A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Diseases of multiple peripheral nerves simultaneously. Polyneuropathies usually are characterized by symmetrical, bilateral distal motor and sensory impairment with a graded increase in severity distally. The pathological processes affecting peripheral nerves include degeneration of the axon, myelin or both. The various forms of polyneuropathy are categorized by the type of nerve affected (e.g., sensory, motor, or autonomic), by the distribution of nerve injury (e.g., distal vs. proximal), by nerve component primarily affected (e.g., demyelinating vs. axonal), by etiology, or by pattern of inheritance.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A group of slowly progressive inherited disorders affecting motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Subtypes include HMSNs I-VII. HMSN I and II both refer to CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE. HMSN III refers to hypertrophic neuropathy of infancy. HMSN IV refers to REFSUM DISEASE. HMSN V refers to a condition marked by a hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with spastic paraplegia (see SPASTIC PARAPLEGIA, HEREDITARY). HMSN VI refers to HMSN associated with an inherited optic atrophy (OPTIC ATROPHIES, HEREDITARY), and HMSN VII refers to HMSN associated with retinitis pigmentosa. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.
Diseases characterized by injury or dysfunction involving multiple peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process may primarily affect myelin or nerve axons. Two of the more common demyelinating forms are acute inflammatory polyradiculopathy (GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME) and POLYRADICULONEUROPATHY, CHRONIC INFLAMMATORY DEMYELINATING. Polyradiculoneuritis refers to inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves and spinal nerve roots.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
A subjective psychometric response scale used to measure distinct behavioral or physiological phenomena based on linear numerical gradient or yes/no alternatives.
Disease involving the common PERONEAL NERVE or its branches, the deep and superficial peroneal nerves. Lesions of the deep peroneal nerve are associated with PARALYSIS of dorsiflexion of the ankle and toes and loss of sensation from the web space between the first and second toe. Lesions of the superficial peroneal nerve result in weakness or paralysis of the peroneal muscles (which evert the foot) and loss of sensation over the dorsal and lateral surface of the leg. Traumatic injury to the common peroneal nerve near the head of the FIBULA is a relatively common cause of this condition. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p31)
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Disease of the TIBIAL NERVE (also referred to as the posterior tibial nerve). The most commonly associated condition is the TARSAL TUNNEL SYNDROME. However, LEG INJURIES; ISCHEMIA; and inflammatory conditions (e.g., COLLAGEN DISEASES) may also affect the nerve. Clinical features include PARALYSIS of plantar flexion, ankle inversion and toe flexion as well as loss of sensation over the sole of the foot. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p32)
A slowly progressive autoimmune demyelinating disease of peripheral nerves and nerve roots. Clinical manifestations include weakness and sensory loss in the extremities and enlargement of peripheral nerves. The course may be relapsing-remitting or demonstrate a step-wise progression. Protein is usually elevated in the spinal fluid and cranial nerves are typically spared. GUILLAIN-BARRE SYNDROME features a relatively rapid progression of disease which distinguishes it from this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1337)
A hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy transmitted most often as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by progressive distal wasting and loss of reflexes in the muscles of the legs (and occasionally involving the arms). Onset is usually in the second to fourth decade of life. This condition has been divided into two subtypes, hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (HMSN) types I and II. HMSN I is associated with abnormal nerve conduction velocities and nerve hypertrophy, features not seen in HMSN II. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1343)
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Paired bundles of NERVE FIBERS entering and leaving the SPINAL CORD at each segment. The dorsal and ventral nerve roots join to form the mixed segmental spinal nerves. The dorsal roots are generally afferent, formed by the central projections of the spinal (dorsal root) ganglia sensory cells, and the ventral roots are efferent, comprising the axons of spinal motor and PREGANGLIONIC AUTONOMIC FIBERS.
Various salts of a quaternary ammonium oxime that reconstitute inactivated acetylcholinesterase, especially at the neuromuscular junction, and may cause neuromuscular blockade. They are used as antidotes to organophosphorus poisoning as chlorides, iodides, methanesulfonates (mesylates), or other salts.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)
Diseases characterized by loss or dysfunction of myelin in the central or peripheral nervous system.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.
Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.
General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Subjective cutaneous sensations (e.g., cold, warmth, tingling, pressure, etc.) that are experienced spontaneously in the absence of stimulation.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
A reflex in which the AFFERENT NEURONS synapse directly on the EFFERENT NEURONS, without any INTERCALATED NEURONS. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 2nd ed.)
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans the fibers of the radial nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C5 to T1), travel via the posterior cord of the brachial plexus, and supply motor innervation to extensor muscles of the arm and cutaneous sensory fibers to extensor regions of the arm and hand.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Twelve pairs of nerves that carry general afferent, visceral afferent, special afferent, somatic efferent, and autonomic efferent fibers.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).
Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)
The lower part of the SPINAL CORD consisting of the lumbar, sacral, and coccygeal nerve roots.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Differentiated tissue of the central nervous system composed of NERVE CELLS, fibers, DENDRITES, and specialized supporting cells.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.

Receptor mechanisms underlying heterogenic reflexes among the triceps surae muscles of the cat. (1/426)

The soleus (S), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles of the cat are interlinked by rapid spinal reflex pathways. In the decerebrate state, these heterogenic reflexes are either excitatory and length dependent or inhibitory and force dependent. Mechanographic analysis was used to obtain additional evidence that the muscle spindle primary ending and the Golgi tendon organ provide the major contributions to these reflexes, respectively. The tendons of the triceps surae muscles were separated and connected to independent force transducers and servo-controlled torque motors in unanesthetized, decerebrate cats. The muscles were activated as a group using crossed-extension reflexes. Electrical stimulation of the caudal cutaneous sural nerve was used to provide a particularly strong activation of MG and decouple the forces of the triceps surae muscles. During either form of activation, the muscles were stretched either individually or in various combinations to determine the strength and characteristics of autogenic and heterogenic feedback. The corresponding force responses, including both active and passive components, were measured during the changing background tension. During activation of the entire group, the excitatory, heterogenic feedback linking the three muscles was found to be strongest onto LG and weakest onto MG, in agreement with previous results concerning the strengths of heteronymous Ia excitatory postsynaptic potentials among the triceps surae muscles. The inhibition, which is known to affect only the soleus muscle, was dependent on active contractile force and was detected essentially as rapidly as length dependent excitation. The inhibition outlasted the excitation and was blocked by intravenous strychnine. These results indicate that the excitatory and inhibitory effects are dominated by feedback from primary spindle receptors and Golgi tendon organs. The interactions between these two feedback pathways potentially can influence both the mechanical coupling between ankle and knee.  (+info)

The Thr124Met mutation in the peripheral myelin protein zero (MPZ) gene is associated with a clinically distinct Charcot-Marie-Tooth phenotype. (2/426)

We observed a missense mutation in the peripheral myelin protein zero gene (MPZ, Thr124Met) in seven Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) families and in two isolated CMT patients of Belgian ancestry. Allele-sharing analysis of markers flanking the MPZ gene indicated that all patients with the Thr124Met mutation have one common ancestor. The mutation is associated with a clinically distinct phenotype characterized by late onset, marked sensory abnormalities and, in some families, deafness and pupillary abnormalities. Nerve conduction velocities of the motor median nerve vary from <38 m/s to normal values in these patients. Clusters of remyelinating axons in a sural nerve biopsy demonstrate an axonal involvement, with axonal regeneration. Phenotype-genotype correlations in 30 patients with the Thr124Met MPZ mutation indicate that, based on nerve conduction velocity criteria, these patients are difficult to classify as CMT1 or CMT2. We therefore conclude that CMT patients with slightly reduced or nearly normal nerve conduction velocity should be screened for MPZ mutations, particularly when additional clinical features such as marked sensory disturbances, pupillary abnormalities or deafness are also present.  (+info)

Clinicopathological features of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. (3/426)

We assessed the clinicopathological features of 28 patients with peripheral neuropathy associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Initial symptoms attributable to neuropathy were acute painful dysaesthesiae and oedema in the dysaesthetic portion of the distal limbs. Sensory and motor involvement mostly showed a pattern of mononeuritis multiplex in the initial phase, progressing into asymmetrical polyneuropathy, restricted to the limbs. Parallel loss of myelinated and unmyelinated fibres due to axonal degeneration was evident as decreased or absent amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials and compound muscle action potentials, indicating acute massive axonal loss. Epineurial necrotizing vasculitis was seen in 54% of cases; infiltrates consisted mainly of CD8-positive suppressor/cytotoxic and CD4-positive helper T lymphocytes. Eosinophils were present in infiltrates, but in smaller numbers than lymphocytes. CD20-positive B lymphocytes were seen only occasionally. Deposits of IgG, C3d, IgE and major basic protein were scarce. The mean follow-up period was 4.2 years, with a range of 8 months to 10 years. Fatal outcome was seen only in a single patient, indicating a good survival rate. The patients who responded well to the initial corticosteroid therapy within 4 weeks regained self-controlled functional status in longterm follow-up (modified Rankin score was < or = 2), while those not responding well to the initial corticosteroid therapy led a dependent existence (P < 0.01). In addition the patients with poor functional outcomes had significantly more systemic organ damage caused by vasculitis (P < 0.05). Necrotizing vasculitis mediated by cytotoxic T cells, leading to ischaemic changes, appears to be a major cause of Churg-Strauss syndrome-associated neuropathy. The initial clinical course and the extent of systemic vasculitic lesions may influence the long-term functional prognosis.  (+info)

Aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation in sensory neurons of rats with diabetic neuropathy. (4/426)

Aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation occurs in many neurodegenerative diseases, and in this study, two animal models of type 1 diabetes--the spontaneously diabetic BB rat and the streptozocin-induced diabetic rat--have been used to determine whether such a phenomenon is involved in the etiology of the symmetrical sensory polyneuropathy commonly associated with diabetes. There was a two- to threefold (P < 0.05) elevation of neurofilament phosphorylation in lumbar dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of diabetic rats that was localized to perikarya of medium to large neurons using immunocytochemistry. Additionally, diabetes enhanced neurofilament M phosphorylation by 2.5-fold (P < 0.001) in sural nerve of BB rats. Neurofilaments are substrates of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, which includes c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) or stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK1) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) 1 and 2. Diabetes induced a significant three- to fourfold (P < 0.05) increase in phosphorylation of a 54-kDa isoform of JNK in DRG and sural nerve, and this correlated with elevated c-Jun and neurofilament phosphorylation. In diabetes, ERK phosphorylation was also increased in the DRG, but not in sural nerve. Immunocytochemistry showed that JNK was present in sensory neuron perikarya and axons. Motoneuron perikarya and peroneal nerve of diabetic rats showed no evidence of increased neurofilament phosphorylation and failed to exhibit phosphorylation of JNK. It is hypothesized that in sensory neurons of diabetic rats, aberrant phosphorylation of neurofilament may contribute to the distal sensory axonopathy observed in diabetes.  (+info)

Abetalipoproteinaemia. A case report with pathological studies. (5/426)

The clinical and pathological features of a case of abetalipoproteinaemia in a 38-year-old patient are described in detail. A feature not previously recorded was a marked reduction in the velocity of ocular horizontal saccadic movements. Pathological studies revealed an active chronic demyelinating process. The patient showed no response to large doses of vitamin E. The rationale for this therapy, and the possible reasons for its failure are discussed.  (+info)

Vasculitic polyradiculopathy in systemic lupus erythematosus. (6/426)

A 22 year old woman with recently diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus presented with subacute progressive areflexic paraparesis, electrophysiologically identified as a pure axonal polyradiculopathy. Sural nerve biopsy disclosed necrotising vasculitis. A striking radiological feature was marked enhancement of the cauda equina with gadolinium.  (+info)

Axonal and perikaryal involvement in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. (7/426)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent of loss of myelinated nerve fibres and spinal motor neuron loss in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), a clinicopathological study was conducted on biopsied sural nerves and necropsied spinal cords from patients with CIDP. METHODS: The myelinated fibre pathology of 71 biopsied sural nerves and motor neuron pathology of nine necropsied spinal cords at L4 levels in patients with CIDP were quantitatively and immunohistochemically assessed. RESULTS: Myelinated nerve fibre density was significantly diminished to 65.4% of the control values (p <0.0001), correlating inversely with the extent of segmental demyelination and remyelination (r = -0.43, p < 0.0005) and duration of illness (r = -0.31, p < 0.01). Numbers of large spinal motor neurons in CIDP were variably but significantly diminished (range from 46.0 to 97.6% of the age matched control value (p < 0.005)), and reactive astrogliosis was evident in the ventral horn in CIDP. The frequency of ventral horn neurons exhibiting central chromatolysis and the accumulation of phosphorylated high molecular weight neurofilament protein was significantly higher in CIDP than in controls (p<0.01 and p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The loss of nerve axons and spinal motor neurons is common in CIDP, and extensive in some cases. These neuronal and axonal losses may influence the functional prognosis in CIDP.  (+info)

Axonal phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with a mutation in the myelin protein zero gene. (8/426)

A French family had Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 (CMT2) which was characterised by late onset of peripheral neuropathy involvement, Argyll Robertson-like pupils, dysphagia, and deafness. Electrophysiological studies and nerve biopsy defined the neuropathy as axonal type. Genetic analysis of myelin protein zero (MPZ) found a mutation in codon 124 resulting in substitution of threonine by methionine. One of the patients, presently 30 years old, showed only Argyll Robertson-like pupils as an objective sign but no clinical or electrophysiological signs of peripheral neuropathy.  (+info)

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Spinal nerves are the bundles of nerve fibers that transmit signals between the spinal cord and the rest of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves in the human body, which can be divided into five regions: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each spinal nerve carries both sensory information (such as touch, temperature, and pain) from the periphery to the spinal cord, and motor information (such as muscle control) from the spinal cord to the muscles and other structures in the body. Spinal nerves also contain autonomic fibers that regulate involuntary functions such as heart rate, digestion, and blood pressure.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Polyneuropathy is a medical condition that refers to the damage or dysfunction of peripheral nerves (nerves outside the brain and spinal cord) in multiple areas of the body. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory, motor, and autonomic signals between the central nervous system and the rest of the body.

In polyneuropathies, this communication is disrupted, leading to various symptoms depending on the type and extent of nerve damage. Commonly reported symptoms include:

1. Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness and cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Burning or stabbing pain
5. Balance and coordination issues
6. Increased sensitivity to touch
7. Autonomic dysfunction, such as bowel, bladder, or digestive problems, and changes in blood pressure

Polyneuropathies can be caused by various factors, including diabetes, alcohol abuse, nutritional deficiencies, autoimmune disorders, infections, toxins, inherited genetic conditions, or idiopathic (unknown) causes. The treatment for polyneuropathy depends on the underlying cause and may involve managing underlying medical conditions, physical therapy, pain management, and lifestyle modifications.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

Hereditary Sensory and Motor Neuropathy (HSMN) is a group of inherited disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the brain and muscles, as well as sensations such as touch, pain, heat, and cold.

HSMN is characterized by progressive degeneration of these peripheral nerves, leading to muscle weakness, numbness, and tingling sensations, particularly in the hands and feet. The condition can also affect the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.

HSMN is caused by genetic mutations that are inherited from one or both parents. There are several types of HSMN, each with its own specific symptoms, severity, and pattern of inheritance. The most common form is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), which affects both motor and sensory nerves.

Treatment for HSMN typically focuses on managing the symptoms and preventing complications. This may include physical therapy, bracing or orthopedic surgery to support weakened muscles, pain management, and lifestyle modifications such as avoiding activities that aggravate symptoms. There is currently no cure for HSMN, but ongoing research is aimed at developing new treatments and therapies to slow or halt the progression of the disease.

The optic nerve, also known as the second cranial nerve, is the nerve that transmits visual information from the retina to the brain. It is composed of approximately one million nerve fibers that carry signals related to vision, such as light intensity and color, from the eye's photoreceptor cells (rods and cones) to the visual cortex in the brain. The optic nerve is responsible for carrying this visual information so that it can be processed and interpreted by the brain, allowing us to see and perceive our surroundings. Damage to the optic nerve can result in vision loss or impairment.

Nerve regeneration is the process of regrowth and restoration of functional nerve connections following damage or injury to the nervous system. This complex process involves various cellular and molecular events, such as the activation of support cells called glia, the sprouting of surviving nerve fibers (axons), and the reformation of neural circuits. The goal of nerve regeneration is to enable the restoration of normal sensory, motor, and autonomic functions impaired due to nerve damage or injury.

Peripheral nerve injuries refer to damage or trauma to the peripheral nerves, which are the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit information between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, including sensory, motor, and autonomic functions. Peripheral nerve injuries can result in various symptoms, depending on the type and severity of the injury, such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or paralysis in the affected area.

Peripheral nerve injuries are classified into three main categories based on the degree of damage:

1. Neuropraxia: This is the mildest form of nerve injury, where the nerve remains intact but its function is disrupted due to a local conduction block. The nerve fiber is damaged, but the supporting structures remain intact. Recovery usually occurs within 6-12 weeks without any residual deficits.
2. Axonotmesis: In this type of injury, there is damage to both the axons and the supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium). The nerve fibers are disrupted, but the connective tissue sheaths remain intact. Recovery can take several months or even up to a year, and it may be incomplete, with some residual deficits possible.
3. Neurotmesis: This is the most severe form of nerve injury, where there is complete disruption of the nerve fibers and supporting structures (endoneurium, perineurium, epineurium). Recovery is unlikely without surgical intervention, which may involve nerve grafting or repair.

Peripheral nerve injuries can be caused by various factors, including trauma, compression, stretching, lacerations, or chemical exposure. Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the injury and may include conservative management, such as physical therapy and pain management, or surgical intervention for more severe cases.

Polyradiculoneuropathy is a medical term that refers to a condition affecting multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves. It's a type of neuropathy, which is damage or disease affecting the peripheral nerves, and it involves damage to the nerve roots as they exit the spinal cord.

