicals and products whose vapors can be inhaled to produce a rapid mind-altering effect. Inhalants include aerosols, gases, and volatile solvents that are often inhaled repeatedly to achieve the short-lived intoxicating effect.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Passages within the liver for the conveyance of bile. Includes right and left hepatic ducts even though these may join outside the liver to form the common hepatic duct.
Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China since December 20, 1999 with its own constitution. The island of Macau and adjacent islands are located off the southeast coast of China.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
An expression of the number of mitoses found in a stated number of cells.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Administration of antineoplastic agents together with an embolizing vehicle. This allows slow release of the agent as well as obstruction of the blood supply to the neoplasm.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tumors or cancer of the URINARY BLADDER.
Replacement of the hip joint.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Works about controlled studies which are planned and carried out by several cooperating institutions to assess certain variables and outcomes in specific patient populations, for example, a multicenter study of congenital anomalies in children.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Tumors or cancer of the MOUTH.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
A malignant neoplasm derived from TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIAL CELLS, occurring chiefly in the URINARY BLADDER; URETERS; or RENAL PELVIS.

Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for the treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. (1/24672)

BACKGROUND: Since 1968 it has been known that bone marrow transplantation can ameliorate severe combined immunodeficiency, but data on the long-term efficacy of this treatment are limited. We prospectively studied immunologic function in 89 consecutive infants with severe combined immunodeficiency who received hematopoietic stem-cell transplants at Duke University Medical Center between May 1982 and September 1998. METHODS: Serum immunoglobulin levels and lymphocyte phenotypes and function were assessed and genetic analyses performed according to standard methods. Bone marrow was depleted of T cells by agglutination with soybean lectin and by sheep-erythrocyte rosetting before transplantation. RESULTS: Seventy-seven of the infants received T-cell-depleted, HLA-haploidentical parental marrow, and 12 received HLA-identical marrow from a related donor; 3 of the recipients of haploidentical marrow also received placental-blood transplants from unrelated donors. Except for two patients who received placental blood, none of the recipients received chemotherapy before transplantation or prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Of the 89 infants, 72 (81 percent) were still alive 3 months to 16.5 years after transplantation, including all of the 12 who received HLA-identical marrow, 60 of the 77 (78 percent) who were given haploidentical marrow, and 2 of the 3 (67 percent) who received both haploidentical marrow and placental blood. T-cell function became normal within two weeks after transplantation in the patients who received unfractionated HLA-identical marrow but usually not until three to four months after transplantation in those who received T-cell-depleted marrow. At the time of the most recent evaluation, all but 4 of the 72 survivors had normal T-cell function, and all the T cells in their blood were of donor origin. B-cell function remained abnormal in many of the recipients of haploidentical marrow. In 26 children (5 recipients of HLA-identical marrow and 21 recipients of haploidentical marrow) between 2 percent and 100 percent of B cells were of donor origin. Forty-five of the 72 children were receiving intravenous immune globulin. CONCLUSIONS: Transplantation of marrow from a related donor is a life-saving and life-sustaining treatment for patients with any type of severe combined immunodeficiency, even when there is no HLA-identical donor.  (+info)

Optimal thrombolytic strategies for acute myocardial infarction--bolus administration. (2/24672)

Optimal strategies for thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) are still being sought because the TIMI 3 flow rates achievable using standard regimens average approximately 60%. Double bolus administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a novel approach with potential for earlier patency combined with ease of administration. We reviewed total patency rates, TIMI 3 patency rates, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates in the major trials of accelerated infusion tPA/bolus tPA/reteplase in acute myocardial infarction. A direct comparison was performed with results of two recent trials of double bolus (two 50 mg boli, 30 min apart) vs. accelerated infusion tPA: the Double Bolus Lytic Efficacy Trial (DBLE), an angiographic study, and the COBALT Trial, a mortality study. The DBLE trial showed equivalent patency rates for accelerated infusion and double bolus administration of tPA. Reviewing other angiographic trials, total patency and TIMI 3 patency rates achievable with double bolus tPA were comparable to those with accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase administration. The COBALT study demonstrated a 30-day mortality of 7.53% in patients treated with accelerated infusion tPA compared with 7.98% for double bolus tPA treated patients. The small excess in mortality with double bolus treatment was confined to the elderly; in those < or = 75 years, mortality rates were 5.6% and 5.7%, for double bolus and accelerated infusion, respectively, and rates for death or non-fatal stroke were 6.35% and 6.3%, respectively. Comparison with other trials demonstrated mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates with double bolus treatment similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion tPA or bolus reteplase treatment. Double bolus administration of tPA to patients with acute myocardial infarction is associated with total patency, TIMI 3 patency, mortality, stroke and intracranial haemorrhage rates similar to those associated with either accelerated infusion of tPA or bolus reteplase.  (+info)

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (3/24672)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD). (4/24672)

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression. (5/24672)

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification.  (+info)

Peritoneal cytology in the surgical evaluation of gastric carcinoma. (6/24672)

Many patients undergoing surgery for gastric carcinoma will develop peritoneal metastases. A method to identify those patients at risk of peritoneal recurrence would help in the selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. Peritoneal cytology has received little attention in the West, but may prove a useful additional means of evaluating patients with gastric cancer. The aims of this study were to evaluate sampling techniques for peritoneal cytology in patients with gastric cancer, to assess the prognostic significance of free peritoneal malignant cells and to discover the effect of the operative procedure on dissemination of malignant cells. The study is based on 85 consecutive patients undergoing surgical treatment of gastric cancer and followed up for 2 years or until death. Peritoneal cytology samples were collected at laparoscopy, and at operation prior to resection by intraperitoneal lavage and serosal brushings. After resection, samples were taken by peritoneal lavage, imprint cytology of the resected specimen and post-operatively by peritoneal irrigation via a percutaneous catheter. Malignant cells were diagnosed by two independent microscopists. Preoperative peritoneal lavage yielded malignant cells in 16 out of 85 cases (19%). The yield of free malignant cells was increased by using serosal brushings (by four cases) and imprint cytology (by two cases); all of the cases had evidence of serosal penetration. One serosa-negative case exhibited positive cytology in the post-resection peritoneal specimen in which the preresection cytology specimen was negative. Survival was worse in the cytology-positive group (chi2 = 25.1; P< 0.0001). Among serosa-positive patients, survival was significantly reduced if cytology was positive, if cases yielded by brushings and imprint cytology were included (log-rank test = 8.44; 1 df, P = 0.004). In conclusion, free peritoneal malignant cells can be identified in patients with gastric cancer who have a poor prognosis; the yield can be increased with brushings and imprint cytology in addition to conventional peritoneal lavage. Evaluation of peritoneal cytology by these methods may have a role in the selection of patients with the poorest prognosis who may benefit most from adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Second-line treatment for primary central nervous system lymphoma. (7/24672)

Failure after first-line treatment was reported in 35-60% of immunocompetent patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). There are currently no reports focusing on salvage therapy. This review analyses prognostic factors and the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data from papers reporting results of first-line treatment in 355 cases. The study group consisted of 173 patients presenting treatment failure. The interval between failure and death (TTD) was compared for age at relapse (< or =60 vs. >60 years), type of failure (relapse vs. progression), time to relapse (< or =12 vs. >12 months) and salvage treatment (yes vs no). Median TTD was similar in younger and older patients (P = 0.09). Relapsed patients had a longer TTD than patients with progressive disease (P = 0.002). Early relapse led to a shorter TTD than late relapse (P = 0.005). Median TTD was 14 months for patients who underwent salvage therapy and 2 months for untreated cases (P<0.00001). A multivariate analysis showed an independent prognostic role for salvage therapy and time to relapse. Age and type of failure had no predictive value. Salvage therapy significantly improves outcome and, possibly, quality of life. As many different treatments were used conclusions cannot be made regarding an optimal treatment schedule.  (+info)

Treatment of advanced pancreatic cancer with the long-acting somatostatin analogue lanreotide: in vitro and in vivo results. (8/24672)

Fourteen patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were treated with the long-acting somatostatin (SST) analogue lanreotide. No objective response was obtained, and the median survival was 4 months (range 1.8-7 months). Pancreatic cancer could not be visualized by means of SST-receptor (R) scintigraphy in our patients. In vitro data also demonstrated absence of SSTR2 expression, suggesting pancreatic cancer not to be a potential target for treatment with SST analogues.  (+info)

For various parameter combinations, the logistic-exponential survival distribution belongs to four common classes of survival distributions: increasing failure rate, decreasing failure rate, bathtub-shaped failure rate, and upside-down bathtub-shaped failure rate. Graphical comparison of this new distribution with other common survival distributions is seen in a plot of the skewness versus the coefficient of variation. The distribution can be used as a survival model or as a device to determine the distribution class from which a particular data set is drawn. As the three-parameter version is less mathematically tractable, our major results concern the two-parameter version. Boundaries for the maximum likelihood estimators of the parameters are derived in this article. Also, a fixed-point method to find the maximum likelihood estimators for complete and censored data sets has been developed. The two-parameter and the three-parameter versions of the logistic-exponential distribution are applied to two
Parametric Survival Models Germ an Rodr guez [email protected] Spring, 2001; revised Spring 2005, Summer 2010 We consider brie y the analysis of survival data when one is willing to assume a parametric form for the distribution of survival time. These objects bundle together a set of times together with a set of data indicating whether the times are censored or not. Acute Myelogenous Leukemia survival data: anova.coxph: Analysis of Deviance for a Cox model. Before you go into detail with the statistics, you might want to learnabout some useful terminology:The term \censoring\ refers to incomplete data. Low Muscle Mass is a Predictor of Malnutrition and Prolonged Hospital Stay in Patients With Acute Exacerbation of COPD: A Longitudinal Study. CRS, Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai, India. These are location-scale models for an arbitrary transform of the time variable; the most common cases use a log transformation, leading to accelerated failure time models. Parametric survival analysis using R: ...
Survival Analysis with R bioconnector.org. Introduction. Survival analysis is generally defined as a set of methods for analyzing data where the outcome variable is the time until the occurrence of an event of, Introduction. Survival analysis is generally defined as a set of methods for analyzing data where the outcome variable is the time until the occurrence of an event of. • D. R. Cox and D. Oakes, Analysis of Survival Data, Chapman and Hall, 1984. Introduction to Survival Analysis 4 2. The Nature of Survival Data: Censoring 25/04/2009В В· Censoring in Clinical Trials: Review of Survival Analysis Techniques. J R Stat Soc Series B Stat Methodol. 1972; 34:216вЂ7. 8. Grambsch PM, Therneau TM.. A Step-by-Step Guide to Survival Analysis Lida Gharibvand, University of California, Riverside ABSTRACT Survival analysis involves the modeling of time-to-event data In the current tutorial, Survival analysis refers to methods for the analysis of data in which the The output from the R analysis ...
In this article we will discuss how to create Parametric Survival model, types of model, few commonly used distribution in a survival model.
We discuss parametric survival analysis using distributions like normal, uniform, exponential weibull & lognormal along with its application
PubMed journal article Using machine learning to estimate survival curves for patients receiving an increased risk for disease transmission heart, liver, or lung versus waiting for a standard orga were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Peto-Peto logrank test Logrank test as a linear rank test The logrank test can be derived by assigning scores to the ranks of the death times. It treats the problem as though it were in discrete time, with events happening only at 1 yr, 2 yr, etc. Specifically, the probability that a participant survives past interval 1 is. The implication in R and SAS is that (widehatS(t_0)1). Quantities estimated Midpoint (t_mj(t_jt_j-1 2) Width (b_jt_j-t_j-1) Conditional probability of dying (widehatq_jd_j/r_j Conditional probability of surviving (widehatp_j1-widehatq_j) Cumulative probability of surviving at (t_j (widehatS(t)prod_lleq jwidehatp_l) Hazard in the j-th interval the number of deaths in the interval divided by the average number of survivors. In the four survival function graphs shown above, the shape of the survival function is defined by a online particular probability distribution: survival function 1 is defined by an exponential distribution, 2 is defined by a Weibull distribution, 3 is ...
Two estimators of the survivor function are available: one is the product-limit estimate and the other is based on the empirical cumulative hazard function. ...
Contents: Time-to-event data are ubiquitous in fields such as medicine, biology, demography, sociology, economics and reliability theory. In biomedical research, the analysis of time-to-death (hence the name survival analysis) or time to some composite endpoint such as progression-free survival is the most prominent advanced statistical technique. One distinguishing feature is that the data are typically incompletely observed - one has to wait for an event to happen. If the event has not happened by the end of the observation period, the observation is said to be right-censored. This is one reason why the analysis of time-to-event data is based on hazards. Statistical methodology for hazards differs from more standard applied statistics. This course will emphasize the modern process point of view towards survival data without diving too far into the technicalities. The level of the course corresponds to one of the many applied introductory texts to survival analysis. After this course, students ...
