Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
The quality or state of being wettable or the degree to which something can be wet. This is also the ability of any solid surface to be wetted when in contact with a liquid whose surface tension is reduced so that the liquid spreads over the surface of the solid.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Coating with a metal or alloy by electrolysis.
Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.
The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
Creation of a smooth and glossy surface finish on a denture or amalgam.
A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Eight-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives.
Materials which have structured components with at least one dimension in the range of 1 to 100 nanometers. These include NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOPARTICLES; NANOTUBES; and NANOWIRES.
The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.
Relating to the size of solids.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ionized gases, consisting of free electrons and ionized atoms or molecules which collectively behave differently than gas, solid, or liquid. Plasma gases are used in biomedical fields in surface modification; biological decontamination; dentistry (e.g., PLASMA ARC DENTAL CURING LIGHTS); and in other treatments (e.g., ARGON PLASMA COAGULATION).
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
An oxide of aluminum, occurring in nature as various minerals such as bauxite, corundum, etc. It is used as an adsorbent, desiccating agent, and catalyst, and in the manufacture of dental cements and refractories.
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It cannot utilize FRUCTOSE; GLUCOSE; or MALTOSE for energy.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
An alkylating carcinogen that produces gastrointestinal and probably lung and nervous system tumors.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An acid dye used in testing for hydrochloric acid in gastric contents. It is also used histologically to test for AMYLOIDOSIS.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commensal in the respiratory tract.
The accumulation of an electric charge on a object
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.
A nonionic polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block co-polymer with the general formula HO(C2H4O)a(-C3H6O)b(C2H4O)aH. It is available in different grades which vary from liquids to solids. It is used as an emulsifying agent, solubilizing agent, surfactant, and wetting agent for antibiotics. Poloxamer is also used in ointment and suppository bases and as a tablet binder or coater. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Silicone polymers which consist of silicon atoms substituted with methyl groups and linked by oxygen atoms. They comprise a series of biocompatible materials used as liquids, gels or solids; as film for artificial membranes, gels for implants, and liquids for drug vehicles; and as antifoaming agents.
Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.
The physical phenomena describing the structure and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Preparation of TOOTH surfaces, and of materials bonded to teeth or DENTAL IMPLANTS, with agents and methods which roughen the surface to facilitate adhesion. Agents include phosphoric or other acids (ACID ETCHING, DENTAL) and methods include LASERS.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The study of CHEMICAL PHENOMENA and processes in terms of the underlying PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and processes.
The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.
A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
The development and use of techniques to study physical phenomena and construct structures in the nanoscale size range or smaller.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Nanoparticles produced from metals whose uses include biosensors, optics, and catalysts. In biomedical applications the particles frequently involve the noble metals, especially gold and silver.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.
A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.
Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
The quality of surface form or outline of CELLS.
Bacterial polysaccharides that are rich in phosphodiester linkages. They are the major components of the cell walls and membranes of many bacteria.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.
A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The homogeneous mixtures formed by the mixing of a solid, liquid, or gaseous substance (solute) with a liquid (the solvent), from which the dissolved substances can be recovered by physical processes. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. II. Responses To object texture and weights. (1/8297)

Three monkeys were trained to lift and hold a test object within a 12- to 25-mm position window for 1 s. The activity of single neurons was recorded during performance of the task in which both the weight and surface texture of the object were systematically varied. Whenever possible, each cell was tested with three weights (15, 65, and 115 g) and three textures (smooth metal, fine 200 grit sandpaper, and rough 60 grit sandpaper). Of 386 cells recorded in 3 monkeys, 45 cells had cutaneous receptive fields on the index or thumb or part of the thenar eminence and were held long enough to be tested in all 9 combinations of texture and weight. Recordings were made for the entire anterior-posterior extent of the thumb and index finger areas in somatosensory cortex including area 7b. However, the statistical analysis required a selection of only those cells for which nine complete recording conditions were available limiting the sample to cells in areas 2, 5, and 7b. Significant differences in the grip force accompanied 98% of the changes in texture and 78% of the changes in weight. Increasing the object weight also increased the force tangential to the skin surface as measured by the load or lifting force. The peak discharge during lifting was judged to be the most sensitive index of cell activity and was analyzed with a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, peak cell discharge was normalized to allow comparisons among different combinations of texture and weight as well as comparisons among different neurons. Overall, the peak firing frequency of 87% of the cells was significantly modulated by changes in object texture, but changes in object weight affected the peak activity of only 58% of the cells. Almost all (17/18, 94%) of the static cells were influenced by the object texture, and 81% of the dynamic cells that were active only briefly at grip and lift onset were modulated by texture. For some cells, surface texture had a significant effect on neuronal discharge that was independent of the object weight. In contrast, weight-related responses were never simple main effects of the weight alone and appeared instead as significant interactions between texture and weight. Four neurons either increased or decreased activity in a graded fashion with surface structure (roughness) regardless of the object weight (P < 0.05). Ten other neurons showed increases or decreases in response to one or two textures, which might represent either a graded response or a tuning preference for a specific texture. The firing frequency of the majority (31/45) of neurons reflected an interaction of both texture and weight. The cells with texture-related but weight-independent activities were thought to encode surface characteristics that are largely independent of the grip and lifting forces used to manipulate the object. Such constancies could be used to construct internal representations or mental models for planning and controlling object manipulation.  (+info)

The forward rate of binding of surface-tethered reactants: effect of relative motion between two surfaces. (2/8297)

The reaction of molecules confined to two dimensions is of interest in cell adhesion, specifically for the reaction between cell surface receptors and substrate-bound ligand. We have developed a model to describe the overall rate of reaction of species that are bound to surfaces under relative motion, such that the Peclet number is order one or greater. The encounter rate between reactive species is calculated from solution of the two-dimensional convection-diffusion equation. The probability that each encounter will lead to binding depends on the intrinsic rate of reaction and the encounter duration. The encounter duration is obtained from the theory of first passage times. We find that the binding rate increases with relative velocity between the two surfaces, then reaches a plateau. This plateau indicates that the increase in the encounter rate is counterbalanced by the decrease in the encounter duration as the relative velocity increases. The binding rate is fully described by two dimensionless parameters, the Peclet number and the Damkohler number. We use this model to explain data from the cell adhesion literature by incorporating these rate laws into "adhesive dynamics" simulations to model the binding of a cell to a surface under flow. Leukocytes are known to display a "shear threshold effect" when binding selectin-coated surfaces under shear flow, defined as an increase in bind rate with shear; this effect, as calculated here, is due to an increase in collisions between receptor and ligand with increasing shear. The model can be used to explain other published data on the effect of wall shear rate on the binding of cells to surfaces, specifically the mild decrease in binding within a fixed area with increasing shear rate.  (+info)

Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of lipid translocation in biological membranes. (3/8297)

A theoretical analysis of the lipid translocation in cellular bilayer membranes is presented. We focus on an integrative model of active and passive transport processes determining the asymmetrical distribution of the major lipid components between the monolayers. The active translocation of the aminophospholipids phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine is mathematically described by kinetic equations resulting from a realistic ATP-dependent transport mechanism. Concerning the passive transport of the aminophospholipids as well as of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol, two different approaches are used. The first treatment makes use of thermodynamic flux-force relationships. Relevant forces are transversal concentration differences of the lipids as well as differences in the mechanical states of the monolayers due to lateral compressions. Both forces, originating primarily from the operation of an aminophospholipid translocase, are expressed as functions of the lipid compositions of the two monolayers. In the case of mechanical forces, lipid-specific parameters such as different molecular surface areas and compression force constants are taken into account. Using invariance principles, it is shown how the phenomenological coefficients depend on the total lipid amounts. In a second approach, passive transport is analyzed in terms of kinetic mechanisms of carrier-mediated translocation, where mechanical effects are incorporated into the translocation rate constants. The thermodynamic as well as the kinetic approach are applied to simulate the time-dependent redistribution of the lipid components in human red blood cells. In the thermodynamic model the steady-state asymmetrical lipid distribution of erythrocyte membranes is simulated well under certain parameter restrictions: 1) the time scales of uncoupled passive transbilayer movement must be different among the lipid species; 2) positive cross-couplings of the passive lipid fluxes are needed, which, however, may be chosen lipid-unspecifically. A comparison of the thermodynamic and the kinetic approaches reveals that antiport mechanisms for passive lipid movements may be excluded. Simulations with kinetic symport mechanisms are in qualitative agreement with experimental data but show discrepancies in the asymmetrical distribution for sphingomyelin.  (+info)

Surface-induced polymerization of actin. (4/8297)

Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m.  (+info)

Adhesion energy of receptor-mediated interaction measured by elastic deformation. (5/8297)

We investigated the role of receptor binding affinity in surface adhesion. A sensitive technique was developed to measure the surface energy of receptor-mediated adhesion. The experimental system involved a functionalized elastic agarose bead resting on a functionalized glass coverslip. Attractive intersurface forces pulled the two surfaces together, deforming the bead to produce an enlarged contact area. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model was used to relate the surface energy of the interaction to the elasticity of the bead and the area of contact. The surface energies for different combinations of modified surfaces in solution were obtained from reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) measurements of the contact area formed by the bead and the coverslip. Studies with surfaces functionalized with ligand-receptor pairs showed that the relationship between surface energy and the association constant of the ligand binding has two regimes. At low binding affinity, surface energy increased linearly with the association constant, while surface energy increased logarithmically with the association constant in the high affinity regime.  (+info)

Bacteriophage inactivation at the air-water-solid interface in dynamic batch systems. (6/8297)

Bacteriophages have been widely used as surrogates for human enteric viruses in many studies on virus transport and fate. In this investigation, the fates of three bacteriophages, MS2, R17, and phiX174, were studied in a series of dynamic batch experiments. Both MS2 and R17 readily underwent inactivation in batch experiments where solutions of each phage were percolated through tubes packed with varying ratios of glass and Teflon beads. MS2 and R17 inactivation was the result of exposure to destructive forces at the dynamic air-water-solid interface. phiX174, however, did not undergo inactivation in similar studies, suggesting that this phage does not accumulate at air-water interfaces or is not affected by interfacial forces in the same manner. Other batch experiments showed that MS2 and R17 were increasingly inactivated during mixing in polypropylene tubes as the ionic strength of the solution was raised (phiX174 was not affected). By the addition of Tween 80 to suspensions of MS2 and R17, phage inactivation was prevented. Our data suggest that viral inactivation in simple dynamic batch experiments is dependent upon (i) the presence of a dynamic air-water-solid interface (where the solid is a hydrophobic surface), (ii) the ionic strength of the solution, (iii) the concentration of surface active compounds in the solution, and (iv) the type of virus used.  (+info)

Native display of complete foreign protein domains on the surface of hepatitis B virus capsids. (7/8297)

The nucleocapsid of hepatitis B virus (HBV), or HBcAg, is a highly symmetric structure formed by multiple dimers of a single core protein that contains potent T helper epitopes in its 183-aa sequence. Both factors make HBcAg an unusually strong immunogen and an attractive candidate as a carrier for foreign epitopes. The immunodominant c/e1 epitope on the capsid has been suggested as a superior location to convey high immunogenicity to a heterologous sequence. Because of its central position, however, any c/e1 insert disrupts the core protein's primary sequence; hence, only peptides, or rather small protein fragments seemed to be compatible with particle formation. According to recent structural data, the epitope is located at the tips of prominent surface spikes formed by the very stable dimer interfaces. We therefore reasoned that much larger inserts might be tolerated, provided the individual parts of a corresponding fusion protein could fold independently. Using the green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model insert, we show that the chimeric protein efficiently forms fluorescent particles; hence, all of its structurally important parts must be properly folded. We also demonstrate that the GFP domains are surface-exposed and that the chimeric particles elicit a potent humoral response against native GFP. Hence, proteins of at least up to 238 aa can be natively displayed on the surface of HBV core particles. Such chimeras may not only be useful as vaccines but may also open the way for high resolution structural analyses of nonassembling proteins by electron microscopy.  (+info)

Affinity modulation of small-molecule ligands by borrowing endogenous protein surfaces. (8/8297)

A general strategy is described for improving the binding properties of small-molecule ligands to protein targets. A bifunctional molecule is created by chemically linking a ligand of interest to another small molecule that binds tightly to a second protein. When the ligand of interest is presented to the target protein by the second protein, additional protein-protein interactions outside of the ligand-binding sites serve either to increase or decrease the affinity of the binding event. We have applied this approach to an intractable target, the SH2 domain, and demonstrate a 3-fold enhancement over the natural peptide. This approach provides a way to modulate the potency and specificity of biologically active compounds.  (+info)

