Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Abdominal Muscles: Muscles forming the ABDOMINAL WALL including RECTUS ABDOMINIS, external and internal oblique muscles, transversus abdominis, and quadratus abdominis. (from Stedman, 25th ed)Quadriceps Muscle: The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.Masseter Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.Facial Muscles: Muscles of facial expression or mimetic muscles that include the numerous muscles supplied by the facial nerve that are attached to and move the skin of the face. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Masticatory Muscles: Muscles arising in the zygomatic arch that close the jaw. Their nerve supply is masseteric from the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Intercostal Muscles: Respiratory muscles that arise from the lower border of one rib and insert into the upper border of the adjoining rib, and contract during inspiration or respiration. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging, reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness, malnutrition, and particularly in denervation.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle: Elongated, spindle-shaped, quiescent myoblasts lying in close contact with adult skeletal muscle. They are thought to play a role in muscle repair and regeneration.Pectoralis Muscles: The pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles that make up the upper and fore part of the chest in front of the AXILLA.Muscular Diseases: Acquired, familial, and congenital disorders of SKELETAL MUSCLE and SMOOTH MUSCLE.Psoas Muscles: A powerful flexor of the thigh at the hip joint (psoas major) and a weak flexor of the trunk and lumbar spinal column (psoas minor). Psoas is derived from the Greek "psoa", the plural meaning "muscles of the loin". It is a common site of infection manifesting as abscess (PSOAS ABSCESS). The psoas muscles and their fibers are also used frequently in experiments in muscle physiology.Myofibrils: The long cylindrical contractile organelles of STRIATED MUSCLE cells composed of ACTIN FILAMENTS; MYOSIN filaments; and other proteins organized in arrays of repeating units called SARCOMERES .Temporal Muscle: A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws; its posterior portion retracts the mandible.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pharyngeal Muscles: The muscles of the PHARYNX are voluntary muscles arranged in two layers. The external circular layer consists of three constrictors (superior, middle, and inferior). The internal longitudinal layer consists of the palatopharyngeus, the salpingopharyngeus, and the stylopharyngeus. During swallowing, the outer layer constricts the pharyngeal wall and the inner layer elevates pharynx and LARYNX.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.GlycogenNeuromuscular Junction: The synapse between a neuron and a muscle.Muscular Dystrophy, AnimalMyoblasts: Embryonic (precursor) cells of the myogenic lineage that develop from the MESODERM. They undergo proliferation, migrate to their various sites, and then differentiate into the appropriate form of myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL; MYOCYTES, CARDIAC; MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Regeneration: The physiological renewal, repair, or replacement of tissue.Mice, Inbred mdx: A strain of mice arising from a spontaneous MUTATION (mdx) in inbred C57BL mice. This mutation is X chromosome-linked and produces viable homozygous animals that lack the muscle protein DYSTROPHIN, have high serum levels of muscle ENZYMES, and possess histological lesions similar to human MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY. The histological features, linkage, and map position of mdx make these mice a worthy animal model of DUCHENNE MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.MyoD Protein: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Though it is not clear how its function differs from the other myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD appears to be related to fusion and terminal differentiation of the muscle cell.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Muscle Stretching Exercises: Exercises that stretch the muscle fibers with the aim to increase muscle-tendon FLEXIBILITY, improve RANGE OF MOTION or musculoskeletal function, and prevent injuries. There are various types of stretching techniques including active, passive (relaxed), static, dynamic (gentle), ballistic (forced), isometric, and others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Muscle Rigidity: Continuous involuntary sustained muscle contraction which is often a manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES. When an affected muscle is passively stretched, the degree of resistance remains constant regardless of the rate at which the muscle is stretched. This feature helps to distinguish rigidity from MUSCLE SPASTICITY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p73)Exercise: Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Dystrophin: A muscle protein localized in surface membranes which is the product of the Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy gene. Individuals with Duchenne muscular dystrophy usually lack dystrophin completely while those with Becker muscular dystrophy have dystrophin of an altered size. It shares features with other cytoskeletal proteins such as SPECTRIN and alpha-actinin but the precise function of dystrophin is not clear. One possible role might be to preserve the integrity and alignment of the plasma membrane to the myofibrils during muscle contraction and relaxation. MW 400 kDa.Physical Endurance: The time span between the beginning of physical activity by an individual and the termination because of exhaustion.Myoblasts, Skeletal: Precursor cells destined to differentiate into skeletal myocytes (MYOCYTES, SKELETAL).Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Hindlimb Suspension: Technique for limiting use, activity, or movement by immobilizing or restraining animal by suspending from hindlimbs or tails. This immobilization is used to simulate some effects of reduced gravity and study weightlessness physiology.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Mice, Inbred C57BLThigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Muscle Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in muscle tissue or specific muscles. They are differentiated from NEOPLASMS, MUSCLE TISSUE which are neoplasms composed of skeletal, cardiac, or smooth muscle tissue, such as MYOSARCOMA or LEIOMYOMA.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Pterygoid Muscles: Two of the masticatory muscles: the internal, or medial, pterygoid muscle and external, or lateral, pterygoid muscle. Action of the former is closing the jaws and that of the latter is opening the jaws, protruding the mandible, and moving the mandible from side to side.