Indice Bibliografía Well received in its first edition, Survival Analysis: A Practical Approach is completely revised to provide an accessible and practical guide to survival analysis techniques in diverse environments. Illustrated with many authentic examples, the book introduces basic statistical concepts and methods to construct survival curves, later developing them to encompass more specialised and complex models. During the years since the first edition there have been several new topics that have come to the fore and many new applications. Parallel developments in computer software programmes, used to implement these methodologies, are relied upon throughout the text to bring it up to date. Índice: Preface to the first edition. Preface to the second edition. Chapter 1 Introduction and review of statistical concepts. Chapter 2 Survival Curves. Chapter 3 Comparison of Survival Curves. Chapter 4 Parametric Modelling. Chapter 5 Coxs Proportional Hazards Model. Chapter 6 Selecting Variables ...
Abstract. Royston and Parmar (2002, Statistics in Medicine 21: 2175-2197) developed a class of flexible parametric survival models that were programmed in Stata with the stpm command (Royston, 2001, Stata Journal 1: 1-28). In this article, we introduce a new command, stpm2, that extends the methodology. New features for stpm2 include improvement in the way time-dependent covariates are modeled, with these effects far less likely to be over parameterized; the ability to incorporate expected mortality and thus fit relative survival models; and a superior predict command that enables simple quantification of differences between any two covariate patterns through calculation of time-dependent hazard ratios, hazard differences, and survival differences. The ideas are illustrated through a study of breast cancer survival and incidence of hip fracture in prostate cancer patients ...
begingroup$ Describe your data better. After a machine has Failed=1 is that the end of it - like a death in a classical survival analysis? Do you have several days for each machine where it didnt fail, and then either no Failed for machines that are still working (in survival analysis these are censored) or one Failed record for the failures? You may have data suitable for survival analysis with time-varying explanatory variables (your pressure etc). Standard methods exist, but cant predict when a machine will fail, only probabilities of fails within time spans. $\endgroup$ - Spacedman Sep 29 16 at 7:46 ...
Cursos de Survival Analysis das melhores universidades e dos líderes no setor. Aprenda Survival Analysis on-line com cursos como Survival Analysis in R for Public Health and Statistical Analysis with R for Public Health.
Gather your bravest friends and test your nerve on a zombie survival adventure - will you beat the zombies and escape the factory or succumb to the flesh-eating disease?
Applied Survival Analysis: Regression Modeling of Time-To-Event Data download free PDF and Ebook Writer David W. Hosmer in English published by JOHN WILEY AND SONS LTD
I am dealing with survey data from firms to conduct survival analysis. I am going to estimate with Kaplan - Meier and a Cox Regression. I face rigth censored data as usual but I have to deal with the different starting operation year of each firm. The survey covers 2006 - 2015. Some firms start operations on 2006 and survive until end or close before they get censored. But then some others starts on 2007, 2008 or even 2014. An easy way to deal with would be to just consider firms that started on 2006 and followed them until 2015. But then I would lose 80% of data. The literature I says it shouldnt be a problem if I take in consideration the less exposed time to risk. As happens with medical survival analysis when you have patients information. I wonder if I should also control in my model the effect of the year they started operations. Or that wouldn´t be rigth at all. Thanks in advance!. ...
Released: February 14, 2017. 1. Fixed an error in the Logrank Tests (Input Proportion Surviving) and Logrank Tests (Input Mortality) procedures. The procedures were not calculating the hazard rates correctly when using spreadsheet entry for the survival proportions or the mortality rates. PASS was calculating hazard rates for each row as though all previous survival proportions (or mortalities) were equal. The detail reports for these two procedures were also corrected to display appropriate values. 2. Fixed a problem in the Survival Parameter Conversion Tool. Mortality 1 Until T0 was not updating when changing Median Survival Time 1 or Hazard Ratio 1. 3. Corrected Tests for One ROC Curve procedure. If AUC0 = AUC1, the power should be undefined, but was being reported as 0.5. 4. Fixed Confidence Intervals for One Standard Deviation using Relative Error procedure. When solving for Relative Error, the search did not converge. 5. Fixed error in summary statements of 4 exponential survival ...
classification, compared with 45 and 30% for the AJCC N0/N1 and N2 classification groups (log-rank χ 2 = 18.08, P , 0.05 and log-rank = 27.92, P = 0.00, respectively). From the multivariate survival analysis, the N, M stage and grade were indicated as the. ...
In biomedical research, especially in the fields of epidemiology or oncology, one of the most common outcome under assessment is the time to an event of interest (also called failure), namely survival time. The considered event is often death, but could be anything else such as cancer relapse or progression instead. The vast majority of survival analyses have extensively been using Kaplan-Meier (KM) estimates, log-rank tests and Cox proportional hazards (CoxPH) models, all of which we will describe shortly.
Parametric survival curves can be used when a distribution of failure time can be supposed. Run all your survival analyses in Excel using the XLSTAT software.
Calculates nonparametric pointwise confidence intervals for the survival distribution for right censored data. Has two-sample tests for dissimilarity (e.g., difference, ratio or odds ratio) in survival at a fixed time. Especially important for small sample sizes or heavily censored data. Includes mid-p options.. ...
Calculates nonparametric pointwise confidence intervals for the survival distribution for right censored data. Has two-sample tests for dissimilarity (e.g., difference, ratio or odds ratio) in survival at a fixed time. Especially important for small sample sizes or heavily censored data. Includes mid-p options.. ...
Survival time refers to a variable which measures the time from a particular starting time (e.g., time initiated the treatment) to a particular endpoint of interest (time-to-event). In biomedical applications, this is known as survival analysis, and the times may represent the survival time of a living organism or the time until a diseased is…
This course introduces survival analysis in the context of business data mining. The focus is on understanding customer behaviors that have a time-to-event component using SAS Enterprise Guide.
Please provide below the URL and description of an activity you would like to add to OpenCME. You are welcome to add activities as often as you like. To prevent spam or other abuse, activities are reviewed by our editorial team before appearing on OpenCME. ...
Hi, Statalisters. I am not sure whether in a survival analysis I can reflect the following sequence of events: (1) during some periods, an agent does not fit into a certain category (specifically, a variable characterizing that agent is lower than a threshold); (2) after a concrete moment, the agent fits into the category (the variable is above the threshold); 3) but then, after a few periods, the individual, again, does not fit into the category (the variable is below the threshold). Will anyone please help me with this? Thanks in advance. Miguel. * * For searches and help try: * http://www.stata.com/help.cgi?search * http://www.stata.com/support/faqs/resources/statalist-faq/ * http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/ ...
9780471754992 Our cheapest price for Applied Survival Analysis : Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data is $81.00. Free shipping on all orders over $35.00.
Survival analyses in general allow events and non-events to be taken into account. Non-events are called censoring. There are two types of censoring: the lost to follow-up, which are patients who leave the study before the end of the study, and patients who do not experience the event for the duration of the study ...
A Survival Analysis gives you unprecedented insight into when in the membership lifecycle your members are leaving. It can help you understand what is happening with your members and to formulate strategies for retaining them.. This 5-minute tutorial walks you through the process of gathering the data necessary for the report from your Daxko operations platform.. ...
Survival analysis is mostly used and well known in biomedical research, however we can make the link with the business easily. In medicine, we want...
Data sets are referred to in the text Applied Survival Analysis Using R by Dirk F. Moore, Springer, 2016, ISBN: 978-3-319-31243-9, |DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-31245-3|.
Density, cumulative distribution function, quantile function and random generation for the set of distributions supported by the survreg function.
Right censored data is the type of data in which the interested event has not been observed in working period determined initially; or which is arisen..
Functional programming principles to iteratively run Cox regression and plot its results. The results are reported in tidy data frames. Additional utility functions are available for working with other aspects of survival analysis such as survival curves, C-statistics, etc.. ...
Im performing a survival analysis where I compare between 2 conditions in one cell type (cell type 1) vs two conditions in the other (cell type 2). The...
Abstract: Estimating survival functions has interested statisticians for numerous years. A survival function gives information on the probability of a time-to-event of interest. Research in the area of survival analysis has increased greatly over the last several decades because of its large usage in areas related to biostatistics and the pharmaceutical industry. Among the methods which estimate the survival function, several are widely used and available in popular statistical software programs. One purpose of this research is to compare the efficiency between competing estimators of the survival function. Results are given for simulations which use nonparametric and parametric estimation methods on censored data. The simulated data sets have right-, left-, or interval-censored time points. Comparisons are done on various types of data to see which survival function estimation methods are more suitable. We consider scenarios where distributional assumptions or censoring type assumptions are ...
The goal of this seminar is to give a brief introduction to the topic of survival analysis. We will be using a smaller and slightly modified version of the UIS data set from the book Applied Survival Analysis by Hosmer and Lemeshow. We strongly encourage everyone who is interested in learning survival analysis to read this text as it is a very good and thorough introduction to the topic.. Survival analysis is just another name for time to event analysis. The term survival analysis is predominately used in biomedical sciences where the interest is in observing time to death either of patients or of laboratory animals. Time to event analysis has also been used widely in the social sciences where interest is on analyzing time to events such as job changes, marriage, birth of children and so forth. The engineering sciences have also contributed to the development of survival analysis which is called reliability analysis or failure time analysis in this field since the main focus is in modeling ...
Survival analysis is the name for a collection of statistical techniques used to describe and quantify time to event data. STAT 7780: Survival Analysis First Review Peng Zeng Department of Mathematics and Statistics Auburn University Fall 2017 Peng Zeng (Auburn University)STAT 7780 { Lecture NotesFall 2017 1 / 25. The vague title is a cover-up for the more honest topics in and around survival analysis which interest me at the moment, with an audience of French probabilists in mind. masters-level University of Essex lecture course EC968, and my Essex University Summer School course on Survival Analysis.1 (The -rst draft was completed in January 2002, and has been revised several times since.) Analysis of Survival Data Lecture Notes (Modifled from Dr. A. Tsiatis Lecture Notes) Daowen Zhang Department of Statistics North Carolina State University °c … Lecture 5: Survival Analysis 5-3 Then the survival function can be estimated by Sb 2(t) = 1 Fb(t) = 1 n Xn i=1 I(T i>t): 5.1.2 Kaplan-Meier ...
In this article we introduce an extension of Chens (2000) family of distributions given by Lehman alternatives [see Gupta et al.(1998)] that is shown to present another alternative to the generalized Weibull and exponentiated Weibull families for modeling survival data. The extension proposed here can be seen as the extension to the Chens distribution as the exponentiated Weibull is to the Weibull. A structural analysis of the density function in terms of tail classification and extremes is carried out similar to that of generalized Weibull family carried ...
PyData London 2016. Survival analysis is a set of statistical techniques that has many applications in the industry. This talk will discuss key concepts behind survival analysis by means of examples implemented via Lifelines, an open source python library, and in R for comparison purposes. I will also describe how we have made use of these techniques in Lyst to try to predict when items go out of stock.. Many problems involve the understanding the duration of specific events; for example, predicting when a customer will churn, when a person will default on a credit, how long a machine will work, etc. These type of questions constitute the realm of Survival analysis, a branch of statistics historically developed by professionals in the actuarial and medical fields dealing with event durations as governed by probability laws.. In this talk I will cover the basics of Survival analysis via examples implemented via Lifelines, an open-source python library and in R (survival and KMsurv libraries), ...
This is a one-day workshop led by SLS staff (Prof Gillian Raab) on survival analysis for time to event data suitable for those with experience of statistical analyses but new to this type of analysis. This course would be of particular interest to those considering using the Scottish Longitudinal Study to analyse time to event data.. This workshop will introduce methods to display and model time to event data, including Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression. The survival analysis theory will be complimented with hands-on practical sessions using either SPSS or Stata (R if sufficient interest is indicated) on training datasets. Presentations of real projects will also be given to demonstrate research potential.. The course is intended for postgraduate students, academics and social or health researchers interested in learning how to do survival analysis in a statistical package. The course assumes some skills in statistical analysis, in particular a good knowledge of multiple ...
Study says the toxicities associated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) may explain the lack of overall survival improvement compared with tamoxifen
Michael Eagle, Tiffany Barnes. Effects such as student dropout and the non-normal distribution of duration data confound the exploration of tutor efficiency, time-in-tutor vs. tutor performance, in intelligent tutors. We use an accelerated failure time (AFT) model to analyze the effects of using automatically generated hints in Deep Thought, a propositional logic tutor. AFT is a branch of survival analysis, a statistical technique designed for measuring time-to-event data and account for participant attrition. We found that students provided with automatically generated hints were able to complete the tutor in about half the time taken by students who were not provided hints. We compare the results of survival analysis with a standard between-groups mean comparison and show how failing to take student dropout into account could lead to incorrect conclusions. We demonstrate that survival analysis is applicable to duration data collected from intelligent tutors and is particularly useful when a ...