The theoretical basis of surface engineering for improvement of biocontact properties of polymeric biomaterials as well as the current state-of-the-art of the surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials are presented. The book also includes information on the most used conventional and advanced surface engineering methods.
The theoretical basis of surface engineering for improvement of biocontact properties of polymeric biomaterials as well as the current state-of-the-art of the surface engineering of polymeric biomaterials are presented. The book also includes information on the most used conventional and advanced surface engineering methods.
2M-S3, IKI, Oct C. dUston : Laser methods for planetary surface composition 3 In situ surface analysis goals To explore the planetary environments To gain knowledge of the geological history -To provide identification and characterisation of minerals and biomarkers. -general mineralogical information for igneous, metamorphous, and sedimentary processes, especially water-related geo-processes. To investigate the relationship between water and climate change. To identify organic compounds and search for life
0083] 10 relief plate [0084] 20 top surface [0085] 40 relief print [0086] 50 printed dot [0087] 60 relief plate [0088] 70 top surface [0089] 80 relief print [0090] 90 printed dot [0091] 100 relief plate [0092] 110 top surface [0093] 112 hole [0094] 120 relief print [0095] 130 printed ink [0096] 132 printed hole [0097] 210 relief plate with surface pattern [0098] 220 top patterned surface [0099] 240 relief print [0100] 250 printed dot [0101] 260 relief plate with surface pattern [0102] 270 top patterned surface [0103] 280 relief print [0104] 290 printed dot [0105] 300 relief plate with surface pattern [0106] 310 top patterned surface [0107] 312 hole [0108] 320 relief print [0109] 332 hole [0110] 330 printed ink [0111] 400 relief plate with surface pattern [0112] 410 top patterned surface [0113] 420 bottom of surface pattern [0114] 430 relief plate [0115] 440a halftone dots with second surface pattern [0116] 440b halftone dots with second surface pattern [0117] 440c halftone dots with second ...
BACKGROUND: We present the synthesis, characterization and initial structure-function analysis of a new class of bioactive agent that allows the application of techniques from colloid science to biological surfaces. Stable colloidal suspensions can be generated by immobilizing a dense brush of soluble polymer at the colloidal surface, creating a zone protected against the adhesion of approaching particles, a phenomenon termed polymeric steric stabilization. This is often accomplished for aqueous colloidal dispersions using adsorbing block copolymers. We demonstrate that water-soluble block copolymers can be designed to adsorb onto heterogeneous biological surfaces and block cell-cell and cell-surface adhesion, using polymer compositions and architectures that are quite different from surfactants used for stabilizing nonbiological colloidal dispersions. RESULTS: Comb copolymers were synthesized having polycationic backbones (poly-L-lysine, PLL), serving as the anchor for binding to the net ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Laser Surface Engineering of Polymeric Materials for Enhanced Mesenchymal Stem Cell Adhesion and Growth. AU - Waugh, David. AU - Cosgrove, Daniel. AU - Hussain, Issam. AU - Lawrence, Jonathan. PY - 2019/5/3. Y1 - 2019/5/3. N2 - Owing to them being relatively inexpensive and easy to manipulate, polymers are becoming more widely used within the biomedical industry for several different applications. As an example, because of its high wear resistance, low moisture absorption and high chemical resistance, poly(ether ether ketone) is commonly used as a biomaterial in the healthcare and biomedical industries. However, poly(ether ether ketone) surface properties are not optimum for efficient or enhanced bio-functionality, leading it to have somewhat inferior wettability and adhesion characteristics. On account of this, many researchers are now looking to employ surface engineering techniques to improve and enhance the surface properties of poly(ether ether ketone), enhancing its ...
Title:Surface Engineering of Fenofibrate Nanocrystals Using Nano-by-Design Multivariate Integration: A Biopharmaceutical and Pharmacokinetic Perspective. VOLUME: 18 Author(s):Sandip Gite, Pratik Kakade and Vandana Patravale*. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Chemical Technology, N.P. Marg, Matunga, Mumbai 400019. Keywords:Nano-by-Design, fenofibrate, nanosuspension, media milling, nanocrystals, dissolution.. Abstract:Introduction: Surface engineering of nanocrystals for improving the biopharmaceutical features is a multivariate process involving numerous formulation and process variables, thus making it a complicated process to get the desired biopharmaceutical quality profile. Nano-by-design is hereby ...
If you arent looking at Heavy Metal Ion Implantation, you arent looking at whats occurring in the world of manufacturing today ...
Surface Engineering Technolgies LLC is pleased to announce that the SAE AS-9100 and other certifications are in process for the company its three processes: Heavy Metal Ion Implantation, Molybdenum Disulfate, and Cathodic Arc.. ...
Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surface is widely investigated due to its combination of fast water nucleation and efficient droplet departure, which are important factors to lower interfacial thermal resistance and then enhancing water harvesting efficiency. Preparation methods used nowadays are photolithography, inkjet printing, sol-gel and so on, which either involves complicated and non-scalable procedures or is not able to prepare well-defined patterns. This work demonstrates a facile surface engineering method to prepare superhydrophilic patterns on superhydrophobic substrate which is grown with closely packed TiO2 nanorods. The pattern size can be well controlled by using different masks under UV shinning. With different UV irradiation time, patterns with microscale and nanoscale sizes are able to prepare. The relationship between pattern size and its water harvesting efficiency is studied. Preliminary result shows that the water collection rate of biphilic patterned surface ...
The surface parts of an image which is stored in the form of a bit-representation in a raster image memory may be filled with a surface pattern using the following steps: generating a bit-representation of the surface pattern defined uniformly over the entire image surface; generating a mask function, which gives a specific logic value to those raster points which are situated within the boundaries of the surface parts; generating a filling pattern by performing a logic operation on the bit-representation of the surface pattern and the mask function; and transferring the filling pattern to the raster image memory.
The Surface Engineering Group carries out research on the use of plasma and other surface treatments to modify the properties of polymers, ceramics and metals. Using plasmas the mechanical, physical and chemical properties of these materials can be modified at the nm and micron level. Coatings can be deposited which can enhance surface properties, for example, to tailor wettability, cell/protein adhesion, tribological properties as well as enhancing the adhesive bond strength. The depositon of functional coatings can also be used to achieve enhanced biocompatibility or to improve anti-bacterial performance. The group has a range of equipment for the deposition of coatings/layers including ...
Abstract. This article describes the methods for removing metallic contaminants, tarnish, and scale resulting from hot-working or heat-treating operations on ni
Ubiquinone and plastoquinone are two of the main electron and proton shuttle molecules in biological systems, and monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is the most abundant lipid in the thylakoid membrane of chloroplasts. Saturated MGDG, ubiquinone-10 (UQ) and MGDG:UQ mixed monolayers at the air/water interface have been studied using surface pressure-area isotherms and Brewster Angle Microscopy. Moreover, the transferred Langmuir-Blodgett films have been observed by Atomic Force Microscopy. The results show that MGDG:UQ mixtures present more fluid phase than pure MGDG, indicating a higher order degree for the later. It is also observed an important influence of UQ on the MGDG matrix before UQ collapse pressure and a low influence after this event, due to UQ expulsion from the MGDG matrix. This expulsion leads to a similar remaining UQ content for all the tested mixtures, indicating a limiting content of this molecule in the MGDG matrix at high surface pressures. The thermodynamic studies confirm ...
Flagellate grazing on bacteria with different surface properties.The present study demonstrated that three common species of freshwater nanoflagellates fed on bacteria having very different physicochemical surface properties at comparable rates. Differences in the electrostatic surface charges of the bacteria did not influence the flagellate feeding rates. Moreover, we found no evidence that less hydrophobic bacteria are less vunerable to ingestion by flagellates. The twofold variation in the feeding rates for each flagellate species was related neither to CSH values measured by the BATH assay nor to the HIC index. Bacterial cell size did not influence the outcome.. Zeta potentials revealed that all of the test bacteria had negative net charges, and the values were within the range of values found for other bacterial isolates (13, 52). Lower ingestion rates for highly negatively charged particles were not observed. To date, this phenomenon has been described only by Hammer et al. (23), who ...
The effect of surface roughness on capillary imbibition. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell-cycle-dependent Changes of the Negative Surface Charges in L929 Cells. AU - Doi, Akitaka. AU - Tokuda, Masaaki. AU - Itano, Toshifumi. AU - Matsui, Hideki. AU - Ohmura, Yoshiaki. AU - Hatase, Osamu. PY - 1984/1/1. Y1 - 1984/1/1. N2 - The negative charges of cell surface were studied by the adsorption method of methylene blue in the synchronized cultures of L929 cells and its spontaneously transformed cell strain.The negative surface charges of the transformed cells were twice those of the original cells through all cell cycle phases.The surface charges cell-cycle-dependently changed in both cell systems and there were two maximum peaks at early Gx and S phase.. AB - The negative charges of cell surface were studied by the adsorption method of methylene blue in the synchronized cultures of L929 cells and its spontaneously transformed cell strain.The negative surface charges of the transformed cells were twice those of the original cells through all cell cycle phases.The ...
Two-dimensional microarrays have proven useful for a wide range of applications, from ELISA microarrays to basic protein research. However, attaching an antibody, enzyme, or other protein to a functionalized surface is not without its problems. Antibodies are costly and time-consuming to produce and screen, and the process of attaching a protein often alters its conformation. Thus, there is a need for a simple, rapid and inexpensive method to produce a surface with a high density of binding sites, and which orients and binds the protein in its native form (or other desired conformation). Researchers at Arizona State University have developed a novel, automated method to identify short polypeptides which bind the protein of interest, and then quickly and inexpensively produce a surface functionalized with such polypeptides. This surface binds the molecule of interest non-covalently, additionally allowing control of the molecular orientation. This method does not require antibodies, biotin or his ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - An investigation of the surface properties of atomized FexSi powders. AU - Williams, Richard Andrew. AU - Kelsall, Geoffrey Howard. PY - 1989/10/1. Y1 - 1989/10/1. N2 - The results of XPS and electrokinetic measurements on spherical ferrosilicide particles (15 wt% Si) produced by atomization show that the surface consists of a mixed silica and Fe(II, III) oxide layer of at least 50 nm thickness. Although the surface is dominated by the silica phase (up to 70 at %), the electrophoretic mobility response in aqueous KCl electrolytes is complex and exhibits three points of charge reversal over the pH range 3-11. These phenomena correspond to an apparent point of zero charge of the surface at about pH 5 (which varies with surface composition), a point of charge reversal (which is independent of surface composition) at pH 7 due to the adsorption of FeOH+ ions originating from the substrate, and an isoelectric point at pH 7.6 due to transformation of an essentially siliceous surface to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adsorption of BSA on highly carboxylated microspheres - Quantitative effects of surface functional groups and interaction forces. AU - Yoon, Jeong Yeol. AU - Park, Ham Yong. AU - Kim, Jung-Hyun. AU - Kim, Woo Sik. PY - 1996/2/10. Y1 - 1996/2/10. N2 - In order to elucidate the relations between the amount of surface functional groups and interaction forces, BSA adsorption experiments were performed, using highly carboxylated PS/PMAA microspheres as well as conventional ones. Two kinds of interaction forces were considered in this study, hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions, while ionic interactions were assumed to be small or constant. Hydrophobic interactions were dominant in the low Nc (number density of surface carboxyl groups) region, below 1 carboxyl group nm-2, and were relatively sensitive to pH, while hydrogen bonding was dominant in the high Nc region, above 2 carboxyl groups nm-2, irrespective of pH. The transition region between these two interaction forces was ...
Chemical surface treatment machine : Comparison and purchase of Chemical surface treatment machine in the section Production equipment and quote requests online.
1. Introduction/Overview 2. Surface Structure Analysis 2.1. 2D Crystallography & Reciprocal Space 2.2. Real Space (STM, Microscopy) 3. Electron Spectroscopy 3.1. for Surface Chemistry Analysis 3.2. for Electronic Structure 4. Ion Scattering 5. Elementary Processes at Surfaces 5.1. Vibrational Properties & Excitations 5.2. Adsorption/Desorption: Binding and Release from Atoms & Molecules at Surfaces 5.3. Surface Diffusion & Mass Transport: Mobility on a 2D Crystal Lattice 5.4. Surface Chemical Reactions & Heterogeneous Catalysis 5.5. Magnetism at Interfaces/Spintronics/Nanomagnetism/Molecular Magnets 5.6. Interaction with Light/Plasmonics 6. Biological Molecules & Self-Assembly at Surfaces 7. Nanostructures/Thin Film Epitaxy/Self-Organized Growth 8. Atomic/Molecular Manipulation and Quantum Confinement 9. Electron Transport in Nanosized Objects 10. Molecular ...