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Muscular Dystrophies: A heterogeneous group of inherited MYOPATHIES, characterized by wasting and weakness of the SKELETAL MUSCLE. They are categorized by the sites of MUSCLE WEAKNESS; AGE OF ONSET; and INHERITANCE PATTERNS.Skeletal Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.Anura: An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum: A network of tubules and sacs in the cytoplasm of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that assist with muscle contraction and relaxation by releasing and storing calcium ions.Muscle Relaxants, Central: A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)Sarcolemma: The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne: An X-linked recessive muscle disease caused by an inability to synthesize DYSTROPHIN, which is involved with maintaining the integrity of the sarcolemma. Muscle fibers undergo a process that features degeneration and regeneration. Clinical manifestations include proximal weakness in the first few years of life, pseudohypertrophy, cardiomyopathy (see MYOCARDIAL DISEASES), and an increased incidence of impaired mentation. Becker muscular dystrophy is a closely related condition featuring a later onset of disease (usually adolescence) and a slowly progressive course. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1415)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Myositis: Inflammation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Myogenin: A myogenic regulatory factor that controls myogenesis. Myogenin is induced during differentiation of every skeletal muscle cell line that has been investigated, in contrast to the other myogenic regulatory factors that only appear in certain cell types.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Muscle Strength Dynamometer: A device that measures MUSCLE STRENGTH during muscle contraction, such as gripping, pushing, and pulling. It is used to evaluate the health status of muscle in sports medicine or physical therapy.Desmin: An intermediate filament protein found predominantly in smooth, skeletal, and cardiac muscle cells. Localized at the Z line. MW 50,000 to 55,000 is species dependent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Smooth Muscle Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in smooth muscle.Receptors, Cholinergic: Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tropomyosin: A protein found in the thin filaments of muscle fibers. It inhibits contraction of the muscle unless its position is modified by TROPONIN.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Citrate (si)-Synthase: Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sarcopenia: Progressive decline in muscle mass due to aging which results in decreased functional capacity of muscles.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Rana temporaria: A species of the family Ranidae occurring in a wide variety of habitats from within the Arctic Circle to South Africa, Australia, etc.Deltoid Muscle: Thick triangular muscle in the SHOULDER whose function is to abduct, flex, and extend the arm. It is a common site of INTRAMUSCULAR INJECTIONS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Caffeine: A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes SMOOTH MUSCLE, stimulates CARDIAC MUSCLE, stimulates DIURESIS, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide PHOSPHODIESTERASES, antagonism of ADENOSINE RECEPTORS, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Myogenic Regulatory Factors: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).Motor Endplate: The specialized postsynaptic region of a muscle cell. The motor endplate is immediately across the synaptic cleft from the presynaptic axon terminal. Among its anatomical specializations are junctional folds which harbor a high density of cholinergic receptors.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Rana pipiens: A highly variable species of the family Ranidae in Canada, the United States and Central America. It is the most widely used Anuran in biomedical research.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Creatine Kinase, MM Form: An isoenzyme of creatine kinase found in the MUSCLE.Running: An activity in which the body is propelled by moving the legs rapidly. Running is performed at a moderate to rapid pace and should be differentiated from JOGGING, which is performed at a much slower pace.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.PAX7 Transcription Factor: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Muscle Hypertonia: Abnormal increase in skeletal or smooth muscle tone. Skeletal muscle hypertonicity may be associated with PYRAMIDAL TRACT lesions or BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Myogenic Regulatory Factor 5: A SKELETAL MUSCLE-specific transcription factor that contains a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF. It plays an essential role in MUSCLE DEVELOPMENT.Paraspinal Muscles: Deep muscles in the BACK whose function is to extend and rotate the SPINE and maintain POSTURE. It consists splenius, semispinalis, multifidus, rotatores, interspinales, intertransversarii and sacrospinalis.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Troponin: One of the minor protein components of skeletal muscle. Its function is to serve as the calcium-binding component in the troponin-tropomyosin B-actin-myosin complex by conferring calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Ryanodine Receptor Calcium Release Channel: A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Recruitment, Neurophysiological: The spread of response if stimulation is prolonged. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 8th ed.)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Muscular Disorders, Atrophic: Disorders characterized by an abnormal reduction in muscle volume due to a decrease in the size or number of muscle fibers. Atrophy may result from diseases intrinsic to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR DYSTROPHY) or secondary to PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES that impair innervation to muscle tissue (e.g., MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL).Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Back: The rear surface of an upright primate from the shoulders to the hip, or the dorsal surface of tetrapods.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Weight Lifting: A sport in which weights are lifted competitively or as an exercise.Muscle Hypotonia: A diminution of the skeletal muscle tone marked by a diminished resistance to passive stretching.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
4.6 Abdominal muscle. *4.7 Subcutaneous soft silicone implant. *4.8 No-touch surgical technique *4.8.1 Procedure ... Abdominal muscle[edit]. Skin grafted muscle flaps have fallen from popularity. This procedure is a minimum of 3 steps and ... No-touch surgical technique[edit]. This technique for penile prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure developed by J. ... including surgical gloves that have touched skin are discarded. A loose drape is then deployed over the entire surgical field ...