An estimated 70% of survival improvement in heart attack mortality is attributed to technological advances and procedures developed over the past 30 years, including CABG (coronary artery bypass graft), PTCA…
Kaplan-Meier survival analysis between ARMS expression and the overall survival in melanoma patients. Patients with negative-, weak-, or moderate-ARMS express
Breast cancer survival rates in the UK have improved at a stronger pace than in the rest of western European, it has been claimed.
Symptoms of depression have been associated with increased smoking prevalence and failure to quit smoking in several cross-sectional and population-based studies. Few studies, however, have prospectively examined the ability of current symptoms of depression to predict failure to quit smoking in treatment-motivated smokers. Pretreatment depressed mood was assessed by 3
This course discusses survival analysis concepts with an emphasis on health care problems. The course focuses on the Cox proportional hazards model, not the parametric models, and is not designed for predictive modelers.
在先前的三篇文章已經有介紹存活分析(Survival analysis)的使用時機、如何繪製存活曲線圖(Kaplan-Meier curve),以及如何比較「組別」之間的存活曲線是否有顯著差異(Log
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380930/ They investigate the health associations of frequent church attendance by doing a multiple logistic regression and a survival analysis that adjusts for other factors (Cox proportional hazards). In laymans terms, how do survival analyses and log...
Numerical integration of cause-specific survival curves to arrive at cause-specific cumulative incidence functions, with three usage modes: 1) Convenient API for parametric survival regression followed by competing-risk analysis, 2) API for CFC, accepting user-specified survival functions in R, and 3) Same as 2, but accepting survival functions in C++.. ...
Objective Response Rate (ORR). Duration of response (DoR). Disease control rate (DCR). Proportion of patients alive and progression free at 6 months (APF6) using investigational site assessments according to RECIST 1.1. Proportion of patients alive and progression free at 12 months (APF12) using investigational site assessments according to RECIST 1.1. Proportion of patients alive at 12 months (OS12). Proportion of patients alive at 18 months (OS18). Proportion of patients alive at 24 months (OS24). ...
PyData Amsterdam 2017. What percentage of your users will spend? Typically, analysts use the conversion rate to assess how successful a website is at converting trial users into paying ones. But is this calculation giving us results that are lower than reality? With a talk rich in examples, Tristan will show how Shopify reframes the traditional conversion questions in survival analysis terms.. Abstract What percentage of your users will spend? Typically, analysts use the conversion rate to assess how successful a website is at converting trial users into paying ones. But is this calculation giving us results that are lower than reality? With a talk rich in examples, Tristan will show how Shopify reframes the traditional conversion questions in survival analysis terms.. ...
05}. 05 seems to work well in practice and is used by a number of statistical packages. 15) Jvîr(tR). 15) is most easily illustrated with an example. 03 years. 25). Because years are generally easier to understand than days, we continue the presentation using years as the unit of time. 55 . 221. The value of /S) is the smallest value of time, /, such that 5 ( 0 ^ 0 . 5 - 0 . 45 . 628. 4741. 38). 5 Estimated Quartiles, Estimated Standard Errors, and 95% Confidence Interval Estimates for Survival Time (years) in the WHAS100 Study Quantité Estimate Std. A brief presentation of the central ideas behind the counting process formulation of survival analysis is given in Appendix 2. We will use results from this theory to provide justification for estimators, confidence interval estimators and hypothesis testing methods. After obtaining the estimated survival function, we may wish to obtain pointwise confidence interval estimates. 6), Andersen, Borgan, Gill and Keiding (1993, Chapter IV) or Fleming ...
As I understand from a comment, the OP didnt realize that the Kaplan-Meier estimate is nothing but the empirical estimate of the survival function in case when there is no censoring.. Let me tell a word about that. Consider two independent random variables $X$ and $Y$ with continuous distributions, and independent replicated observations $x_i$ and $y_i$, $i=1, \ldots, n$. In the context of the Kaplan-Meier estimate, $Y$ is considered as the censoring variable and one observes the minima $t_i=\min(x_i,y_i)$ together with the indicators $\delta_i={\boldsymbol 1}_{x_i \leq y_i}$, independent replicated observations of $T=\min(X,Y)$ and $\Delta={\boldsymbol 1}_{X \leq Y}$ respectively.. Note that $\Pr(T ,t)=\Pr(X,t)\Pr(Y,t)$, that is to say $\boxed{S^T(t)=S^X(t)S^Y(t)}$ by denoting $S^T$, $S^X$ and $S^Y$ the survival functions of $T$, $X$ and $Y$ respectively.. The usual empirical survival function $\hat{S}^T$ of $T$ is available from the data. When seeking estimates $\hat{S}^X$ and $\hat{S}^Y$ of ...
5) is, in some sense, the traditional approach in that it may be found in most textbooks on survival analysis published prior to 1990. In contrast, the texts by Fleming and Harrington (1991) and Andersen, Borgan, Gill and Keiding (1993) consolidate a large number of results derived from applications of theory based on counting processes and martingales. This theory is well beyond the scope of this text, but we mention it here as it has allowed development of many useful tools and techniques for the analysis of survival time data. 42 . 42 years). We have defined the quantiles in terms of the proportion or percentage surviving more than the stated values. Many software packages provide estimates of the 37 USING THE ESTIMATED SURVIVAL FUNCTION proportion not surviving. For example, SAS and STATA label the value of 538 days as the 25lh percentile and the value of 2710 days as the 75th percentile. It all depends on whether one wishes to count the living or the dead. 11) is used by most software ...
In an effort to widen the area of applicability of the self-consistent estimator of a bivariate survival distribution developed earlier to more complex situations, the following situation of double censoring was considered. The Nonparametric Estimation of a Bivariate Survivorship Function with Doubly Censored Data: Frequently are doubly censored-that is, some of the data may be censored on the left (late entries) some on the right (losses) while some others may be uncensored (deaths). Keywords: Computations, Iterations. (kr)*BIVARIATE ANALYSIS
This article provides a practical example of the development of a survival analysis model. It begins with an overview of the software tool that was used, SAS. The next section examines the construction of a longitudinal file and the challenges that may present. Of particular interest are explanatory variables that do not have a constant value over time. An example of a practical application is provided to illustrate the survival approach. The example consists of an analysis based on data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID), specifically data from panel 1 between January 1993 and December 1998. Survey information in vector form is used to develop a Cox semi-parametric model. Comments are provided on a sample computer program. The way in which the program handles the main variables is also discussed. The last section contains a brief description of the results of a relatively simple model.. ...
MiR-221, acting as onco-miR or oncosuppressor-miR, plays an important role in tumor progression; however, the prognostic value of miR-221 in human carcinomas is controversial and inconclusive. The objective of our study was to conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of miR-221 in various types of human cancers. An online search of up-to-date electronic databases, including PubMed and Embase, was conducted to identify as many relevant papers as possible. 32 papers involving 3041 patients with different carcinomas were included in the analysis. Hazard ratios (HRs) of miR-221 were used to evaluate prognostic values. Thirty-two papers involving 15 cancers were included. MiR-221 was associated with a worse overall survival (OS) in patients, and a combined HR was 1.93 (95% CI of 1.43-2.60, 2080 patients, 22 studies, I-squared = 80.4%, P = 0.000); however, the combined HR for relapse-free survival (RFS) was 1.37 (95% CI of 0.75-2.48, 625 patients, 7 studies, I-squared = 78.8%, P = 0.000), and disease
Survival analysis of patients with a PFS event who did not receive post-progression therapy in AVAglio (bevacizumab [BEV] plus radiotherapy [RT] and temozolomide [TMZ] for newly diagnosed glioblastoma [GBM]) ...
Comparison of the overall patient survival curves according to tumor size with a cutoff at 5 cm in the TACE-PVE group (A), PVE-alone group (B) and control group
Survival analysis is long-established within actuarial science but infrequently used in general data science projects. We explain more with worked examples.
Survival analysis is long-established within actuarial science but infrequently used in general data science projects. We explain more with worked examples.
Estimates survival and mortality with covariates from capture-recapture/recovery data in a Bayesian framework when many individuals are of unknown age. It includes tools for data checking, model diagnostics and outputs such as life-tables and plots.. ...
Studys findings appear to suggest that part of the reason why women with breast cancer from deprived areas have worse overall survival may be related to mutations in the p53 gene
This command performs Cox-Proportional Hazards and Extended Cox-Proportional Hazards survival analysis. This form of survival analysis relates covariates to failure through hazard ratios. A covariate with a hazard ratio greater than one causes failure. A covariate with a hazard ratio less than one improves survival. Some of the subjects may be unavailable prior to failure; the term censored is applied to them. COXPH is especially constructed to deal with this situation. Statistics showing the risk set by group and time can be written to an OUTTABLE for later formatting.. Syntax ...
Comments:. For this survival analysis, a reach is defined from the release site or the tailrace of the upper project to the tailrace of the lower project. The estimates reported in the table and plotted on the graph may be an average of the estimates calculated for each PIT Tag Group that makes up this group. In this case, the survival estimate is the arithmetic mean of the survival estimates for each PIT-Tag group and the 95% CI is calculated using a T statistic with n-1 degrees of freedom and the empirical variance. For more detailed information on these estimates including selection criteria used for this group follow the link below labeled DART PIT Tag Survival and Travel Time Analysyis.. Related links:. ...
Comments:. For this survival analysis, a reach is defined from the release site or the tailrace of the upper project to the tailrace of the lower project. The estimates reported in the table and plotted on the graph may be an average of the estimates calculated for each PIT Tag Group that makes up this group. In this case, the survival estimate is the arithmetic mean of the survival estimates for each PIT-Tag group and the 95% CI is calculated using a T statistic with n-1 degrees of freedom and the empirical variance. For more detailed information on these estimates including selection criteria used for this group follow the link below labeled DART PIT Tag Survival and Travel Time Analysyis.. Related links:. ...
In survival analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) is the ratio of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions described by two ... Cantor, Alan (2003). Sas Survival Analysis Techniques for Medical Research. SAS Institute. pp. 111-150. ISBN 9781590471357.. ... David G. Kleinbaum; Mitchel Klein (2005). Survival Analysis: A Self-Learning Text (2 ed.). Springer. ISBN 9780387239187. ... an institutional survival analysis of 275 patients". World Journal of Surgical Oncology. 9 (69). doi:10.1186/1477-7819-9-69.. ...
Parametric model in survival analysis. In the statistical area of survival analysis, an accelerated failure time model (AFT ... Bradburn, MJ; Clark, TG; Love, SB; Altman, DG (2003), "Survival Analysis Part II: Multivariate data analysis - an introduction ... Cox, David Roxbee; Oakes, D. (1984), Analysis of Survival Data, CRC Press, ISBN 978-0-412-24490-2. ... Wei, L. J. (1992). "The accelerated failure time model: A useful alternative to the cox regression model in survival analysis ...
In survival analysis, F. ¯. (. x. ). {\displaystyle {\bar {F}}(x)}. is called the survival function and denoted S. (. x. ). {\ ... Cumulative frequency analysis is the analysis of the frequency of occurrence of values of a phenomenon less than a reference ... Use in statistical analysis[edit]. The concept of the cumulative distribution function makes an explicit appearance in ...
Andrew Brennan, Personal identity and personal survival. Analysis, 42, 44-50. 1982. ... Robinson, John (1988). "Personal identity and survival". Journal of Philosophy. 85 (6): 319-328. doi:10.2307/2026722. JSTOR ... Roots, Identity, Nationality A brief critical analysis of the concept of identity ...
Klein, J. P.; Moeschberger, M. L. (2003). Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. New York: Springer. p ... Greene, W. H. (2003). Econometric Analysis (Fifth ed.). Prentice-Hall. p. 759. ISBN 0-13-066189-9. .. ... is the complementary cumulative distribution function (also called survival function). The concept is named after John P. Mills ... A common application of the inverse Mills ratio (sometimes also called "non-selection hazard") arises in regression analysis to ...
They permit a higher degree of cell survival during freezing, to lower the freezing point, to protect cell membrane from freeze ... An analysis of 11,768 cryopreserved human embryos". Fertility and Sterility. 93 (1): 109-15. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2008.09. ... Riggs R, Mayer J, Dowling-Lacey D, Chi TF, Jones E, Oehninger S (January 2010). "Does storage time influence postthaw survival ... A study of more than 11,000 cryopreserved human embryos showed no significant effect of storage time on post-thaw survival for ...
