The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Continuance of life or existence especially under adverse conditions; includes methods and philosophy of survival.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
The transference of a kidney from one human or animal to another.
A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The span of viability of a tissue or an organ.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A synthetic anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid derived from CORTISONE. It is biologically inert and converted to PREDNISOLONE in the liver.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Factors which produce cessation of all vital bodily functions. They can be analyzed from an epidemiologic viewpoint.
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
The normal length of time of an organism's life.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A member of the bcl-2 protein family that plays a role in the regulation of APOPTOSIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the BCL2L1 mRNA and are referred to as Bcl-XS and Bcl-XL.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The artificial substitution of heart and lung action as indicated for HEART ARREST resulting from electric shock, DROWNING, respiratory arrest, or other causes. The two major components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are artificial ventilation (RESPIRATION, ARTIFICIAL) and closed-chest CARDIAC MASSAGE.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Cessation of heart beat or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. If it is treated within a few minutes, heart arrest can be reversed in most cases to normal cardiac rhythm and effective circulation.
Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The simultaneous analysis of multiple samples of TISSUES or CELLS from BIOPSY or in vitro culture that have been arranged in an array format on slides or microchips.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Persons who have experienced a prolonged survival after serious disease or who continue to live with a usually life-threatening condition as well as family members, significant others, or individuals surviving traumatic life events.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A heterogeneous group of sporadic or hereditary carcinoma derived from cells of the KIDNEYS. There are several subtypes including the clear cells, the papillary, the chromophobe, the collecting duct, the spindle cells (sarcomatoid), or mixed cell-type carcinoma.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
A malignant tumor arising from the epithelium of the BILE DUCTS.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.
A cell surface receptor involved in regulation of cell growth and differentiation. It is specific for EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR and EGF-related peptides including TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA; AMPHIREGULIN; and HEPARIN-BINDING EGF-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR. The binding of ligand to the receptor causes activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity and rapid internalization of the receptor-ligand complex into the cell.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.

Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) protects postimplantation murine embryos from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. (1/735)

Previous work has shown that there is a positive correlation between the induction of Hsp70 and its transient nuclear localization and the acquisition and loss of induced thermotolerance in postimplantation rat embryos. To determine whether Hsp70 is sufficient to induce thermotolerance in postimplantation mammalian embryos, we used a transgenic mouse in which the normally strictly inducible Hsp70 is constitutively expressed in the embryo under the control of a beta-actin promoter. Day 8.0 mouse embryos heterozygous for the Hsp70 transgene were not protected from the embryotoxic effects of hyperthermia (43 degrees C); however, homozygous embryos, expressing approximately twice as much Hsp70 as heterozygous embryos, were partially protected (increased embryo viability) from the embryolethal effects of hyperthermia. Although the viability of transgenic embryos was significantly increased compared with that of nontransgenic embryos, this protection did not extend to embryo growth and development. To determine whether the failure to achieve a more robust protection was related to the expression of insufficient Hsp70 in transgenic embryos, we undertook experiments to determine whether the level of Hsp70 correlated with the level of thermotolerance induced by various lengths of a 41 degrees C heat shock. A 41 degrees C, 5-minute heat shock failed to induce Hsp70 or thermotolerance, a 41 degrees C, 15-minute heat shock induced Hsp70 and a significant level of thermotolerance, while a 41 degrees C, 60-minute heat shock induced an even higher level of Hsp70 as well as a higher level of thermotolerance. Quantitation of Hsp70 levels indicated that thermotolerance was associated with levels of Hsp70 of 820 pg/microg embryo protein or greater. Subsequent quantitation of the amount of Hsp70 expressed in homozygous transgenic embryos indicated a level of 577 pg/microg embryo protein, that is, a level below that associated with induced thermotolerance. Overall, results presented indicate that Hsp70 does play a direct role in the induction of thermotolerance in postimplantation mouse embryos; however, the level of thermotolerance is dependent on the level of Hsp70 expressed.  (+info)

Age of onset in Huntington disease: sex specific influence of apolipoprotein E genotype and normal CAG repeat length. (2/735)

Age of onset (AO) of Huntington disease (HD) is known to be correlated with the length of an expanded CAG repeat in the HD gene. Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, in turn, is known to influence AO in Alzheimer disease, rendering the APOE gene a likely candidate to affect AO in other neurological diseases too. We therefore determined APOE genotype and normal CAG repeat length in the HD gene for 138 HD patients who were previously analysed with respect to CAG repeat length. Genotyping for APOE was performed blind to clinical information. In addition to highlighting the effect of the normal repeat length upon AO in maternally inherited HD and in male patients, we show that the APOE epsilon2epsilon3 genotype is associated with significantly earlier AO in males than in females. Such a sex difference in AO was not apparent for any of the other APOE genotypes. Our findings suggest that subtle differences in the course of the neurodegeneration in HD may allow interacting genes to exert gender specific effects upon AO.  (+info)

Cooperative therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene and ganciclovir therapy in experimental prostate cancer. (3/735)

Adenovirus-mediated transduction of the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene (HSV-tk) in conjunction with ganciclovir (GCV) has been shown to result in significant growth suppression and to enhance survival in a model of mouse prostate cancer. However, this therapeutic activity is not sustained, because in most cases tumors eventually regrow and ultimately cause the death of the host. Androgen ablation, an inducer of apoptosis in prostate cells which is used widely as palliative therapy in patients with prostate cancer, was combined with HSV-tk plus GCV using an androgen-sensitive mouse prostate cancer cell line. The combination of castration and HSV-tk plus GCV led to markedly enhanced tumor growth suppression in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models compared with either treatment alone and resulted in an enhanced survival in which combination-treated animals lived twice as long as controls in the subcutaneous model and over 50% longer than controls in the orthotopic model. Further analysis of apoptotic activity demonstrated high levels of apoptosis only in combined androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV-treated tumors after 14 days of growth in an androgen-depleted environment and 8 days after HSV-tk plus GCV therapy. At this time, the apoptotic index, but not the percent of necrotic tissue, was significantly higher for combination therapy-treated tumors relative to control-treated tumors or either treatment alone. These data indicate that the therapeutic effects of androgen ablation and HSV-tk plus GCV are cooperative and that increased apoptosis may, in part, underlie these activities.  (+info)

Additive effects of human recombinant interleukin-11 and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor in experimental gram-negative sepsis. (4/735)

Recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) is widely used to promote granulocyte recovery from a variety of pathologic states. Recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) has recently become available clinically as a platelet restorative agent after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Preclinical data has shown that rhIL-11 limits mucosal injury after chemotherapy and attenuates the proinflammatory cytokine response. The potential efficacy of combination therapy with recombinant human forms of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF was studied in a neutropenic rat model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. At the onset of neutropenia, animals were randomly assigned to receive either rhG-CSF at a dose of 200 micrograms/kg subcutaneously every 24 hours for 7 days; rhIL-11 at 200 micrograms/kg subcutaneously every 24 hours for 7 days; the combination of both rhG-CSF and rhIL-11; or saline control. Animals were orally colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 12.4.4 and then given a myelosuppressive dose of cyclophosphamide. rhG-CSF resulted in a slight increase in absolute neutrophil counts (ANC), but did not provide a survival advantage (0 of 12, 0% survival) compared with the placebo group (1 of 12, 8% survival). rhIL-11 was partially protective (4 of 10, 40% survival); the combination of rhG-CSF and rhIL-11 resulted in a survival rate of 80% (16 of 20; P <.001). rhIL-11 alone or in combination with rhG-CSF resulted in preservation of gastrointestinal mucosal integrity (P <.001), lower circulating endotoxin levels (P <.01), and reduced quantitative levels of P. aeruginosa in quantitative organ cultures. These results indicate that the combination of rhIL-11 and rhG-CSF is additive as a treatment strategy in the prevention and treatment of experimental Gram-negative sepsis in immunocompromised animals. This combination may prove to be efficacious in the prevention of severe sepsis in neutropenic patients.  (+info)