On the other hand, it is well known that muscles lacking normal excitation perform unreliably after surgical tendon transfers. ... consists of denervated corresponding muscles. The lower motor neuron (LMN) of these muscles is damaged. These muscles are ... This segment has unparalysed, functional muscles; the action of these muscles is voluntary, not permanent and strength can be ... painful hyperesthesias and paralyzed proximal upper limb muscles with distal muscle sparing. Spasticity is a frequent ...
Exercise routines tone underlying facial muscles without surgery. Surgical facelifts are effectively combined with eyelid ... because the facial nerve innervates the facial muscles on the deep surface of these muscles (except for the muscles which are ... There are multiple surgical techniques and exercise routines. Surgery usually involves the removal of excess facial skin, with ... With the skin-only facelift only the skin of the face is lifted and not the underlying SMAS, muscles or other structures. The ...
S Salmons, J Henriksson "The adaptive response of skeletal muscle to increased use" Muscle and Nerve 1981, Volume 4, Issue 2, ... 1998). Surgical Research: Basic Principles and Clinical Practice, p. 10. Springer. Komi, Paavo V. (2011). Neuromuscular Aspects ... on rabbit muscles (published in Nature) clarified the relationship between nerve signals and muscle chemistry and established ... "Adaptive change in electrically stimulated muscle: a framework for the design of clinical protocols (Invited review)." Muscle ...
Inflammation of muscles of mastication. It is a frequent sequel to surgical removal of mandibular third molars (lower wisdom ... When muscles of mastication are within the field of radiation, it leads to fibrosis and result in decreased mouth opening. ... Dental trismus results from some sort of insult to the muscles of mastication, such as opening the jaw for a period of time or ... Users' jaws do not lock, but rather the muscles become tight and the jaw clenched. It is still perfectly possible to open the ...
... a leading Swiss veterinary surgical product company . While many surgical procedures, including, but not limited to, ... Masticatory Muscle Myositis. In, Bojrab MJ, American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) Veterinary Orthopedic Society (VOS) ... www.google.com/patents/US20120136450 Chapter 9 Surgical Wound Infection, 61. Smeak DD. Wnedelburg KL: Choosing suture material ...
Surgical incision of the perineum and the posterior vaginal wall Fasciotomy -> Surgical procedure where the fascia is cut to ... Meatotomy -> Form of penile modification in which the underside of the glans is split Myotomy -> Procedure in which muscle is ... Muscles of the cardia (lower oesophageal sphincter or LOS) are cut, allowing food and liquids to pass to the stomach Hymenotomy ... Surgical removal or opening of the hymen Hysterotomy -> Incision in the uterus, and is performed during a caesarean section ...
Folk ER (1956). "Surgical results in intermittent exotropia". Arch Ophthalmol. 55 (4): 767-9. doi:10.1001/archopht. ... Folk ER (1975). "Indications for weakening the inferior oblique muscle". Am Orthopt J. 25: 131-4. PMID 1200459. Folk ER (1971 ... Mittelman D, Folk ER (1979). "The surgical management of overcorrected esotropia". J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 16 (3): 156 ...
HFS may be due to vascular compression of the nerves going to the muscles of the face. For these patients, surgical ... These movements may be asynchronous, in which several muscles contract variably in time, synchronous, in which muscles contract ... Generalized dystonia has also been treated with such muscle relaxants as the benzodiazepines. Another muscle relaxant, baclofen ... Writer's cramp is a contraction of hand and/or arm muscles that happens only when a patient is writing. It does not occur in ...
The inflammatory process infiltrates muscles and causes symptoms of tracheal compression. Surgical treatment is required to ... Treatment is directed to surgical relief of compressive symptoms. Tamoxifen may also be beneficial. -Harrison's principle of ...
In general the surgical treatment is done for improvement of the thumb function. However, an extra advantage of the surgery is ... The extensor tendons and the intrinsic muscles are shortened as well. For type V of the Buck-Gramcko classification the ... In the past, surgical treatment of the triphalangeal thumb was not indicated, but now it is generally agreed that operative ... Table 1: Classifications of Wood and Buck-Gramcko The goals of surgical treatment are: reducing length of the thumb, creating a ...
Knowledge of the exact structure of the muscular wall of the esophagus forms the basis of surgical procedures for treatment of ... Further studies revealed the spiral structure of the esophageal wall muscles. Stelzner worked with the anatomist Werner Lierse ... Stelzner soon after began his surgical residency at the University of Erlangen where he was boarded in General Surgery in 1949 ... Following advice from his mentor Otto Goetze in Erlangen, Stelzner joined the surgical faculty at the University of Hamburg in ...