Cascales-Miñana, B.; Cleal, C. J. (2011). "Plant fossil record and survival analyses". Lethaia. 45: 71. doi:10.1111/j.1502- ... but statistical analyses have so far not produced clear conclusions.[67] However, analysis of the fossil river deposits of the ... Analysis of marine fossils from the period indicated a decrease in the abundance of sessile epifaunal suspension feeders such ... An analysis of marine fossils from the Permian's final Changhsingian stage found that marine organisms with low tolerance for ...
Sagård, Tora (2019). Causes of Ceasefire Failure: A survival analysis, 1989-2017 (PDF). Oslo: Peace Research Institute Oslo.. ...
A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials". J. Thromb. Haemost. 5 (4): 729-37. doi:10.1111/j.1538-7836.2007. ... Lazo-Langner A, Goss GD, Spaans JN, Rodger MA (April 2007). "The effect of low-molecular-weight heparin on cancer survival. ...
Survival Analysis for epidemiologic and Medical Research Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. Cambridge University Press, New York, ... Epidemiologic Analysis: a case-oriented approach. Oxford University Press, New York, 2001, ISBN 0195144899 ... Statistical Analysis of Epidemiologic Data. Oxford University Press, New York, 1991, 3. edition 2004, .mw-parser-output cite. ...
Cowan, Glora; O'Brien, Margaret (1990). "Gender and Survival vs. Death in Slasher Films: A Content Analysis". Sex Roles. 23 (3- ... Theory 472, 472 (1976); Glen G. Cain, "The Economic Analysis of Labor Market Discrimination: A Survey", in Handbook of Labor ... It is argued that microeconomic analysis of discrimination uses unusual methods to determine its effects (using explicit ... "Matched-Names Analysis Reveals No Evidence of Name-Meaning Effects: A Collaborative Commentary on Silberzahn and Uhlmann" (PDF ...
Harris HR, Orsini N, Wolk A (May 2014). "Vitamin C and survival among women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis". European ... A second meta-analysis found no effect on the risk of prostate cancer.[35] Two meta-analyses evaluated the effect of vitamin C ... A meta-analysis of 44 clinical trials has shown a significant positive effect of vitamin C on endothelial function when taken ... A 2013 meta-analysis found no evidence that vitamin C supplementation reduces the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke, ...
"Estimating and modeling the cure fraction in population-based cancer survival analysis". Biostatistics. 8 (3): 576-594. doi: ... Cure rate curves can be determined through an analysis of the data.[7] The analysis allows the statistician to determine the ... The simplest cure rate model was published by Berkson and Gage in 1952.[7] In this model, the survival at any given time is ... In complex diseases, such as cancer, researchers rely on statistical comparisons of disease-free survival (DFS) of patients ...
"Survival analysis of cancer risk reduction strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers". J Clin Oncol. 28 (2): 222-31. doi:10.1200 ... Survival impact[edit]. Among women who die before age 70.... 72 / 100. ... In the US in 2010, single-site testing had a retail cost of US$400 to $500, and full-length analysis cost about $3,000 per gene ... How quickly results are returned depends on the test-single-site analysis requires less lab time-and on the infrastructure in ...
"Survival analysis of cancer risk reduction strategies for BRCA1/2 mutation carriers". Journal of Clinical Oncology. 28 (2): 222 ... Surgery at age 50-54 reduces the probability of survival until age 80 by 8% (from 62% to 54% survival), surgery at age 55-59 by ... The survival advantage is more substantial when oophorectomy is performed together with prophylactic mastectomy.[11][12] ... The effect is not limited to women who have oophorectomy performed before menopause; an impact on survival is expected even for ...
Some remarks on the analysis of survival data. the First Seattle Symposium of Biostatistics: Survival Analysis.. ... Some remarks on the analysis of survival data. the First Seattle Symposium of Biostatistics: Survival Analysis.. ... Nan Laird and Donald Olivier (1981). "Covariance Analysis of Censored Survival Data Using Log-Linear Analysis Techniques". ... Cox, D. R.; Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of Survival Data. New York: Chapman & Hall. ISBN 041224490X.. ...
In survival analysis[11]. *In reliability engineering and failure analysis. *In electrical engineering to represent overvoltage ... Mann, Nancy R.; Schafer, Ray E.; Singpurwalla, Nozer D. (1974), Methods for Statistical Analysis of Reliability and Life Data, ... Liu, Chao; White, Ryen W.; Dumais, Susan (2010-07-19). Understanding web browsing behaviors through Weibull analysis of dwell ... Collett, David (2015). Modelling survival data in medical research (3rd ed.). Boca Raton: Chapman and Hall / CRC. ISBN 978- ...
Survival after radiotherapy in gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis. „Radiother Oncol". 92 (2), s. 176-183, Aug ... The impact of radiotherapy on survival in resectable gastric carcinoma: a meta-analysis of literature data. „Cancer Treat Rev ... Meta-analysis of randomized trials. „Eur J Surg Oncol". 40 (1), s. 12-26, Jan 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejso.2013.10.019. PMID: ... A meta-analysis of D1 versus D2 lymph node dissection. „Gastric Cancer". 15 Suppl 1, s. S60-69, Sep 2012. DOI: 10.1007/s10120- ...
"The investigation of the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis". Otology & Neurotology. 29 (6 ...
"survival: Survival Analysis". R Project. April 2019.. *^ Willekens, Frans (2014). "The Survival Package". Multistate Analysis ... Then survival rate can be defined as: S. (. t. ). =. ∏. i. :. t. i. ≤. t. (. 1. −. h. i. ). {\displaystyle S(t)=\prod \limits ... "Kaplan-Meier Survival Curves and the Log-Rank Test" (PDF). Survival Analysis (PDF). Handout and presentation. Seminar for ... Aalen, Odd; Borgan, Ornulf; Gjessing, Hakon (2008). Survival and Event History Analysis: A Process Point of View. Springer. pp ...
Osteosarcoma in adolescents and adults: survival analysis with and without lung metastases. „Ann Oncol". 20 (6), s. 1136-41, ... Mutation analysis of the RECQL4 gene in sporadic osteosarcomas. „Int J Cancer". 111 (3), s. 367-72, Sep 2004. DOI: 10.1002/ijc. ... Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program ... Osteosarcoma incidence and survival rates from 1973 to 2004: data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program ...
"Influence of glioblastoma contact with the lateral ventricle on survival: a meta-analysis". Journal of Neuro-Oncology. 131 (1 ... "Cell and molecular analysis of the developing and adult mouse subventricular zone of the cerebral hemispheres". The Journal of ... "Decreased survival in glioblastomas is specific to contact with the ventricular-subventricular zone, not subgranular zone or ...
... a survival analysis of relapse". Behaviour Research and Therapy. 43 (1): 1-14. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2003.12.002. PMID 15531349.. ... van Straten, A; Cuijpers, P (February 2009). "Self-help therapy for insomnia: a meta-analysis". Sleep Medicine Reviews. 13 (1 ... Cheng, SK; Dizon, J (2012). "Computerised cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia: a systematic review and meta-analysis". ... "The Efficacy and Safety of Drug Treatments for Chronic Insomnia in Adults: A Meta-analysis of RCTs". Journal of General ...
Log-rank test in survival analysis. *Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test for stratified contingency tables ... It is also a component of the definition of the t-distribution and the F-distribution used in t-tests, analysis of variance, ... Similarly, in analyses of contingency tables, the chi-squared approximation will be poor for small sample size, and it is ... It enters all analysis of variance problems via its role in the F-distribution, which is the distribution of the ratio of two ...
"Human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer survival: A systematic review and meta-analysis" (PDF). Oral Oncology. 48 (12 ... This study found no improvement in survival or disease-free survival with the addition of cetuximab to the conventional ... Survival advantages provided by new treatment modalities have been undermined by the significant percentage of people cured of ... There is a lower survival rate for similar tumor states in African Americans with head and neck cancer. Smoking and tobacco use ...
Cascales-Miñana, B.; Cleal, C. J. (2011). "Plant fossil record and survival analyses". Lethaia. 45: 71. doi:10.1111/j.1502- ... statistical analysis shows that this can only account for 50% of the observed pattern,[citation needed] and other evidence ( ... Their statistical analysis of marine extinction rates throughout the Phanerozoic suggested that neither long-term pressure ... "Survival without recovery after mass extinctions". PNAS. 99 (12): 8139-44. Bibcode:2002PNAS...99.8139J. doi:10.1073/pnas. ...
A pre-planned interim analysis showed improved survival and quality of life. The study was stopped for ethical reasons to give ... A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLoS ONE. 9 (7): e101320. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101320. PMC 4106761 . PMID 25051345 ... The cancer chemotherapic docetaxel has been used as treatment for CRPC with a median survival benefit of 2 to 3 months.[116][ ... A meta-analysis on the effects of voiding position during urination in males with prostate enlargement showed that sitting was ...
Prediction of post-remission survival in acute myeloid leukaemia: a post-hoc analysis of the AML96 trial. „Lancet Oncol". 13 (2 ... Comparable survival after HLA-well-matched unrelated or matched sibling donor transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in ... Azacitidine prolongs overall survival compared with conventional care regimens in elderly patients with low bone marrow blast ... Analysis of FLT3-activating mutations in 979 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia: association with FAB subtypes and ...
Markov/Markov for Discrimination and survival analysis for modeling sequential information in NPTB models". Decision Support ... Phylogenetic analysis[edit]. Main article: Computational phylogenetics. Phylogenetics and sequence alignment are closely ... 2004). Bioinformatics: Sequence and Genome Analysis (2nd ed.). Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: Cold Spring Harbor, NY. ... Abbott A.; Tsay A. (2000). "Sequence Analysis and Optimal Matching Methods in Sociology, Review and Prospect". Sociological ...
Comparative analyses of longevity and senescence reveal variable survival benefits of living in zoos across mammals. Sci Rep 6 ... In Africa, conservation is handled by the African Preservation Program (APP);[58] in the U.S. and Canada by Species Survival ...
"The Survival of Cambodia's Ethnic Minorities". Cultural Survival. Retrieved 15 February 2018.. ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ... Heuveline, Patrick (2001). "The Demographic Analysis of Mortality Crises: The Case of Cambodia, 1970-1979". Forced Migration ...
Stone, Linda (1988), Illness Beliefs and Feeding the Dead in Hindu Nepal: An Ethnographic Analysis, E. Mellen, ISBN ... Ram Gopal, Hindu culture during and after Muslim rule: survival and subsequent challenges, Published by M.D. Publications Pvt. ...
An analysis of mitochondrial DNA sequences published in 2003 confirmed that the black-billed magpie and the yellow-billed ... For subsequent years, the survival rate for the adult birds was 69%, implying that for those birds that survive the first year ...
The meta-analysis showed greater muscle mass gain in the intervention groups compared with the control groups (standard mean ... or the availability of critical secreted growth factors which are necessary to maintain muscle mass and satellite cell survival ... Based upon a meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials that was published in 2015, HMB supplementation has efficacy ... The studies included in the meta-analysis had durations of 2-12 months and the majority of studies lasted 2-3 months. Seene T ( ...
Engelmoer DJ, Rozen DE (December 2011). "Competence increases survival during stress in Streptococcus pneumoniae". Evolution. ... further analysis showed that neutrophils exposed to dead H. influenzae were more aggressive in attacking S. pneumoniae.[28] ...
"Virological Analysis: no link between Ebola outbreaks in west Africa and Democratic Republic of Congo". World Health ... Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves survival.[1] Rehydration may be via the oral or ... an analysis of Ebola virus RNA results and behavioural data". Lancet Global Health. 4 (10): e736-e743. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X( ... "not only gives patients a better chance of survival, but it prevents transmission of the virus to other people." The new ...
The prolonged survival made Minnie's case unique at the time. The reason behind this survival remains a mystery, since an ... The analyses of the study show that complications were more likely in patients with pre-operative comorbidities. Patients older ...
... indicating that Medicaid accessibility led to early detection of breast cancer and higher survival rates.[111] ... "State Medicaid Expansions and Mortality, Revisited: A Cost-Benefit Analysis" (PDF). American Journal of Health Economics. 3 (3 ...
Genetic analysis has shown that certain mallards appear to be closer to their Indo-Pacific relatives while others are related ... eggs and clutches are larger and nest survival is generally greater compared with mallards in their native range. [81] ...
"Phylogeographic Analysis of the mid-Holocene Mammoth from Qagnax Cave, St. Paul Island, Alaska" (PDF).. ... Each member of the group was skilled at all tasks essential to survival, regardless of individual abilities. Theories to ... which would help ensure their survival in cold regions.[35] ... trade between bands would have helped ensure their survival by ...