Surface Modification on Ti-30Ta Alloy for Biomedical Application. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Objective: This study aimed to establish a predictive model for the presence of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification stage B or stage C4 (BCLC B/C) and further verify its accuracy, enabling clinicians to accurately predict the efficacy of TACE and propose individualized therapy to further optimize multidisciplinary team plans. Materials and Methods: A retrospective database review was performed, including 191 patients (39 females and 152 males; aged 50-76 years with a mean age of 55 ± 10 years) who received three consecutive TACE sessions for treating HCC (BCLC B/C) in 1 month apart, for a total of 3 months. After three TACE treatments, a total of 95 patients among the 191 patients showed TACE resistance, 112 cases were randomly selected to build the modeling group, and the remaining 79 cases formed a verification group. Some prognostic risk factors were obtained through clinical observation. ...
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
A new method is provided for the creation of interconnect lines. Fine line interconnects are provided in a first layer of dielectric overlying semiconductor circuits that have been created in or on the surface of a substrate. A layer of passivation is deposited over the layer of dielectric, a thick second layer of dielectric is created over the surface of the layer of passivation. Thick and wide interconnect lines are created in the thick second layer of dielectric. The first layer of dielectric may also be eliminated, creating the wide thick interconnect network on the surface of the layer of passivation that has been deposited over the surface of a substrate.
System and method for coating a medical appliance are provided. In accord with one embodiment, a system for applying a coating to a medical appliance having accessible patterned surfaces is provided. The system may include: a processor, an appliance support, and a solenoid type fluid dispensing head having an electromagnetically controlled valve. In the system, the appliance support may be adapted to hold the medical appliance and to provide direct access for a coating to contact the exposed external patterned surfaces of the medical appliance. The solenoid type fluid dispensing head in this system may move with respect to the medical appliance and may be in communication with a source of coating and with the processor. The processor in this system may contain commands that instruct the solenoid type fluid dispensing head to force coating onto the accessible patterned surfaces of the medical appliance in a pattern that correlates with the accessible patterned surfaces of the medical appliance.
Stock Photo of Orca at surface. High Quality Orca Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
We demonstrate nanoparticle surface patterning, which utilizes thermodynamically driven segregation of polymer ligands from a uniform polymer brush into surface pinned micelles following a change in solvent quality. Patch formation is reversible but can be permanently preserved using a photocrosslinking step. The methodology offers the ability to control the dimensions of patches, their spatial distribution and the number of patches per nanoparticle, in agreement with a theoretical model. The versatility of the strategy is demonstrated by patterning nanoparticles with different dimensions, shapes and compositions, tethered with various types of polymers and subjected to different external stimuli. These patchy nanocolloids have potential applications in fundamental research, the self-assembly of nanomaterials, diagnostics, sensing and colloidal stabilization.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biofilm formation affects surface properties of novel bioactive glass-containing composites. AU - Hyun, Hong Keun. AU - Salehi, Satin. AU - Ferracane, Jack. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Objectives This study investigated the effects of bacterial biofilm on the surface properties of novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing composites of different initial surface roughness. Methods BAG (65 mol% Si; 4% P; 31% Ca) and BAG-F (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and micronized (size ∼0.1-10 μm). Composites with 72 wt% total filler load were prepared by replacing 15% of the silanized Sr glass with BAG, BAG-F, or silanized silica. Specimens (n = 10/group) were light-cured and divided into 4 subgroups of different surface roughness by wet polishing with 600 and then up to 1200, 2400, or 4000 grit SiC. Surface roughness (SR), gloss, and Knoop microhardness were measured before and after incubating in media with or without a Streptococcus mutans ...
Deterministic lateral displacement (DLD) is a powerful bimodal separation scheme [1] based on fluid flow through regular obstacle arrays that in its basic embodiment sends suspended particles in two different directions as a function of size. We show that without the need to seal devices and without the need for fluidic connections or pumps, particle separation can be achieved by the passive flow of a sample over a patterned surface. Risk of clogging is minimized by the movement of large particles above the obstacle array. Suitable application areas include blood fractionation and analysis of drinking water. 0. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Removal of Cu2+ and SO4 2- from aqueous solutions on surface functionalized dehydrated carbon from date palm leaflets. AU - El-Shafey, El Said I. AU - Al-Busafi, Saleh. AU - Al-Lawati, Hiader A J. AU - Al-Shibli, Aisha S.. PY - 2015/12/14. Y1 - 2015/12/14. N2 - Dehydrated carbon (DC) was prepared from date palm leaflets via sulfuric acid dehydration at 200°C. DC surface was functionalized using ethylene diamine via amide coupling to produce basic dehydrated carbon (BDC). DC possesses high content of carboxylic groups acting as cation exchanger, however, BDC possesses amine and amide groups that are capable of chelating Cu2+. However, when protonated, the amine group acts as anion exchanger for SO4 2-. ∼81% of the carboxylic groups on DC were successfully functionalized to amide-amine groups on BDC surface. Sorption of Cu2+ and SO4 2- was investigated at different initial pH, contact time and ion concentration. Initial pH values for maximum sorption were found to be 5 and 2 for ...
Surface energy is a measure of disruption of chemical bonds that occurs when a surface is created. Most of the hydrophobic surfaces are known to show low surface energy values. It is also well known that hydrophobicity has a role in cell attachment to the surface and biofilm formation. As the biofilm progresses the adhesion is higher and chemical bonding is more hence lower the surface energy. Few studies were carried out on adhesion of biological systems such as proteins, microbes, algae and invertebrates. They all show minimal long-term adhesion associated with surfaces having low energy surfaces. However, all surfaces rapidly become modified on immersion in natural waters through the adsorption of conditioning films, which may influence subsequent adhesive events associated with the permanent attachment of organisms. The results show that surface energy can elicit different responses in different organisms. For most organisms, minimal adhesion is associated with low surface energy. According ...
We have employed molecular dynamics simulations to systematically investigate the effects of nanoparticles structural and chemical properties on
For spread and wetting performance, certain finishes stand out. Electronic assemblers have myriad material and process choices to make, not limited to board materials, solder masks, laminate Tgs, components, surface finishes, assembly materials and design for manufacturing (DfM) process conditions.
The aim of the course is to improve knowledge of PhD students about structure and properties of material surfaces. The attention is paid to processes taking place at surfaces, interfaces and in thin layers. The special attention is paid to modern technologies of surface engineering, especilly plasma technologies and thermal coatings. Applications of the most important technologies are demonstrated on practical examples. Basic techniques of structure and property characterisation of material surfaces are discussed ...
UNIQUE AQUARIUM BACTERIA Blend: Aquatic Experts specially designed aquarium biological cleaner help to make aquarium maintenance a lot more manageable. Through their metabolic activities, these beneficial bacteria either convert toxins into less harmful substances or remove them by taking them into their bodies. Which
TECHNO SERVICES is Manufacturer and Supplier of Pickling & Passivation Products based in Navsari, Gujarat, India.We offer supreme quality range of Pickling & Passivation Products.
TECHNO SERVICES is Manufacturer and Supplier of Passivation Cleaner based in Navsari, Gujarat, India.We offer supreme quality range of Passivation Cleaner.
Lectures: · Surfaces and interfaces of condensed matter. Utility properties of solids dependent on the surface. Professional discipline dealing with the study, assessment and surface treatment. Damage to solids / metals processes induced effect of stressful events / stressors on the surface. · Surface structure of solids / metals. Important surface properties of solid substances. Geometric, physical, chemical surface properties. Interface Chemistry in solids. · Happens at the interface solid - liquid. Sorption happening. Interaction surface gases, oxygen, hydrogen. The consequences of the interaction metal - oxygen, metal - hydrogen thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the process, their impact on properties metal surfaces to damage the metal. Erosion, cavitation. · Happens at the interface solid / metal - electrolyte. Double layer. Electrically charged interface. Electrochemical properties of electron-conductive materials, especially metals. Thermodynamic description of processes at the ...
Drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases including stenosis. However, in-stent restenosis, thrombosis, and delayed re-endothelialization represent challenges for their clinical applications. Here, we demonstrate a novel work to overcome these limitations through surface modification technology. The cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) surface was modified with antioxidants such as gallic acid (GA) and rutin (Ru) and the corresponding persulfates derivatives (i.e., GAS, and RuS) through a simple conjugation procedure. Various analyses tools such as ATR-FTIR, XPS, water contact angle, SEM, and AFM characterized the functionalized surface. The surface characterization confirmed that the antioxidant and the additional persulfates were successfully bonded to the Co-Cr surface. The results of in vitro endothelial cells proved that the persulfates derivatives showed the highest tendency to get rapid re-endothelialization especially RuS. In addition, it showed inhibition ...
Thallus: foliose, single lobed attached by a single umbilicus and with 14-60 mm wide lobes upper surface: gray, with epinecral layer consisting of air filled hyphae upper cortex: 130-240 µm thick with the outermost 10-20 µm brown medulla: 180-350 µm thick lower cortex: 90-110 µm thick with the outermost 15-40 µm brown, the lower cortex cells are angular and in distinct vertical columns, uneven lower surface were 2-4 cell rows thick outgrowths cause the farinose lower surface of the species lower surface: brown, farinose and often reticulate, occasionally with rhizinomorphs Perithecia: obpyriform to almost globose, 200-530 x 170-440 µm, primarily with a hyaline exciple that is light brown to brown in the uppermost part, rarely hyaline throughout asci: clavate or cylindrical, 8spored ascospores: simple, hyaline, 12-17 x 5-9 µm Pycnidia: not found in Sonoran material, elsewhere immersed, ostiolum similar to that of the perithecium conidia: bacilliform, 4-6 x 1 µm Spot tests: all negative ...
Activation energy of time-dependent martensite formation in steel. / Villa, Matteo; Somers, Marcel A. J.. Proceedings of the International Conference on Martensitic Transformations (ICOMAT 2017). ed. / Aaron Stebner; Greg Olson; Valery Levitas; Emmanuel De Moo; Othmane Benafan; Ibrahim Karaman; Mohsen Asle Zaeem; Peter Anderson; David Rowenhorst; Avadh Saxena; Reginald Hamilton; Alan Pelton; Peter Müllner; Michael Mills; Ricardo Komai. 2018.. Publication: Research - peer-review › Article in proceedings - Annual report year: 2018 ...
The technological evolution of ceramics and polymers during the last three decades makes it possible to apply these materials to medical devices; in fact, many metal devices have been replaced with those made of ceramics and polymers. In spite of this event, over 70 per cent of implant devices still consist of metals because of their high strength, toughness and durability. At present, it is difficult to replace the metals in medical devices with ceramics or polymers.. A disadvantage of using metals as biomaterials is that they are typically artificial materials and have no biofunction. To add biofunction to metals, surface modification is necessary because biofunction cannot be added during manufacturing processes such as melting, casting, forging and heat treatment. Surface modification is a process that changes a materials surface composition, structure and morphology, leaving the bulk mechanical properties intact. With surface modification, the tissue compatibility of the surface layer can ...
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Bionanoprobes were created using cytochromes c isolated from horse heart (HCc) or yeast (YCc); and citrate-stabilized AuNPs. The two cytochromes c generated bionanoprobes with remarkably distinct surface properties. The combination of spectrophotometric pH-titrations and circular dichroism spectroscopy provided information on the protein layer of the bionanoprobes, revealing distinct protonation patterns for the two systems as reflected by its pH-induced aggregation. The YCc bionanoprobe revealed changes in the secondary structure of its protein layer that were practically absent in the protein layer of the HCc bionanoprobes. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering and determination of -potencial, provided insights on the layer structure and surface coverage and potential. These techniques confirmed a thick protein layer for the YCc bionanoprobe of ca. 4 nm whereas the HCc bionanoprobe presented a protein layer with ca. 2 nm that can be removed by sample drying. The surface potential of
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of combinatorially designed polyarylates by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. AU - Belu, Anna M.. AU - Brocchini, Stephen. AU - Kohn, Joachim. AU - Ratner, Buddy D.. PY - 2000/4/6. Y1 - 2000/4/6. N2 - A series of 16 polyarylates, with well-controlled and systematically varying chemistry, has been characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The polymers are structurally identical except for the incremental additions of C2H4 units to the backbone and sidechain. From the spectra, peaks characteristic of all polyarylates are identified. Furthermore, evaluation of the spectra and identification of unique signals allow classification of the polyarylates according to sidechain and backbone chemistry. (C) 2000 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.. AB - A series of 16 polyarylates, with well-controlled and systematically varying chemistry, has been characterized by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). The polymers ...
Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOFSIMS) provides elemental, chemical state and molecular information from surfaces of solid materials. TOF-SIMS is accomplished by exciting a samples surface with a finely focused ion beam which causes secondary ions and ion clusters to be emitted from the samples surface. A time-of-flight analyzer is used to measure the exact mass of the emitted ions and clusters. From the exact mass and intensity of the SIMS peak, the identity of an element or molecular fragments can be determined.. ToF-SIMS instruments typically include the following components: - An ultrahigh vacuum system, which is needed to increase the mean free path of ions liberated in the flight path; - A particle gun, that typically uses a Ga or Cs source; - The flight path, - The mass detector system.. The average depth of analysis for a TOF-SIMS measurement is approximately 1 nm. The ultimate spatial resolution can reach around 0.1 µm. Spatial distribution information is obtained by ...
Time-of-Flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) is a very sensitive surface analytical technique, well established for many industrial and research applications. TOF-SIMS is an acronym for the combination of the analytical technique SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) with Time-of-Flight mass analysis (TOF).
Single cell imaging mass spectrometry opens up a complete new perspective for strategies in toxicological risk assessment and drug discovery. In particular, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) with its high spatial and depth resolution is becoming part of the imaging mass spectrometry toolbox used for single cell analysis. Recent instrumentation advancements in combination with newly developed cluster ion guns allow 3-dimensional reconstruction of single cells together with a spatially resolved compound location and quantification on nanoscale depth level. The exact location and quantification of a single compound or even of a set of compounds is no longer restricted to the two dimensional space within single cells, but is available for voxels, a cube-sized 3-dimensional space, rather than pixels. The information gathered from one voxel is further analysed using multivariate statistical methodology like maximum autocorrelation factors to co-locate the compounds of interest within
Polystyrene thin film surfaces are commonly used to study the interactions of macromolecules, such as proteins, with surfaces. Polystyrene films oxidized in UV light become more hydrophilic, however these surfaces have a limited shelf life because they are reduced over time. Experiments were performed to determine the effect of radiation duration and exposure time on the surface composition of photo-oxidized polystyrene thin films. Polystyrene (2 wt%) in toluene was spin-coated onto 1-cm² monocrystalline silicon squares, and annealed at 70 °C for 18 hours. Three sets of triplicate samples were irradiated in a UV-ozone cleaner for 0, 3, and 9 minutes. Film surface compositions were analyzed via X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy 6 hours after irradiation and after one week of air exposure. Overall oxidation level decreased after one week, and the oxidation structure varied with irradiation time. It is speculated that decreases in oxidation level were due to surface contamination and reduction ...
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The use of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-based nanocarriers presents several major challenges, including their synthetic hydrophobic surface, low transfection efficiency, short circulation half-life, and nonspecific tissue distribution. Numerous engineering strategies have been employed to overcome these problems, with lipid-based surface functionalization of PLGA nanoparticles (NPs) showing promising results in the development of PLGA-based clinical nanomedicines. Surface engineering with different lipids enhances the target specificity of the carrier and improves its physicochemical properties as well as NP-cell associations, such as cellular membrane permeability, immune responses, and long circulation half-life in vivo. This review focuses on recent advances in the lipid-based surface engineering of PLGA NPs for drug and gene delivery applications.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatial Distributions of Lipids in Atherosclerosis of Human Coronary Arteries Studied by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry. AU - Lehti, Satu. AU - Sjovall, Peter. AU - Kakela, Reijo. AU - Mayranpaa, Mikko I.. AU - Kovanen, Petri T.. AU - Öörni, Katariina. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. KW - LOW-DENSITY-LIPOPROTEIN. KW - TRIGLYCERIDE-RICH LIPOPROTEINS. KW - AMERICAN-HEART-ASSOCIATION. KW - TO-RETENTION HYPOTHESIS. KW - HUMAN AORTA. KW - ATHEROGENIC LIPOPROTEINS. KW - UNESTERIFIED CHOLESTEROL. KW - ELECTRON-MICROSCOPY. KW - BIOLOGICAL SAMPLES. KW - MACROPHAGE UPTAKE. KW - 3111 Biomedicine. U2 - 10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.026. DO - 10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.026. M3 - Article. VL - 185. SP - 1216. EP - 1233. JO - The American Journal of Pathology. JF - The American Journal of Pathology. SN - 0002-9440. IS - 5. ER - ...
Static SIMS uses a pulsed primary ion beam to sputter-remove material from the top monolayer of a sample. Secondary ions are collected and focused into a reflectron time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer. The combination of low primary-ion density (low surface damage) and high transmission of the TOF analyzer (high sensitivity) makes the technique extremely useful for studying the top monolayer of a surface. The large mass range of the TOF analyzer makes the instrument well suited for detecting trace levels of organic contaminants on surfaces. Depth profiling is also possible in combination with high-current, low-energy cesium and argon sputter sources. Information on chemical structure is especially useful when combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protein Adsorption on Grafted Zwitterionic Polymers Depends on Chain Density and Molecular Weight. AU - Ahmed, Syeda Tajin. AU - Leckband, Deborah E.. PY - 2020/7/1. Y1 - 2020/7/1. N2 - This study demonstrates that protein adsorption on end-grafted, zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) (pSBMA) thin films depends on the grafting density, molecular weight, and ionic strength. Zwitterionic polymers exhibit ultralow nonspecific fouling (protein adsorption) and excellent biocompatibility. This picture contrasts with a recent report that soluble pSBMA chains bind proteins and alter the protein folding stability. To address this apparent contradiction, the dependence of protein adsorption on the chain grafting parameters is investigated: namely, the grafting density, molecular weight, and ionic strength. Studies compared the adsorption of phosphoglycerate kinase and positively charged lysozyme versus the scaled grafting parameter s/2RF, where s is the distance between grafting sites and RF ...
Two Postdoctoral Research Positions in Nanoparticle Surface Engineering, Protein Conjugation, Cell Targeting, and Controlled Drug Release Applications are invited for two postdoctoral research positions in nanotechnology, biomaterials, surface chemistry, biochemistry and bioengineering in Department of Mateirals Science and Engineering, University of Washington. The research involves development of nanoparticles and their conjugates for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and controlled drug release. Applicants must hold a Ph.D. degree in materials science, chemistry, biochemistry, bioengineering, or a related field. The successful candidates should have a strong background and demonstrated research ability in surface chemistry, biomolecule-material interactions, development of nanostructured materials, or cell targeting. Interested individuals should send a curriculum vita with a list publications and the names, email and postal addresses of at least three references to: Dr. Miqin Zhang, 302L ...
Radioactive hot particles that occur in the environment present specific challenges for health and environmental regulators as often their small size makes them difficult to detect, and they are easily dispersed and accidentally ingested or inhaled by members of the public. This study of nine hot particles recovered from the beach at Dalgety Bay, UK, uses a combination of gamma spectrometry, imaging microscopy and SEM-EDX in order to characterise their morphology and surface composition, thereby helping to identify their origin and source characteristics. The nine particles analysed showed great heterogeneity in their activities, physical form and elemental composition. The particle activities were dominated by (226)Ra and its daughters. Three distinct grouping of particles were identified based on their morphology (artefact, glassy and metal-rich), whilst four distinct groupings (artefact, glassy, angular and porphyric, rounded and highly porous) were identified based on morphology and ...
The reorientation of a magnetic nickel nanorod placed at the air/phospholipid interface is used to calculate the surface viscosity of spread monolayers of phospholipids, dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and dimyristoyl phosphatidyl ethanolamine (DMPE). While surface viscosity was found to depend on the surface pressure in both lipids, we detect an order of magnitude higher surface viscosity for DMPE films even in the so called liquid coexistence region. This difference is higher than that reported at higher surface pressures and is attributed to the smaller headgroup size of DMPE. The smaller size of the PE head group increases the ability of the lipid molecules to pack into more organized domains at all surface pressures. The minute changes in the morphology of the lipid film are more significant at the lower surface pressures, which contributes to a higher surface viscosity difference. Thus microrheology presents an insight into the degree of lipid organization at the air/water ...
Diociaiuti M, Bordi F, Motta A, Carosi A, Ercolini E, Arancia G, Cametti C, Coluzza C. Gramicidin A aggregation in phospholipid Langmuir-Blodget monolayers: an atomic force microscopy study. In: 12. European Congress on Electron Microscopy. Proceedings ; July 9-14, 2000; Brno. 2000. p.B535-B536 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - BV-2 microglial cells sense micro-nanotextured silicon surface topology. AU - Persheyev, Saydulla. AU - Fan, Yongchang. AU - Irving, Andrew. AU - Rose, Mervyn J.. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Artificial biomimetic substrates provide useful models for studying cell adhesion, signaling, and differentiation. This article describes biological interactions with a new type of tunable, micro-nanotextured silicon substrate, generated by irradiation of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon film with a large beam, excimer laser (248 nm). In this study, we demonstrate that BV-2 microglial cells can sense differences in laser processed silicon surface topology over the range of 30 nm to 2 mu m, where they undergo marked morphogenic changes with increasing feature size. The cells adopt a more elongated shape in the presence of the modified surface structure and exhibit increased levels of actin-rich microdomains, suggesting enhanced adhesion. The excimer laser modification of hydrogenated ...
Global XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) market is expected to reach USD 712.4 million by 2022, according to a new study by Grand View Research Inc. Growing application of XPS technology in different industries such as healthcare, semi conductors, aerospace, automotives, and electronics along with rising demand for research and development across all these industries is expected to drive the XPS market over the forecast period. In addition, rising popularity of hyphenated technologies and other technological advancements such as hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) has prompted the growth of the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy market. The ability of XPS to accurately identify contamination in the provided sample is also expected to contribute towards boosting usage rates. Rising demand for XPS technique for drug safety and medical research is expected to serve the market as a future growth opportunity. Presence of supportive government initiatives such as the Safe Use ...
In this thesis methods for investigation of orientation and conformation of individual macromolecules on surfaces are presented as well as novel methods for functionalization of silicon chips with the possibility to get an ordered immobilization of antibodies. Two novel methods are presented which makes it possible to investigate the orientation of individual macromolecules on different kinds of surfaces with AFM. One is based on threshold patterning where, depending on substrate, side- and end-on adsorbed immunoglobulin molecules could be detected. The other method is using the principle of site-specific ligands where the orientation of proteins adsorbed to various surfaces was evaluated. By measuring the increase in protein volume of the formed protein-ligand complexes with AFM, the amount of protein having an orientation that allows binding can be estimated. The influence of surface chemistry on protein structure was examined using human serum fibronectin adsorbed to hydrophilic and ...
The European X-ray Free Electron Laser has recently started with operation for users. An approximately 3 m long ultra high vacuum laser heater section is implemented to overcome possible electron bunch instabilities. We describe the process of determining the oxide layer thickness and surface roughness on test samples of the internal surface material in the laser heater vacuum chambers using elastic recoil detection analysis and optical surface profiling. The results are compared to specified values and show that surface roughness on the samples is larger than the requested maximum, with RMS deviations from a mean plane of up to 1.76 μm for 0.60 × 0.45 square millimeter scans. The maximum oxide layer thickness is 5.5 nm on non-electropolished surfaces assuming cuprous oxide with density 6.0 g per cubic centimeter and 4.0 nm on electropolished surfaces.. ...
We studied fluid flow at the stem-cement interface of bonded and debonded, polished and rough model femoral components. In a first series of experiments, fluid flow along the interface between bone cement and well-fixed model femoral components, differing in surface finish, and in shape, was measured. Fluid migration along the bone-cement interface of rough stems (Ra 3 microm) was greater than that on polished stems (p | 0.001). This was true of cylindrical and conical tapered stems. On stems with the same surface finish, shape did not influence fluid migration. In a second series of experiments, fluid flow along the stem-cement interface of 5 highly polished and 10 rough-finished (5 of Ra approximately 1.5 microm and 5 of Ra approximately 3 microm), debonded, tapered circular stems was measured. None of the rough stems could prevent fluid flow along the stem-cement interface. Polished tapered stems sealed the interface and, after 48 hrs of continuous pressure, no fluid flow was observed. This