Harmful spasticity that does not respond to medication or surgical treatment is a contraindication. The shoulder muscles, ... The muscle is exposed to its insertion on the humerus. Next the part of the muscles that originates from the spina scapulae, ... The brachioradialis muscle is a versatile motor muscle and is used for different transfers in tetraplegic patients. In IC 1 it ... To measure and evaluate hand strength each muscle is tested and all muscles with a BMRC grade of M4 or more are recorded.Table ...
Those muscles include the hamstrings, quadriceps, and calf muscles. One popular exercise used to strengthen the hamstrings is ... More serious tears may require surgical procedures. Surgery, however, does not appear to be better than non surgical care. ... Exercises can strengthen the muscles around the knee, especially the quadriceps. Stronger and bigger muscles will protect the ... Arthroscopy is a surgical technique in which a joint is operated on using an endoscopic camera as opposed to open surgery on ...
In a trauma or surgical resection, a nerve can be damaged, which is called a nerve defect. This defect needs to be repaired in ... Motor nerves, which carry the information from the central nervous system to peripheral organs, especially the muscles. Signals ... Thirdly, a longer anaesthesia time is needed because of the additional surgical site for the donor nerve. Lastly, higher costs ... also due to the extra surgical site. Despite these downsides, reducing the function of the affected area is beyond the risks ...
Centrally acting muscle relaxants. *Anticonvulsants. Surgical[edit]. Some have suggested that surgery is not an appropriate for ... Sometimes dental treatment or surgical procedures in the mouth appear to precede the onset of AFP, or sometimes persons with ... Sometimes the pain may be increased or simply migrate to an adjacent area following a surgical procedure. Descriptions of ... Proponents of the so-called "Neuralgia inducing cavitational necrosis" suggest surgical exploration of the bone marrow ...
Due to weakness of the muscles of facial expression and muscles of mastication, facial weakness may manifest as the inability ... The surgical removal of the thymus gland may improve symptoms in certain cases. Plasmapheresis and high dose intravenous ... Weakness of the muscles that move the jaw (muscles of mastication) may cause difficulty chewing. In individuals with MG, ... and interval-based muscle therapy may improve respiratory muscle strength, chest wall mobility, respiratory pattern, and ...
Other, less popular surgical techniques try to reduce spasticity by severing selected overactive nerves that control muscles. ... The muscle spasticity can cause gait patterns to be awkward and jerky. The constant spastic state of the muscle can lead to ... and some side effects to the relaxed muscles have been a loss of strength for patients with some muscle control. Casting, in ... Surgical procedures are painful with long and difficult recoveries and do not cure the condition. Most common, is surgery that ...
There are several jaw reduction techniques available-both surgical and non-surgical. Ideally prior to selection of a treatment ... Like any muscle it increases in size with exercise. Behaviors such as repeated gum chewing, teeth clenching, or bruxism can ... There are several techniques for treatment-including surgical and non surgical methods. A square lower jaw is generally ... Surgical techniques are used to directly reduce the size of an enlarged mandible. Incision can be to the inside or outside of ...
Tissue analysis comes from either surgical biopsies or post mortem autopsies. Common tissue samples include muscle fibers and ... developed surgical instruments that resemble surgical tools of today, gave accounts for creating aseptic environments using ... Trephinations are crude surgical holes made through either scraping, cutting, or drilling away the layers of bone, and great ... Unlike most other surgical specialties, it currently has its own independent training pathway which takes around eight years ( ...
Beta receptors are found on cells of the heart muscles, smooth muscles, airways, arteries, kidneys, and other tissues that are ... O'Donnell, John M.; Nácul, Flávio E. (2009). Surgical Intensive Care Medicine. Springer. p. 47. ISBN 0-387-77892-6. Retrieved ... Stimulation of β2 receptors induces smooth muscle relaxation, induces tremor in skeletal muscle, and increases glycogenolysis ... Ahrens RC (1990). "Skeletal muscle tremor and the influence of adrenergic drugs". The Journal of Asthma. 27 (1): 11-20. doi: ...
These two muscles act as a force couple within the glenohumeral joint to properly elevate the acromion process, and if a muscle ... A number of surgical interventions are available, depending on the nature and location of the pathology. Surgery may be done ... The intrinsic muscles of the scapula include the muscles of the rotator cuff- the subscapularis, infraspinatus, teres minor and ... The extrinsic muscles include the biceps, triceps, and deltoid muscles and attach to the coracoid process and supraglenoid ...
... and surgical approaches to eyelid, cleft lip, and cleft palate corrections. Dr. von Gräfe's protégé, the medical and surgical ... The illustrations featured a re-attachment rhinoplasty using a biceps muscle pedicle flap; the graft attached at 3-weeks post- ... his medico-surgical compendium. The physician Sushruta and his medical students developed and applied plastic surgical ... Surgical rhinoplasty began in ancient Egypt and ancient India. In India, it was developed by the ayurvedic physician Sushruta ( ...