This ensures that subsequent user errors cannot inadvertently perform meaningless analyses (for example correlation analysis ... Survival function. *Kaplan-Meier estimator (product limit). *Proportional hazards models. *Accelerated failure time (AFT) model ... Mosteller, Frederick (1977). Data analysis and regression : a second course in statistics. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. ... Cliff, N. (1996). Ordinal Methods for Behavioral Data Analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-1333-0 ...
Gunda, M. R. (2010). The Bible and Homosexuality in Zimbabwe : A Socio-historical Analysis of the Political, Cultural and ... Bassi, J. (2013). Pilot in the Wild: Flights of Conservation and Survival. South Africa: Jacana Media. pp. 116-8. ISBN 978-1- ... comparative cytogenetics and analysis of mitochondrial DNA". The Journal of Heredity. 82 (6): 447-52. doi:10.1093/ ...
An analysis of the causes of stunting in Nepal reveals that around half is rooted in poor maternal nutrition and half in poor ... Malnutrition remains a serious obstacle to child survival, growth and development in Nepal. The most common form of ... In addition, malnutrition constitutes a serious threat especially to young child survival and is associated with about one ... Further Analysis of the 2006 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey" (pdf). Macro International Inc. Retrieved 14 November 2012. " ...
As survival following the procedure has increased, its use has expanded beyond cancer to autoimmune diseases[4][5] and ... "Data analysis slides by Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research". mcw.edu. Archived from the original on ... "MSK's One-Year Survival Rate after Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant Exceeds Expectations - Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer ... survival rates have been gradually improving across almost all populations and sub-populations receiving transplants.[40] ...
The genome contains multiple clusters of genes encoding proteins essential for survival in a nutrient-poor habitat. Included ... "The diversity and evolution of cell cycle regulation in alpha-proteobacteria: A comparative genomic analysis". BMC Systems ...
Louis J. Wicker, Robert B. Wilhelmson; Wilhelmson (1995). "Simulation and Analysis of Tornado Development and Decay within a ... going to a basement or an interior first-floor room of a sturdy building greatly increases chances of survival.[110] In tornado ... Analysis of observations including both stationary and mobile (surface and aerial) in-situ and remote sensing (passive and ... or under a sturdy piece of furniture such as a workbench further increases chances of survival.[114][115] ...
Some studies have suggested that the renal PAX genes act as pro-survival factors and allow tumor cells to resist apoptosis. ... "A comprehensive analysis of PAX8 expression in human epithelial tumors". The American Journal of Surgical Pathology. 35 (6): ...
Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Notes[edit]. *^ a b Mann, Henry B.; Whitney, Donald R. (1947). "On a Test of ... Survival function. *Kaplan-Meier estimator (product limit). *Proportional hazards models. *Accelerated failure time (AFT) model ... Zar, Jerrold H. (1998). Biostatistical Analysis. New Jersey: Prentice Hall International, INC. p. 147. ISBN 0-13-082390-2.. ... A thorough analysis of the statistic, which included a recurrence allowing the computation of tail probabilities for arbitrary ...
... analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials". The Lancet. Oncology. 16 (2): 141-51. doi:10.1016/s1470 ... "Afatinib (BIBW 2992*) Triples Progression Free Survival in Phase III Study in Lung Cancer Patients". BusinessWire. 11 October ... but did not extend overall survival.[14] In May 2012, the Phase IIb/III trial Lux-Lung 1 came to the same conclusion.[15] ... Fall 2010 interim results suggested the drug extended progression-free survival threefold compared to placebo, ...
... "more than 1,200 species globally face threats to their survival in more than 90% of their habitat and will almost certainly ... "Landmark analysis documents the alarming global decline of nature". Science. AAAS. Retrieved 26 August 2020. Driving these ...
A Brdu analysis showed that excess testosterone did not increase this blocking effect against social isolation; that is, the ... Hamson DK, Wainwright SR, Taylor JR, Jones BA, Watson NV, Galea LA (2013). "Androgens increase survival of adult-born neurons ... Analysis showed that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone regulated adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN). Adult hippocampal ...
Survival rates in primary brain tumors depend on the type of tumor, age, functional status of the patient, the extent of ... a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545-1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16) ... The central nervous system cancer survival rate in children is approximately 60%. The rate varies with the type of cancer and ... Although chemotherapy may improve overall survival in patients with the most malignant primary brain tumors, it does so in only ...
It has long been clear that the Aethionema are sister of the remainder of the family.[9] One analysis from 2014 represented the ... depend upon native mustards for their survival, in their native habitats. Some non-native mustards, such as garlic mustard, ... Early DNA-analysis showed that the Capparaceae-as defined at that moment-were paraphyletic, and it was suggested to assign the ... Current insights in the relationships of the Brassicaceae, based on a 2012 DNA-analysis, are summarized in the following tree.[ ...
However, FEE analyses do not consider shortage the main factor,[321] while FAD-oriented scholars such as Bowbrick (1986) hold ... Very often, these girls lived in constant fear of injury or death, but the brothels were their sole means of survival.[262] ... More recent analyses often stress political factors.[BA] Discussions of the government's role split into two broad camps: those ... Sen, Amartya (1981b). "Ingredients of Famine Analysis: Availability and Entitlements". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 96 ( ...
Maunder M.N. (2003) Paradigm shifts in fisheries stock assessment: from integrated analysis to Bayesian analysis and back again ... Commonly, more than two visits are made, particularly if estimates of survival or movement are desired. Regardless of the total ... Maunder, M. N. (2004). "Population viability analysis, based on combining integrated, Bayesian, and hierarchical analyses". ... "Analysis of capture-recapture data". Retrieved 19 Nov 2014.. "Chapman and Hall/CRC Press". Retrieved 19 Nov 2014.. ...
Kolarich D, Weber A, Turecek PL, Schwarz HP, Altmann F (June 2006). "Comprehensive glyco-proteomic analysis of human alpha1- ... Since 1995, significant strides have been made in improving the survival of individuals affected with Alpha-1 through ... Mahr AD, Neogi T, Merkel PA (2006). "Epidemiology of Wegener's granulomatosis: Lessons from descriptive studies and analyses of ... and glycoproteomic analyses of alpha(1)-proteinase inhibitor products used for replacement therapy". Transfusion. 46 (11): 1959 ...
It is connected to sexual selection and survival of the species in various ways. Typically, display behaviour is used for ... "Examination of the Agonistic Behaviour of the Crayfish Orconectes Virilis By Character Analysis". Behaviour. 50 (3): 193-215. ...
Griffiths AJ, Miller JH, Suzuki DT, Lewontin RC, Gelbart WM (1999). An introduction to genetic analysis. New York: W. H. ... S1008: Genetic Selection and Crossbreeding to Enhance Reproduction and Survival of Dairy Cattle (S-284) Archived 2006-09-10 at ... Historical analysis indicated that a population expansion from just two matrilineal lines was responsible for most of the ... Freeman S, Herran JC (2007). "Aging and other life history characters". Evolutionary Analysis (4th ed.). Pearson Education, Inc ...
Allometric analysis indicates that mammalian brain size scales at approximately the ⅔ or ¾ exponent of the body mass. ... but increases the survival probability of each one. Females, referred to as "cows", carry the responsibility of childcare as ... Comparison of a particular animal's brain size with the expected brain size based on such allometric analysis provides an ... Subsistence hunters typically use whale products for themselves and depend on them for survival. National and international ...
Gruneberg, H., 1938 An analysis of the "pleiotropic" effects of a new lethal mutation in the rat (Mus norvegicus). Proc. R. Soc ... pleiotropy would facilitate mating and survival. However, pleiotropy can act negatively as well. A study on seed beetles found ... evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies". Archives of General Psychiatry. 60 (12): 1187-1192. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.60.12. ...
... the data analytic approach called survival analysis.This approach includes the type of problem addressed by survival analysis ... This introduction to survival analysis gives a descriptive overview of ... the goals of survival analysis, and some examples of survival analysis.. Keywords. Survival Time Survival Analysis Hazard ... This introduction to survival analysis gives a descriptive overview of the data analytic approach called survival analysis. ...
Survival analysis is concerned with studying the time between entry to a study and a subsequent event. Originally the analysis ... Kaplan-Meier survival curve. We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Suppose that the survival times, ... If I dont have any censored observations, do I need to use survival analysis?. Not necessarily, you could use a rank test such ... but survival analysis is applicable to many areas as well as mortality. Recent examples include time to discontinuation of a ...
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Aims: The aim of this module is to familiarize the student with the basic concepts and models in survival analysis. The ... Klein, J.P. and Moeschberger, M.L. (1997). Survival analysis, techniques for censored and truncated data, Springer, New York. ... The content will also include parametric and semiparametric models which are very common in survival analysis. ... Cox, D.R. and Oakes, D. (1984). Analysis of survival data, Chapman and Hall, New York. ...
The effects of covariate information can be assessed via a kind of generalised linear framework in the parametric analyses. The ... in the analysis of recidivism data in criminology, where the intentions are similar with respect to prisoners released from and ... the book is aimed very much at the practitioner who wishes to analyse survival data with (or even without) immunes. ... The aim of this book is to suggest and exemplify a systematic methodology for analysing survival data which contains immune, or ...
This book introduces readers to copula-based statistical methods for analyzing survival data involving dependent censoring. ... an accessible introduction to basic survival analysis and explains the mathematical foundations of copula-based survival models ... where survival analysis plays an important role.. The book can be used as a textbook for graduate coursework or a short course ... Competing Risk Compound Covariate Cox Regression Kendalls Tau Meta-Analysis Semi-Competing Risk Surrogate Endpoint ...
Survival Analysis. For some business applications, the response measure you want to predict is the elapsed time to an event. ... Survival analysis is a family of techniques developed to work with censored time-to-event response measures. Note that if ... Hence, survival analysis techniques enable the analyst to take full advantage of available data without waiting until every ... After three years, some of the patients in the study have died, and you can compute the survival time for each of these ...
Survival Analysis for Junior Researchers (SAfJR) 2020 *. Survival Analysis for Junior Researchers (SAfJR) 2020 * Organizing ... Survival Analysis, Springer 2003 O.O. Aalen, O. Borgan, H. Gjessing: Survival and Event History Analysis - A Process Point of ... In biomedical research, the analysis of time-to-death (hence the name survival analysis) or time to some composite endpoint ... students should be able to understand and use survival analysis as, e.g., required in standard clinical trials with a survival ...
Survival analysis to get DROP OUT rates. Ciao, I have data on student drop-outs and I am aiming to conduct a survival analysis ... Lognormal survival analysis in python. I need to make a survival analysis with lognormal parametric model using python. I have ... Survival Analysis - Median Overall Survival. I am trying to run a script to calculate KM median overall survival and ... bayesian survival analysis wth rstan. I want to construct stan(rstan) code for survival analysis using weibull distribution. ...
To address these limitations, we propose a meta-learning framework based on neural networks for survival analysis and evaluate ... For the application of predicting cancer survival outcome, we also show that the meta-learning framework with a few samples is ... Finally, we demonstrate that the meta-learning model implicitly prioritizes genes based on their contribution to survival ... Hosmer, D. W., Lemeshow, S. & May, S. Applied Survival Analysis: Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data. Wiley Series in ...
... two-day conference has been specifically designed for researchers working in the theory and application of survival analysis ... The Survival Analysis for Junior Researchers conference takes place at the University of Warwick on Thursday 3rd and Friday 4th ... Survival Analysis for Junior Researchers conference 2014 It has been an amazing two days. Thank you to everyone who came and ... The event will also comprise lectures from two keynote speakers, Hein Putter ("Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis ...
the population survival function becomes. The population hazard rate is then derived as and the population HR can be expressed ... in the parametric survival function . The sum of squares to be minimized is , where is the Nelson-Aalen survival function. ( ... The individual survival function is , where is the known cumulative mortality rate for married population. ... In survival analysis of time to death, or to any event, the hazard rate is a measure of the risk in the population at large. ...
The SAS/STAT survival analysis procedures include PROC ICLIFETEST, PROC ICPHREG, PROC LIFEREG, PROC LIFETEST, PROC PHREG, and ... The SAS/STAT survival analysis procedures include the following: *ICLIFETEST Procedure - Nonparametric survival analysis for ... or the survival time for heart transplant patients. The purpose of survival analysis is to model the underlying distribution of ... Survival Analysis. Data that measure lifetime or the length of time until the occurrence of an event are called lifetime, ...
... Anticancer Drugs. 2008 Feb;19 Suppl 1:S3-7. doi: 10.1097/01. ... such as exemestane after 2-3 years of tamoxifen therapy resulted in improved survival relative to women remaining on 5 years of ...