The term "poly" means many, "radiculo" refers to the nerve root, and "neuropathy" indicates a disorder of the nerves. Therefore, polyradiculoneuropathy implies that multiple nerve roots and peripheral nerves are affected.

This condition can result from various causes, such as infections (like Guillain-Barre syndrome), autoimmune disorders (such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis), diabetes, cancer, or exposure to toxins. Symptoms may include weakness, numbness, tingling, or pain in the limbs, which can progress and become severe over time. Proper diagnosis and management are crucial for improving outcomes and preventing further nerve damage.

The Peroneal nerve, also known as the common fibular nerve, is a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies the muscles of the lower leg and provides sensation to the skin on the outer part of the lower leg and the top of the foot. It winds around the neck of the fibula (calf bone) and can be vulnerable to injury in this area, leading to symptoms such as weakness or numbness in the foot and leg.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

Neuritis is a general term that refers to inflammation of a nerve or nerves, often causing pain, loss of function, and/or sensory changes. It can affect any part of the nervous system, including the peripheral nerves (those outside the brain and spinal cord) or the cranial nerves (those that serve the head and neck). Neuritis may result from various causes, such as infections, autoimmune disorders, trauma, toxins, or metabolic conditions. The specific symptoms and treatment depend on the underlying cause and the affected nerve(s).

A Visual Analog Scale (VAS) is a subjective measurement tool used to quantify and communicate the intensity or severity of various symptoms or experiences, such as pain, mood, or fatigue. It typically consists of a straight, horizontal line, 10 centimeters in length, with verbal anchors at each end that describe the extreme limits of the variable being measured (e.g., "no pain" and "worst possible pain"). Patients are asked to mark a point on the line that corresponds to their perceived intensity or severity of the symptom, and the distance from the "no pain" anchor to the patient's mark is then measured in centimeters to obtain a score between 0 and 100.

The VAS has been widely used in clinical research and practice due to its simplicity, ease of use, and ability to detect small but meaningful changes in symptom intensity over time. However, it should be noted that the interpretation of VAS scores may vary among individuals and populations, and additional validation studies are often necessary to establish the psychometric properties of this measurement tool in specific contexts.

Peroneal neuropathies refer to conditions that cause damage or dysfunction to the peroneal nerve, which is a branch of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal nerve runs down the back of the leg and wraps around the fibula bone (the smaller of the two bones in the lower leg) before dividing into two branches that innervate the muscles and skin on the front and side of the lower leg and foot.

Peroneal neuropathies can cause various symptoms, including weakness or paralysis of the ankle and toe muscles, numbness or tingling in the top of the foot and along the outside of the lower leg, and difficulty lifting the foot (known as "foot drop"). These conditions can result from trauma, compression, diabetes, or other underlying medical conditions. Treatment for peroneal neuropathies may include physical therapy, bracing, medications to manage pain, and in some cases, surgery.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary and rapid response to a stimulus that occurs without conscious intention. In the context of physiology and neurology, it's a basic mechanism that involves the transmission of nerve impulses between neurons, resulting in a muscle contraction or glandular secretion.

Reflexes are important for maintaining homeostasis, protecting the body from harm, and coordinating movements. They can be tested clinically to assess the integrity of the nervous system, such as the knee-j jerk reflex, which tests the function of the L3-L4 spinal nerve roots and the sensitivity of the stretch reflex arc.

Tibial neuropathy refers to damage or dysfunction of the tibial nerve, which is one of the major nerves in the leg. The tibial nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to the lower leg, ankle, and foot muscles, as well as the skin on the sole of the foot.

Tibial neuropathy can result from various causes, including trauma, compression, diabetes, or other systemic diseases that affect the nerves. The symptoms of tibial neuropathy may include pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected leg and foot. In severe cases, it can lead to muscle wasting and difficulty walking.

The diagnosis of tibial neuropathy typically involves a thorough physical examination, including a neurological assessment, as well as electrical testing of nerve function (nerve conduction studies and electromyography). Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may include medication, physical therapy, or surgery in some cases.

Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a rare neurological disorder characterized by progressive and persistent inflammation of the peripheral nerves' myelin sheaths, leading to significant damage and impaired nerve function. Myelin is the fatty insulation that surrounds and protects nerve fibers, enabling efficient electrical conduction and communication between the brain, spinal cord, and muscles.

In CIDP, the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath, causing its gradual deterioration (demyelination) and subsequent impairment of nerve function. This results in symptoms such as progressive muscle weakness, numbness, tingling, or sensory loss affecting both sides of the body. The onset of CIDP can be either acute or insidious, with symptoms developing slowly over several months.

CIDP is typically classified into two categories based on the distribution of nerve involvement:

1. Distal acquired demyelinating symmetric (DADS) neuropathy: This form of CIDP affects the longest nerves first, leading to symmetrical sensory and motor disturbances in the feet and hands.
2. Asymmetric or multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy: In this form, the damage is more localized and asymmetrical, affecting various parts of the peripheral nervous system.

The diagnosis of CIDP relies on a combination of clinical presentation, electrodiagnostic studies (nerve conduction studies and electromyography), and supportive findings from cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve biopsy. Treatment usually involves immunosuppressive therapies to control the immune response and promote nerve recovery, such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins, or plasma exchange. Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes and prevent long-term disability in patients with CIDP.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of inherited disorders that cause nerve damage, primarily affecting the peripheral nerves. These are the nerves that transmit signals between the brain and spinal cord to the rest of the body. CMT affects both motor and sensory nerves, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy, as well as numbness or tingling in the hands and feet.

The disease is named after the three physicians who first described it: Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Marie, and Howard Henry Tooth. CMT is characterized by its progressive nature, meaning symptoms typically worsen over time, although the rate of progression can vary significantly among individuals.

There are several types of CMT, classified based on their genetic causes and patterns of inheritance. The two most common forms are CMT1 and CMT2:

1. CMT1: This form is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the myelin sheath, which insulates peripheral nerves and allows for efficient signal transmission. As a result, demyelination occurs, slowing down nerve impulses and causing muscle weakness, particularly in the lower limbs. Symptoms usually begin in childhood or adolescence and include foot drop, high arches, and hammertoes.
2. CMT2: This form is caused by mutations in the genes responsible for the axons, the nerve fibers that transmit signals within peripheral nerves. As a result, axonal degeneration occurs, leading to muscle weakness and atrophy. Symptoms usually begin in early adulthood and progress more slowly than CMT1. They primarily affect the lower limbs but can also involve the hands and arms.

Diagnosis of CMT typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, family history, nerve conduction studies, and genetic testing. While there is no cure for CMT, treatment focuses on managing symptoms and maintaining mobility and function through physical therapy, bracing, orthopedic surgery, and pain management.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Spinal nerve roots are the initial parts of spinal nerves that emerge from the spinal cord through the intervertebral foramen, which are small openings between each vertebra in the spine. These nerve roots carry motor, sensory, and autonomic fibers to and from specific regions of the body. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerve roots in total, with 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal pair. Each root has a dorsal (posterior) and ventral (anterior) ramus that branch off to form the peripheral nervous system. Irritation or compression of these nerve roots can result in pain, numbness, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

Pralidoxime compounds are a type of antidote used to treat poisoning from organophosphate nerve agents and pesticides. These compounds work by reactivating the acetylcholinesterase enzyme, which is inhibited by organophosphates. This helps to restore the normal functioning of the nervous system and can save lives in cases of severe poisoning.

Pralidoxime is often used in combination with atropine, another antidote that blocks the effects of excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors. Together, these compounds can help to manage the symptoms of organophosphate poisoning and prevent long-term neurological damage.

It is important to note that pralidoxime must be administered as soon as possible after exposure to organophosphates, as its effectiveness decreases over time. This makes rapid diagnosis and treatment crucial in cases of suspected nerve agent or pesticide poisoning.

Nerve endings, also known as terminal branches or sensory receptors, are the specialized structures present at the termination point of nerve fibers (axons) that transmit electrical signals to and from the central nervous system (CNS). They primarily function in detecting changes in the external environment or internal body conditions and converting them into electrical impulses.

There are several types of nerve endings, including:

1. Free Nerve Endings: These are unencapsulated nerve endings that respond to various stimuli like temperature, pain, and touch. They are widely distributed throughout the body, especially in the skin, mucous membranes, and visceral organs.

2. Encapsulated Nerve Endings: These are wrapped by specialized connective tissue sheaths, which can modify their sensitivity to specific stimuli. Examples include Pacinian corpuscles (responsible for detecting deep pressure and vibration), Meissner's corpuscles (for light touch), Ruffini endings (for stretch and pressure), and Merkel cells (for sustained touch).

3. Specialised Nerve Endings: These are nerve endings that respond to specific stimuli, such as auditory, visual, olfactory, gustatory, and vestibular information. They include hair cells in the inner ear, photoreceptors in the retina, taste buds in the tongue, and olfactory receptors in the nasal cavity.

Nerve endings play a crucial role in relaying sensory information to the CNS for processing and initiating appropriate responses, such as reflex actions or conscious perception of the environment.