Treatment is usually surgical, performed at the insertional ends of extraocular muscles (where they attach to the globe). ... The treated muscle weakens over 48-72 hours and remains paretic (partially paralyzed) for 2-4 months, at which time muscle ... and causing flaccid muscle paralysis. Crotoxin appears to act similarly. To weaken an eye muscle, 1 to 12 units (a few ... sacrificing one direction of muscle action for another; posterior fixation relocates a muscle's effective insertion to a ...
Disadvantages A complex surgical operation; the dissection of the muscle is technically difficult, in order to obtain a ... The lumbar vessels travel through the erector spinae muscles or between the erector spinae muscle and quadratus lumborum muscle ... Disadvantages Besides a long scar to the abdomen, the surgical sacrifice of the rectus abdominis muscle can result in a higher ... The tensor fasciae latae muscle is located at the lateral upper leg. Advantages The fascia lata covering the TFL-muscle is very ...
Surgical Anatomy of the Hand and Upper Extremity, p. 110, at Google Books ... The Latin term teres, which means "round or cylindrical shaped" or "long and round", refers to the shape of the muscle.[4][5] ... Muscolino, Joseph E. (2013-12-19). Know the Body: Muscle, Bone, and Palpation Essentials - E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences. ... The pronator teres is a muscle (located mainly in the forearm) that, along with the pronator quadratus, serves to pronate the ...
Lower leg muscle cramps are painful contractions, that happen involuntarily. These cramps affect people who train hard and lack ... Compete tears may require surgical repair.. *Ice for 10 to 15 mins with hourly reapplication. ... involuntary contraction of a single muscle or a muscle group. Lower Leg Muscle Cramps frequently occur in the legs of elderly ... Lower Leg Muscle Cramps. Lower Leg Muscle Cramps generally result from overexertion and dehydration. When you dont have enough ...
Muscle variation. Anatomy. Pectoral muscles. Resumo: Presence of additional muscles in the pectoral region has often been ... Also these variations should be borne in mind during certain surgical procedures in the pectoral region. ... It was present deep to the pectoralis major muscle and superomedial to the pectoralis minor muscle. The variant was closely ... Unilateral Pectoralis Minimus Muscle: A Case Report Autores: Rai,Rajalakshmi. Ranade,Anu V. Prabhu,Latha V. Prakash,. ...
Surgical soft tissue margins are now checked with frozen sections to ensure the adequacy of the tumor resection. ... the mylohyoid muscle and deep tongue muscles if necessary. ... The location and size of the tumor will dictate the surgical ... The flap pedicle and muscle, which now drapes the neck, provides the necessary blood supply; however, it creates tension on the ... This must be addressed by suspending the pectoralis muscle to the underlying deep neck using resorbable sutures (eg. 3-0 Vicryl ...
Our research assessed the relationship between paraspinous muscle area, psoas muscle area, and surgical outcomes. ... Paraspinous muscle area correlates with psoas muscle area, and larger paraspinous muscle area is associated with lower ... Paraspinous muscle as a predictor of surgical outcome.. Canvasser LD1, Mazurek AA2, Cron DC2, Terjimanian MN2, Chang ET2, Lee ... This suggests that the paraspinous muscle may be an alternative to the psoas muscle in the context of objective measures of ...
The effects of surgical lengthening of hamstring muscles in children with cerebral palsy--the consequences of pre-operative ... Muscles which were shown to be of at least normal length at initial contact were not surgically lengthened, as would have been ... No absolute recommendation can be made to inform the clinical management of all children with normal to long hamstring muscles ... The comparison revealed that preserving the hamstrings does tend to reduce, and therefore normalize, the dynamic muscle length ...
One muscle width of IR nasal transposition corrected an average 5.6° in excyclotorsion, while bilateral IR nasal transposition ... However, as far as we are aware, there have been no reports examining the surgical effects of this procedure in multiple cases ... Therefore, we examined the surgical effects of IR nasal transposition in 135 cases with acquired trochlear nerve palsy at Hyogo ... muscle, which is transposed nasally with the insertion parallel to the spiral of Tillaux, could correct excyclotropia. ...
Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with catabolic conditions such as major surgical interventions and leads to reduced ... The Effect of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Muscle Metabolism of Major Abdominal Surgical Patients. ... on Muscle Metabolism of Abdominal Surgical Patients. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Expression of IGF-I splice variants in young and old human skeletal muscle after high resistance exercise. J Physiol. 2003 Feb ...
2 thoughts on "Surgical Management of Uterine Smooth-Muscle Tumors" * Suzie Siegel says: ... Surgical Management of Uterine Smooth-Muscle Tumors. November 10, 2016. Randa Laouar 2 Comments ... Surgical management of uterine smooth-muscle tumors was addressed briefly Oct. 8 at the National Leiomyosarcoma Foundation ... With surgical debulking, doctors can increase progression-free survival from 6.8 months to 14.2 months. ...
Surgical treatment for difficulty emptying the bladder due to disco-ordination between bladder and sphincter muscle in adults ... Different types of surgical treatment exist, but the optimal surgical treatment for this condition in adults is as yet unknown ... non-surgical treatment, or other surgical treatment, alone or in combination. ... One trial showed that a surgical procedure in which an incision is made in the sphincter (sphincterotomy) is better in lowering ...