Allison,, Survival Analysis Using SAS A Practical Guide, SAS Press, 1995 *Machin, Cheung, and Parmar, Survival Analysis A ... Survival Analysis (532). Applied Statistics Survival Analysis (532). Contact Applied Statistics Applied Statistics Address: 25 ... Students will get experience using common methods for survival analysis, including Kaplan-Meier Methods, Life Table Analysis, ... Students will get experience using common methods for survival analysis, including Kaplan-Meier Methods, Life Table Analysis, ...
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This analysis is written by Jon Robins, part of Ciriums London-based reporting team. This story has been updated to include ... Analysis. IATA AGM and COP26 are pivotal moments for airline sustainability challenge. 2021-09-15T16:29:00Z ... Airlines are going into survival mode - the name of the game is to still be here at the end." ...
9780471754992 Our cheapest price for Applied Survival Analysis : Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data is $81.00. Free ... Applied Survival Analysis : Regression Modeling of Time to Event Data. by Hosmer, David W.; Lemeshow, Stanley; May, Susanne * ... Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to regression modeling for time- ... An Introduction to the Counting Process Approach to Survival Analysis. Percentiles for Computation of the Hall and Wellner ...
... fit a variety of survival models, and perform hypothesis tests. ... Survival analysis deals with time to an event in systems. ... Descriptive Survival Statistics ». Median - median life of survival data and distributions. Quantile ▪ Quartiles ▪ ... Survival analysis deals with time to an event in systems. Events can be death in biological systems and failure in technical ... Parametric Survival Estimators ». EstimatedDistribution - estimate parametric distribution from survival data. ...
Survival Analysis. 2 hours 100. Module feedback. Current Department policy on feedback is available in the student handbook. ... To present a statistical methodology for the analysis of survival time data stemming from medical experiments where patients ... J P Klein & M L Moeschberger, Survival Analysis: Techniques for Censored and Truncated Data. ... Provide descriptive statistics and graphical summaries of information contained in data from survival experiments in different ...
Advaxis announced final 12 month overall survival and additional data from Lm-LLO-E7-15, a randomized Phase 2 study evaluating ... Advaxis reports survival and new analysis for ADXS-HPV in cervical cancer. ... Final 12 month overall survival is 36% (39/110) with a current 18 month survival of 22% (16/73). This compares to 33% and 17%, ... "These data suggest that ADXS-HPV has the potential to become a non-chemotherapy treatment option capable of improving survival ...
Lee, E. T., & Wang, J. W. (2003). Statistical methods for survival data analysis (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: John Wiley ... Hosmer, D. W., & Lemeshow, S. (1999). Applied survival analysis: Regression modeling of time to event data. New York: John ... The survival rates for each diagnosis were analyzed separately and compared with survival, in relation to gender and age. The ... Nursing Diagnoses in Children With Congenital Heart Disease: A Survival Analysis. by Sam Savage ...
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The paper proposes an application of the survival time analysis methodology to estimations of the Loss Given Default (LGD) ... The paper proposes an application of the survival time analysis methodology to estimations of the Loss Given Default (LGD) ... The main advantage of the survival analysis approach compared to classical regression methods is that it allows exploiting ... Witzany, Jiri and Rychnovsky, Michal and Charamza, Pavel, Survival Analysis in LGD Modeling (March 18, 2010). Available at SSRN ...
Survival analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer.. Boks DE1, Trujillo AP, ... Survival rates were analyzed. The overall 5-year cumulative survival rates for patients with HNPCC-associated EC was 88% and 82 ... It is unknown, however, whether the survival rate of HNPCC-associated EC is higher than that of sporadic EC. The aim of our ... The outcomes in survival in EC in the general population and in women from families with HNPCC do not differ significantly. ...
2020 by Chapman and Hall/CRC Handbook of Survival Analysis presents modern techniques and research problems in lifetime data a ... Handbook of Survival Analysis presents modern techniques and research problems in lifetime data analysis. This area of ... Handbook of Survival Analysis By John P. Klein. , Hans C. van Houwelingen. , Joseph G. Ibrahim. , Thomas H. Scheike. ... to give a reference of modern survival analysis as well as to help practitioners with their survival data experiments.". - ...
... From. Steve Samuels ,[email protected],. To. [email protected] ... Re: st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data. Date. Fri, 17 Aug 2012 14:56:00 -0400. Dear Themba: I have no ... RE: st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data *From: Phakathi, T.R. ,[email protected], ... RE: st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data *From: Phakathi, T.R. ,[email protected], ...
The SEVERITY procedure in SAS/ETS software is also a survival analysis procedure. ... The log of the survival time is modeled as a linear effect of covariates and a random disturbance term, the distribution of ... The following SAS/STAT procedures are specifically designed for analyzing survival data: ICLIFETEST. computes nonparametric ... You can use this procedure to compare the underlying survival distributions of two or more samples of interval-censored data. ...
... From. Steve Samuels ,[email protected],. To. [email protected] ... Re: st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data. Date. Fri, 17 Aug 2012 10:59:03 -0400. Because you utilize no ... RE: st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data *From: Phakathi, T.R. ,[email protected], ... st:Survival analysis - dealing with Right truncated data *From: Phakathi, T.R. ,[email protected], ...
  • To compare two survival curves produced from two groups A and B we use the rather curiously named log rank test,1 so called because it can be shown to be related to a test that uses the logarithms of the ranks of the data. (bmj.com)
  • I am involved in a project where we are plotting survival curves for an event with a pretty low incidence, and the Kaplan-Meier curves (plotted using survminer) are pretty flat. (stackoverflow.com)
  • 2003) studied the survival curves of newborn infants with these alterations. (redorbit.com)
  • Then it discusses comparing survival curves. (causeweb.org)
  • 1) Kaplan-Meier plots to visualize survival curves. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Introduces fundamental concepts and techniques of survival analysis including censoring, hazard and survival functions, Kaplan-Meier curves and logrank tests. (jhsph.edu)
  • Results - 2 Comparison of Survival Curves Test Statistics Method Chi-Square DF P-Value Log-Rank 0.06986 1 0.7915 Wilcoxon 0.7048 1 0.4012 There is no significant difference in survival between the two groups. (slideserve.com)
  • This course will teach you clinical trial designs including randomized controlled trials, ROC curves, CI and tests for relative risk and odds ratio, and an introduction to survival analysis. (statistics.com)
  • Survival analysis often begins with examination of the overall survival experience through non-parametric methods, such as Kaplan-Meier (product-limit) and life-table estimators of the survival function. (amazonaws.com)
  • Advaxis announced final 12 month overall survival and additional data from Lm-LLO-E7-15, a randomized Phase 2 study evaluating the safety and efficacy of ADXS-HPV +/- cisplatin in patients with recurrent cervical cancer. (yahoo.com)
  • Final 12 month overall survival is 36% (39/110) with a current 18 month survival of 22% (16/73). (yahoo.com)
  • TARRYTOWN, N.Y.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Dec 10, 2010 - EpiCept Corporation (Nasdaq and Nasdaq OMX Stockholm Exchange: EPCT) today announced the results of a new analysis supporting Ceplene's (histamine dihydrochloride) favorable impact on overall survival and its activity with interleukin-2 (IL-2). (drugs.com)
  • This outcome suggests that statistically significant improved overall survival could be achieved in an adequately powered clinical trial. (drugs.com)
  • p=0.07) at the initial interim analysis, with a median of 20.3 months followup, that required 104 (24%) overall survival events. (urotoday.com)
  • At the 2019 European Society of Medical Oncology (ESMO) Congress, Dr. Matthew Smith presented the final MFS analysis and the second interim analysis for overall survival. (urotoday.com)
  • However, this second interim analysis for overall survival with 285 (67%) overall survival events, with a median 41.0 months followup, also did not yet reach the O'Brien-Fleming boundary. (urotoday.com)
  • The 3rd and final overall survival analysis will occur ~2022 at 427 (100%) of events. (urotoday.com)
  • however, there has not been formal statistical testing and that will not occur unless the overall survival results become statistically significant. (urotoday.com)
  • In summary, although the overall survival data is not statistically significant at this time, we need to continue to follow the patients on the trial. (urotoday.com)
  • Regardless of the ultimate results from the future final overall survival analysis, we need to consider that some patients in the placebo arm have crossed over to receive apalutamide, which has the potential to slightly damper the survival benefit from the therapeutic arm. (urotoday.com)
  • An analysis of African-American and Caucasian patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) demonstrated that there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS) between the 2 populations-a finding that was opposite of prior hypotheses, explained Susan Halabi, PhD. (onclive.com)
  • The overall survival rates for those babies are 5.1 percent, and 3.4 percent without severe impairment. (christianpost.com)
  • The outcomes in survival in EC in the general population and in women from families with HNPCC do not differ significantly. (nih.gov)
  • We searched 9 databases for cohort studies published between 2000 and 2017 in which researchers reported on survival or neurodevelopmental outcomes. (aappublications.org)
  • As far as we know, there are no updated systematic reviews that have summarized the prognosis of both survival and functional outcomes for infants born at the limit of viability. (aappublications.org)
  • At Square, we've experimented with survival analysis models to predict a variety of outcomes: from Seller churn and product conversions, to loan defaults on Capital. (medium.com)
  • The Cox Model is widely used in the analysis of survival data and enables researchers to more easily identify the risks of specific factors for mortality or other survival outcomes among groups of patients with disparate characteristics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Professor Cox changed how we analyze and understand the effect of natural or human-induced risk factors on survival outcomes, paving the way for powerful scientific inquiry and discoveries that have impacted human health worldwide," said Susan Ellenberg, chair of the International Prize in Statistics Foundation. (eurekalert.org)
  • Multiple Survival Outcomes and Competing Risks. (indigo.ca)
  • Data are limited with respect to whether ITH is an independent determinant of patient survival outcomes, across different cancer types. (nih.gov)
  • Open Versus Robotic Cystectomy: A Propensity Score Matched Analysis Comparing Survival Outcomes. (urotoday.com)
  • To assess the differential effect of robotic assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) versus open radical cystectomy (ORC) on survival outcomes in matched analyses performed on a large multicentric cohort. (urotoday.com)
  • Patients treated with RARC and ORC have similar survival outcomes. (urotoday.com)
  • This data is helpful in consulting patients until long term survival outcomes of level one evidence is available. (urotoday.com)
  • Our initial hypothesis was that African-American men will have worse survival outcomes than Caucasian men. (onclive.com)
  • However, when we did an adjusted analysis for important variables that might affect outcomes, like age, PSA levels, etc, we found that the hazard ratio was 0.81 in favor of African-American men. (onclive.com)
  • Understanding the mechanics behind survival analysis is aided by facility with the distributions used, which can be derived from the probability density function and cumulative density functions of survival times. (amazonaws.com)
  • Any serious endeavor into data analysis should begin with data exploration, in which the researcher becomes familiar with the distributions and typical values of each variable individually, as well as relationships between pairs or sets of variables. (amazonaws.com)
  • Time-to-event data can be used to compute descriptive statistics, estimate parametric and nonparametric distributions, fit a variety of survival models, and perform hypothesis tests. (wolfram.com)
  • You can use this procedure to compare the underlying survival distributions of two or more samples of interval-censored data. (sas.com)
  • The log of the survival time is modeled as a linear effect of covariates and a random disturbance term, the distribution of which includes the Weibull, log-normal, and log-logistic distributions. (sas.com)
  • Survival times are usually positive, and their distributions are rarely symmetric: there is often a small frequency of some high values. (bmj.com)
  • Here we'll compare the survival distributions of two different groups by the famous statistical method of the log-rank test. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Nonparametric Comparison of Survival Distributions. (indigo.ca)
  • As an example, we can use the cdf to determine the probability of observing a survival time of up to 100 days. (amazonaws.com)
  • How do particular circumstances or characteristics increase or decrease the probability of survival? (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival function S(t): The probability that a subject survives longer than time t. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm going to discuss probability functions, censoring and truncation, estimators of survival function, the Cox regression model, and the proportional hazards assumption, competing risk, selection bias in randomized clinical trials, frailty models and statistical software. (hstalks.com)
  • In the previous article, we saw how we could analyze the survival probability for patients. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Now we can predict the survival probability for both the groups. (kdnuggets.com)
  • 3) We can find which treatment has the highest survival probability. (kdnuggets.com)
  • The International Prize in Statistics recognizes a major achievement of an individual or team in the field of statistics and promotes understanding of the growing importance and diverse ways statistics, data analysis, probability and the understanding of uncertainty advance society, science, technology and human welfare. (eurekalert.org)
  • Regression Analysis Using the Proportional Hazards Model. (indigo.ca)
  • Also introduces regression analysis of the Cox proportional hazards model, and its extensions to time-dependent covariates. (jhsph.edu)
  • You can PROC ICLIFETEST to compute nonparametric estimates of the survival functions and to examine the equality of the survival functions through statistical tests. (sas.com)
  • The book covers, very completely, the nuances of regression modeling with particular emphasis on binary and ordinal logistic regression and parametric and nonparametric survival analysis. (springer.com)
  • Nonparametric Survival Curve Estimation. (indigo.ca)
  • 1) What is the impact of certain clinical characteristics on patient's survival? (kdnuggets.com)
  • This thesis explores different methods to predict the patient's survival chances using artificial neural networks (ANN). (dissertations.se)
  • This text employs numerous actual examples to illustrate survival curve estimation, comparison of survivals of different groups, proper accounting for censoring and truncation, model variable selection, and residual analysis. (indigo.ca)