Disrupted differentiation and oncogenic transformation of lymphoid progenitors in E2A-HLF transgenic mice. (5/735)

The hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) gene codes for a basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that is disrupted by chromosomal translocations in a subset of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias. HLF undergoes fusions with the E2A gene, resulting in chimeric E2a-Hlf proteins containing the E2a transactivation domains and the Hlf bZIP DNA binding and dimerization motifs. To investigate the in vivo role of this chimeric bZIP protein in oncogenic transformation, its expression was directed to the lymphoid compartments of transgenic mice. Within the thymus, E2a-Hlf induced profound hypoplasia, premature involution, and progressive accumulation of a T-lineage precursor population arrested at an early stage of maturation. In the spleen, mature T cells were present but in reduced numbers, and they lacked expression of the transgene, suggesting further that E2a-Hlf expression was incompatible with T-cell differentiation. In contrast, mature splenic B cells expressed E2a-Hlf but at lower levels and without apparent adverse or beneficial effects on their survival. Approximately 60% of E2A-HLF mice developed lymphoid malignancies with a mean latency of 10 months. Tumors were monoclonal, consistent with a requirement for secondary genetic events, and displayed phenotypes of either mid-thymocytes or, rarely, B-cell progenitors. We conclude that E2a-Hlf disrupts the differentiation of T-lymphoid progenitors in vivo, leading to profound postnatal thymic depletion and rendering B- and T-cell progenitors susceptible to malignant transformation.  (+info)

Therapy of severe diabetic ketoacidosis. Zero-mortality under very-low-dose insulin application. (6/735)

OBJECTIVE: Despite modern concepts in therapy by low-dose insulin application and better care in intensive care units (ICUs), there still is a mortality of 5-10% for severe diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The aim of this study was to develop a therapy concept to reduce complications and mortality in DKA. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: From 1986 to 1997, 114 consecutive patients (mean [range]; age 34 [11-74] years) with type 1 diabetes suffering from severe DKA were treated on ICUs and investigated in a retrospective and prospective study. The following are the criteria for admission onto ICUs: < 7.20 pH level, > 300 mg/dl blood glucose, less than -12 mmol/l base excess, or < 300 mg/dl blood glucose plus severe symptoms (i.e., coma). We treated patients according to the following concepts: very-low-dose insulin application by a basal insulin infusion of 1 U/h (0.5-4.0 U/h i.v.), maximal decrease of blood glucose level by 50 mg. dl-1. h-1, slow-motion reequilibration by fluid substitution of 1,000 ml/h (Ringer-Lactate, NaCl 0.9% or half-electrolyte fluids) in the first 4 h, potassium replacement and heparin (500-1,000 U/h i.v.). RESULTS: When patients were admitted to ICU, we found the following parameters: mean (range); 609.0 (86.0-1,428.0) mg/dl blood glucose level; 7.13 (6.53-7.36) pH level; and -19.7 (-41.2 to -7.0) mmol/l base excess. After 12 h of treatment, we reached the following parameters: mean values; 251 mg/dl blood glucose level, 7.31 pH level, and -9.37 mmol/l base excess level. All patients survived without any lasting deficiencies or fatal complications. CONCLUSIONS: Very-low-dose insulin application and slow-motion reequilibration plus monitored substitution of electrolytes are the basic strategies in the treatment of severe DKA. In our view, small doses of infused insulin are the main reason for the safe results of this therapy program.  (+info)

p27 and Rb are on overlapping pathways suppressing tumorigenesis in mice. (7/735)

The commitment of cells to replicate and divide correlates with the activation of cyclin-dependent kinases and the inactivation of Rb, the product of the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene. Rb is a target of the cyclin-dependent kinases and, when phosphorylated, is inactivated. Biochemical studies exploring the nature of the relationship between cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and Rb have supported the hypothesis that these proteins are on a linear pathway regulating commitment. We have been able to study this relationship by genetic means by examining the phenotype of Rb+/-p27-/- mice. Tumors arise from the intermediate lobe cells of the pituitary gland in p27-/- mice, as well as in Rb+/- mice after loss of the remaining wild-type allele of Rb. Using these mouse models, we examined the genetic interaction between Rb and p27. We found that the development of pituitary tumors in Rb+/- mice correlated with a reduction in p27 mRNA and protein expression. To determine whether the loss of p27 was an indirect consequence of tumor formation or a contributing factor to the development of this tumor, we analyzed the phenotype of Rb+/-p27-/- mice. We found that these mice developed pituitary adenocarcinoma with loss of the remaining wild-type allele of Rb and a high-grade thyroid C cell carcinoma that was more aggressive than the disease in either Rb+/- or p27-/- mice. Importantly, we detected both pituitary and thyroid tumors earlier in the Rb+/-p27-/- mice. We therefore propose that Rb and p27 cooperate to suppress tumor development by integrating different regulatory signals.  (+info)

Functional recovery after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and preserved myocardial viability in the left anterior descending arterial territory as assessed by thallium-201 myocardial perfusion imaging. (8/735)

To evaluate the functional recovery after coronary bypass surgery in patients with severe left ventricular (LV) dysfunction (ejection fraction (EF) < or = 35%), 100 consecutive patients with viable myocardium in the territory supplied by the left anterior descending artery (LAD) underwent coronary bypass grafting. In addition, cardiac catheterization and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) perfusion imaging with thallium-201 were repeated 1-year postoperatively. Although 12 patients with severe LV dysfunction were preoperatively in a worse New York Heart Association functional class (3.1+/-0.7 vs 2.4+/-0.8; p<0.01), had a higher incidence of heart failure (10/12 vs 14/88; p<0.001) and had a worse LVEF (29+/-5 vs 61+/-14%; p<0.001) compared with 88 patients without severe LV dysfunction, the operative mortality was similar in the 2 groups (1/12 vs 2/88; p=NS). The postoperative NYHA functional class in the patients with severe LV dysfunction was similar to that in the patients without such dysfunction (1.6+/-0.7 vs 1.3+/-0.6; p=NS). In addition, the 1-year postoperative study revealed a significant improvement in the thallium defect score in both the LAD territory (1.7+/-1.2 to 0.7+/-1.0, p=0.01) and all the territories (5.2+/-2.2 to 3.2+/-1.9, p=0.002) in patients with severe LV dysfunction, whereas no improvement in defect score was found in either of these territories in those without severe LV dysfunction (LAD: 0.6+/-1.4 to 0.4+/-1.2, p=NS; All: 1.9+/-2.2 to 1.8+/-2.0, p=NS). Furthermore, a marked 1-year postoperative improvement (15-24%; 95% confidence interval) in LVEF (29+/-5 to 48+/-10%, p<0.001) was demonstrated in patients with severe LV dysfunction, but not in those without such dysfunction (60+/-13 to 61+/-11%, p=NS). These results indicate that myocardial viability in the LAD territory, as demonstrated by thallium-201 SPECT perfusion imaging, predicts a significant improvement in functional class and LVEF of at least 10% or more after coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with severe LV dysfunction.  (+info)