Surgical management of bronchopleural fistula using a greater pectoral muscle flap in empyema due to aspergillus infection. ... A greater pectoral muscle flap was created and inserted into the space of the empyema. The intrathoracic defect and pleural ... We describe the use of a greater pectoral muscle flap to fill an intrathoracic defect and close a pleural window. A 67-year-old ... male patient was admitted for surgical treatment of an aspergilloma with right pneumothorax. During the surgery, the area of ...
Long-term surgical outcomes and factors for recurrence after unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession ... Long-term surgical outcomes and factors for recurrence after unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession ... Aim To evaluate long-term surgical outcomes and risk factors for recurrence after unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession ( ...
Exercise and skeletal muscle relaxants help heal and prevent muscle strain. ... The majority of episodes of acute back and neck pain are caused by a muscle or ligament strain. ... Muscle Strain. What is Muscle Strain? The majority of episodes of acute back and neck pain are caused by a muscle or ligament ... muscle wasting or shrinking). The muscle wasting leads to further weakening, which causes more pain because the weak muscles ...
Muscles -- anatomy & histology Keyword patella. gracilis muscle. sartorius muscle. vastus medialis muscle. adductor magnus ... Dissection Atlas of Orthopaedic Surgical Anatomy Rights Distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution- ... Natural color photograph of right knee, anteromedial view, showing bones, muscles, tendon and nerve ... Orthopaedic Surgical Anatomy Teaching Collection Natural color photograph of right knee, anteromedial view, showing bones, ...
Joint resolution: Interrogating muscle and bone for better surgical outcomes. Biomedical engineer Marcus Pandy and orthopaedic ... In your surgical suite, when you open a patient up in these circumstances, can you describe the scene? What sort of things are ... The muscles, bones and other tissues that make up the musculoskeletal system enable us to walk to and run and also perform ... Peter, do you find the similar thing in the surgical suite? When you open up a knee joint are they all very similar in the ...
For larger muscles, screw clamps (SI-TM11) and spring clips (SI-TM9, SI-TM10) are available. ... Microinjection , TEER Measurment , Biosensing , Surgical Scissors , Surgical Forceps , Laboratory Supplies , Microscopes , ... NOTE: As stated in our Terms & Conditions, WPI laboratory equipment and surgical instruments are not intended for use on humans ... This adapter is included with every Muscle Tester system.. When ordering tissue mounts, specify the tissue mount configuration ...
Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation.. M E Todd, B ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. ... Arterial wall and smooth muscle cell development in young Wistar rats and the effects of surgical denervation. ...
... and Botox on Masseter Muscles of your jaw and book an appointment with a board certified dermatologist. ... Find out more about options for a Non-Surgical Jaw Reduction with Botox, ... muscles on the sides of the face and jawline. However, now there is a non-surgical procedure for reducing these muscles and ... The masseter muscle is located on each side of your jaw and is one of the main muscles involved with chewing (along with the ...
Muscle reconstruction during the primary surgical management of the cleft lip is a technique which may contribute to the ... Muscle reconstruction during the primary surgical management of the cleft lip is a technique which may contribute to the ... Muscle reconstruction of the lip in the primary surgical treatment of cleft lip: A comprehensive review.. ... Surgical Correction of Whistle Deformity Using Cross-Muscle Flap in Secondary Cleft Lip. ...
The degree of muscle atrophy was evaluated after surgery by fibrillation potential amplitude, muscle wet weight, muscle fiber ... The degree of muscle atrophy was evaluated after surgery by fibrillation potential amplitude, muscle wet weight, muscle fiber ... The degree of muscle atrophy was evaluated after surgery by fibrillation potential amplitude, muscle wet weight, muscle fiber ... The degree of muscle atrophy was evaluated after surgery by fibrillation potential amplitude, muscle wet weight, muscle fiber ...
Surgical Interventions and the Use of Device-Aided Therapy for the Treatment of Fecal Incontinence and Defecatory Disorders ... Tissue, Nerves, and Muscles. The perianal skin is keratinized, stratified squamous epithelium with skin appendages (eg, hair, ... The external longitudinal muscle layer continues as the corrugator cutis ani. The external anal sphincter has 3 parts: ... For stapled IPAA, the surgical anal canal is divided 1-2 cm above the pectinate line using a linear stapler; the ileal pouch is ...
Postoperative pathological examination diagnosed it as a muscle metastasis from the pancreatic cancer, and the patient has ... A review of the literature regarding skeletal muscle metastasis from pancreatic cancer is also presented. ... Skeletal muscle metastasis from pancreatic cancer is rare. We present a 72-year-old female patient with unresectable pancreatic ... The tumor existed in the trapezius muscle, the teres minor muscle, and the infraspinatus muscle (Fig. 2c). An en bloc resection ...