This article reports the effects of nanometer surface roughness on the magnetic properties of CoFeHfO thin films, as deposited on Si (100) substrates. The surface roughness was controlled via the working pressure during the sputtering time. When the working pressure increases from 0.5 to 3 mT, the surface roughness (R) of CoFeHfO thin films, formed by islands with the average high R, increases from 0.25 nm to 4.66 nm, respectively. At surface roughness (R) = 4.66 nm, coercivity (H c) reaches the highest value of 0.42 Oe and magnetic anisotropy (H k) drops to the lowest value of 33 Oe. This suggests that the quality of the soft magnetic properties of thin film decrease due to the increase in surface roughness. However, at very low working pressure, thin films become a homogeneous structure which also exhibits poor soft magnetic properties. The optimum value, with H c of 0.10 Oe and H k of 50 Oe, were obtained at 1.5 mT of working pressure. The model of the roughness effect on the magnetic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Construction of hydrophilic surfaces with poly(vinyl ether)s and their interfacial properties in water. AU - Oda, Yukari. PY - 2019/10/1. Y1 - 2019/10/1. N2 - Abstract: We studied the effect of polymer design on the interfacial structure and physical properties of polymer films in water based on a poly(vinyl ether) platform with hydrophilic side-chains to construct bioinert interfaces. Initially, we explored how to prepare hydrophilic surfaces using poly(vinyl ether)s, utilizing the preferential segregation of a rubbery component in a diblock copolymer film with a glassy component, crosslinking a hydrophilic polymer, and designing an interfacial modifier with a special architecture. Characterizing the interfacial structure and physical properties of the obtained polymer films in water revealed that a small difference in the side-chain structure significantly impacts the resultant interfacial properties of the polymers, leading to excellent blood compatibility. Furthermore, we ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Wood and Fiber-Based Composites. T2 - Surface Properties and Adhesion. AU - Gardner, Douglas. AU - Oporto, Gloria. AU - Tze, William. PY - 2016/5/17. Y1 - 2016/5/17. N2 - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface Properties. AB - Summary: This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction: Practical Significance of Surface Properties and Adhesion Adhesion Theories and Mechanisms Interfacial Phenomena in Wood and Fiber Adhesion Adhesion Interactions as a Function of Length Scale Wood Bonding Considerations Wood and Fiber Surface Properties Wood Surface Modification Analytical Techniques to Measure Wood and Fiber Surface ...
Thin GexSb40-xS60 (x = 5, 15, 20, 25 and 27) chalcogenide films have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). X-ray photoelectron spectra show that there is a peculiarity in the relative intensity ratio of the Sb 4d photoelectron peak associated with Sb2S3 to the Sb 4d photoelectron peak associated Sb2S5 at an average co-ordination number Z of 2.65-2.67. After contamination and photo-oxidation layers were removed from the surface of the films, X-ray photoelectron spectra were measured again. It has been found that binding energies of the Ge 2p and Sb 3d(3/2) photoelectron peaks, which reflect the electronic structure at lower core energy levels, are independent of Z. However, the binding energies of the Ge 3d and Sb 4d photoelectron peaks are more sensitive to Z and have a discontinuity at Z = 2.65.. Full text not available from this repository.. ...
  The high demand for light metals as engineering materials lies in their high strength - to - weight ratio with good corrosion resistance in diverse environments. Passivation phenomena in these materials especially Al - based binary alloys have well been documented. However, the present study which aims at using model equations to investigate the passivation trend in various compositions of duplex Al - Zn alloy systems subjected to different concentrations of brine is totally new. The comparative plots of the generated values from the model equations with experimental data show that it correlated well with experimental observations.   Key words: Model equations, correlation, passivation, Duplex alloy systems.
Table 4.1. Water contact angles for self assembled monolayer surfaces on Au. Standard deviations are given in parentheses. A value of 0 indicates a low and ill defined angle. Samples of 180 and 181 used for these experiments were prepared using the method described in section 3.1.6.. The values for modified surfaces are significantly different from the bare gold samples indicating that SAM formation was successful. The observed angles fall into classes which parallel the gross structure of the molecules comprising the SAM. The amine and pyridine functionalized surfaces, 180, 181 and 184, exhibit lower advancing contact angles than the porphyrin monolayers. Monolayers terminated by polar functional groups have previously been reported to give rise to low qa.19 The mono- and di-thiol porphyrins, 227 - 229 and 223 - 225, all display qa in the range 102 - 108 consistent with a relatively hydrophobic surface, a result unsurprising given the alkyl substituents at the porphyrin periphery. qa of the ...
The sticking of product material to injection molding tools is a serious problem, which reduces productivity and reliability. Depositing alloy nitride coatings (TiN, ZrN, CrN, and TiAlCrN) using closed field unbalanced magnetron sputter ion plating and electrodeposition of chromium, and characterizing their surface free energies in the temperature range 20-120°C have led to the development of a non-sticking (with a low surface free energy) coating system for semiconductor IC packaging molding dies. The contact angles of water, diiodomethane and ethylene glycol on the coated surfaces were measured at temperatures in the range 20-120°C using a Dataphysics OCA-20 contact angle analyzer. The surface free energy of the coatings and their components (dispersion and polar) were calculated using the Owens-Wendt geometric mean approach. The surface roughness of these coatings were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adhesion force of these coatings were measured using direct tensile ...
The invention generally relates to systems and methods for producing metal clusters; functionalized surfaces; and droplets including solvated metal ions. In certain aspects, the invention provides methods that involve providing a metal and a solvent. The methods additionally involve applying voltage to the solvated metal to thereby produce solvent droplets including ions of the metal containing compound, and directing the solvent droplets including the metal ions to a target. In certain embodiments, once at the target, the metal ions can react directly or catalyze reactions.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface and optical properties of Langmuir and LB films of a crown-ether C60 derivative. AU - Wang, Shaopeng. AU - Leblanc, Roger. AU - Arias, Francisco. AU - Echegoyen, Luis. PY - 1997/3/19. Y1 - 1997/3/19. N2 - The Langmuir and Langmuir-Blodgett films of a benzo-18-crown-6-methanofullerene (1) were studied by spectrophotometry and Brëwster angle microscopy. The surface pressure-area isotherm of the C60 derivative (1) was obtained, and the compressibility of the isotherms was calculated. The addition of KCl to the water subphase stabilized the monolayer and increased the limiting area per molecule from 84 to 101 Å, which is near the theoretical value. The changes of the Langmuir monolayer UV-vis spectra as a function of time are considered to be due to fullerene aggregation. Polymerization was not detected upon UV irradiation, in contrast to what has been reported in the literature. Brëwster angle microscopy shows different aggregation properties of the ...
Calculation of surface free energy (SFE) from contact angle results, measurement of contact angles on solids yields data that reflect the thermodynamics of a liquid/solid interaction.
In the development of bioactive coatings on biomaterials, it is essential to characterize the successful fabrication and the uniformity of intended coatings by sensitive surface analytical techniques, so as to ensure reliable interpretation of observed biointerfacial responses. This can, however, be challenging when small bioactive molecules are grafted onto biomaterials surfaces at sub- and near-monolayer densities. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) provides the required sensitivity, but ion signals from small grafted molecules may still be dominated by fragment ions from the underlying polymer. In such cases, multivariate analysis provides valuable enhancement of spectral data, as illustrated here by examples comprising the surface grafting of bioactive serrulatane molecules, the peptide GRGDSP, the oligonucleotide 15-thymidine, and the antifungal compound Amphotericin B. The authors also show how ToF-SIMS plus principal component analysis can distinguish between ...
commit 9c3d34ca4db43e65b51407450b01d934df0821c2 Author: Stefan Schmidt ,[email protected], Date: Tue Apr 26 10:30:50 2016 +0200 docs: evas: description for various surface classes Describing surfaces classes for Wayland, TBM and X11. --- src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo , 2 ++ src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo , 2 ++ src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_x11.eo , 2 ++ 3 files changed, 6 insertions(+) diff --git a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo index 9d16dc8..546cb21 100644 --- a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo +++ b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_tbm.eo @@ -1,5 +1,7 @@ class Efl.Canvas.Surface_Tbm (Efl.Canvas.Surface) { + [[Native Tizen Buffer Manager surface for Efl canvas]] + legacy_prefix: null; implements { Eo.Base.constructor; diff --git a/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo b/src/lib/evas/canvas/efl_canvas_surface_wayland.eo index 9cf9114..4734ef0 100644 --- ...
In this paper, the modified Euler-Bernoulli beam model is presented to examine the influence of surface elasticity and residual surface tension on the critical force of axial buckling of nanotubes in the presence of rotary inertia. An explicit solution is derived for the buckling loads of microscaled Euler beams considering surface effects. The size-dependent buckling behavior of the nanotube due to surface effects is well elucidated in the obtained solutions. The critical forces are evaluated for axial buckling of cantilever beams. The results are compared with those corresponding to the classical beam model. The influences of the surface effects on the critical forces are discussed in detail.
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local, regional, and global scales. Surface properties control the partitioning of energy within the surface energy budget to fluxes of shortwave and longwave radiation, sensible and latent heat, and ground heat storage. Changes in surface energy fluxes can impact the atmosphere across scales through changes in temperature, cloud cover, and large-scale atmospheric circulation. We test the sensitivity of the atmosphere to global changes in three land surface properties: albedo, evaporative resistance, and surface roughness. We show the impact of changing these surface properties differs drastically between simulations run with an offline land model, compared to coupled land-atmosphere simulations which allow for atmospheric feedbacks associated with land-atmosphere coupling. Atmospheric feedbacks play a critical role in defining the temperature response to changes in albedo and evaporative resistance, particularly in the extra-tropics. More than 50% of the surface temperature response to changing ...
The effect of surface topography on the long-term development (≈10 weeks) of biofilms has been investigated using a monitoring technique based on images produced by a flat-bed scanner and initially developed for flat surfaces. The biofilm response to rotation speed changes in lab-scale rotating biological contactors (RBCs) has been studied. Two RBCs, each containing five discs (two with flat surfaces and three with rough surfaces) were run initially at two different rotation speeds: 4 rpm for reactor I and 40 rpm for reactor II. After 47 days, the rotation speed was increased in reactor I to 40 rpm and decreased in reactor II to 4 rpm. Prior to the rotation speed change, the biofilm on the flat discs underwent large detachments in both reactors, but the biofilm on rough discs was less extensively damaged. The increase in rotation speed induced large detachments of the biofilm in reactor I on all discs, but the biofilm on the rough discs recovered more effectively with faster regrowth. In reactor II,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular Control of Self-Assembled Monolayer Films of Imidazole-2-thiones. T2 - Adsorption and Reactivity. AU - Arduengo, Anthony J.. AU - Moran, John R.. AU - Rodriguez-Parada, J.. AU - Ward, Michael D.. PY - 1990/3. Y1 - 1990/3. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0000388610&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0000388610&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1021/ja00172a055. DO - 10.1021/ja00172a055. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0000388610. VL - 112. SP - 6153. EP - 6154. JO - Journal of the American Chemical Society. JF - Journal of the American Chemical Society. SN - 0002-7863. IS - 16. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surface characteristics and wetting properties of sol-gel coated base paper. AU - Wang, S.. AU - Mahlberg, Riitta. AU - Nikkola, Juha. AU - Mannila, Juha. AU - Jämsä, Saila. AU - Ritschkoff, Anne. AU - Peltonen, J.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Two hybrid coatings synthesized by using alkoxysilanes as precursors in a sol-gel process, differing from each other in terms of the organic components in alkoxysilanes, have been developed to improve the water repellent properties of base paper. The sol-gel‐coated base paper samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy, time‐of‐flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, and contact angle measurements. The sol-gel coatings were found to clearly change the surface properties of base paper. Thin coating layers were formed on base paper surfaces. The topographical data indicated the formation of discontinuous thin films; the ...
Classical methods to analyze the surface composition of atmosphereless planetary objects from an orbiter are IR and gamma ray spectroscopy and neutron backscatter measurements. The idea to analyze surface properties with an in-situ instrument has been proposed by Johnson et al. (1998). There, it was suggested to analyze Europas thin atmosphere with an ion and neutral gas spectrometer. Since the atmospheric components are released by sputtering of the moons surface, they provide a link to surface composition. Here we present an improved, complementary method to analyze rocky or icy dust particles as samples of planetary objects from which they were ejected. Such particles, generated by the ambient meteoroid bombardment that erodes the surface, are naturally present on all atmosphereless moons and planets. The planetary bodies are enshrouded in clouds of ballistic dust particles, which are characteristic samples of their surfaces. In situ mass spectroscopic analysis of these dust particles ...