  • Suppose that you want to predict the survival time for patients receiving an experimental cancer treatment. (informit.com)
  • After three years, some of the patients in the study have died, and you can compute the survival time for each of these patients. (informit.com)
  • For example, variables of interest might be the lifetime of diesel engines, the length of time a person stayed on a job, or the survival time for heart transplant patients. (sas.com)
  • Mortality among involuntarily admitted psychiatric patients: a survival analysis. (nih.gov)
  • Only a few studies have examined mortality among committed psychiatric patients, and most of them suffer methodologically from selected populations, small samples, and inappropriate methods of data analysis. (nih.gov)
  • To present a statistical methodology for the analysis of survival time data stemming from medical experiments where patients are subjected to a treatment. (york.ac.uk)
  • The overall 5-year cumulative survival rates for patients with HNPCC-associated EC was 88% and 82% for patients with sporadic EC (p = 0.59). (nih.gov)
  • In Stages IA, IB and IC, the survival rates of patients with HNPCC-associated EC and sporadic EC were 92% and 91%, respectively (p = 0.90). (nih.gov)
  • So from this data, we can say that the medical researchers should focus more on the factors that lead to poor survival rates for male patients. (kdnuggets.com)
  • 5) We can also find the median number of days of survival for patients. (kdnuggets.com)
  • We are going to perform a thorough analysis of patients with lung cancer. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Cancer studies for patients survival time analyses. (kdnuggets.com)
  • 3) Are there differences in survival between groups of patients? (kdnuggets.com)
  • SGEN ) today announced data from a post-hoc analysis examining progression-free survival (PFS) following treatment with ADCETRIS ® (brentuximab vedotin) versus last prior therapy in patients diagnosed with relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) post-autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) or relapsed or refractory systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (sALCL). (aol.com)
  • The post-hoc analysis compared investigator assessed PFS following ADCETRIS single-agent treatment to the last prior systemic therapy in patients taking part in two pivotal Phase 2 studies. (aol.com)
  • The post-hoc analysis was conducted in patients with relapsed or refractory HL post-ASCT or relapsed or refractory sALCL in the intent-to-treat (ITT) population. (aol.com)
  • In an analysis of the new heart organ allocation system for transplant patients in the U.S., researchers have identified a signal of a decrease in heart transplant survival rates. (news-medical.net)
  • In designing this new trial, EpiCept will be guided by the results of the previous Phase III trial for Ceplene ® and more particularly by the results of a new subset analysis of 190 patients that were treated aggressively with consolidation therapy before being randomized into the trial. (drugs.com)
  • Within this subset of patients, a difference in overall patient survival was seen in favor of Ceplene ® /IL-2 versus standard of care (p-value = 0.07, with a median overall benefit of 36 months). (drugs.com)
  • As previously announced on December 5, 2010, a poster for Ceplene ® was presented at the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Society of Hematology (ASH), which revealed the findings from a Bayesian meta-analysis comparing Ceplene + IL-2 versus IL-2 alone in leukemia free survival in AML patients in remission. (drugs.com)
  • This article aims to estimate the specific survival of patients with penile cancer treated at a state tertiary oncology hospital. (scielo.br)
  • In patients with compromised lymph nodes, the mean survival time was 30.59 months, and in patients with no compromised lymph nodes, the mean survival time was 75.83 months. (scielo.br)
  • These patients exhibit 100% survival and no metastasis. (pnas.org)
  • Preoperative triglycerides predict post-coronary artery bypass graft survival in diabetic patients: a sex analysis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Despite cross-sectional studies and isolated longitudinal analyses in patients without coronary artery disease, the suggestion that triglyceride levels are relevant to subsequent cardiovascular events in the setting of diabetes remains controversial. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study evaluates the predictive value of serum triglyceride levels on mortality in post-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) diabetic patients with subsequent analysis by sex. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Several recently published clinical studies using chemotherapy for patients with solid tumors have reported survival data by comparing the actuarial survival of patients responding to chemotherapy to the survival of patients not responding to chemotherapy (1-3). (annals.org)
  • The survival rate of pediatric ALL patients has improved to approximately 90% in recent years, especially for groups with good prognosis. (scielo.br)
  • This data should not discourage us from continuing to treat patients with high risk M0 CRPC with apalutamide, given the confirmed MFS benefit from the primary endpoint analysis. (urotoday.com)
  • 3 This is reflected in current UK guidelines for the management of patients with colorectal cancer, which state that there is "no evidence" of survival benefit with intensive follow up 4 or that it is "not worth while. (bmj.com)
  • Applications where such data appear are survival of twins, survival of married couples and families, time to failure of right and left kidney for diabetic patients, life history data with time to outbreak of disease, complications and death, recurrent episodes of diseases and cross-over studies with time responses. (nhbs.com)
  • From the documentation I was able to understand the key concepts of survival analysis and run a few simple analysis on clinical data gathered by our collaborators from a cohort of cancer patients. (github.com)
  • Although all one needs for survival analysis is two arrays with the time duration patients were observed and whether death occured during that time, in reality you're more likely to get from clinicians an Excel file with dates of birth, diagnosis, and death along with other relevant information on the clinical cohort. (github.com)
  • In biomedical research, the analysis of time-to-death (hence the name survival analysis) or time to some composite endpoint such as progression-free survival is the most prominent advanced statistical technique. (uni-ulm.de)
  • After this course, students should be able to understand and use survival analysis as, e.g., required in standard clinical trials with a survival outcome. (uni-ulm.de)
  • In clinical practice, historically, survival analysis has relied on low-dimensional patient characteristics, such as age, sex, and other clinical features in combination with histopathological evaluations such as stage and grade 6 . (nature.com)
  • The event will also comprise lectures from two keynote speakers, Hein Putter (" Dynamic Prediction in Clinical Survival Analysis ") and Dimitris Rizopoulos (" Joint Models for Longitudinal and Time-to-Event Data "), as well as poster sessions and an evening social. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Survival analysis is normally carried out using parametric models, semi-parametric models, non-parametric models to estimate the survival rate in clinical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • However recently Bayesian models are also used to estimate the survival rate due to their ability to handle design and analysis issues in clinical research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival data, where the primary outcome is time to a specific event, arise in many areas of biomedical research, including clinical trials, epidemiological studies, and studies of animals. (indigo.ca)
  • To describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated at three referral centers in Ceará and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting white blood cell count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment. (scielo.br)
  • The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory features of children and adolescents with ALL treated at three referral centers in the state of Ceará, Brazil and evaluate prognostic factors for survival, including age, gender, presenting WBC count, immunophenotype, DNA index and early response to treatment. (scielo.br)
  • Now we want to split our cohort according to values in several variables ( e.g. gender, age, presence/absence of a clinical marker), and check what's the progression of survival, and if differences between groups are significant. (github.com)
  • Then it discusses estimating the survival function with the Kaplan-Meier curve. (causeweb.org)
  • The unobservable differences between individuals are usually considered as random variation, but in survival analysis, observing over time, this individual variation cannot be ignored. (hindawi.com)
  • No significant differences were observed between the cohorts when survival analysis was used to examine survival experiences in the community. (nih.gov)
  • Differences in mean survival times were identified in children not more than 4 months of age with respect to the following diagnoses: impaired gas exchange, ineffective breathing pattern, activity intolerance, delayed growth and development, and decreased cardiac output. (redorbit.com)
  • High ITH tends to be associated with lower levels of tumor-infiltrating immune cells, but this association is not able to explain the observed survival differences. (nih.gov)
  • Using firm level data on Italian and Turkish manufacturing industries we investigate the differences in survival patterns of foreign owned and domestic firms testing the hypothesis of foreign multinational enterprises (FMNEs) 'foot-loose' behavior (in line with seminal studies such as Görg and Strobl, 2003, Mata and Portugal, 2002). (repec.org)
  • This topic is called reliability theory or reliability analysis in engineering, duration analysis or duration modelling in economics, and event history analysis in sociology. (wikipedia.org)
  • This topic is called reliability theory or reliability analysis in engineering, and duration analysis or duration modeling in ________ or sociology . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Venables W.N., Ripley B.D. (1997) Survival Analysis. (springer.com)
  • This example uses the Acute Myelogenous Leukemia survival data set "aml" from the "survival" package in R. The data set is from Miller (1997) and the question is whether the standard course of chemotherapy should be extended ('maintained') for additional cycles. (wikipedia.org)
  • We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (bmj.com)
  • The survival curve is unchanged at the time of a censored observation, but at the next event after the censored observation the number of people "at risk" is reduced by the number censored between the two events. (bmj.com)
  • As one can see the effect of the censored observations is to reduce the number at risk without affecting the survival curve S(t). (bmj.com)
  • I am trying to figure out how to generate a survival curve and calculate P-value of a specific time point and not of the entire survival curve. (stackoverflow.com)
  • That's because the flat region in the survival curve for those on icp=0 occurs earlier than it does for those on icp=1. (stata.com)
  • Calculating Kaplan -Meier Survival Curve At the start of the study (t0), proportion surviving = 1. (slideserve.com)
  • For censored observations survival curve remains unchanged. (slideserve.com)
  • The S gives us the now-familiar survival curve. (safaribooksonline.com)
  • Use proportional hazards regression techniques to make inferences about the possible relationship between survival time and potential risk factors. (york.ac.uk)
  • Finally, there is a discussion of Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis. (causeweb.org)
  • 4) Cox proportional hazards regression to find out the effect of different variables like age, sex, weight on survival. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Frailty models are frequently used to analyse clustered survival data in medical contexts. (dissertations.se)
  • Frailty models, which are random effects models for survival data, made a second approach, extending from the most simple shared frailty models, which are considered in detail, to models with more complicated dependence structures over individuals or over time. (nhbs.com)
  • Researchers are often interested in estimates of survival time at which 50% or 25% of the population have died or failed. (amazonaws.com)
  • The University of Warwick is proudly hosting the third annual Survival Analysis for Junior Researchers conference, an event aimed at career-young statisticians with an interest in the statistical analysis of time-to-event data and related topics. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • With chapters written by leading researchers in the field, the handbook focuses on advances in survival analysis techniques, covering classical and Bayesian approaches. (routledge.com)
  • Therefore, in the present systematic review, we aimed to summarize cohort studies in which researchers have examined the prognosis of survival and risk of impairments as assessed by using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) 12 , 13 for each week of GA from 22 through 27 weeks. (aappublications.org)
  • This text is suitable for researchers and statisticians working in the medical and other life sciences as well as statisticians in academia who teach introductory and second-level courses on survival analysis. (springer.com)
  • The Cox proportional hazard model is basically a regression model generally used by medical researchers to find out the relationship between the survival time of a subject and one or more predictor variables. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Examples are simple and straightforward while still illustrating key points, shedding light on the application of survival analysis in a way that is useful for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners in biostatistics. (indigo.ca)
  • Originally the analysis was concerned with time from treatment until death, hence the name, but survival analysis is applicable to many areas as well as mortality. (bmj.com)
  • Several studies of mortality after the death of a spouse, summarized in a meta-analysis [ 2 ], demonstrated that the population hazard rate is substantially elevated immediately after the death of the spouse, before gradually declining. (hindawi.com)
  • Coverage expansions do not save money--they increase overall health spending--but are relatively cost-effective compared to other policies affecting mortality, according to a recent economic analysis. (eurekalert.org)
  • Multivariable competing risk analyses accounting for death of other causes, tested association of surgical technique with recurrence and cancer specific mortality (CSM), before and after propensity score matching. (urotoday.com)
  • In short, by the end of the course, students should feel comfortable understanding and applying all commonly-used methods for survival data to data arising from a wide variety of disciplines. (wcupa.edu)
  • Survival analysis of endometrial carcinoma associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Intensive follow up after curative resection for colorectal cancer improves survival. (bmj.com)
  • In this thesis, essential concepts and quantities within the field of survival analysis, such as censoring, hazard and survival functions, are introduced. (kth.se)
  • Censoring / Censored observation: Censoring occurs when we have some information about individual survival time, but we do not know the survival time exactly. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of censoring, named right censoring , is handled in survival analysis. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Survival analysis is the statistics of censored time to event data, to which standard regression and classification techniques generally do not apply, due to the uncertain group memberships of the observations. (stackoverflow.com)