A decerebrate state is a medical condition that results from severe damage to the brainstem, specifically to the midbrain and above. This type of injury can cause motor responses characterized by rigid extension of the arms and legs, with the arms rotated outward and the wrists and fingers extended. The legs are also extended and the toes pointed downward. These postures are often referred to as "decerebrate rigidity" or "posturing."

The decerebrate state is typically seen in patients who have experienced severe trauma, such as a car accident or gunshot wound, or who have suffered from a large stroke or other type of brain hemorrhage. It can also occur in some cases of severe hypoxia (lack of oxygen) to the brain, such as during cardiac arrest or drowning.

The decerebrate state is a serious medical emergency that requires immediate treatment. If left untreated, it can lead to further brain damage and even death. Treatment typically involves providing supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation to help with breathing, medications to control blood pressure and prevent seizures, and surgery to repair any underlying injuries or bleeding. In some cases, patients may require long-term rehabilitation to regain lost function and improve their quality of life.

Demyelinating diseases are a group of disorders that are characterized by damage to the myelin sheath, which is the protective covering surrounding nerve fibers in the brain, optic nerves, and spinal cord. Myelin is essential for the rapid transmission of nerve impulses, and its damage results in disrupted communication between the brain and other parts of the body.

The most common demyelinating disease is multiple sclerosis (MS), where the immune system mistakenly attacks the myelin sheath. Other demyelinating diseases include:

1. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM): An autoimmune disorder that typically follows a viral infection or vaccination, causing widespread inflammation and demyelination in the brain and spinal cord.
2. Neuromyelitis Optica (NMO) or Devic's Disease: A rare autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the optic nerves and spinal cord, leading to severe vision loss and motor disability.
3. Transverse Myelitis: Inflammation of the spinal cord causing damage to both sides of one level (segment) of the spinal cord, resulting in various neurological symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, depending on which part of the spinal cord is affected.
4. Guillain-Barré Syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes rapid-onset muscle weakness, often beginning in the legs and spreading to the upper body, including the face and breathing muscles. It occurs when the immune system attacks the peripheral nerves' myelin sheath.
5. Central Pontine Myelinolysis (CPM): A rare neurological disorder caused by rapid shifts in sodium levels in the blood, leading to damage to the myelin sheath in a specific area of the brainstem called the pons.

These diseases can result in various symptoms, such as muscle weakness, numbness, vision loss, difficulty with balance and coordination, and cognitive impairment, depending on the location and extent of the demyelination. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms, modifying the immune system's response, and promoting nerve regeneration and remyelination when possible.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The facial nerve, also known as the seventh cranial nerve (CN VII), is a mixed nerve that carries both sensory and motor fibers. Its functions include controlling the muscles involved in facial expressions, taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, and secretomotor function to the lacrimal and salivary glands.

The facial nerve originates from the brainstem and exits the skull through the internal acoustic meatus. It then passes through the facial canal in the temporal bone before branching out to innervate various structures of the face. The main branches of the facial nerve include:

1. Temporal branch: Innervates the frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oculi muscles responsible for eyebrow movements and eyelid closure.
2. Zygomatic branch: Supplies the muscles that elevate the upper lip and wrinkle the nose.
3. Buccal branch: Innervates the muscles of the cheek and lips, allowing for facial expressions such as smiling and puckering.
4. Mandibular branch: Controls the muscles responsible for lower lip movement and depressing the angle of the mouth.
5. Cervical branch: Innervates the platysma muscle in the neck, which helps to depress the lower jaw and wrinkle the skin of the neck.

Damage to the facial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as facial weakness or paralysis, loss of taste sensation, and dry eyes or mouth due to impaired secretion.

A nerve crush injury is a type of peripheral nerve injury that occurs when there is excessive pressure or compression applied to a nerve, causing it to become damaged or dysfunctional. This can happen due to various reasons such as trauma from accidents, surgical errors, or prolonged pressure on the nerve from tight casts, clothing, or positions.

The compression disrupts the normal functioning of the nerve, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, weakness, or pain in the affected area. In severe cases, a nerve crush injury can cause permanent damage to the nerve, leading to long-term disability or loss of function. Treatment for nerve crush injuries typically involves relieving the pressure on the nerve, providing supportive care, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair the damaged nerve.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Electromyography (EMG) is a medical diagnostic procedure that measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles during contraction and at rest. It involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record the electrical signals generated by the muscle fibers. These signals are then displayed on an oscilloscope and may be heard through a speaker.

EMG can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as muscle weakness, numbness, or pain, and can distinguish between muscle and nerve disorders. It is often used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests, such as nerve conduction studies, to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the nervous system.

EMG is typically performed by a neurologist or a physiatrist, and the procedure may cause some discomfort or pain, although this is usually minimal. The results of an EMG can help guide treatment decisions and monitor the progression of neuromuscular conditions over time.

Foot injuries refer to any damage or trauma caused to the various structures of the foot, including the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, and nerves. These injuries can result from various causes such as accidents, sports activities, falls, or repetitive stress. Common types of foot injuries include fractures, sprains, strains, contusions, dislocations, and overuse injuries like plantar fasciitis or Achilles tendonitis. Symptoms may vary depending on the type and severity of the injury but often include pain, swelling, bruising, difficulty walking, and reduced range of motion. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal healing and prevent long-term complications.

The Achilles tendon, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus). It plays a crucial role in enabling activities such as walking, running, and jumping by facilitating the movement of the foot downward, which is called plantar flexion. Injuries to the Achilles tendon, such as tendinitis or ruptures, can be quite painful and impact mobility.

Paresthesia is a medical term that describes an abnormal sensation such as tingling, numbness, prickling, or burning, usually in the hands, feet, arms, or legs. These sensations can occur without any obvious cause, often described as "pins and needles" or falling asleep in a limb. However, persistent paresthesia can be a sign of an underlying medical condition, such as nerve damage, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or a vitamin deficiency. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if experiencing persistent paresthesia to determine the cause and appropriate treatment.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

The myelin sheath is a multilayered, fatty substance that surrounds and insulates many nerve fibers in the nervous system. It is essential for the rapid transmission of electrical signals, or nerve impulses, along these nerve fibers, allowing for efficient communication between different parts of the body. The myelin sheath is produced by specialized cells called oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS) and Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Damage to the myelin sheath, as seen in conditions like multiple sclerosis, can significantly impair nerve function and result in various neurological symptoms.

In medical terms, the foot is the part of the lower limb that is distal to the leg and below the ankle, extending from the tarsus to the toes. It is primarily responsible for supporting body weight and facilitating movement through push-off during walking or running. The foot is a complex structure made up of 26 bones, 33 joints, and numerous muscles, tendons, ligaments, and nerves that work together to provide stability, balance, and flexibility. It can be divided into three main parts: the hindfoot, which contains the talus and calcaneus (heel) bones; the midfoot, which includes the navicular, cuboid, and cuneiform bones; and the forefoot, which consists of the metatarsals and phalanges that form the toes.

A monosynaptic reflex is a type of reflex response that involves only one synapse, or connection, between the sensory neuron and the motor neuron. In this type of reflex, when a stimulus activates a sensory receptor, it sends a signal directly to a single interneuron in the spinal cord, which then transmits the signal to the appropriate motor neuron. This results in a rapid and automatic response, such as the knee-jerk reflex (also known as the patellar reflex) that occurs when the patellar tendon is tapped, causing the lower leg to extend. Monosynaptic reflexes are important for maintaining muscle tone and protecting the body from injury.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers, also known as unmyelinated axons or non-myelinated fibers, are nerve cells that lack a myelin sheath. Myelin is a fatty, insulating substance that surrounds the axon of many nerve cells and helps to increase the speed of electrical impulses traveling along the nerve fiber.

In unmyelinated nerve fibers, the axons are surrounded by a thin layer of Schwann cell processes called the endoneurium, but there is no continuous myelin sheath. Instead, the axons are packed closely together in bundles, with several axons lying within the same Schwann cell.

Unmyelinated nerve fibers tend to be smaller in diameter than myelinated fibers and conduct electrical impulses more slowly. They are commonly found in the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion, as well as in sensory nerves that transmit pain and temperature signals.

Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) are electrical signals generated in the brain and spinal cord in response to the stimulation of peripheral nerves. These responses are recorded and measured to assess the functioning of the somatosensory system, which is responsible for processing sensations such as touch, temperature, vibration, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of body parts).

SEPs are typically elicited by applying electrical stimuli to peripheral nerves in the arms or legs. The resulting neural responses are then recorded using electrodes placed on the scalp or other locations on the body. These recordings can provide valuable information about the integrity and function of the nervous system, and are often used in clinical settings to diagnose and monitor conditions such as nerve damage, spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological disorders.

SEPs can be further categorized based on the specific type of stimulus used and the location of the recording electrodes. For example, short-latency SEPs (SLSEPs) are those that occur within the first 50 milliseconds after stimulation, and are typically recorded from the scalp over the primary sensory cortex. These responses reflect the earliest stages of sensory processing and can be used to assess the integrity of the peripheral nerves and the ascending sensory pathways in the spinal cord.