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form action= method=post, ,label for=related_techniques,,strong,Related Techniques:,/strong,,/label, ,select name=related_techniques id=related_techniques multiple=multiple size=10, ,optgroup label=General Techniques, ,option value=G1,G1: Adding a link at the top of each page ... ,/option, ,option value=G4,G4: Allowing the content to be paused and restarted ... ,/option, ,option value=G5,G5: Allowing users to complete an activity without any time... ,/option, ,option value=G8,G8: Creating an extended audio description for the ... ,/option, ,option value=G9,G9: Creating captions for live synchronized media... ,/option, ,option value=G10,G10: Creating components using a technology that ... ,/option, ,/optgroup, ,optgroup label=HTML Techniques, ,option value=H2,H2: Combining adjacent image and text links for the same ... ,/option, ,option value=H4,H4: Creating a logical tab order through links, form ... ,/option, ,option ...
The term option value and its theoretical underpinnings as a non-user benefit were initially developed in 1964 by Burton Weisbrod.[12] It was posited as an element of benefit distinct from the traditional concept of consumer surplus, and it depended on three factors: (1) uncertainty about future need for the asset, (2) irreversibility or high cost of replacement if the asset is lost, and (3) non-storability of the asset. That was followed by an active academic debate about the concept, and refinement of its measurement. Some economists further developed its distinction from consumer surplus and role as an uncertainty risk aversion premium,[13][14] leading to the suggestion that a concept of option price may be more appropriate.[15] Others stressed the irreversibility aspect of the resource and further specified the framework for valuing avoidance of that risk,[16][17][18][19] with suggestions to adopt a concept of quasi option value or irreversibility effect. All of these terms and ...
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As you can see in the field mission screen inside Pokemon Go, there are a series of stamps adding up to seven stamps. You can only earn one stamp per day even if you complete multiple missions - so basically, this series of stamps is designed to last a week. When you reach the seventh stamped day youll unlock a Research Breakthrough, represented on the screen by the big wrapped-up parcel from Professor Willow.. Exactly what will be inside these packages varies from month to month alongside the other research bonuses and rewards including the potential for a Sinnoh or Unova Stone evolution item to drop. The biggest thing, however, is that every month this features a Pokemon encounter. These are usually with high-end, rare Pokemon - often even legendary Pokemon - some of the best Pokemon in Pokemon Go. That means youll have an unlimited amount of tries to catch them since Pokemon encountered in this way cant run away. So long as you have patience and Pokeballs, you can keep trying until theyre ...
There are exceptions, of course. There are a number of PVP-relevant Pokemon with low CP ceilings. Medicham is a brilliant Pokemon for Great League battles and has a max CP of 1,431. Blastoise is a strong choice for Ultra league battles and has a max CP of 2,466. In both of those cases, you want perfect IVs for the best performance.. Some trainers have a hard time wrapping their heads around the fact that a 0/15/15 Pokemon can be effective. Ive heard people erroneously claim that those Pokemon inflict no damage. Thats not true at all. Ive also heard some claim that a 15 attack IV means you win faster. Yes, a 15/15/15 Pokemon will do more damage than a 0/15/15 one, but for many Pokemon the additional damage does not outweigh the benefits of being at a higher level and having more hit points.. ...
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October 11, 2005 ( - The economic value of stock option grants at the nations largest corporations declined by almost 60% over the last three years from a total of $118 billion to $51 billion, according to a new Watson Wyatt survey.
Realm of Light is an active rpg based on the will of wild pokemon to remain free! We are in our fifteenth year and have become the most active pokemon RPG in Ygroups, wild or trained. So come join us, we are waiting for new friends to arrive. Pick your favourite pokemon and hop right into any of our ongoing stories. You could be a nidoran in a warren, a poochyena in a pack, an ampharos in a flock, a bulbasaur in the jungle, a Goldeen in the sea... Or anything else youd like to try! Our stories/characters meet and interact, and face adventures, challenges and enemies. Realm offers rpgers a very active group of creative and friendly players, and any pokemon species are acceptable for rping. Some legendary pokemon are allowed although not as ones starting character. The game was created by JLB, in whose hands it rose to the top of its class, and is now co-owned by JLB, Typh and Wynn. Feel free to contact us if you have any questions before you start! To Learn more about Realm visit our NEW website: The
While many Pokemon Go players are simply happy to have more Pokemon to catch, competitive players just want to know which of the new Pokemon will give them an edge in gym battles. Thankfully, The Silph Road has updated its comprehensive species stats table to include the new Pokemon.
Pokémon SunGold & Pokémon MoonSilver Info: Base Rom: HeartGold & SoulSilver [uS] Release Date: March 29th, 2016 The idea of making this hack started for several reasons. Several months ago, I completed Drayanos Blaze Black 2, which is, honestly, the best Pokemon game Ive ever played, and this made me wanna try out his other hack of HGSS. Thanks to MeroMeros tutorial on adding the Fairy-type to HGSS, I was so inspired and started to think about making an expansion for Drayanos famous hack Sacred Gold & Storm Silver in which Id not only put in the Fairy-type, update the moves, but also introduce some of my ideas about new attacks, Pokemon changes and the more balance and fascinating new Type Chart. At first I thought Id just make a mini hack with not so much changes for myself to enjoy as soon as possible, but as I progressed, new ideas kept popping up so I add them to the game. Today, when my hack had ended up with a significant amount of changes in Pokemon, Moves and the Type Match-Ups, ...
Since they have done it with every Generation..i bet they are going to realise a Manga based on Pokemon X and Y.So post your thoughts and ideas for the Pokemon Manga based on Pokemon X and Y
here is an old game, which I would like to bring back. I may want to leave the reffing to somebody else if I ever get back to reffing poke-ball, but for now Im fine so, on with the game! Pokemon big brother is a game where pokemon are all put in a house, but before the game begins, we need pokemon. Im going to post one housemate, and when we have enough, Ill say stop. The first housemate is ;022;
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Few people know that Pokemon refers not only to a game, but also to a gene. An oncogene, to be precise, with a rather strange story. An oncogene is a gene that promotes cancer (from oncology). Conventionally, a gene name is written in lowercase italicized letters (pokemon), whereas the protein the gene makes is not…
So alot of people where shocked about the amazingly small amount of new pokemon, INCLUDING me! Alot of theories have begun already, just as people thought Pokemon Grey would come alongside with Black
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Pokemon Fansite founded in 2000. Featuring one of the first ever online PokeDexes, Art and Fiction plus information on the Pokemon Games, TCG and TV Series.
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Get ready to play some Pokemon - Reality Version. View 14 Pokemon You Didnt Realize Were Based On Real World Things and more funny posts on Dorkly
Puissance Pokemon, meilleur site Pokemon sur Pokemon Platine - Diamant - Perle ! Pour tous les fans de Pokemon, la référence francophone en ce qui concerne le monde Pokemon. Solutions complètes, Astuces, Jeu vidéo, Cartes, Pokédex, Série TV. Pokémon Platine, Coeur dOr, Âme dArgent, Ranger 2, Donjon Mystère... Capture tous les Pokémon !
Puissance Pokemon, meilleur site Pokemon sur Pokemon Platine - Diamant - Perle ! Pour tous les fans de Pokemon, la référence francophone en ce qui concerne le monde Pokemon. Solutions complètes, Astuces, Jeu vidéo, Cartes, Pokédex, Série TV. Pokémon Platine, Coeur dOr, Âme dArgent, Ranger 2, Donjon Mystère... Capture tous les Pokémon !
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I have been seeing lots of probabbility in pokemon. I decided to give the link to the probabbilities that a friend of mine did....
Can you name the Pokemon cards in the Fossil expansion? Test your knowledge on this gaming quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by Notyal
Can you name the Poison Type Pokemon Test your knowledge on this gaming quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by babensee
Unfortunately for me I was rudely distracted by a bottle of ten year old brandy and never quite got around to starting this project. When I finally struggled, hungover, out of bed this morning I discovered that someone had already beaten me to the creation of the worlds first Pokemon based location coding system ...
I once had a Manaphy, but I lost the game that had the Manaphy, and I cannot and will not use the GTS, because 1. My Wifi is actin stupid, 2. I cant find good deals on the GTS, and 3. Usually if I want a pokemon, I beg my cousins for it(And that usually works, except for the fact my cousin who could get a Manaphy is too lazy to get it ...