When a surgical wound is closed, repairing the wound in a cosmetic unit along a junction line is best. In larger defects that ... Muscles of the neck. The key cutaneous muscles of the neck are the platysma and sternocleidomastoid muscles. The platysma is ... Mentalis muscle - Deep to the depressor anguli oris and labii inferioris muscles, the mentalis muscle arises from the mandible ... A group of 6 muscles, collectively known as the quadratus labii superioris muscle, controls the upper mouth. The 6 muscles are ...
We analyzed postoperative serum makers for muscle damage and inflammation, postoperative surgical pain, and performance status ... The XLIF/PPS procedure is advantageous to minimize blood loss and muscle damage, with consequent earlier recovery of daily ... Comparison of serum markers for muscle damage, surgical blood loss, postoperative recovery, and surgical site pain after ... not only by surgical blood loss and complication rates, but also by evaluating muscle damage, surgical pain, postoperative ...
H: 2DG uptake in muscle during the basal and clamp periods. I: Rates of glycolysis and glycogen synthesis in muscle during the ... Surgical procedures.. A chronic double-walled stainless steel cannula was implanted stereotaxically and either unilaterally ... than in white-type muscle (Gastro-W) (Fig. 1H). The increase in 2DG uptake in red-type muscle was accompanied by an increase in ... Model for the mechanism of regulation of glucose metabolism in muscle and liver by leptin in the VMH. Ob-Rb in the VMH plays a ...
Importantly, the affected muscles did not contain distinct masses but were diffusely enlarged. Pathological examination of an ... A computed tomography scan showed unusual swellings in multiple skeletal muscles with no vessel or bone invasion. ... supporting a diagnosis of gastric cancer metastases in multiple skeletal muscles. ... open muscle biopsy showed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, ...
  • A water tight closure is essential to avoid a salivary leak into the neck with subsequent infection in the surgical site and an orocutaneous fistula. (aofoundation.org)
  • This must be addressed by suspending the pectoralis muscle to the underlying deep neck using resorbable sutures (eg. (aofoundation.org)
  • Objective measures for preoperative risk assessment are needed to inform surgical risk stratification. (nih.gov)
  • Using the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database, we retrospectively identified 1309 surgical patients who had preoperative abdominal computerized tomography scans within 90 d of operation. (nih.gov)
  • In this retrospective study of 67 patients who underwent central corpectomy with fusion and plating for CSM, the CSAs of the paraspinal muscles were calculated on the preoperative T2-weighted axial MR images and computed as ratios with respect to the corresponding vertebral body areas (VBAs) and as flexor/extensor CSA ratios. (thejns.org)
  • Among the muscle area ratios, the DF/DE ratio demonstrated a negative correlation with SACF in the subgroup with preoperative straight or kyphotic segmental angles (p = 0.04 in the single corpectomy group, p = 0.01 in the 2-level corpectomy group). (thejns.org)
  • Reconstructive Upper Limb Surgery in Tetraplegia is an established component of rehabilitation and this course will cover the important steps in reconstruction, i.e., preoperative assessment, surgical techniques (lectures and hands on) and post-surgery rehabilitation (see schedule). (tetrahand.com)
  • Your post-surgical recovery will most likely consist of physical therapy treatments, in order to help relieve your pain and improve your function. (muscleandspinerehab.com)
  • Multidisciplinary team of medical doctors, full service physical therapy, post surgical rehab, balance training and chiropractors are available on the premise. (healerdiabetes.com)
  • Tx cases were subdivided into three groups: Tx(x), Tx(a), and Tx (1), where Tx(a) was defined as the absence of lamina propria invasion in a specimen lacking muscle, Tx (1) was defined as the presence of lamina propria invasion in a specimen without muscle, while specimens lacking both muscle and lamina propria were marked as Tx(x). (springermedizin.de)
  • Pathology revealed a moderately to poorly differentiated squamous cell cancer of the larynx, pathologic stage T3N2bMx, with involvement of 2 out of 60 lymph nodes in the surgical specimen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We describe the use of a greater pectoral muscle flap to fill an intrathoracic defect and close a pleural window. (omicsonline.org)
  • A greater pectoral muscle flap was created and inserted into the space of the empyema. (omicsonline.org)
  • Can The Extensor Digitorum Brevis Muscle Flap Help Salvage A Diabetic Limb With Osteomyelitis? (podiatrytoday.com)
  • These authors discuss the use of the distally-based, extended extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap for limb salvage in a patient with diabetes and osteomyelitis of the great toe. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • 1 Since that time, there has been an increased utilization of the muscle flap for a variety of applications including coverage of foot and ankle defects. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • Of particular interest is the extended, distally based extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap for salvage of the hallux. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • The extended, distally-based extensor digitorum brevis muscle flap is based on the first dorsal metatarsal artery. (podiatrytoday.com)
  • As the SM belly is located more superficially in the neck and has a relatively larger muscle mass when compared with the CM belly, it has been widely used as a muscle or myocutaneous flap for reconstruction of oral cavity and facial defects [ 6 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the authors decided to perform primary closure of the TCF using a pectoral muscle-cutaneous flap. (ctsnet.org)