In contrast, long-latency SEPs (LLSEPs) occur after 50 milliseconds and are typically recorded from more posterior regions of the scalp over the parietal cortex. These responses reflect later stages of sensory processing and can be used to assess higher-level cognitive functions such as attention, memory, and perception.

Overall, SEPs provide a valuable tool for clinicians and researchers seeking to understand the functioning of the somatosensory system and diagnose or monitor neurological disorders.

Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) is a small secreted protein that is involved in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). It was the first neurotrophin to be discovered and is essential for the development and function of the nervous system. NGF binds to specific receptors on the surface of nerve cells and helps to promote their differentiation, axonal growth, and synaptic plasticity. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in various physiological processes such as inflammation, immune response, and wound healing. Deficiencies or excesses of NGF have been linked to several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and pain conditions.

Physical stimulation, in a medical context, refers to the application of external forces or agents to the body or its tissues to elicit a response. This can include various forms of touch, pressure, temperature, vibration, or electrical currents. The purpose of physical stimulation may be therapeutic, as in the case of massage or physical therapy, or diagnostic, as in the use of reflex tests. It is also used in research settings to study physiological responses and mechanisms.

In a broader sense, physical stimulation can also refer to the body's exposure to physical activity or exercise, which can have numerous health benefits, including improving cardiovascular function, increasing muscle strength and flexibility, and reducing the risk of chronic diseases.

Cholinesterase reactivators are a type of medication used to reverse the effects of certain types of poisoning, particularly organophosphate and carbamate pesticides, as well as nerve agents. These chemicals work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which normally breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the body. This can lead to an overaccumulation of acetylcholine and result in symptoms such as muscle weakness, seizures, and respiratory failure.

Cholinesterase reactivators, also known as oximes, work by reactivating the inhibited enzyme and allowing it to resume its normal function. The most commonly used cholinesterase reactivator is pralidoxime (2-PAM), which is often administered in combination with atropine to treat organophosphate poisoning.

It's important to note that cholinesterase reactivators are not effective against all types of nerve agents or pesticides, and their use should be determined by a medical professional based on the specific type of poisoning involved. Additionally, these medications can have side effects and should only be administered under medical supervision.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Nerve Growth Factors (NGFs) are a family of proteins that play an essential role in the growth, maintenance, and survival of certain neurons (nerve cells). They were first discovered by Rita Levi-Montalcini and Stanley Cohen in 1956. NGF is particularly crucial for the development and function of the peripheral nervous system, which connects the central nervous system to various organs and tissues throughout the body.

NGF supports the differentiation and survival of sympathetic and sensory neurons during embryonic development. In adults, NGF continues to regulate the maintenance and repair of these neurons, contributing to neuroplasticity – the brain's ability to adapt and change over time. Additionally, NGF has been implicated in pain transmission and modulation, as well as inflammatory responses.

Abnormal levels or dysfunctional NGF signaling have been associated with various medical conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), chronic pain disorders, and certain cancers (e.g., small cell lung cancer). Therefore, understanding the role of NGF in physiological and pathological processes may provide valuable insights into developing novel therapeutic strategies for these conditions.

Somatosensory disorders are a category of neurological conditions that affect the somatosensory system, which is responsible for receiving and processing sensory information from the body. These disorders can result in abnormal or distorted perception of touch, temperature, pain, vibration, position, movement, and pressure.

Somatosensory disorders can be caused by damage to or dysfunction of the peripheral nerves, spinal cord, or brain. They can manifest as a variety of symptoms, including numbness, tingling, burning sensations, hypersensitivity to touch, loss of sensation, and difficulty with coordination and balance.

Examples of somatosensory disorders include peripheral neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), and dysesthesias. Treatment for these conditions may involve medication, physical therapy, or other interventions aimed at managing symptoms and improving quality of life.

Electrodiagnosis, also known as electromyography (EMG), is a medical diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health and function of muscles and nerves. It measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles at rest and during contraction, as well as the conduction of electrical signals along nerves.

The test involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record its electrical activity. The physician will ask the patient to contract and relax the muscle while the electrical activity is recorded. The resulting data can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as nerve damage or muscle diseases, by identifying abnormalities in the electrical signals.

Electrodiagnosis can be used to diagnose conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others. It is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular disorders, helping physicians to develop appropriate treatment plans for their patients.

The phrenic nerve is a motor nerve that originates from the cervical spine (C3-C5) and descends through the neck to reach the diaphragm, which is the primary muscle used for breathing. The main function of the phrenic nerve is to innervate the diaphragm and control its contraction and relaxation, thereby enabling respiration.

Damage or injury to the phrenic nerve can result in paralysis of the diaphragm, leading to difficulty breathing and potentially causing respiratory failure. Certain medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, spinal cord injuries, and tumors, can affect the phrenic nerve and impair its function.

The Radial nerve is a major peripheral nerve in the human body that originates from the brachial plexus, which is a network of nerves formed by the union of the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of spinal nerves C5-T1. The radial nerve provides motor function to extensor muscles of the upper limb and sensation to parts of the skin on the back of the arm, forearm, and hand.

More specifically, the radial nerve supplies motor innervation to:

* Extensor muscles of the shoulder (e.g., teres minor, infraspinatus)
* Rotator cuff muscles
* Elbow joint stabilizers (e.g., lateral head of the triceps)
* Extensors of the wrist, fingers, and thumb

The radial nerve also provides sensory innervation to:

* Posterior aspect of the upper arm (from the lower third of the humerus to the elbow)
* Lateral forearm (from the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the wrist)
* Dorsum of the hand (skin over the radial side of the dorsum, including the first web space)

Damage or injury to the radial nerve may result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the extensor muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the affected areas, and difficulty with extension movements of the wrist, fingers, and thumb. Common causes of radial nerve injuries include fractures of the humerus bone, compression during sleep or prolonged pressure on the nerve (e.g., from crutches), and entrapment syndromes like radial tunnel syndrome.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Cranial nerves are a set of twelve pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and skull, rather than the spinal cord. These nerves are responsible for transmitting sensory information (such as sight, smell, hearing, and taste) to the brain, as well as controlling various muscles in the head and neck (including those involved in chewing, swallowing, and eye movement). Each cranial nerve has a specific function and is named accordingly. For example, the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) transmits visual information from the eyes to the brain, while the vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) controls parasympathetic functions in the body such as heart rate and digestion.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Sensation disorders are conditions that affect the nervous system's ability to receive and interpret sensory information from the environment. These disorders can affect any of the five senses, including sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. They can result in symptoms such as numbness, tingling, pain, or loss of sensation in various parts of the body.

Some common types of sensation disorders include:

1. Neuropathy: A disorder that affects the nerves, often causing numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet.
2. Central pain syndrome: A condition that results from damage to the brain or spinal cord, leading to chronic pain.
3. Tinnitus: A ringing or buzzing sound in the ears that can be a symptom of an underlying hearing disorder.
4. Ageusia: The loss of taste sensation, often caused by damage to the tongue or nerves that transmit taste information to the brain.
5. Anosmia: The loss of smell sensation, which can result from a variety of causes including injury, infection, or neurological disorders.

Sensation disorders can have significant impacts on a person's quality of life and ability to perform daily activities. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or other interventions aimed at addressing the underlying cause of the disorder.

Nerve compression syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by the pressure or irritation of a peripheral nerve, causing various symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the affected area. This compression can occur due to several reasons, including injury, repetitive motion, bone spurs, tumors, or swelling. Common examples of nerve compression syndromes include carpal tunnel syndrome, cubital tunnel syndrome, radial nerve compression, and ulnar nerve entrapment at the wrist or elbow. Treatment options may include physical therapy, splinting, medications, injections, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) proteins refer to the proteins present in the cerebrospinal fluid, which is a clear, colorless fluid that surrounds and protects the brain and spinal cord. The protein concentration in the CSF is much lower than that in the blood, and it contains a specific set of proteins that are produced by the brain, spinal cord, and associated tissues.

The normal range for CSF protein levels is typically between 15-45 mg/dL, although this can vary slightly depending on the laboratory's reference range. An elevation in CSF protein levels may indicate the presence of neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis, multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Additionally, certain conditions such as spinal cord injury, brain tumors, or neurodegenerative diseases can also cause an increase in CSF protein levels.

Therefore, measuring CSF protein levels is an important diagnostic tool for neurologists to evaluate various neurological disorders and monitor disease progression. However, it's essential to interpret the results of CSF protein tests in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory test results to make an accurate diagnosis.

The Cauda Equina refers to a bundle of nerves at the lower end of the spinal cord within the vertebral column. It originates from the lumbar (L1-L5) and sacral (S1-S5) regions and looks like a horse's tail, hence the name "Cauda Equina" in Latin. These nerves are responsible for providing motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremities, bladder, bowel, and sexual organs. Any damage or compression to this region can lead to serious neurological deficits, such as bowel and bladder incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and lower limb weakness or paralysis.