Silver nanoparticles (SNP) are the subject of worldwide commercialization because of their antimicrobial effects. Yet only little data on their mode of action exist. Further, only few techniques allow for visualization and quantification of unlabeled nanoparticles inside cells. To study SNP of different sizes and coatings within human macrophages, we introduce a novel laser postionization secondary neutral mass spectrometry (Laser-SNMS) approach and prove this method superior to the widely applied confocal Raman and transmission electron microscopy. With time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) we further demonstrate characteristic fingerprints in the lipid pattern of the cellular membrane indicative of oxidative stress and membrane fluidity changes. Increases of protein carbonyl and heme oxygenase-1 levels in treated cells confirm the presence of oxidative stress biochemically. Intriguingly, affected phagocytosis reveals as highly sensitive end point of SNP-mediated adversity ...
inbook{5875afa7-6468-4741-88b2-bd174329b39d, abstract = {,p,This manuscript presents novel approaches to grow and evaluate Streptococcal biofilm formation using the human respiratory pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) as the main model organism on biological surfaces in vitro and in vivo. Most biofilm models are based on growth on abiotic surfaces, which is relevant for many pathogens whose growth on surfaces or medical devices is a major cause of disease transmission and infections, especially in hospital environments. However, most infections with commensal organisms require biofilm formation on biological surfaces in the host at the site of colonization or infection. In vitro model systems incorporating biological components from the host and taking into account the host environment of the infectious site are not well described. In a series of publications, we have shown that S. pneumoniae form complex biofilms in the nasopharynx of mice and have devised methodology to ...
In addition to the integration of implants with tissues via contact with other cells and extracellular matrix, another important factor regulating implant integration and the lifetime of the implant is the amount of contact it has with commensials and pathogenic microbes, in particular bacteria. Diagnostics of peri-implant infections is usually based on the bacterial culture, neutrophil infiltrates and other methods. Nonetheless, the current methods are not reliable enough. In the final part of this thesis, two methods that could potentially be utilised to diagnose implant infections were evaluated. It was found that time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry is a potential tool for differentiating of acellular bacterial from eukaryotic footprints (i.e. extracellular polymeric substance and extracellular matrix produced by the respective cells) and may have potential for the post-hoc diagnosis of colonisation, biofilm formation and implant-related infections even in culture negative cases ...
An abrasive article is provided which comprises a backing; and at least one three-dimensional abrasive coating comprising diamond particles dispersed within a binder bonded to a surface of the backing, the binder comprising a cured binder precursor including a urethane acrylate oligomer. The abrasive article is capable of rapid glass stock removal coupled with reducing the surface finish as indicated by reduced Ra values using an RPP test procedure.
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) for single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) and Poisson statistic were used to analyze the detachment work recorded during the removal of gold-covered microspheres from cardiac fibroblasts. The effect of Cytochalasin D, a disruptor of the actin cytoskeleton, on cell adhesion was also tested. The adhesion workwas assessed using a Poisson analysis also derived fromsingle-cell force spectroscopy retracting curves. The use of Poisson analysis to get adhesionwork fromAFM curves is quite a novel method, and in this case, proved to be effective to study the short-range and long-range contributions to the adhesion work. This method avoids the difficult identification of minor peaks in the AFMretracting curves by creating what can be considered an average adhesionwork. Even though the effect of actin depolymerisation iswell documented, its use revealed that control cardiac fibroblasts (CT) exhibit a work of adhesion at least 5 times higher than that of the Cytochalasin treated ...
Quality Alumina Ceramic Metal Bonding Metallization Tube With Surface Finish Ra0.4 Sim Ra0.8 Mum - Ceramic Metal Bonding on sale from aluminumoxideceramic.
Direct observations of fine structure of DNA bundles were presented in this paper. These DNA bundles existed originally in lambda -DNA solution with a high concentration of 480ng/mul. When this solution was diluted. DNA bundles finally split into individual DNA molecules. DNA bundles were stretched on mica treated with 3-animopropyl triethoxysilane (APS) and observed by an atomic force microscope (AFM), A method was developed to avoid the possible artifacts during the drying process in,,ample preparation. It was found that in a bundle composed of two individual DNA molecules, these two molecules wound around each other in a helical path ...
Read New Perspectives on Surface Passivation: Understanding the Si-Al2O3 Interface by Lachlan E. Black with Rakuten Kobo. The book addresses the problem of passivation at the surface of crystalline silicon solar cells. More specifically, it r...
Nanostructured porous silicon (nanoPS) basically consists in a network of silicon nanocrystals with high specific surface. Its intrinsic high surface reactivity makes nanoPS a very suitable material for the development of biosensors. In this work, the surface of nanoPS was functionalized by the use of (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane solutions in toluene. Escherichia coli (E. coli) antibodies were subsequently immobilized on the functionalized surfaces. Finally, fragments of this bacterium, which are specifically recognized by the antibodies, were immobilized. Moreover, devices with a metal/nanoPS/semiconductor/metal structure were fabricated aiming at the electrical biosensing of E. Coli bacterium. The experimental results showed a strong variation of the current as a function of the presence/ absence of bacterium E. Coli and surface concentration ...
Foerster, A, Holowacz, I, Kumar, GBS, Anandakumar, S, Wall, JG, Wawrzynska, M, Paprocka, M, Kantor, A, Kraskiewicz, H, Olsztynska-Janus, S et al, Hinder, SJ, Bialy, D, Podbielska, H and Kopaczynska, M. (2016) Stainless steel surface functionalization for immobilization of antibody fragments for cardiovascular applications ...
LOAD INTRODUCING ELEMENT - A load introducing element for a control surface of an aircraft or a spacecraft comprises at least one first component, one second component and one first flange. At least one surface area of the first component is adapted to conform to the inner contour of the control surface. The second component has at least one eye for receiving bearing means for mounting the control surface. A cross sectional profile of the first component has two or more essentially straight legs, which are connected together on their upper side by an upper edge which is adapted to an upper contour of the control surface. The load introducing element is formed by a fiber reinforced composite material having an integral type of construction in which all of the components are jointly infiltrated and cured. The invention also provides a method for producing such a load introducing element, a drive armature and an aircraft that includes such a load bearing element ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - ERYTHROCYTE AND GRANULOCYTE INTERACTIONS WITH ENDOTHELIALIZED POLYMER SURFACES.. AU - Hawthorn, L. A.. AU - Williams, A.. AU - Haywood, S.. AU - Absolom, D. R.. PY - 1987/7/1. Y1 - 1987/7/1. N2 - In this paper the authors have examined the influence of substrate surface properties on the extent of endothelialization of polymer materials. For this purpose a number of substrates with a wide range of surface tensions have been employed. The authors also have investigated the interaction of suspensions of granulocytes (PMNs) and erythrocytes (RBCs) from homologous species with the endothelialized surfaces. This part of the study was undertaken to evaluate whether the adherent endothelial cells behaved in a manner consistent with the natural intima and to determine the influence (if any) of the underlying substrate material on PMN and RBC adhesion.. AB - In this paper the authors have examined the influence of substrate surface properties on the extent of endothelialization of polymer ...
Better surface adsorption. Atomically thin boron nitride has been found to have better surface adsorption capabilities than ... Mechanical properties. Monolayer boron nitride has an average Young's modulus of 0.865 TPa and fracture strength of 70.5 GPa. ... Dielectric properties. Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride is an excellent dielectric substrate for graphene, molybdenum ... It is similar in geometry to its all-carbon analog graphene, but has very different chemical and electronic properties - ...
2007). "Surface X-Ray Diffraction Study of Boron-Nitride Nanomesh in Air". Surface Science. 601 (2): L7-L10. Bibcode:2007SurSc. ... The lubricating properties of fine-grained h-BN are used in cosmetics, paints, dental cements, and pencil leads. Hexagonal BN ... Better surface adsorption. Atomically thin boron nitride has been found to have better surface adsorption capabilities than ... It can have a density as low as 0.6 mg/cm3 and a specific surface area as high as 1050 m2/g, and therefore has potential ...
The bulk powder properties are the combined effect of particle properties by the conversion of food products in solid state ... The amount and rate of water adsorption depends on the bulk and particles' surface composition, total particle surface area ( ... The properties of food powders including their functionality and their stability are highly dependent on these structures. Many ... In fact, it is very affordable and has been reported to retain most of the nutritional properties of food if dry using ...
Surface creep is the slow movement of soil and rock debris by gravity which is usually not perceptible except through extended ... ISBN 978-0-8247-8984-8. Styczen, M.E. & Morgan, R.P.C. (1995). "Engineering properties of vegetation". In Morgan, R.P.C. & ... Rainfall, and the surface runoff which may result from rainfall, produces four main types of soil erosion: splash erosion, ... Mass movement is the downward and outward movement of rock and sediments on a sloped surface, mainly due to the force of ...
Brattain spoke on Surface Properties of Semiconductors, Bardeen on Semiconductor Research Leading to the Point Contact ... He continued to study the surface properties of solids and the "transistor effect", so as to better understand the various ... Walter Houser Brattain on Nobelprize.org including the Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1956 Surface Properties of Semiconductors. ... doi:10.1002/j.1538-7305.1956.tb03829.x. Brattain, Walter H. (December 11, 1956). "Surface Properties of Semiconductors". ...
Marek Kosmulski, "Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces", Marcel Dekker Inc., 2001. Jean-Pierre Jolivet, "Metal Oxide ... For example, the surface charge of adsorbent is described by the ion that lies on the surface of the particle (adsorbent) ... Kosmulski, Marek (2001). "Chemical Properties of Material Surfaces". Surfactant Science. 20011074. doi:10.1201/9780585418049. ... at the surface. This is often the case for pure ("pristine surface") oxides in water. In the presence of specific adsorption, ...
"Electronic properties of metals chemisorbed on semiconductor surface and metal/semiconductor interfaces". Progress in Surface ... Zi, Jian; Zhang, Kaiming; Xie, Xide (1997). "Vibrational properties of SiGe superlattices". Progress in Surface Science. ... "Overview of Metal/Semiconductor Interfaces," The Structure of Surfaces. Springer Series in Surface Sciences 24. Berlin: ... Her research work was concentrated in solid state physics, semiconductor physics, and surface physics. Xie Xide was appointed ...
... surface mapping, esp. of polar regions. Venus - first radar detection in 1961. Rotation period, gross surface properties. The ... Radar images provide information about the shapes and surface properties of solid bodies, which cannot be obtained by other ... Measurements included surface roughness and later mapping of shadowed regions near the poles. The next easiest target is Venus ... Mars - Mapping of surface roughness from Arecibo Observatory. The Mars Express mission carries a ground-penetrating radar. ...
They were among the few surface features visible as the spacecraft entered orbit during a global dust storm. Appearing as faint ... Plescia, J.B. (2004). Morphometric Properties of Martian Volcanoes. J. Geophys. Res. 109(E03003), Table 1. Carr, M.H. (2006). ... ISBN 978-0-511-27041-3.[permanent dead link] Carr, M.H. (2006). The Surface of Mars; Cambridge University Press: New York, p. ... Carr, Michael (2006). The Surface of Mars. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 63. ...
Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 4 (3): 034003. doi:10.1088/2051-672X/4/3/034003.CS1 maint: multiple names: ... Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties. 4 (3): 034009. Bibcode:2016SuTMP...4c4009S. doi:10.1088/2051-672x/4/3/034009. ... In the late 1980s, Leighton discovered a new ultrasonic signal that he identified as due to surface waves on the walls of gas ... measurement of the liquid convection and shear from these surface waves; theory on how sound causes the bubbles to generate ...
Zimbleman, J.R. (1985). "Surface Properties of Ascraeus Mons: Dust Deposits on a Tharsis Volcano" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary ... Bell, Jim (2008-06-05). The Martian Surface: Composition, Mineralogy and Physical Properties. ISBN 978-0-521-86698-9. Sleep, ... see Martian surface). The dust forms a mantle over the surface that obscures or mutes much of the fine-scale topography and ... The bulk of the volcano's surface consists of lava flows of the early Amazonian age. The northern flanks of the volcano are ...
"Surface". MESSENGER web site. Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Lab. Archived from the original on 30 September 2016. ... "Morphometric properties of Martian volcanoes". Journal of Geophysical Research. 109 (E3): E03003. Bibcode:2004JGRE..109.3003P. ... On other worlds, peak elevations above an equipotential surface or a reference ellipsoid could be used if enough data is ... Lewis, K. W.; Peters, S.; Gonter, K.; Morrison, S.; Schmerr, N.; Vasavada, A. R.; Gabriel, T. (2019). "A surface gravity ...
Microstrip consists of a strip conductor on the top surface of a dielectric layer and a ground plane on the bottom surface of ... Thermal properties can be important. Thermal expansion changes the electrical properties of lines and can break plated through ... An important property of the TEM mode is that it can be used at low frequencies, all the way down to zero (i.e. DC). Another ... The electrical properties of the substrate of most interest are the relative permittivity (εr) and the loss tangent (δ). The ...
Most of the volcano's surface is mantled with a thick layer of fine dust or ash, giving the volcano's flanks a smooth to ... Plescia, J. B. (2004). "Morphometric properties of Martian volcanoes". Journal of Geophysical Research. 109 (E03003): Table 1. ... Carr, M.H. (2006). The Surface of Mars; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, p. 57. ...