Description This Pokemon keychains bundle includes one Gengar figure with ball-chain and one with quick-release clip. The figures can be linked together, with other
Ah yes, the somewhat nerfed version of the once-powerful staple Pokemon Catcher. Now customizable for whatever you need! We will surely miss Custom Catcher.
The above image is not new. Its been floating around online for a while, so it shouldnt be surprising. What might be, however, is just how often Pokemon...
Jun 22, 2019 thats a pretty decent price considering pokemon cards were worth about ms martin of collectablesexpert. Uk said: youre probably never.
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Pokemon Value Packs are a great way to stock up on your favorite Pokemon Booster Packs. Each Pokemon Value Pack Blister contains 3 Pokemon Packs, a Pokemon Promo or Alternate Art Card and a Plastic Pokemon Coin. Click into each item to get a better description of what each Pokemon Value Pack has to offer. Pictures may or may not represent the actual item so please read the descriptions carefully before purchasing ...
Nintendo and The Pokemon Company are giving Pokemon fans yet another reason to get revved up for the March 6 launch of the Pokemon Black Version and Pokemon White Version video games for the Nintendo DS family of systems. Consumers who purchase either of the new games between launch and April 10 will be able to receive a special Liberty Pass via Nintendo Wi-Fi Connection (broadband Internet access required), which will enable them to catch the never-before-seen Mythical Pokemon Victini.
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Another Pokemon demo hits the 3DS eShop, another massive leak: thanks to the efforts of Pokemon Sun and Moon demo dataminers we now know what the final evolutions of the full games starter Pokemon will look like - not to mention all the rest.Before we proceed, be warned: you are about to read big spoilers for Pokemon Sun and Moon. If youd rather discover all these new creatures for yourself, or meet them as part of The Pokemon Companys carefully crafted hype cycle, do not scroll past this charismatic pug.
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You can play Pokemon on any device capable of running a Game Boy emulator, and that has seen the game pop up on devices including the PSP, Android phones, and of course PCs. But one gamer has taken Pokemon playing a step further and put it on a device thats smaller even than the tiny Game Boy Micro.. Reddit user Casval4 owns a Motorola MOTOACTV, which is sold as a GPS fitness tracker and MP3 player. It also fits on to a strap so you can wear it like a watch. The feature that allows the MOTOACTV to play Pokemon is the fact it runs on Android.. Casval4 took the time to root the MOTOACTV and install a new launcher on it. Then he could get emulators running and Pokemon booting. As the device has a touchscreen, controls are on-screen and can be accessed with one hand when worn as a watch. ...
The Luminous Cave can be found near Whiscashs Pond, north from Pokemon Square. However, you can only enter the cave if you are on your own. For your partner to leave you, simply return to your Rescue Team Base after your failed attempt to enter the Cave. Try to leave for a dungeon and your partner will stop you. Your partner has an idea at this point. He decides that you should change things so that you are able to pick the leader and members to go into dungeons. This would allow your team to handle rescues better by having more Pokemon types available. After his short explanation, leave for a dungeon and clear the dungeon. When you return, your team members will likewise leave the team, dispersing to their Friend Areas, but the difference this time is that your partner Pokemon will also return to its own Friend Area. Now you are free move around alone, and can therefore enter the Luminous Cave. ...
For Pokemon Black Version 2 on the DS, a GameFAQs message board topic titled The I never knew |Pokemon| was |Type|! topic.
This Forbes article details PETAs statements, with a fair bit of (well-deserved imo) criticism. Apparently PETA believes that Pokemon encourages animal abuse and glorifies cruel treatment of animals. Heres a quote from the article. I have to say that I personally find this hilarious because of how misinformed it is. PETA obviously didnt bother to actually do any research on Pokemon Black and White, considering they specifically deal with the relationship between humans and Pokemon.
This Forbes article details PETAs statements, with a fair bit of (well-deserved imo) criticism. Apparently PETA believes that Pokemon encourages animal abuse and glorifies cruel treatment of animals. Heres a quote from the article. I have to say that I personally find this hilarious because of how misinformed it is. PETA obviously didnt bother to actually do any research on Pokemon Black and White, considering they specifically deal with the relationship between humans and Pokemon.
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To commemorate the anniversary of the global phenomenon game, Pokemon Go, an enormous festival is being held in Chicago. Hundreds of fans are converging on Grant Park, and so far no one has made the horrible pun Pokemon Chica-Go, so dont ruin the streak. In honor of this unique game, I found a batch of one-of-a-kind bootleg products that might actually out-do almost every licensed toy in terms
You can now play Pokemon Go without having to stare at your phone screen. Yay, right? Nintendo and the Pokemon Company are finally releasing Pokemon Go Plus, a wearable accessory for the wildly popular smartphone game. The gadget will go on sale in most countries on Sept. 16.
Dr. Robert McClelland held JFKs head in his hands. He massaged Oswalds heart. Forty-five years later, his students are still riveted by the surgeons tales.
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I wanna be the very best like no one ever was. To catch them is my real test, to train them is my cause…I will travel across the land searching far and wide…. In the Pokemon series, the Trainers goal is to complete the Pokedex by capturing all Pokemon species using a PokeBall and training them to compete against other teams. When a Pokemon defeats the opponent, the species gains points, levels up, and undergoes evolution.. Pokemon was one of my best childhood memories. I use to love playing Pokemon pogs with my friends when I was a kid. Pogs are a 90s kid thing. It is a game of trading and collecting the coolest collection of that time. Pogs are cardboard discs that are blank on one side and a Pokemon species on the other side. The objective of the game is to end up with more pogs than what you initially have. Players create a shuffled pile of pogs all facing down and the way to win the pogs is by flipping them over using your slammer or your lucky pog. The challenge and the fun part of ...
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The makeup event will cover Pokemon that appeared in the fire, water and friendship habitat hours and is for those who purchased a Pokemon Go Fest 2020 ticket.
Pokemon Go is on a roll with 60 per cent of smartphone users surveyed noting that they return to purchase more Pokemon-themed products after initially downloading the Pokemon Go products, with restaurants and bars cited as one of the top types of businesses that are benefiting from offering Pokemon-themed products or discounts.
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Welcome to the Pokemon Report where were back, kids! Everybody give a hell yeah! For the possibly only return of this column were taking a look at the good and bad Pokemon spin-offs.
Penggemar berulah lagi, Lady Dimitrescu karakter antagonis Resident Evil: Village diubah jadi Pokemon. Masuk kategori pokemon dark, dia diberi nama Mominatrix.
My Pokeman team is Yanmega (33), Politoad (39), Ampharos (39), Espeon (39), Larvitar (23), and Dragonair (30). You cannot go to Hoenn in SoulSilver/HG. In Generations I-IV, the members of the Elite Four are battled in a set order. however can I go to Hoenn after that? Also what Pokemon types should I use? The new Elite Four is formed. 2nd pokemon is Phoenix (ho-oh), moves; sacred fire, fly, ancient power, recover.... 3rd is Disco (togekiss), moves; extrasensory, drain punch, last resort, fly. RANDOM EVOLUTIONS ARE INSANE - Pokemon HeartGold EXTREME Randomizer Nuzlocke Episode 2 - … I need some tips on training, and where to do it. Anonymous 10/27/20(Tue)16:00:42 No. I have several Pokemon that I think would be good (dont critize me if theyre not good Pokemon, Im sorta-new to it), and I need to know which ones to train for the Elite Four (I know that theyre too weak for Elite Four, I dont want to train one and then end up not using it): Lv. Redfilipe 12,386 views. Go on-the Champion is ...
Gamers enraptured by Pokemon GO but saddened by the lack of Bidoof have been targeted by the official Pokemon company with a new app. This app is a game by the name of Pokemon Duel, and its been made for the masses. While a version of this game has been available in Japan for a period of time, the release of Pokemon Duel in the United States and around the world in English has just been made today for the first time.. Continue Reading. ...
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Over 35 people participated in a live version of Pokemon Go held at Lamoureux Park on Thursday. CoTiCon organizer Annie DeRochie organized the event.
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Walkthrough: After obtaining the second flute and heading back to Poni Island, you must return to the Ancient Poni Path and head north (an area that was previous off limits). However, as you approac..