The ophthalmic nerve, also known as the first cranial nerve or CN I, is a sensory nerve that primarily transmits information about vision, including light intensity and color, and sensation in the eye and surrounding areas. It is responsible for the sensory innervation of the upper eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, and nasal cavity. The ophthalmic nerve has three major branches: the lacrimal nerve, frontal nerve, and nasociliary nerve. Damage to this nerve can result in various visual disturbances and loss of sensation in the affected areas.

Evoked potentials (EPs) are medical tests that measure the electrical activity in the brain or spinal cord in response to specific sensory stimuli, such as sight, sound, or touch. These tests are often used to help diagnose and monitor conditions that affect the nervous system, such as multiple sclerosis, brainstem tumors, and spinal cord injuries.

There are several types of EPs, including:

1. Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs): These are used to assess the function of the visual pathway from the eyes to the back of the brain. A patient is typically asked to look at a patterned image or flashing light while electrodes placed on the scalp record the electrical responses.
2. Brainstem Auditory Evoked Potentials (BAEPs): These are used to evaluate the function of the auditory nerve and brainstem. Clicking sounds are presented to one or both ears, and electrodes placed on the scalp measure the response.
3. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs): These are used to assess the function of the peripheral nerves and spinal cord. Small electrical shocks are applied to a nerve at the wrist or ankle, and electrodes placed on the scalp record the response as it travels up the spinal cord to the brain.
4. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs): These are used to assess the function of the motor pathways in the brain and spinal cord. A magnetic or electrical stimulus is applied to the brain or spinal cord, and electrodes placed on a muscle measure the response as it travels down the motor pathway.

EPs can help identify abnormalities in the nervous system that may not be apparent through other diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies or clinical examinations. They are generally safe, non-invasive procedures with few risks or side effects.

Nerve tissue, also known as neural tissue, is a type of specialized tissue that is responsible for the transmission of electrical signals and the processing of information in the body. It is a key component of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. Nerve tissue is composed of two main types of cells: neurons and glial cells.

Neurons are the primary functional units of nerve tissue. They are specialized cells that are capable of generating and transmitting electrical signals, known as action potentials. Neurons have a unique structure, with a cell body (also called the soma) that contains the nucleus and other organelles, and processes (dendrites and axons) that extend from the cell body and are used to receive and transmit signals.

Glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia, are non-neuronal cells that provide support and protection for neurons. There are several different types of glial cells, including astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and Schwann cells. These cells play a variety of roles in the nervous system, such as providing structural support, maintaining the proper environment for neurons, and helping to repair and regenerate nerve tissue after injury.

Nerve tissue is found throughout the body, but it is most highly concentrated in the brain and spinal cord, which make up the central nervous system (CNS). The peripheral nerves, which are the nerves that extend from the CNS to the rest of the body, also contain nerve tissue. Nerve tissue is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain, controlling muscle movements, and regulating various bodily functions such as heart rate, digestion, and respiration.

The mandibular nerve is a branch of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensations in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing. The mandibular nerve provides both sensory and motor innervation to the lower third of the face, below the eye and nose down to the chin.

More specifically, it carries sensory information from the lower teeth, lower lip, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as the skin over the jaw and chin. It also provides motor innervation to the muscles of mastication (chewing), which include the masseter, temporalis, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid muscles.

Damage to the mandibular nerve can result in numbness or loss of sensation in the lower face and mouth, as well as weakness or difficulty with chewing and biting.