  • Subsequently, they performed a pectoral reverse muscle-cutaneous flap with supraclavicular tunneling. (ctsnet.org)
  • In comparison, anatomic areas where multiple muscles act in different directions are likely to have greater variability. (medscape.com)
  • The basic anatomic and physiologic properties of human upper extremity muscles have been elucidated using a novel intraoperative sarcomere length measuring device in conjunction with quantitative anatomic and biomechanic models of these same muscles. (tetrahand.com)
  • Anatomic Surgical and Therapeutic Road Map #3. (slideshare.net)
  • The English name dilator pupillae muscle as currently used in the list of English equivalents of the Terminologia Anatomica, the reference-work of the official anatomic nomenclature, can be considered as a corruption of the full Latin expression musculus dilatator pupillae. (wikipedia.org)
  • More particularly this invention relates to percutaneous techniques to avoid major surgical intervention. (google.de)
  • They are also called Kegel's exercises and are best taught individually to make sure each patient understands which muscles to contract and how to exercise them. (news-medical.net)
  • BacJac's minimally invasive, unilateralsurgical approach reduces operating room and patient recovery time, whilepreserving future surgical options. (medindia.net)
  • In areas of ambiguity, excising the lesion as a circle and undermining it invariably pulls the surgical defect into an oval, with the long axis corresponding to the relaxed STL. (medscape.com)
  • T. R. Clites, M. J. Carty, S. Srinivasan, A. N. Zorzos, H. M. Herr, A murine model of a novel surgical architecture for proprioceptive muscle feedback and its potential application to control of advanced limb prostheses. (mit.edu)
  • The healing time for a torn muscle varies from two weeks for a mild tear to two months or more for a severe tear, according to Johns Hopkins Medicine. (reference.com)
  • The worst type, a third-degree strain, is a tear along the entire width of a particular muscle, making it impossible to contract it. (reference.com)
  • According to Johns Hopkins Medicine, those who warm up with light stretching and walking or jogging before exerting themselves are less likely to tear their muscles. (reference.com)
  • This pilot study will quantitatively characterize the morphological (muscle volume and fatty infiltration) and functional (shoulder isometric joint strength, movement when performing typical task) changes in the muscles of the rotator cuff following supraspinatus tear and surgical repair. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The investigators further hypothesize that isometric joint strength in these individuals will be associated with muscle volume and the degree of fatty infiltration, and that older adults with a rotator cuff tear will use a restricted range of motion to accomplish functional tasks. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • a grade 3 strain is a complete tear of the muscle that may take months to heal. (orthoinfo.org)
  • A sudden jump, stretch, or impact can tear the muscle away from its connection to the bone. (orthoinfo.org)
  • A tear in on of these 4 muscles can result in a torn quad muscle which is common not only in athletes but also in the elderly. (straightfromthedoc.com)
  • The researchers created what they called an "artificial neuromuscular junction" composed of muscle cells and a nano-sized polymer placed on a biological scaffold. (eurekalert.org)
  • Prof Pandy's research is aimed at using computational models of the human musculoskeletal system to describe and explain muscle and joint function during functional activities such as walking. (edu.au)
  • These data are important not only to better understand the contractile properties of the rat SM muscle, but also to provide normative values which are critical to reliably assess the extent of functional recovery following muscle reinnervation. (hindawi.com)
  • Electromyography (EMG) [ 17 , 18 ] and muscle force measurement [ 19 - 22 ] are often used to assess functional recovery after muscle reinnervation. (hindawi.com)
  • The next step was implanting the strips in mice with about half of a large muscle in the back (latissimus dorsi) removed to create functional impairment. (eurekalert.org)
  • While the strips are "muscle-like" at the time of implantation, they are not yet functional. (eurekalert.org)
  • The treated groups obtained interesting results in terms of muscle regeneration, both in the histological and in the functional assessments. (hindawi.com)
  • Incomplete regeneration after traumatic muscle injury with residual functional deficiencies is a common problem in orthopedics and traumatology [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A computed tomography (CT) scan showed unusual swellings in multiple skeletal muscles (latissimus dorsi, transverse abdominal, iliac, iliopsoas, and femoral) with no vessel or bone invasion. (springeropen.com)
  • Using muscle controlling BOTOX, which we always thought was just for tweaking those small flaws on the face and erasing wrinkles on the forehead, frown lines and crows feet, we can now add the whole non-surgical face lift by contouring the face and neck muscles in the same way. (google.com)
  • BOTOX can be injected painlessly into various strong face and neck muscles to give a significant lift on the face and tightening of the neck, giving a younger, prettier, more defined look. (google.com)
  • In our on-going reinnervation studies, the SM muscle has been chosen as a studied muscle in a rat model because this muscle has anatomical advantages over other neck muscles. (hindawi.com)
  • Avoid straining your neck muscles or lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds (lbs) or 4.5 kilograms (kg) for 4 to 6 weeks. (medlineplus.gov)