By surface filtration the particles are caught on the paper surface. Filter paper is mostly used because even a small piece of ... The filter papers may also be treated with reagents or impregnation to get the right properties. The main application for air ... There are two mechanisms of filtration with paper; volume, and surface. By volume filtration the particles are caught in the ... Normally particularly long fibrous pulp that is mercerised is used to get these properties. The paper is normally impregnated ...
Richard Heap (30 January 2009). "City to 'strip out' St Alphage House". Property Week. Retrieved 2010-11-24. "St Alphage House ... Replacement Surfaces". skyscrapernews.com. 05-11-2010. Check date values in: ,date= (help) https://www.barbicanassociation.co. ...
"Localized aliphatic organic material on the surface of Ceres". Science. 355 (6326): 719-722. doi:10.1126/science.aaj2305. ISSN ... their physical properties. ...
A distinctive property of the liquid state is surface tension, leading to wetting phenomena. Water is, by far, the most common ... If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens is equiconvex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave (or ... If both surfaces have the same radius of curvature, the lens is equiconvex. A lens with two concave surfaces is biconcave (or ... 41-1. "Bulk Elastic Properties". hyperphysics. Georgia State University. "Capillary Action - Liquid, Water, Force, and Surface ...
ISBN 978-3-527-30666-4. Murthy, V. S. R (2003). "Magnetic Properties of Materials". Structure And Properties Of Engineering ... ISBN 978-0-470-05536-6. Lee, B.; Alsenz, R.; Ignatiev, A.; Van Hove, M.; Van Hove, M. A. (1978). "Surface structures of the two ... "Properties and Facts for Cobalt". American Elements. Archived from the original on 2008-10-02. Retrieved 2008-09-19. Cobalt, ... ISBN 0-313-33438-2. Petitto, Sarah C.; Marsh, Erin M.; Carson, Gregory A.; Langell, Marjorie A. (2008). "Cobalt oxide surface ...
Physical properties Data sheet (in Japanese) Material Safety Data Sheet CF3I (in English) CF3I can be used as fire ... dead link 1 April 2019) Duan Y. Y.; Shi L.; Zhu M. S.; Han L. Z. (January 1999). "Surface tension of trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I ... Duan Y. Y.; Shi L.; Sun L. Q.; Zhu M. S.; Han L. Z. (March 2000). "Thermodynamic Properties of Trifluoroiodomethane (CF3I)". ...
Müller, Caroline; Riederer, Markus (2005). "Plant Surface Properties in Chemical Ecology". Journal of Chemical Ecology. 31 (11 ... Chemical ecology in plants is the study that integrates the chemistry and biological properties of the plants and their ... they must be able to penetrate the layer of wax that forms a hydrophobic barrier on the plant's surface. Many plant-pathogenic ...
However, surface loops and microtubules are extremely similar. "Genus Prosthecobacter". LPSN. Retrieved 13 May 2018. Nogales E ... These genes are called bacterial tubulin a (BtubA) and bacterial tubulin b (BtubB). The properties are not exactly same. ...
"Surface Properties, Regolith, and Landscape Degradation". In Pappalardo, Robert T. (ed.). Europa. The University of Arizona ... In contrast, an impact crater is the surface expression of an impact structure. In many cases, on Earth, the impact crater has ... On the other hand, geologically inactive bodies with old surfaces, such as Earth's Moon or Callisto, are covered with impact ... has been found on its surface to date. The Earth has about 150 recognized craters, but many have been geologically modified and ...
Parkyns, N. D. (1969-01-01). "The surface properties of metal oxides. Part II. An infrared study of the adsorption of carbon ... Although aluminium carbonate is highly unstable, carbonate species readily form on the surface of aluminium oxide when exposed ...
... thermal properties of the surface materials; and morphology of the surface and its specific three-dimensional geometry-building ... 2) The surface of the city corresponds to the level of the urban canopy layer. Fluxes across this plane comprise those from ... Most of these alterations can be traced to causal factors such as air pollution; anthropogenic sources of heat; surface ... Constructing cities changes the physical environment and alters energy, moisture, and motion regimes near the surface. ...
This biochemical property is responsible for the functioning of the water repellency of the surface. The hydrophobicity of a ... The self-cleaning property of ultrahydrophobic micro-nanostructured surfaces was studied by Wilhelm Barthlott and Ehler in 1977 ... The cause of self-cleaning properties is the hydrophobic water-repellent double structure of the surface. This enables the ... When it was discovered that the self-cleaning qualities of ultrahydrophobic surfaces come from physical-chemical properties at ...
The wave properties of light must be negligible. In particular interference enhancement or decrease must not occur. If any of ... Attard, Gary; Barnes, Colin (1998). Surfaces. Oxford Chemistry Primers. p. 26. ISBN 978-0198556862. Jürgen Popp, Sonja Höfer, ... or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law relates the attenuation of light to the properties of the material through which the light is ... the angle measured from the direction perpendicular to the Earth's surface at the observation site). This equation can be used ...
Wallquist, O.; Lenz, R. (2002-03-01). "DPP chemistry - continuous innovation". Surface Coatings International Part B: Coatings ... Grzybowski, Marek; Gryko, Daniel T. (2015). "Diketopyrrolopyrroles: Synthesis, Reactivity, and Optical Properties". Advanced ... Encyclopedia of Interfacial Chemistry: Surface Science and Electrochemistry. Elsevier. 2018-03-29. ISBN 978-0-12-809894-3. Jin ... "Enhancement of Electroluminescence Properties of Red Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Doped Copolymers by Oxadiazole and Carbazole Units as ...
Real property, £927. Pop[ulation], 163. Houses, 25. The surface is hilly, and the rocks include slate. Gwarafog, an ancient ...
Real property, £3,169. Pop., 688. Houses, 122. Most of the surface is high moorland. A railway station on the Tees Valley ...
Less subject to surface artifacts, such as eye and facial movements. *Capable of at-home training due to smaller, more portable ... Similar to functional magnetic resonance imaging, which uses changes in the magnetic properties of blood resulting from ...
ref name="krxps",{{cite journal,title=KRXPS study of the oxidation of Ge(001) surface,year=1998,author=Tabet, N; Salim Mushtaq ... G.; Bersillon O.; Blachot J.; Wapstra A.H., title = Nubase2003 Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties, journal = Nuclear ... A.,journal=Applied Surface Science,volume=134,issue=1-4,page=275}} {{doi,10.1016/S0169-4332(98)00251-7}} ,/ref, ...
More Mini Murals are lined up for 2019.[needs update] A privately funded mural called Cruisin W. Texas Avenue has surfaced[tone ... As of 2010, the property crime rate in the community was 4.6% compared to 5.45% for Harris County as a whole. The violent crime ... Garcia, T.D. "Subsidence and Surface Faulting at San Jacinto Monument, Goose Creek Oil Field, and Baytown, Texas". Field Trip ... This populated place also has portions in an adjacent county or counties ±water surface only; land in adjacent county ...
The concept of "property" began to replace more ancient forms of jurisdiction, although they were still very much tied together ... The Pope and the German princes had surfaced as major players in the political system of the empire. ... disputes about property between immediate tenants of the Empire or the subjects of different rulers, and finally suits against ...
Land, Water & Wool Northern Tablelands Property Fact Sheet. Australian Government - Land and Water Australia. Archived from the ... Since small mammals have a high ratio of heat-losing surface area to heat-generating volume, they tend to have high energy ... "Birds on New England wool properties - A woolgrower guide" (PDF) ...
Scaling of food web properties with diversity and complexity across ecosystems (PDF). 42. Burlington: Academic Press. pp. 139- ... "Regeneration, recycling, and trophic transfer of trace metals by microbial food-web organisms in the pelagic surface waters of ... Ecologists have identified non-random properties in the topographic structure of food webs. Published examples that are used in ... They can depict different numerical properties of ecosystems, including numbers of individuals per unit of area, biomass (g/m2 ...
... protect persons and property, prevent breaches of the peace, and enforce rules and regulations for the protection of property ... Of those going on active duty, most enter the Navy as Naval Aviators, Naval Flight Officers, Surface Warfare Officers, ...
In F9 cells lacking both β-catenin and plakoglobin, very little E-cadherin and α-catenin accumulated at the cell surface. Mice ... As previously mentioned, the same properties of catenin that give it an important role in normal cell fate determination, ...
The van der Waals volume, Vw, also called the atomic volume or molecular volume, is the atomic property most directly related ... For a molecule, it is the volume enclosed by the van der Waals surface. The van der Waals volume of a molecule is always ... Indeed, there is no reason to assume that the van der Waals radius is a fixed property of the atom in all circumstances: rather ... Van der Waals radii may be determined from the mechanical properties of gases (the original method), from the critical point, ...
"Pathogenic Properties (Virulence Factors) of Some Common Pathogens" (PDF).. *^ "Clindamycin" (PDF). Davis. 2017. Retrieved ... "The Role of Innate Immune Responses in the Outcome of Interspecies Competition for Colonization of Mucosal Surfaces". PLoS ...
To bridge control surface gaps on sailplanes (gliders), reducing profile drag. ScienceEdit. *Amateur and professional visual ... boPET film has been used in the production of banjo & drumheads since 1958 due to its durability and acoustical properties when ... If it were produced without any additives, the surface of the film would be so smooth that layers would adhere strongly to one ... As a thin strip to form an airtight seal between the control surfaces and adjacent structure of aircraft, especially gliders. ...
Most leaves have distinct upper surface (adaxial) and lower surface (abaxial) that differ in color, hairiness, the number of ... "it is now generally accepted that compound leaves express both leaf and shoot properties."[39] ... Surface of leaf raised in a series of domes between the veins on the upper surface, and therefore also with marked depressions ... their prominence in relation to the lamina surface and the degree of opacity of the surface, which may hide finer veins. In ...
Their life cycle is thought to begin with a virion attaching to specific cell-surface receptors such as C-type lectins, DC-SIGN ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... patient waste and surfaces that may have come into contact with body fluids need to be disinfected.[111] During the 2014 ... Contact with surfaces or objects contaminated by the virus, particularly needles and syringes, may also transmit the infection. ...
... displaying association of gamma 3-subunits with beta 2/3 and different alpha-subunits exhibit unique pharmacological properties ... Ion channel, cell surface receptor: ligand-gated ion channels. Cys-loop receptors. ...
... expropriation of property; concentration into ghettoes and camps; and, finally, annihilation.[110] Hilberg gives an estimate of ... capable of most digging tasks without disrupting surfaces.[80] Although other methods of extermination, such as the cyanic ... expropriating their money and property, and encouraging them to emigrate.[11] According to the Nazi Party policy statement, the ...
In the 1950s, Egyptian engineer Mohamed Atalla investigated the surface properties of silicon semiconductors at Bell Labs, ... and surface-mount, also known as surface-mount device (SMD). The ball grid array (BGA) is the latest surface-mount package ( ... Bradley, W.E. (December 1953). "The Surface-Barrier Transistor: Part I-Principles of the Surface-Barrier Transistor". ... overcoming the surface states that prevented electricity from reaching the semiconducting layer. This is known as surface ...
"The Crown Estate - Property Leases with the Royal Family". *^ "Duchess of York 'wanted cash for Prince Andrew access'". BBC ... He saw active service during the Falklands War, flying on multiple missions including anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile ... flying on missions that included anti-submarine warfare and anti-surface warfare, Exocet missile decoy, casualty evacuation, ...
A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in acne and other skin disorders". Drugs. 28 (1): 6-37. doi ... the skin cells that have died come up to the surface and exit the pore of the hair follicle.[10] In people with acne, the ... Sieber MA, Hegel JK (November 2013). "Azelaic acid: Properties and mode of action". Skin Pharmacology and Physiology (Review). ... Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has keratolytic properties.[ ...
... polar surface area as a sum of fragment based contributions and its application to the prediction of drug transport properties" ... Ghose, A.K.; Viswanadhan V.N. & Wendoloski, J.J. (1998). „Prediction of Hydrophobic (Lipophilic) Properties of Small Organic ...
JEL: K11 - Property Law. JEL: K12 - Contract Law. JEL: K13 - Tort Law and Product Liability. JEL: K14 - Criminal Law. JEL: K19 ... JEL: L92 - Railroads and Other Surface Transportation: Autos, Buses, Trucks, and Water Carriers; Ports. JEL: L93 - Air ... JEL: P14 - Property Rights. JEL: P16 - Political Economy. JEL: P17 - Performance and Prospects. JEL: P19 - Outros. JEL: P2 - ... JEL: P48 - Political Economy; Legal Institutions; Property Rights. JEL: P49 - Outros. JEL: P5 - Comparative Economic Systems ...
... polar surface area as a sum of fragment based contributions and its application to the prediction of drug transport properties" ... Ghose, A.K.; Viswanadhan V.N. & Wendoloski, J.J. (1998). „Prediction of Hydrophobic (Lipophilic) Properties of Small Organic ...
Subsequently, SP is degraded and NK-1 is re-expressed on the cell surface.[10] ... it also has bronchoconstrictive properties, administered through the non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic nervous system (branch of ...
According to Water (data_page)#Water/steam equilibrium properties, about 0.6 Kg/m3. Mike Turnbull (talk) 11:27, 30 July 2021 ( ... I am asking about those 2 specific things because they are developable surfaces.2804:7F2:691:D026:F49A:3097:3AC3:3524 (talk) 15 ... What we normally call planets are big enough to have substantial surface gravity. So they end up close to spherical or (because ... Even still, they will have surface features like mountains. The Earth itself is slightly pear-shaped: see geoid. 2601:648:8202: ...
... polar surface area as a sum of fragment based contributions and its application to the prediction of drug transport properties" ... "Prediction of Hydrophobic (Lipophilic) Properties of Small Organic Molecules Using Fragment Methods: An Analysis of AlogP and ...