The nerves contributing to the formation of the sural nerve (medial sural cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, sural ... the sural communicating branch joins the medial sural cutaneous nerve to become the sural nerve. Type 1 and 2 sural nerve ... The sural nerve terminates as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve. The sural nerve (L4-S1) is a cutaneous sensory nerve of the ... sural nerve size, and location of the sural nerve union. Anatomists limit the name of the sural nerve from its origins after an ...
... may refer to: Lateral sural cutaneous nerve Medial sural cutaneous nerve This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Sural cutaneous nerve. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
Lateral sural cutaneous nerve Medial sural cutaneous nerve Sural communicating nerve 8 documented types of sural nerve ... the medial sural cutaneous nerve, the sural communicating nerve and sural nerve proper. Recent cadaveric research shows that ... The sural nerve complex are the contributing nerves that form the sural nerve. There are eight documented anatomic variations ... Areas of skin supplied by nerves of the leg - the sural nerve supplies the lateral ankle. Deep nerves of the front of the leg. ...
The medial sural cutaneous nerve originates from the posterior aspect of the tibial nerve of the sciatic nerve. It descends ... Normally the sural nerve serves this purpose. Most common formation (type 1) of the sural nerve depicted in the popliteal fossa ... Areas of skin supplied by nerves of the leg - the sural nerve supplies the lateral ankle. Deep nerves of the front of the leg. ... did not contain a medial sural cutaneous nerve. The diameter (at the medial sural cutaneous nerve origin) is found to be 2.74mm ...
Areas of skin supplied by nerves of the leg - the sural nerve supplies the lateral ankle. Deep nerves of the front of the leg. ... of the sural nerve depicted in the popliteal fossa Most common formation of the sural nerve by Steele et al. 8 documented types ... and joins with the medial sural cutaneous nerve to form the sural nerve Another branch observed, that is mentioned in passing ... The lateral sural cutaneous nerve originates from the common fibular nerve(L4-S2) and is the terminal branch of the common ...
... originated from the lateral sural cutaneous nerve to anastomose with the medial sural cutaneous nerve' to form the sural nerve ... prevalence of nerves with a sural communicating nerve. Ramakrishnan et al found that type 1 nerves (only sural nerve complex ... The sural communicating nerve (colloquially the peroneal communicating nerve) is one of the components of the sural nerve ... study identifying eight variations of the sural nerve formation. Types 1 and 7 sural nerve complex formations possess a sural ...
Sural nerve biopsy; biopsy is considered for those patients in whom the diagnosis is not completely clear, when other causes of ... Ultrasound of the peripheral nerves may show swelling of the affected nerves. Magnetic resonance imaging can also be used in ... The patient may also present with a single cranial nerve or peripheral nerve dysfunction.[citation needed] On examination the ... including sural nerve biopsy. First-line treatment for CIDP is currently intravenous immunoglobulin and other treatments ...
The sural nerve provides innervation. Medical conditions that result in calf swelling among other symptoms include deep vein ...
Sural nerve (SN) stimulation results in a reflex that is both phase and intensity dependent. The sural nerve innervates the ... Examples of nerves whose cutaneous branches have been examined are the: 1. Superficial fibular nerve or peroneal nerve ( ... Sural nerve (innervating the lateral portion of the foot)4. Superficial branch of radial nerve (innervating forearm and hand on ... Zehr, E. P., Stein, R. B., & Komiyama, T. (1998). Function of sural nerve reflexes during human walking. Journal of Physiology- ...
Its terminal branches communicate with the sural nerve.[citation needed] Its branches are all cutaneous, and are distributed to ... The posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh (also called the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve) is a sensory nerve of the thigh ... Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Front and posterior views. Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Front ... Unlike most nerves termed "cutaneous" which are subcutaneous, only the terminal branches of this nerve pass into subcutaneous ...
Abnormalities were found in muscle and sural nerves. It was concluded by Mousa-Al et al. that the disease is different from a ...
This pathology test is becoming available in select labs as well as many universities; it replaces the traditional sural nerve ... Epidermal nerve fiber density testing (ENFD) is a more recently developed neuropathology test in which a punch skin biopsy is ... Neuropathology should not be confused with neuropathy, which refers to disorders of the nerves themselves (usually in the ... Peripheral nerve is assessed to help work up patients with suspected peripheral neuropathies secondary to such conditions as ...
This nerve is the terminal nerve portion of the sural nerve. The common convention for where the sural nerve transitions into ... Cutaneous nerves of the right lower extremity. Front and posterior views. Steele, Robert (November 2021). "Anatomy of the sural ... Fansa, AM; Smyth, NA; Murawski, CD; Kennedy, JG (August 2012). "The lateral dorsal cutaneous branch of the sural nerve: ... This turns into a dorsal digital nerve and supplies the lateral side of the fourth and fifth toe. The course of this nerve ...
... and Sural nerves increases with height. The correlation between height and the amplitude of impulses in the sensory nerves is ... and Ulnar sensory nerves. However, conduction velocity of the Sural nerve is not associated with age. In general, conduction ... as well as sensory nerve conduction studies of the Ulnar and Sural nerves. In patients with ALS, it has been shown that distal ... Sural nerve conduction amplitude is significantly smaller in females than males, and the latency of impulses is longer in ...
Electrodes are applied near to the ankle where the tibial/sural nerve is located. It is believed that the electrical ... Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS), also referred to as posterior tibial nerve stimulation, is the least invasive ... Doggweiler R (November 2010). "Will posterior tibial nerve stimulation replace sacral nerve root stimulation as the salvage ... "Stoller Afferent Nerve Stimulator" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 July 2023. Govier FE, Litwiller S, Nitti V, ...
Huang CC, Chu CC, Pang CY, Wei YH (February 1999). "Tissue mosaicism in the skeletal muscle and sural nerve biopsies in the ...
Its nerve supply is from the sural nerve and to a lesser degree from the tibial nerve. Diagnosis is based on symptoms and ... Surgery complications include leg clots, nerve damage, infection, and clots in the lungs. The most common problem after non- ...
The sural nerve accompanies the small saphenous vein as it descends in the posterior leg, traveling inferolateral to it as it ... "Locating the sural nerve during calcaneal (Achilles) tendon repair with confidence: a cadaveric study with clinical ... This tests the S1 and S2 spinal nerves: a normal response is plantar flexion (downward movement) of the foot. Level or portion ... Both muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve. Because the fibres of the tendon spiral about 90 degrees, fibres from the ...
A commonly used nerve for autotransplantation is the sural nerve in the upper leg. Unfortunately, this treatment does have some ... Golden standard therapy for transected nerves is an end-to-end repair of the nerve, also known as primary nerve repair. With a ... Another option to bridge the gap is nerve allotransplantation. Nerve allografts are prepared from donated human nerve tissue. ... the blood flow to the nerve decreases, which can eventually lead to ischemia and nerve damage. The gap between the nerve ends ...
A major structure that is located between the lateral malleolus and the Achilles tendon is the sural nerve. A bimalleolar ... Tibialis posterior tendon Flexor digitorum longus Posterior tibial artery Posterior tibial vein Tibial nerve Flexor hallucis ...
Examination of tissue biopsied from the sural nerve under a microscope can reveal the presence of polyglucosan bodies. There ... Damage to the nerves that control bladder function (neurogenic bladder) causes progressive difficulty in controlling the flow ...
Watts, RL; Mandir, AS; Bakay, RAE (1995). "Intrastriatal cografts of autologous adrenal medulla and sural nerve in MPTP-induced ... "Effect of stereotaxic intrastriatal cografts of autologous adrenal medulla and peripheral nerve in Parkinson's disease: 2 year ...
The sural or saphenous nerve as cross facial nerve graft is coapted to this unaffected branch of the facial nerve and tunnelled ... Optional motor donor nerves are: the masseteric nerve, accessory nerve or hypoglossal nerve. In rare cases when these nerves ... Mostly the great auricular nerve or sural nerve is used as a graft between the two facial nerve stumps. In more long standing ... This usually is the great auricular nerve or sural nerve. These hypoglossal- or masseteric-facial nerve anastomosis using a ' ...
Biopsies of severely affected sural nerve (short saphenous nerve) in patients with HSAN I showed evidence of neuronal ... The diagnosis is also supported by additional tests, such as nerve conduction studies in the lower limbs to confirm a sensory ... Nerve. 23 (10): 1508-14. doi:10.1002/1097-4598(200010)23:10. 3.0.co;2-d. PMID 11003785. S2CID 33666621. Dawkins, JL; Hulme, DJ ... in the lower limbs due to damage to or dysfunction of the nerves. The vast majority of HSP-associated mutations are missense ...
... the former being supplied by the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve from the sural nerve, and the latter by the medial branch of ... and communicates with the sural nerve. The branches of the superficial peroneal nerve supply the skin of the dorsal surfaces of ... and their places are then taken by branches of the sural nerve. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page ... The intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve (external dorsal cutaneous branch), the smaller, passes along the lateral part of the ...
... sural nerve and lesser saphenous vein (which might be ligated), and branches of the superficial peroneal nerve; Proceeding ... Another complication is superficial peroneal nerve distribution sensation reduction. Generalized ligaments laxity may also ...
... are branches of the intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve, medial dorsal cutaneous nerve, sural ... The lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve from the sural nerve turns into a dorsal digital nerve and supplies the lateral side of the ... Dorsal digital nerves of foot.Deep dissection. Common plantar digital nerves of medial plantar nerve Mischitz, Madeleine; ... The dorsal digital nerves of the foot may be compressed by the transverse metatarsal ligament. This causes Morton's neuroma, ...
sural communicating nerve - it runs on the posterolateral aspect of the calf and joins the sural nerve. Superior lateral ... nerve Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Common fibular (peroneal) nerve Deep fibular nerve Superficial fibular nerve Peroneal ... It gives the sural communicating nerve which joins the sural nerve in the midcalf. Chronic fibular (peroneal) neuropathy can ... The common fibular nerve (also known as the common peroneal nerve, external popliteal nerve, or lateral popliteal nerve) is a ...
... may refer to: Lateral calcaneal branches of sural nerve Medial calcaneal branches of the tibial nerve This ...
... posterior division of the medial cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, and medial sural cutaneous nerve. the ... tibial nerve common fibular nerve (also known as the common peroneal nerve) popliteal vein popliteal artery, a continuation of ... Nerves of the right lower extremity Posterior view. Muscles of thigh. Lateral view. Hamstring Buckenmaier III C; Bleckner L ( ... This contains the small saphenous vein, the terminal branch of the posterior cutaneous nerve of the thigh, ...
The nerves contributing to the formation of the sural nerve (medial sural cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, sural ... the sural communicating branch joins the medial sural cutaneous nerve to become the sural nerve. Type 1 and 2 sural nerve ... The sural nerve terminates as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve. The sural nerve (L4-S1) is a cutaneous sensory nerve of the ... sural nerve size, and location of the sural nerve union. Anatomists limit the name of the sural nerve from its origins after an ...
The regional sural nerve block allows for rapid anesthetization of the posterolateral calf and laterodorsal foot, including ... Understanding the arborization of the sural nerve is crucial to a regional block of this nerve. The sural nerve has a ... Ultrasound-Guided Nerve Block. Ultrasound of Sural Nerve. The use of ultrasound allows for direct visualization of the sural ... encoded search term (Sural Nerve Block) and Sural Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ...
The regional sural nerve block allows for rapid anesthetization of the posterolateral calf and laterodorsal foot, including ... Understanding the arborization of the sural nerve is crucial to a regional block of this nerve. The sural nerve has a ... encoded search term (Sural Nerve Block) and Sural Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ... The contribution from the tibial nerve is the medial sural cutaneous nerve; the common peroneal nerves contribution is the ...