FUCK! I have SoulSilver but its Japanese. Although, its possible that the game recognizes it because Dongle pokés appeared in Diamond and Pearl even if...
I got banned. The only hacking Ive done was giving myself certain balls, bottle caps, rare candies, and a handful of mega stones. I dont have anything impossible to obtain legitimately. A friend of mine who is much more reckless with his hacking has not been banned, I suspect the reason why I got banned and he didnt is because Ive gone onto Battle Spot. Honestly, this wouldnt really bother me, except that since I cant Game Sync anymore, I cant unlock my battle box that I used in the most recent competition. ...
The Pokemon GO Wiki Strategy Guide will help you get started with a number of how-to guides on Evolving Pokemon, Leveling your Trainer, Earning Coins, along with walkthroughs that cover Events.
Lenora is Gym Leader of Nacrene City in the Unova region She is a Normaltype leader She rewards the player character with the Basic Badge if they defeat her
Survival rates[edit]. Although the one-year survival rate of transplanted hands has been excellent at institutions that are ...
Winter survival[edit]. In cold climates, honey bees stop flying when the temperature drops below about 10 °C (50 °F) and crowd ...
Tumor cell survival[edit]. Alternatively, autophagy has also been shown to play a huge role in tumor cell survival. In ... A high rate above the survival threshold may kill cancer cells with a high apoptotic threshold.[86][87] This technique can be ... There is evidence that emphasizes the role of autophagy both as a tumor suppressor as well as a factor in tumor cell survival. ... These stresses activate autophagy in order to recycle ATP and maintain survival of the cancerous cells.[86] Autophagy has been ...
Five-year survival rates[edit]. The survival rates for stages I through IV decrease significantly due to the advancement of the ... may increase both overall survival and progression free survival.[50] In 2015 the US FDA approved the anti-PD-1 agent nivolumab ... "Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Survival Rates, by Stage". Retrieved 4 December 2017.. ... For stage I, the five-year survival rate is 47%, stage II is 30%, stage III is 10%, and stage IV is 1%.[33] ...
Species survival projects[edit]. The San Francisco Zoo participates in Species Survival Plans, conservation programs sponsored ... "Species Survival Plan Program". Association of Zoos and Aquariums. 29 April 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-29. ...
There are survivals from the large brooches in fibula or penannular form that were a key piece of personal adornment for elites ... Byzantine survival. Main articles: Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty and Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian ...
"Survival of the fittest" hypothesis[edit]. This hypothesis suggests that younger mothers and offspring under their care will ... Humans, more so than other primates, rely on food sharing for survival,[150] so the large survivorship reduction values could ... That a mother's presence could aid in the survival of a developing child, while an unidentified father's absence might not have ... That would be counterproductive to the supposed adaptation of getting male support as a fertile female and ruin survival for ...
Illustrative survivals[edit]. The traditional pronunciation survives in academic and general English vocabulary: *In academic ...
Survival impact[edit]. Among women who die before age 70.... 72 / 100. ... Having this surgery at a very young age provides little or no additional survival advantage, but it does increase the adverse ... They may choose to focus on total cancer prevention, psychological benefits, current quality of life, or overall survival. The ... "Survival and tumour characteristics of breast-cancer patients with germline mutations of BRCA1". Lancet. 351 (9099): 316-321. ...
Clothing selection for wilderness survival. *Land navigation. Safety, rescue and evacuation[edit]. *Search and rescue theory ...
Reverse signaling in growth cone survival[edit]. "Reverse" signaling is one unique property of ephrin ligands that allows for ... This finding that ephrin A5 promotes growth cone survival that is opposite of EphA signaling and mediated directly by ephrin A5 ... 1 Reverse signaling in growth cone survival *1.1 Formation of the retinotopic map ...
Survival[edit]. Predators[edit]. With only their flying abilities protecting them from predation, rock pigeons are a favourite ...
Survival[edit]. The early days for fledged juveniles are more hazardous; during its first dives into the water, about four days ... "Survival and threats". Kingfisher. Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. Retrieved 23 August 2008.. ...
Tools For Survival[edit]. His Tools For Survival: What You Need to Survive When You're on Your Own (2014) is another non- ... Initially titled: Patriots: Surviving the Coming Collapse, and later re-titled: Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming ... Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming Collapse[edit]. Main article: Patriots Novels Series ... Patriots: A Novel of Survival in the Coming Collapse, Ulysses Press, Berkeley, California, ISBN 978-1-56975-599-0 (April 2009 ...
Religious survivals in the secular world[edit]. Eliade says that secular man cannot escape his bondage to religious thought. By ...
Long-term survival[edit]. The Mustard procedure improved an 80% mortality rate in the first year of life to an 80% survival at ...
In the Cox-model, this can be shown to translate to the following relationship between group survival functions: S. 1. (. t. ) ... In survival analysis, the hazard ratio (HR) is the ratio of the hazard rates corresponding to the conditions described by two ... The hazard ratio and survival[edit]. Hazard ratios are often treated as a ratio of death probabilities.[2] For example, a ... Cantor, Alan (2003). Sas Survival Analysis Techniques for Medical Research. SAS Institute. pp. 111-150. ISBN 9781590471357.. ...
Survival[edit]. The black-billed magpie often forms loose flocks outside of the breeding season. Dominance hierarchies may ...
... suggesting that decreases in productivity were not responsible for the decline and that survival was the critical factor.[76] ... "The effect of egg size on growth and survival of the Tree Sparrow Passer montanus nestlings". Acta Ornithologica. 39 (2): 121- ...
Survival[edit]. The lifespan in the wild of geese that survive to adulthood ranges from 10 to 24 years.[14] The British ... Stolley, Doris; Bissonette, John; Kadlec, John (1999). "Effects of saline environments on the survival of wild goslings (Branta ...
2.2 Initial collapse and survival of the "Socrates". *2.3 Collapse of the remaining bridge ...
Survival of the fittest adaptation[edit]. The evolution of both cetaceans and birds may have involved some mechanisms for the ...
Role in survival[edit]. Phenolic compounds can act as protective agents, inhibitors, natural animal toxicants and pesticides ...
... overall survival mechanism was simply to overwhelm predators by their sheer numbers, ensuring the survival of most of the ... Their mass emergence is a survival trait called predator satiation: for the first week after emergence, the periodical cicadas ...
Annual survival rates were calculated at 0.91 for adult males,[9] and 0.902 for adult females.[15] Maximum age for females was ... 5 Behavior, survival, and reproduction *5.1 Harbor seals in North America *5.1.1 Pacific Coast ... "Survival probabilities and movements of harbor seals in central California". Marine Mammal Science. 33: 154-171. doi:10.1111/ ...
"True Survival Stories: Miracle In The Andes - Survival Life". 12 October 2016. Archived from the original on 14 June 2018.. ... "Survival". Archived from the original on September 11, 2018.. *^ "Sitio Oficial del accidente de los Andes - Historia". Viven. ... Read, Piers Paul (2005). Alive: Sixteen Men, Seventy-two Days, and Insurmountable Odds - The Classic Adventure of Survival in ... Passenger survival[edit]. Of the 45 people on the aircraft, three passengers and two crew members in the tail section were ...
Systems of Survival[edit]. Main article: Systems of Survival. Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of ... Systems of Survival: A Dialogue on the Moral Foundations of Commerce and Politics (1992) ISBN 0-679-74816-4 ... "double nature of fitness for survival" (traits to avoid destroying one's own habitat as well as success in competition to feed ...
Survival[edit]. Few data are available on the survival of soras. Radio-marked soras in Arizona had a nonbreeding survival ... The authors suggest the low survival rate may be due to increased mortality of radio-marked birds.[27] Likely causes of ... "Nesting success and survival of Virginia rails and soras" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin. 106 (3): 466-473. ...
... while NGF treatment of these same neurons results in survival and axonal growth. Survival and PCD mechanisms are mediated ... Neuron survival[edit]. Binding interaction between NGF and the TrkA receptor facilitates receptor dimerization and tyrosine ... Lee R, Kermani P, Teng KK, Hempstead BL (Nov 2001). "Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins". Science. 294 ( ... As its name suggests, NGF is involved primarily in the growth, as well as the maintenance, proliferation, and survival of nerve ...
The chain of survival[edit]. The principles of the chain of survival apply to medical emergencies where the patient is not ...
Your Survival Guide to Safe and Healthy Travel ... Your Survival Guide to Safe and Healthy Travel. Whatever your ...