Properties like being Euclidean domain, being principal ideal domains, basis as free abelian group, and many others are more ... Kummer surface Done Jakob.scholbach (talk). *Meta learning (computer science) Done. *Michael Roberts (mathematician) → ... The page still looks skimpy, however, and I feel that more could be added (maybe separate sections on the properties of the ... specific to quadratic integer rings than to quadratic fields, even if these properties are described in Quadratic field. D. ...
A hereditary property of graphs is a property that is closed under induced subgraphs: if G has a hereditary property, then so ... The genus of a graph is the minimum genus of a surface onto which it can be embedded; see embedding.. geodesic. As a noun, a ... A monotone property of graphs is a property that is closed under subgraphs: if G has a hereditary property, then so must every ... property. A graph property is something that can be true of some graphs and false of others, and that depends only on the graph ...
The Caulobacter stalked cell stage provides a fitness advantage by anchoring the cell to surfaces to form biofilms and or to ... suggested that aging is probably a fundamental property of all cellular organisms. A similar phenomenon has since been ... with which the stalked cell can adhere to surfaces. Swarmer cells differentiate into stalked cells after a short period of ... "Biological Properties and Classification of the Caulobacter Group". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 28 (3): 231-95. doi:10.1128/ ...
If, say, a surface with R. =. 240. {\displaystyle R=240}. was believed to be a white object, and if 255 is the count which ... that the properties of the display medium must be accounted for, and that the ambient viewing conditions of the acquisition ... are the red, green, and blue components of a pixel which is believed to be a white surface in the image before color balancing ... The right half shows the photo adjusted to make a gray surface neutral in the same light. ...
... a surface swirl has already developed, signifying a tornado is on the ground before condensation connects the surface ... many buildings have storm cellars on the property. These underground refuges have saved thousands of lives.[111] ... David C Lewellen; M I Zimmerman (2008-10-28). Using Simulated Tornado Surface Marks to Decipher Near-Ground Winds (PDF). 24th ... A tornado is a rapidly rotating column of air that is in contact with both the surface of the Earth and a cumulonimbus cloud or ...
Property rights[edit]. Some critics of smoke-free laws emphasise the property rights of business owners, drawing a distinction ... solid particulates from secondhand smoke that are adsorbed onto surfaces and later re-emitted as gases or transferred through ... Many critics, including a substantial number of those who oppose smoking bans on property-rights grounds,[who?] note that where ... some economists suggest that the basic institutions of private property rights and contractual freedom are capable of resolving ...
An example of a polar surface is the rocksalt (111) surface. In general, a polar surface is less stable than a nonpolar surface ... Examples of nonpolar surfaces include the rocksalt (100) surface, the rutile (100), (110) and (001) surfaces and the pervoskite ... the surface will be dipoleless and is considered a nonpolar surface. If the structures are different, the surface will have a ... to obtain the most thermodynamically stable surface. The stability of these surface structures are evaluated by surface ...
... The surface properties of the cylinder bore and the piston rod have a great influence on the ... The reason for this is that two surfaces with the same values of Ra but with different surface profile characteristics can lead ... Table 1 shows some surface profiles. To ensure a surface finish with a suitable profile and characteristics for effective ... Parameters for specifying a surface finish are defined by ISO 4287:1997. The most common surface roughness parameter specified ...
... This tutorial describes how to make high-quality images of a protein surface colored by ... Opening an electrostatic potential map starts the Electrostatic Surface Coloring (Surface Color) tool. The surface coloring ... Show the molecular surface, hide the ion, make sticks fatter, and make ligand carbons yellow: Command: surface Command: ~disp ... Start Coulombic Surface Coloring (under Tools... Surface/Binding Analysis). This tool calculates electrostatic potential ...
This group of mycobacteria are distinguished by the presence of unique, highly antigenic, surface-located lipids known as the ...
Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 1 Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 1 Surface and Defect ... Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 3 Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 3 Surface and Defect ... Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 6 Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 6 Surface and Defect ... Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 4 Surface and Defect Properties of Solids: Volume 4 Surface and Defect ...
Surface Properties terms for the IASOA data vocabulary are taken from the U.S. Department of Energys Atmospheric Radiation ... Soil surface temperature: The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. ... Sensible heat flux: The time rate of flow for the energy transferred from a warm or hot surface to whatever is touching it, ... The rate of flow of energy, enthalpy, and gases near the surface.. Specific Measurements: ...
Read this installment of the 3M Science of Adhesion Educational Series for several different ways to modify surface energy to ... Surface Preparation Process Using Abrading To prepare a surface adequately for bonding, it may be necessary to add an abrasion ... Surface Cleanliness Although we just spent a great deal of time understanding the intricacies of surface energy of materials, ... Plasma treatments expose the surface of a material to an ionized gas which changes the chemical reactivity of the surface atoms ...
... and predominantly the surface energies of materials controlled their interactions with all biological phases via their ... More than 50 years have passed since it was first recognized that the surface properties, ... Baier, R. (2015) Correlations of Materials Surface Properties with Biological Responses. Journal of Surface Engineered ... More than 50 years have passed since it was first recognized that the surface properties, and predominantly the surface ...
This suggests that the quality of the soft magnetic properties of thin film decrease due to the increase in surface roughness. ... This article reports the effects of nanometer surface roughness on the magnetic properties of CoFeHfO thin films, as deposited ... Nanometer Surface Roughness Effect on the Magnetic Properties of CoFeHfO Thin Films ... At surface roughness (R) = 4.66 nm, coercivity (H c) reaches the highest value of 0.42 Oe and magnetic anisotropy (H k) drops ...
... Gagan Kumar ... The 2D pattern of vertical structures is observed to affect the THz surface plasmon propagation along the waveguide ... The waveguide configurations are found to support resonant surface modes at certain frequencies which can occur anywhere ... The paper presents experimental and numerical investigations on the terahertz (THz) surface plasmon propagation in a ...
Surface characteristics of these "hybrid" structures should exhibit properties which would allow their use under extreme ... Denes F., Young R.A. (1998) Improvement in Surface Properties of Lignocellulosics Using Cold-Plasma Treatment. In: Prasad P.N ... Tailored, special electrical and optical surface properties will also permit the creation of ultra-miniaturized high speed ... Z.Q. Hua, R. Sitaru, F. Denes, and R.A. Young, Mechanism of Oxygen-and Argon-RF-Plasma Induced Surface Chemistry of Cellulose, ...
2019 by CRC Press Discusses measuring the surface properties of flat or particulate solids with contact angles of drops of ... Measurement of Surface Thermodynamic Properties 7. Electrokinetic Methods 8. Interactions Between Colloids 9. Surface ... Colloid And Surface Properties Of Clays And Related Minerals By Rossman F. Giese. , Carel J. van Oss. ... Discusses measuring the surface properties of flat or particulate solids with contact angles of drops of high-energy liquids ...
Surface property detection apparatus and method Patent Martens, Jon S. ; Ginley, David S. ; Hietala, Vincent M. ; Sorensen, ... Method And Apparatus For Two Dimensional Surface Property Analysis Based On Boundary Measurement ... Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface ... Surface resistance is determined by analyzing and imaging reflected microwaves; imaging reveals anomalies due to surface ...
Dow Cornings silicone additives optimize PP and PE film production by providing slip properties while preventing die build-up ... Streamline Film Production by Improving Surface Properties. High-volume, high-speed production of blown and bi-axially oriented ... do not significantly decrease the COF of the surface of your film, and impact transparency and/or gloss. ... PE and PP film can be affected by the adhesion of the film layers to each other (blocking) and to the metal surfaces of your ...
... Wenfeng Liu, Mingang Zhang, Kewei ... S. Sinnema, R. J. Radwanski, J. J. M. Franse, D. B. de Mooij, and K. H. J. Buschow, "Magnetic properties of ternary rare-earth ... M.-J. Kim, Y. Li, Y.-B. Kim et al., "Magnetic properties of NdFeB thin film obtained by diffusion annealing," IEEE Transactions ... D. Li, S. Suzuki, T. Horikawa, M. Itoh, and K.-I. Machida, "Grain boundary phase formation and magnetic properties of NdFeB/Nd ...
... due to the presence of strong surface barriers. This finding has significant implications for the interpretation of existing ... Transport properties governed by surface barriers in Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8. *Dan T. Fuchs. 1. , ... Burlachkov, L., Koshelev, A. E. & Vinokur, V. M. Transport properties of high temperature superconductors: Surface vs bulk ... Bean, C. P. & Livingston, J. D. Surface barriers in Type-II superconductors. Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 14-16 (1964). ...
EPA copper alloys approved by use of these proposed methods will be available to be used for such surfaces such as door knobs ... WK42244, Test Method for Residual Self-Sanitizing Activity of Copper Alloy Surfaces; and ... WK42247, Test Method for Continuous Reduction of Bacterial Contamination on Copper Alloy Surfaces. ... WK42235, Test Method for Efficacy of Copper Alloy Surfaces as a Sanitizer; ...
Spanish: Exploring Properties Surface Area - Sign & Guide (Spanish). *Spanish: Exploring Properties Surface Area - Guide ( ... Exploring Properties Surface Area - Guide (pdf). *Exploring Properties Surface Area - Sign. *Exploring Properties Surface Area ...
SURFACE LAYERS, SURFACE PROPERTIES, VENUS (PLANET), VENUS SURFACE ... SURFACE PROPERTIES, TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT, texture, THERMAL PROPERTIES, ULTRAVIOLET, VISIBLE WAVELENGTHS ... SURFACE PROPERTIES, THERMAL EMISSION, VENUS (PLANET), VENUS SURFACE ... OPTICAL PROPERTIES, PHOBOS, PHOBOS 2 MISSION, Radiometry, REFLECTANCE, REGOLITH, SATELLITE SURFACES, Satellites, SPACECRAFT ...
... for the surface structural properties at T = 0 K. Thin slabs of 7 - 13 atomic layers of the clean Nb and Ta (001) surfaces are ... considered and relaxations, surface energies, and work functions of the fully relaxed slabs are presented. Consistent results ... for the surface structural properties at T = 0 K. Thin slabs of 7 - 13 atomic layers of the clean Nb and Ta (001) surfaces are ... A. Ramanathan, "A DFT Calculation of Nb and Ta (001) Surface Properties," Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 3A, 2013, pp. ...
752a) Study on Aggregation of Gold Nanoparticles by Tuning the Surface Properties. *Conference: AIChE Annual Meeting ... Ionic surfactants including SDS and TDTAB have been used to characterize the surface properties of the gold colloid. The ... point for the development of a correlation between the aggregation kinetics of the colloids and their surface properties. We ... surface area, solid volume, and mean particle size. As a result, instead of solving the particle size distribution (PSD), QMOM ...
... additive on the properties of YBCO was investigated. The impurity was added to the usual stoichiometry of Y/sub 1/Ba/su ...
... ferroelectric and domain retention properties. By understanding the role of surfaces and interfaces, ferroelectric properties ... Accepted Manuscript: Manipulating Ferroelectrics through Changes in Surface and Interface Properties. Title: Manipulating ... Interface and surface properties are modulated through the selection/redesign of electrode materials as well as tuning the ... Interface and surface properties are modulated through the selection/redesign of electrode materials as well as tuning the ...
Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls/diameter, impurities, and surface functionalization with ... nanotubes and nanofibers were analyzed to examine possible relationships between their Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface ... areas (SSAs) and their physical and chemical properties. ... Properties found to influence surface area were number of walls ... how different properties may influence surface area is discussed. The materials examined have a wide range of surface areas. ...
... the metal surfaces could be obtained with both surface strength and surface lubricity. Herein, the influence of surface ... it is important to understand the influence of the surface properties on the scuffing resistance. If the effective surface ... properties modified with fine shot peening, which can form the arbitrary surface profile, on the scuffing resistance in the ... The influence of the surface roughness of the shot-peened test roller was also discussed. We found that the shot-peened roller ...
... all Surface Finish object properties are available for editing in the Properties panel when a placed Surface Finish indicator ... The Surface Finish Sign object default settings in the Preferences dialog and the Surface Finish mode of the Properties panel ... The property settings for each type of object are defined in two different ways:. *Pre-placement settings - most Surface Finish ... Parent page: Surface Finish. Draftsman object properties are definable options that specify the visual style, content and ...
... and surface properties-vehicle interaction, 2006.. [National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research Board.; National ... Committee on Surface Properties-Vehicle Interaction. a schema:Organization ;. schema:name "National Research Council (U.S.). ... Committee on Surface Properties-Vehicle Interaction." ;. schema:name "National Research Council (U.S.). Transportation Research ... Part 3, Pavement surface properties-vehicle interaction: Analysis of effectiveness of longitudinal grooving against ...
Tools are presented for calculating and mapping patches of hydrophobicity and charge on the protein surface. In addition, ... This benchmarking process provides the user with thresholds with which to assess non-polar surface patches, and possible ... Display and quantification of surface polarity and pH/ionic strength dependence will be useful generally for investigation of ... Protein solution behaviour is dictated by the physicochemical properties of the protein and the solution. Optimising protein ...

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