  • If these early observations of a substantial decline in heart transplant survival persist, and we certainly hope that they do not, several programs will be under stress for their very survival. (news-medical.net)
  • At each time interval from 1 to n survival time is calculated by S (ti) = ( ri - di / ri ) x S (ti -1) Where di = number of events at time ti For censored observations di = 0. (slideserve.com)
  • This approach includes the type of problem addressed by survival analysis, the outcome variable considered, the need to take into account "censored data," what a survival function and a hazard function represent, basic data layouts for a survival analysis, the goals of survival analysis, and some examples of survival analysis. (springer.com)
  • For the application of predicting cancer survival outcome, we also show that the meta-learning framework with a few samples is able to achieve competitive performance with learning from scratch with a significantly larger number of samples. (nature.com)
  • Accurate prediction of its survival outcome has been an interesting and challenging problem in cancer research over the past decades. (nature.com)
  • In studying a specific rare cancer's survival outcome, one interesting problem is whether it is possible to make use of the abundant data that is available for more common relevant cancers and leverage that information to improve the survival prediction. (nature.com)
  • 11 Our analyses of the Framingham data focus on time from enrolment to the combined outcome of first hospitalisation for myocardial infarction (MI), fatal coronary heart disease or death, and they exclude 86 individuals with prevalent MI at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • A successful outcome from the planned U.S. survival trial for Ceplene ® would, in our view, establish Ceplene ® as a cornerstone of remission maintenance therapy in the U.S. (drugs.com)
  • The identification of prognostic factors, an improved stratification of risk groups and survival analysis have made it possible to identify presenting features of the disease and evaluate treatment outcome in referral centers in Ceará, thereby contributing to current knowledge of the epidemiology of pediatric malignancies, both locally and throughout all Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • In Survival Analysis the outcome of interest is time to an event The event does not necessarily have to be death It can be HRT and first thrombotic episode OR Exclusive breast feeding and another pregnancy OR Exercise and time to maximum tolerance. (slideserve.com)
  • To analyze the relationship between nursing diagnoses and survival rates in children with congenital heart disease. (redorbit.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the survival of children with congenital heart disease in relation to nursing diagnoses. (redorbit.com)
  • Applied Survival Analysis Using R covers the main principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R as a vehicle. (indigo.ca)
  • This book describes the principles of survival analysis, gives examples of how it is applied, and teaches how to put those principles to use to analyze data using R. . The intended audience includes students taking a master's level course in statistical theory and analysts who need to work with survival time data. (indigo.ca)
  • Survival analysis is a set of methods used to model and analyze survival data, also called time-to-event data. (statistics.com)
  • Kleinbaum D.G. (1996) Introduction to Survival Analysis. (springer.com)
  • an introduction to the analysis of survival data. (wiley.com)
  • Applied Survival Analysis, Second Edition provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction to regression modeling for time-to-event data in medical, epidemiological, biostatistical, and other health-related research. (ecampus.com)
  • This book fills this gap, providing a comprehensive, self-contained introduction to regression modeling used in the analysis of time-to-event data in epidemiological, biostatistical, and other health-related research. (worldcat.org)
  • S(t-) is the Kaplan-Meier estimate of survival just prior to t , ignoring the grouping. (springer.com)
  • The step function form of the survival function is apparent in the graph of the Kaplan-Meier estimate. (amazonaws.com)
  • Because of its simple relationship with the survival function, $S(t)=e^{-H(t)}$, the cumulative hazard function can be used to estimate the survival function. (amazonaws.com)
  • I would like to estimate the impact of the covariates on Survival. (stata.com)
  • We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate survival and the Cox model was used to assess prognostic factors. (scielo.br)
  • In a typical survival test procedure where the goal is to estimate the sample size, the user enters power, alpha, and the desired population survival parameters. (ncss.com)
  • In first part of this paper we present an analysis of part of this portfolio using the Cox proportional hazard model (Cox, 1972) to estimate transition intensities. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • The proposed methods are used to investigate the association between the so called event-free survival time of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a variety of risk factors in a heavily right-censored dataset. (kth.se)
  • The greatest influence of triglyceride levels was observed on overall (1.89, 1.30-2.73) and event-free survival (1.49, 1.06-2.08) in women. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Overall and event-free survival were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and compared using the log-rank test. (scielo.br)
  • The 5-year overall and event-free survival rates were lower than those reported for developed countries. (scielo.br)
  • The aim of this module is to familiarize the student with the basic concepts and models in survival analysis. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • The content will also include parametric and semiparametric models which are very common in survival analysis. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • I am trying to predict follow-up time using several survival models, both parametric and semi-parametric. (stackoverflow.com)
  • We're excited to share some of our current work in survival analysis models and deep learning. (medium.com)
  • Traditional survival analysis models such as the Kaplan-Meier (KM) and Cox Proportional Hazard (CoxPH) models both have some very rigid assumptions and limitations - for example, CoxPH models assume that hazard functions are strictly linear combinations of an individual's features, which might not be true given your feature space. (medium.com)
  • I recently was looking for methods to apply to time-to-event data and started exploring Survival Analysis Models . (r-bloggers.com)
  • Survival Models and Data Analysis. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • We explore these issues both for firms' survival and for employment growth by using respectively hazard models and GMM system estimates. (repec.org)
  • In this article, we review some basic concepts of survival analysis and also make recommendations about how and when to perform each particular test using SPSS, Stata and R. In particular, we describe a simple way of defining cut-off points for continuous variables and the appropriate and inappropriate uses of the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression models. (haematologica.org)
  • Discusses special topics, such as non-proportional hazards models and multivariate survival times. (jhsph.edu)
  • From these equations we can see that the cumulative hazard function $H(t)$ and the survival function $S(t)$ have a simple monotonic relationship, such that when the Survival function is at its maximum at the beginning of analysis time, the cumulative hazard function is at its minimum. (amazonaws.com)
  • When provided with a grouping variable in a strata statement in proc lifetest, SAS will produce graphs of the survival function (unless other graphs are requested) stratified by the grouping variable as well as tests of equality of the survival function across strata. (amazonaws.com)
  • The emphasis is on application of the concepts and ideasinvolved in data analysis and interpretation of results, rather than the underlying statistical theory. (wcupa.edu)
  • The emphasis is on application of the concepts and ideas involved in data analysis and interpretation of results, rather than the underlying statistical theory. (wcupa.edu)
  • Handbook of Survival Analysis presents modern techniques and research problems in lifetime data analysis. (routledge.com)
  • Many texts are excellent sources of knowledge about individual statistical tools, but the art of data analysis is about choosing and using multiple tools. (springer.com)
  • Data analysis, particularly users of S-PLUS, with experience in the application of these tools will benefit the most from this book. (springer.com)
  • A background in basic linear regression and categorical data analysis, as well as a basic knowledge of calculus and the R system, will help the reader to fully appreciate the information presented. (indigo.ca)
  • Because the computational part of data analysis ultimately identifies shape characteristics in the organization of data sets, the mathematics of shape recognition in high dimensions continues to be a crucial part of data analysis. (pnas.org)
  • The non-inferiority logrank test is the test that is anticipated for data analysis. (ncss.com)
  • a class of statistical procedures for estimating survival rates and making inferences about effects of treatment, prognostic factors, and other concerns. (drugs.com)
  • The stratified Cox regression model is used to evaluate the effects of these prognostic factors, based on separate analysis for each trial, and on the combined data from both trials. (scirp.org)
  • As shown by the multivariate analysis, age and baseline white blood cell count were independent prognostic factors. (scielo.br)
  • Dr. Kleinbaum is internationally known for innovative textbooks and teaching on epidemiological methods, multiple linear regression, logistic regression, and survival analysis. (springer.com)
  • Professor Harrell has produced a book that offers many new and imaginative insights into multiple regression, logistic regression and survival analysis, topics that form the core of much of the statistical analysis carried out in a variety of disciplines, particularly in medicine. (springer.com)
  • The median survival time was 49 months, 89% presented themselves between stages I and II. (scielo.br)
  • C: median survival time for control group. (statsdirect.com)
  • E: median survival time for experimental group. (statsdirect.com)
  • Above we see the table of Kaplan-Meier estimates of the survival function produced by proc lifetest. (amazonaws.com)
  • Suppose that you suspect that the survival function is not the same among some of the groups in your study (some groups tend to fail more quickly than others). (amazonaws.com)
  • In most real world scenarios, the form of the true hazard function is either unknown or too complex to model, making the Cox model the most popular method in survival analysis 5 . (nature.com)
  • performs quantile regression for survival data by modeling the quantiles of the lifetime variable as a function of the covariates. (sas.com)
  • It starts with a definition of the survival function. (causeweb.org)
  • 0.005), which is statistically significant and denotes that we have to reject our null hypothesis and admit that the survival function for both groups is significantly different. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Survival function and hazard function. (kdnuggets.com)
  • Dr. Lindquist is actively involved in developing new analysis methods to enhance our ability to understand brain function using human neuroimaging. (leanpub.com)
  • PROC LIFETEST produces two other plots that give useful information about the shape of the hazard function, the log-survival (LS) plot and the log-log survival (LLS) plot. (safaribooksonline.com)
  • The expected number of survivors, in a ________ of n individuals, is n × S ( t ), assuming the same survival function for all. (thefullwiki.org)
  • This is one reason why the analysis of time-to-event data is based on hazards. (uni-ulm.de)
  • The conference is aimed at statisticians with an interest in the statistical analysis of time-to-event data who are in the early stages of their career. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Survival analysis is a statistical method for analyzing survival data, which is longitudinal time to event data. (hstalks.com)
  • Failure times for engines, survival times after a disease diagnosis, subscription durations for a service - these are all examples of time-to-event data. (statistics.com)
  • Survival analysis is concerned with "time-to-event" data. (statistics.com)
  • This course will teach you the various methods used for modeling and evaluating survival data or time-to event data. (statistics.com)
  • Survival data or more general time-to-event data occur in many areas, including medicine, biology, engineering, economics, and demography, but previously standard methods have requested that all time variables are univariate and independent. (nhbs.com)
  • Here, we report the results of a pan-cancer analysis of over 3300 tumors, showing a varied landscape of ITH across 9 cancer types. (nih.gov)
  • Basic quantifiers of survival: survival, hazard and cumulative hazard functions. (york.ac.uk)
  • Non-parametric estimation of the survival and cumulative hazard functions. (york.ac.uk)
  • 2.4 Comparison of Survival Functions. (wiley.com)
  • 140.606.11 Survival Analysis, 2019 Summer Inst. (jhsph.edu)
  • Key issues include estimation (how long will an industrial part last) and hypothesis testing for experiments (does therapy A improve survival over control). (statistics.com)
  • PASS contains over 25 tools for sample size estimation and power analysis of survival methods, including logrank tests, non-inferiority, group-sequential, and conditional power, among others. (ncss.com)
  • If you need help on how to use PASS sample size estimation software, use the links below to jump to a survival topic. (ncss.com)
  • In log-normal regression, the analyst replaces the raw survival response measure with its natural logarithm and then uses standard regression tools to model the transformed measure. (informit.com)
  • I'm new on the topic of survival analysis and currently I have to build a multi-state model. (stackoverflow.com)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that the meta-learning model implicitly prioritizes genes based on their contribution to survival prediction and allows us to identify important pathways in cancer. (nature.com)
  • The traditional hazard rate in a survival model is a measure of population risk and does not provide direct information on the unobservable individual risk. (hindawi.com)
  • The purpose of survival analysis is to model the underlying distribution of the failure time variable and to assess the dependence of the failure time variable on the independent variables. (sas.com)
  • Since publication of the first edition nearly a decade ago, analyses using time-to-event methods have increased considerably in all areas of scientific inquiry, mainly as a result of model-building methods available in modern statistical software packages. (worldcat.org)
  • The extensive and detailed coverage of the process of survival model fitting, as well as the applied exercises, make this textbook an excellent choice for an applied survival analysis course. (worldcat.org)
  • In short, the N-MTLR model provides a great solution to survival modeling when you're all but guaranteed that your feature space exhibits nonlinear behaviour (e.g. some of your features take on a power law distribution). (medium.com)
  • Harrell very nicely walks the reader through numerous analyses, explaining and defining his model-building choices at each step in the process. (springer.com)
  • The frailties, or random effects, are used to model the association between individual survival times within clusters. (dissertations.se)
  • The ________ for a survival model, in the presence of censored data, is formulated as follows. (thefullwiki.org)
  • We also provide practical advice on how to check the proportional hazards assumption and briefly review the role of relative survival and multiple imputation. (haematologica.org)