Mini survival kits[edit]. Main article: Mini survival kit. "Mini survival kits" or "Altoids tin" survival kits are small kits ... Bug-out bags / Survival Backpacks[edit]. Main article: Bug-out bag. The term "survival kit" may also refer to the larger, ... A survival kit is a package of basic tools and supplies prepared as an aid to survival in an emergency. Civil and military ... Lightweight survival kits are generally seen as a backup means of survival; however, these can kits can be extensive, and have ...
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"Doctor Who Classic Episode Guide - Survival". BBC. Retrieved 15 August 2016.. *^ "Doctor Who - Survival Original TV Soundtrack" ... Doctor Who Locations - Survival. Target novelisation[edit]. *Survival title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction ... Although Survival was the last Doctor Who serial of the original series to be transmitted, it was not the last to have been ... Survival is the final serial of the 26th season and also the final story of the original 26-year run of the British science ...
Dr. Irwin Redlener, Director at the National Center for Disaster Preparedness, talks tornado prep tips and how to survive if youre in the path of the storm.
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Few TV shows have captured the imagination of viewers as much as Survivor, the hit show that pits 16 contestants against nature-and each other-on a tropical isle. The show divides the contestants into tribes, which compete in contests of skill. Each week the losing tribe votes to expel a member from the island, until only one remains-the hearty individual who has bested personal politicking, petty bickering, and the occasional meal of grilled rat to reign as sole survivor. But why not populate the island with computer-industry heavyweights? After all, whos more familiar with personal politicking, petty bickering, and vermin than the titans of Silicon Valley?-Philip Michaels. APPLE TRIBE Steve Jobs, Apple CEO ...
The EUROCARE-4 study looked at cancer cure and survival rates between ... Widespread media coverage has been given to a large study on cancer survival across Europe. ... This method of comparing observed survival with expected survival is often used in registry studies to compare survival across ... Survival among people with cancer relative to the expected survival of people from the general population of the same age and ...
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Reuters Health) - Smoking and moderate-to-high alcohol consumption negatively affect the survival of people with non-Hodgkin ... The next step will be to see if smoking cessation or reducing alcohol consumption improves survival or treatment responses in ... NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Smoking and moderate-to-high alcohol consumption negatively affect the survival of people with non- ... Talamini, at the National Cancer Institute in Aviano, Italy, and colleagues evaluated the survival rates of 268 NHL patients ...
Despite the turmoil, we press forward on our journey with the ultimate goal of survival; returning to the people we once were. ...
When organizations commit to building dynamic code backbones, designed for growth, when they see agile developer operations (DevOps) as the linchpin, they integrate the past with the future far faster than any of their competitors.
The worlds toughest survival experts will forge new partnerships to take on some of the most challenging wilderness ... environments on an all-new season of DUAL SURVIVAL. Venturing into the wilderness are NAKED AND AFRAID champions EJ Snyder and ... The worlds toughest survival experts will forge new partnerships to take on some of the most challenging wilderness ... The worlds toughest survival experts will forge new partnerships to take on some of the most challenging wilderness ...
All of the great survival movies have a few vital ingredients, and triple Oscar-winning The Revenant, starring Leonardo ... All of the great survival movies have a few vital ingredients, and triple Oscar-winning The Revenant , out now on Blu-ray, DVD ... The perfect survival adventure inevitably features a scene in which our desperate victim violates some taboo which ideally ... But its also a survival movie, charting the astonishing true story of real-life fur-trapper Hugh Glass, who was robbed and ...
Stranded naked, freezing & starving on a mysterious island, you must hunt, harvest, craft items, grow crops, & build shelters to survive. Use skill & cunning to kill, tame, breed, & ride the Dinosaurs & primeval creatures living on ARK. Team up with hundreds of players online or try to survive on your own in offline play.
Find the survival rates for prostate cancer here. ... Survival rates of prostate cancer are based on outcomes of ... Survival Rates for Prostate Cancer. Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and ... What is a 5-year relative survival rate?. A relative survival rate compares men with the same type and stage of prostate cancer ... Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a ...
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Learn about the incidence of brain cancer and survival rates during a period encompassing the introduction of CT and MR imaging ... However, by excluding benign CNS tumors, which show better survival rates, SEER data underestimate survival rates for patients ... The advantage of using SEER data for calculating patient survival rate is that it is a population-based estimate and it ... As reported earlier, the 5-year relative survival rate differs only minimally by sex, race, and place of residence. As in ...
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Kaplan-Meier survival curve. We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. Suppose that the survival times, ... is the largest survival time less than or equal to t and is the number of subjects alive just before time (the ith ordered ... That the survival times are ordinal or continuous.. *That the risk of an event in one group relative to the other does not ... To compare two survival curves produced from two groups A and B we use the rather curiously named log rank test,1 so called ...
5-year observed survival rates for all cancer sites. ... NCDB Survival Reports allow CoC-accredited cancer programs ... Survival Report User Guide Survival is a key factor for any cancer patient and the cancer programs that treat them. ... Users who log into the new survival tools application will be asked to agree to not publicly report their survival rates before ... Increasingly, national groups are asking for the reporting of long-term survival information. While survival rates are ...
  • AudioSolutionz, a division of audio conference and corporate education leader ProEdTech, will host the live webinar " Outlook Survival Skills " with industry veteran Karla Brandau, CSPPS on Thursday, August 24, 2017 at 1:00 pm ET. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Nov. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Higher doses of the cholesterol -lowering drugs known as statins appear to boost survival slightly for certain people, a large new study reports. (
  • In The Asshole Survival Guide, Stanford professor Robert Sutton offers practical advice on identifying and tackling any kind of asshole -- based on research into groups from uncivil civil servants to French bus drivers, and 8,000 emails that he has received on asshole behaviour. (
  • With cutting-edge research and real-life examples that are thought-provoking and often hilarious , The Asshole Survival Guide is an indispensable resource. (
  • Feb. 1, 2021 -- Lung cancer experts have been impressed by long-term study results that continue to show the combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy doubles survival compared with chemotherapy alone. (
  • Paterson denies anything amiss has taken place, falling back on his "survival of the fittest" mantras and his self-defence classes. (
  • No forum topics for Cubivore: Survival of the Fittest yet. (
  • For example, Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection incorporates the concept of the survival of the fittest in the struggle for existence. (
  • Trends in Brain Cancer Incidence and Survival in the United States: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, 1973 to 2001. (
  • USCS includes incidence and survival data from CDC's National Program of Cancer Registries (NPCR) and the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System ( 3 ). (
  • Surveillance of cancer incidence and survival are essential for identifying population groups with high cancer incidence rates and low cancer survival rates as well as for estimating the number of cancer survivors, which was 13.7 million in 2012 ( 1 ). (
  • While stroke incidence didn't differ among neighborhoods, stroke survival was far better for seniors living in 'cohesive' neighborhoods, regardless of their gender. (
  • We hope that this 'Parent Survival Guide' provides you with the information you need to assist your student in choosing their home for the next four years. (
  • To submit information to Survival Guide, fax it to 245-8618 or mail it to Survival Guide, c/o Daily Press, 7505 Warwick Blvd., Newport News 23607. (
  • There is also a wide body of educational literature, sometimes referred to as a survival guide, offering advice on survival skills in various dangerous situations such as getting lost without food or water, being attacked, or being in a natural disaster. (
  •, The Outdoor Survival Handbook: A Guide To The Resources. (
  • Postoperative platinum based chemotherapy is associated with a small benefit in progression-free survival and overall survival irrespective of radiotherapy treatment. (
  • The HR for progression-free survival is 0.75 (0.64 to 0.89). (
  • A similar pattern was seen for progression-free survival Patients receiving the combination had a median 9.0 months progression-free survival, versus 4.9 months with chemotherapy alone). (
  • Previous results from study had already demonstrated that, after a median follow-up of 10.5 months, adding pembrolizumab to chemotherapy significantly improves both overall survival and progression-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone. (
  • The latest results show that the combination "continued to provide overall survival and progression-free survival benefit" in extended follow-up, said study presenter Jhanelle Elaine Gray, MD, chair, Department of Thoracic Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, Florida. (
  • This shows that chemotherapy reduces the risk of recurrent disease, lengthens the duration women have before a metastasis is diagnosed and improves survival rates. (
  • C ancer survival rates are at the highest ever with more than 2,000 more people recovering from the disease this year able to enjoy Christmas with their families. (
  • According to figures published by the Office for National Statistics, areas with statistically low survival rates, such as Barking in London and Medway in Kent, are now closing in or have caught up with the average recovery rates. (
  • Survival rates can give you an idea of what percentage of people with the same type and stage of cancer are still alive a certain amount of time (usually 5 years) after they were diagnosed. (
  • Keep in mind that survival rates are estimates and are often based on previous outcomes of large numbers of people who had a specific cancer, but they can't predict what will happen in any particular person's case. (
  • The SEER database tracks 5-year relative survival rates for eye cancer (melanoma) in the United States, based on how far the cancer has spread. (
  • Survival rates are grouped based on how far the cancer has spread. (
  • Factors other than the stage of the cancer can also affect survival rates. (
  • The EUROCARE-4 study looked at cancer cure and survival rates between 1995 and 2004. (
  • Further study would be needed to determine the contribution of each of these factors and how to improve survival rates. (
  • Additionally, these figures are for cancers diagnosed more than 10 years ago, and survival rates may have improved since then. (
  • This registry-based cohort study, called the EUROCARE study, looked at cure and survival rates of people diagnosed with cancer in Europe. (
  • The EUROCARE study began in 1990, and papers have already been published on survival rates for people diagnosed with cancer between 1978 and 1985, 1985 and 1989, and 1990 to 1994 (EUROCARE studies one to three). (
  • The researchers looked at cancer survival rates for people diagnosed with cancer between 1995 and 1999, but also looked at survival in cases diagnosed from 1978 to 2002 using data they had collected in all the EUROCARE studies. (
  • Talamini, at the National Cancer Institute in Aviano, Italy, and colleagues evaluated the survival rates of 268 NHL patients seen there over a 20 year period and who were followed for an average of 5 years. (
  • The National Cancer Database (NCDB) Survival Reports are provided to allow Commission on Cancer (CoC)-accredited cancer programs access to unadjusted American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage-stratified, five-year observed survival rates for all cancer sites. (
  • While survival rates are intuitively a key factor in anticipating the consequences of a cancer diagnosis and treatment, they may or may not be a clear reflection of the quality of care provided by a physician or cancer program. (
  • Users who log into the new survival tools application will be asked to agree to not publicly report their survival rates before they are allowed to generate a survival report. (
  • Women from deprived areas have poorer survival rates from breast cancer than women from more affluent areas. (
  • The 5-year relative survival rates were calculated for cases diagnosed during 2003-2010 with follow-up through 2010 ( 4 ). (
  • Seniors living in closely-knit, supportive neighborhoods have significantly better stroke survival rates than others, regardless of other health or socioeconomic factors. (
  • With the increased interest in complementary therapies, a team of scientists recently explored their use in cancer patients, and how they impacted both adherence to treatments and survival rates. (
  • Though some complementary medicines seem to improve the lives of individuals with cancer - by increasing the level of hope and improving self-rated life satisfaction - little is known about how they impact survival rates. (
  • They wanted to understand how the use of complementary medicine in cancer influenced adherence to medical treatments, and how that impacted survival rates. (
  • Survival rates are important for prognosis, but because the rate is based on the population as a whole, an individual prognosis may be different depending on newer treatments since the last statistical analysis as well as the overall general health of the patient. (
  • The next step will be to see if smoking cessation or reducing alcohol consumption improves survival or treatment responses in these patients. (
  • The Emergency Survival Kit , like all of all of our apps, enables you to find and enjoy all of the great content on wikiHow in many ways. (
  • The content will also include parametric and semiparametric models which are very common in survival analysis. (
  • Instructions on first aid, vehicle problems, bad weather and wilderness survival. (
  • r/survival is a forum for sharing and discussion of the topic of wilderness survival and not an authoritative source of information. (
  • What is Wilderness Survival ? (
  • r/survival defines Wilderness Survival as the philosophies, knowledge, techniques, and actions applied in a Wilderness environment, in a short-term survival scenario, which serve to increase the likelihood of survival of the individual or group. (
  • Keep all posts on the topic of Wilderness Survival (see definition above). (
  • The Pocket Survival Pak is an affordable, high quality survival product that really can save your life. (
  • High quality Survival inspired Photographic Prints by independent artists and designers from around the world. (
  • What is a 5-year relative survival rate? (
  • A relative survival rate compares people with the same type and stage of cancer to people in the overall population. (
  • For example, if the 5-year relative survival rate for a specific stage of eye cancer is 80%, it means that people who have that cancer are, on average, about 80% as likely as people who don't have that cancer to live for at least 5 years after being diagnosed. (
  • For the first time, a subset of the USCS dataset includes the 5-year relative survival rate, defined as the proportion of persons surviving ≥5 years after cancer diagnosis compared with the proportion of survivors expected in a set of comparable cancer-free persons. (
  • Journey for Survival is a 1981 American short documentary film directed by Dick Young. (
  • Survival odds increase significantly when packing a personal survival kit. (
  • Complete with a rescue whistle that exceeds US Coast Guard and SOLAS specifications, current military issue Firestarter, Rescue Signal Mirror and a Survival Compass, this kit significantly increases your odds of surviving a crisis. (
  • To compare two survival curves produced from two groups A and B we use the rather curiously named log rank test,1 so called because it can be shown to be related to a test that uses the logarithms of the ranks of the data. (
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Smoking and moderate-to-high alcohol consumption negatively affect the survival of people with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, dubbed NHL, a European study shows. (
  • The world's toughest survival experts will forge new partnerships to take on some of the most challenging wilderness environments on an all-new season of DUAL SURVIVAL. (
  • In any case, Thomson said, healthy diets do seem to be important to reduce cancer risk and to improve survival after cancer. (
  • The Outdoor Survival Handbook is a 1992 survival book by Ray Mears. (
  • BBC News Online consulted three financial experts for their top survival tips. (
  • In Pedagogy of Survival , the author uses the narratives of ordinary people to highlight extraordinary lessons of perseverance. (
  • The study showed that people over 75 also have a survival benefit with high doses compared to moderate doses, said study author Dr. Fatima Rodriguez. (
  • Jonathan Maberry, New York Times bestselling author of ROT & RUIN and V-WARS" "Set in a gritty post-apocalyptic world, SURVIVAL COLONY 9 is both an adventure and an exploration of what it means to be human. (
  • The author said survival films "identify and isolate a microcosm of society", such as the surviving group from the plane crash in The Flight of the Phoenix (1965) or those on the overturned ocean liner in The Poseidon Adventure (1972). (
  • Civilians such as forestry workers, surveyors, or bush pilots, who work in remote locations or in regions with extreme climate conditions may also be equipped with survival kits. (
  • Climate change, in confronting us with its ominous truths, offers us both opportunities and challenges: the opportunity to recreate ourselves, the challenge to evolve beyond our instinctual predilections in reconsidering and redressing how we live with each other and with the earth we inhabit, and, ultimately, the opportunity and the challenge to reimagine and reinvent our understanding of how we pursue survival. (
  • Combine that almost familiar-sounding horror with increasingly extreme weather all over the globe, geopolitical instability because of climate refugees and food scarcity, disappearing shorelines, and so much more, and you can see why the conversation about climate is starting to shift from slowdown to survival. (
  • Dr Dubey added: "Looking at the history of species survival will help us to predict which ones could be better able to deal with current climate change and to better predict the threat status of species on the red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). (
  • Most survival kits include sustenance for short periods of time, to be used and replenished before contents spoil. (
  • Survival analysis is a statistical methodology to study the occurrence of an event over time. (
  • A graphical representation of typical survival data is depicted in Figure 1, which shows study recruitment over time. (
  • Survival analysis is concerned with studying the time between entry to a study and a subsequent event. (
  • Originally the analysis was concerned with time from treatment until death, hence the name, but survival analysis is applicable to many areas as well as mortality. (
  • Order the survival time by increasing duration starting with the shortest one. (
  • The survival curve is unchanged at the time of a censored observation, but at the next event after the censored observation the number of people "at risk" is reduced by the number censored between the two events. (
  • We consider the impact of history on the survival of a monopolist selling single units in discrete time periods, whose quality is learned slowly. (
  • There are no featured reviews for The Survival of Dana at this time. (
  • Through gene profile analyses of patients, the researchers documented that the association between patient psychological condition and survival time may stem from a dysregulation in inflammatory biology. (
  • Survival analysis is a branch of statistics for analyzing the expected duration of time until one or more survival-ending events happen, such as death in biological organisms and failure in mechanical systems. (
  • One element of survival analysis is the survival rate, the percentage of people in a study or treatment group still alive for a given period of time after diagnosis. (
  • If that evidence comes to light, Rousseff will be facing her toughest fight for survival. (
  • Survival analysis regression aims at i. (
  • Much like the majority of the media interest, this analysis focuses on the results for five-year survival from cancer. (
  • Of the 5,753,934 malignant adult cancers used in the survival analysis, 90% had been confirmed by microscopic analysis of tumour tissue. (
  • The paper on overall five-year survival described the results of the analysis of about 3m adult cancer cases that were diagnosed between 1995 and 1999 and followed until the end of 2003. (
  • The aim of this module is to familiarize the student with the basic concepts and models in survival analysis. (
  • Analysis of survival data, Chapman and Hall, New York. (
  • Counting processes and survival analysis, Wiley, New York. (
  • Are you sure you want to remove Survival analysis from your list? (
  • Survival, the bi-monthly publication from The International Institute for Strategic Studies, is a leading forum for analysis and debate of international and strategic affairs. (
  • The researchers found that survival increased by 9 percent when people took high versus moderate doses of statin for a little over a year. (
  • This work proposes MRI- and clinical information-based automated pipeline that implements various state-of-the-art image processing, machine learning, and deep learning techniques to obtain robust tumor segmentation and patient survival estimation. (
  • Chemotherapy is associated with a greater survival advantage than radiotherapy and has added value when used with radiotherapy. (
  • This systematic review examines the effect of chemotherapy on survival after hysterectomy for endometrial cancer. (
  • After a median follow-up of 46.3 months, the median overall survival was 22.0 months with the combination versus 10.6 months with chemotherapy alone. (
  • Chato, L., Latifi, S.: Machine learning and deep learning techniques to predict overall survival of brain tumor patients using MRI images. (
  • Survival rate can be used as yardstick for the assessment of standards of therapy. (
  • While studies have shown that social support, such as marriage, can have a significant impact on treatment of cardiovascular disease, the influence of marital status on stroke survival in adults remains poorly understood. (
  • People who were in a stable marriage, and had never been divorced or widowed, had the best prospects of survival after having a stroke , according to new research in Journal of the American Heart Association , the Open Access Journal of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. (
  • The risk factors associated with stroke -- high blood pressure , smoking and diabetes -- are well established, as are the factors related to recovering from stroke and improving survival, such as access to quality healthcare, reducing risk factors, and adhering to treatment plans. (
  • To determine whether one's marital history plays a role in survival after suffering a stroke, Dupre and Renato D. Lopes, M.D., Ph.D., professor of medicine at Duke University Medical Center, used data from a nationally representative sample of older U.S. adults. (
  • One possible reason for improved survival is that seniors living in closer neighborhoods have others looking out for them who can get help sooner if they start experiencing stroke symptoms. (
  • Discovery Communications has learned that isolated elements of the 'Man vs. Wild' show in some episodes were not natural to the environment, and that for health and safety concerns the crew and host received some survival assistance while in the field," the network stated. (
  • Survival depends the risk of microscopic metastases after surgery. (
  • Many factors beyond treatment affect overall survival of a patient, including the biology of the cancer itself and the overall health or comorbidity of the patient diagnosed with cancer. (
  • The survival period is usually reckoned from date of diagnosis or start of treatment. (
  • Since the primary goal of a survival kit for lost or injured persons is rescue, this part of the kit may be considered the most essential. (
  • In this Safety Center you'll learn the importance of briefing your passengers before each flight to help prepare them for an emergency situation, essential ingredients of a good survival kit, simple but effective ways to help searchers find you, the first steps you should take after a crash, and survival strategies while awaiting rescue. (
  • For the average citizen to practice disaster preparedness, some towns will have survival stores to keep survival supplies in stock. (
  • Data on some cancer sites was missing from the Danish data, and as this could affect overall survival estimates, Denmark was excluded from these overall analyses. (
  • Survival prospects are the same for early as for late re. (
  • This important study analysed a vast amount of data on cancer survival in Europe. (
  • The data also included which cancer came first (if they were diagnosed with multiple primary cancers), whether the person was alive or dead, and when their survival status was last checked up. (
  • We look at the data using a Kaplan-Meier survival curve. (
  • However, the data on diet and lifestyle associations with ovarian cancer survival are all observational," said McTiernan, who was not involved in the new study. (
  • MR imaging predictors of molecular profile and survival: multi-institutional study of the TCGA glioblastoma data set. (
  • If its practical and you can afford it, a PLB (personal locator beacon) is a good way to ensure survival, short of that he suggests carrying a personal survival kit. (
  • More positively, the term immortality suggests some superior quality of existence, whereas the term survival suggests mere temporal extension, a continuation of the status quo ante. (
  • The amount of regular exercise women got before diagnosis did not seem to affect the link between diet quality and survival. (
  • But a growing body of research from scientists studying ovarian, breast and other cancers continues to cement the link between psychological stress and disease, metastatic growth and survival. (
  • Survival stories like those of the family that recently found itself lost in Nevada show the importance of being prepared. (
  • With particular focus on the first-hand narratives of two desegregation pioneers-their stories, sufferings, and pedagogy of survival-this book gives voice to unsung heroes and the often overlooked view of the adolescent perspective to address the question of how one can endure and thrive in the midst of hardship and tragedy. (
  • For four harrowing survival stories and more advice from the experts, check out our "How I Survived" feature here . (
  • Survival Medicine Podcast The daily headlines are chock-full of stories about the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • Darwin defines the biological concept of fitness as reproductive success, so in Darwinian terms the phrase is best understood as survival of the form that will leave the most copies of itself in successive generations. (