The regional sural nerve block allows for rapid anesthetization of the posterolateral calf and laterodorsal foot, including ... Understanding the arborization of the sural nerve is crucial to a regional block of this nerve. The sural nerve has a ... encoded search term (Sural Nerve Block) and Sural Nerve Block What to Read Next on Medscape ... The contribution from the tibial nerve is the medial sural cutaneous nerve; the common peroneal nerves contribution is the ...
Sural nerve harvest - no big deal, right?. I wanted to write something about sural nerve harvest because it is something I ... and the posterior interosseous nerve in the wrist) instead of (or in addition to) the sural nerve. The sural nerve tends to be ... to replicate the thickness of the nerve we are replacing.. How is the sural nerve harvested? The nerve is identified through ... After the sural nerve is cleared from the surrounding tissue, the nerve is cut, removed from the body, and prepared for ...
Clinical, genetic, electrophysiological, and nerve biopsy studies. II. Observations on pathological changes in sural nerve ... Histological findings in sural nerves. Brain. 1977 Mar. 100 Pt 1:67-85. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Human nerve pathology caused by different mutational mechanisms of the PMP22 gene. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1999 Sep 14. 883:336-43. [ ... Nerve excitability properties in Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Brain. 2004 Jan. 127:203-11. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination. ... A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination. ... A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle called the sural nerve. Other sites may be used, depending on the ... Nerve biopsy is usually done to look for inflammation that could be damaging the nerve. Conditions for which the test may be ...
Left sural nerve: calf-posterior ankle. Absent. Absent. Right sural nerve: calf-posterior ankle. 4.225 (reference ≥6). 37 ( ... Left superficial fibular nerve: lateral calf-lateral ankle. Absent. Absent. Right superficial fibular nerve: lateral calf- ... Antidromic sensory nerve conduction studies on a patient with rhabdomyolosis after severe acute respiratory syndrome ...
A-F, Electron micrographs of transverse sections of adult mouse sural nerve (10 weeks of age). A, C, E, Sural nerves of Nrg1f/f ... The sural nerve was chosen for electron microscopic analysis as it is a cutaneous sensory nerve and consequently is enriched in ... Sural nerves were dissected and a 5 mm length taken as it reaches the gastrocnemius muscle. Nerves were postfixed in 3% ... B, D, F, Sural nerves of Nrg1f/f;Nav1.8-Cre mice. Magnification: A, B, 15,000×; C, D, 25,000×; E, F, 60,000×. A-D, Note the ...
sural nerve. Top expressed in. *epithelium of stomach. *pyloric antrum. *mucous cell of stomach ...
... and reduced sural nerve sensory action potential (SNAP) amplitudes to less than 10 mV. Sural nerve sensory responses can be ... Sural nerve biopsy findings were similar in father and son. Semithin cross-sections of nerve showed a reduction of myelinated ... the ulnar nerves at the elbows, the right radial nerve at the spiral groove, and the right peroneal nerve at the fibular head. ... Light microscopy of sural nerve biopsies from patients with a PMP22 gene region duplication reveal normal epineurium and ...
Selective block of A fibre conduction by tetrodotoxin in rabbit sural nerve. Journal of Physiology. 536.P, 39P-40P ... The effects of naloxone on spinal neurones with an excitatory input from the sural nerve in the decerebrated and spinalized ... Tetrodotoxin block of A-fibre conduction and its effect on reflex responses evoked by electrical stimulation of the sural nerve ... Temporal summation in reflexes evoked by selective stimulation of sural nerve C-fibres in the decerebrated rabbit Pflugers ...
A limited number of other tissues (sural/sciatic nerve, GI tract, skin, etc.) are also available. ...
Sural nerve biopsy on day 63 revealed a few altered myelinated fibres. Aspects of axon and myelin degeneration were also found ... 6-10 nerve fibres affected), 3 = marked (11-15 nerve fibres affected), and 4 = severe change (, 20 nerve fibres affected). a ... Other tissues examined were the trigeminal ganglion and nerve, pituitary, eyes (retina and optic nerve), spinal cord (cervical ... No evidence of delayed neurotoxicity or histopathological changes in nerves of hens (10 mg/kg bw per day) and rats (15 mg/kg bw ...
... in sural nerves or plantar nerves of DSPN patients might be a primary finding [47,48]. Electrophysiological analysis, which ... Dyck, P.J.; Lais, A.; Karnes, J.L.; OBrien, P.; Rizza, R. Fiber loss is primary and multifocal in sural nerves in diabetic ... Muscle Nerve 2010, 42, 157-164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]. *Chen, X.; Graham, J.; Dabbah, M.A.; Petropoulos, ... Li, L.; Liu, B.; Lu, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Shen, Y.; Wang, C.; Jia, W. Serum albumin is associated with peripheral nerve ...
Pacinian corpuscles or sural nerves were biopsied at intervals. Animals were killed and central and peripheral nervous system ... A few Pacinian corpuscles were found at biopsy but no pathological changes were found in sural nerve biopsies. The animal ... Nerves treated with acrylamide remained intact although nerve fibers treated with iodoacetic-acid degenerated completely. The ... After 5 days animals were killed and sciatic nerves were examined. Similar applications were made to nerves with iodoacetic- ...
The NC-stat DPNCheck device measures sural nerve conduction velocity and amplitude which are recognized early and quantitative ... technology to the focused evaluation of the sural nerve. In tandem, the development effort resulted in substantial cost ... The company develops and markets innovative products for the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of peripheral nerve disorders ...
The results of median sensory-motor, sural sensory and post-tibial motor nerve conduction studies were normal. Blood count, ... There was no objective sensory finding and no cranial nerve lesions. Electromyography demonstrated impairment of bilateral ... peroneal nerve function: evoked amplitude was markedly reduced, with slight slowing of nerve conduction velocity. ...
... and borderline reduced right sural sensory nerve conduction velocity. Prolonged bilateral blink responses were also noted. ... Nerve conduction studies (NCS) demonstrated reduced right ulnar and peroneal compound muscle action potential amplitudes, ... T. Nakane, H. Nakamae, T. Muro et al., "Cardiac and autonomic nerve function after reduced-intensity stem cell transplantation ... reduced right ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity, prolonged right peroneal motor distal latency, ...
... and sural nerve conduction studies. Results: Seventy subjects completed up to 24-weeks of follow-up (24 non-T2DM, 29 pre-DM and ...
... pars sternocleidomastoideus of the accessory nerve to the axillary nerve through approx. 14 cm sural nerve graft and ... PM-pectoral nerves; MCN-musculocutaneous nerve; UN-ulnar nerve; MN-median nerve; PIN-posterior interosseous nerve. ... 12 cm sural nerve graft was performed. Another NT of the accessory to the suprascapular nerve [21] was performed to reanimate ... Example (nerves): Pct-BB (PM-MCN). Proximal-Distal*. Example: TB-ECRB/L. Proximal-Distal. Example (nerves): FCU/FDP4-5-BB (UN- ...
... myelin debris and ovoids were found upon examination of teased sural nerve fibres. At 750 ppm in females, teased nerve fibres ... demyelination of nerve fibres associated with the posterior thigh muscle and myelin ovoids in teased nerve fibres. Additional ...
Right median (F2), ulnar (F5) , radial and bilateral sural sensory nerves showed normal peak latencies, SNAP amplitudes and ... Electromyography and Nerve conduction Report. Interpretation: Limb temperature was 35.0 degree centigrade .left median (APB)and ... Right peroneal (EDB)motor nerve showed normal distal latency, CMAP amplitude and conduction velocity with normal minimal F wave ... Left posterior tibial motor nerve showed normal distal latency, CMAP amplitude and conduction velocity with normal minimal F ...
Accompanying these venous structures are several cutaneous nerves, including the sural nerve posteriorly, the saphenous nerve ... the dorsal digital branch of the deep peroneal nerve is visible emerging to supply the skin between the first two pedal digits ... medially, and the superficial peroneal nerve anteriorly. On the dorsum of the foot, and lateral to the tendon of the extensor ...
Sciatic nerves +. Sural nerves +. Tibial nerves +. Peroneal nerves +. Optic nerves. Eyes. Skeletal muscle ( ... Sciatic nerves (mid-thigh region and at sciatic notch), Sural nerves, Tibial nerves, Peroneal nerves, Forelimbs, Tail. Other ... Sciatic nerves (mid-thigh region and at sciatic notch), Sural nerves, Tibial nerves, Peroneal nerves, Forelimbs (preserved for ... Digestion chambers were noted in the sciatic nerve for both the male and the female and in the peroneal nerve for the female. ...
... and nerve conduction was measured at the peroneal motor nerve, sural sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory and motor nerves. Well ... One or more nerve conduction velocities were abnormal in 13 subjects, but nerve velocity measurements were not related to ... Only one subject, a diabetic, had both abnormal nerve velocities and signs of neuropathy. The authors conclude that nerve ... The effects of arsenic (7440382) on nerve conduction velocities were studied in Alaskan residents with naturally contaminated ...
... which has proven to be effective in minimizing sural nerve injury and wound dehiscence in open reduction internal fixation of ...
Sural Nerve Neuritis in athletes Narrative: The author discusses sural nerve dysfunction seen in athletes. Professional Applied ... Indexing terms: Chiropractic; Professional Applied Kinesiology; Sural Nerve Neuritis, Sural Nerve Entrapment ... Sural Nerve Neuritis in athletes. Asia-Pac Chiropr J. 2023;4.2. URL apcj.net/ak-proceedings-papers/#StarkSuralNerveNeuritis ... methods for diagnoses of sural nerve problems are presented based on the authors experience. ...
Please submit one 20 mm long specimen of the sural nerve for full interpretation. ... Place nerve biopsy in moist gauze and put it in a specimen cup. Dont SOAK or float the specimen in saline. Too much saline ... Nerve Biopsy Procedure and handling:. *Relative contraindications to having a muscle biopsy such as a hypocoagulable state are ...
  • The sural nerve originates from a combination of either the sural communicating branch and medial sural cutaneous nerve, or the lateral sural cutaneous nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Formation of the sural nerve is the result of either anastomosis of the medial sural cutaneous nerve and the sural communicating nerve, or it may be found as a continuation of the lateral sural cutaneous nerve traveling parallel to the medial sural cutaneous nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nerves contributing to the formation of the sural nerve (medial sural cutaneous nerve, lateral sural cutaneous nerve, sural communicating nerve) are deemed the sural nerve complex by some anatomists and surgeons. (wikipedia.org)
  • the sural communicating branch joins the medial sural cutaneous nerve to become the sural nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anatomists limit the name of the sural nerve from its origins after an anastomosis of the SCB (type 1) and medial sural cutaneous nerve or we name it for when it penetrates out of the deep fascia of the posterior sura. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nerve grafts can be harvested from other sources (such as the saphenous nerve in the thigh, the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve around the elbow, and the posterior interosseous nerve in the wrist) instead of (or in addition to) the sural nerve. (wustl.edu)
  • it appears at the medial margin of the Psoas major and runs downward over the pelvic brim to join the first sacral nerve. (theodora.com)
  • among the different recipient pedicles described for around the knee and proximal leg defects, the medial sural artery can provide an additional length of pedicle that aids in gaining the effective length of the flap to attain the distal most reach possible, without a need for vein grafts. (thieme-connect.de)
  • The medial sural artery is perhaps less frequently used as a recipient pedicle. (thieme-connect.de)
  • The sural nerve terminates as the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • When testing for deficits understand that often multiple nerves (lateral calcaneal nerve, sural nerve, and lateral dorsal cutaneous nerves of the foot) provide a complicated marriage of converging sensorium around the lower extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • once around the lateral malleolus the name of the nerve changes to the lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regional sural nerve block allows for rapid anesthetization of the posterolateral calf and laterodorsal foot, including part of the dorsal fifth digit. (medscape.com)
  • Entering the foot posterior to the lateral malleolus, this nerve supplies the lateral aspect of the foot, including the lateral fifth digit, via the lateral dorsal cutaneus nerve. (medscape.com)
  • Objectives: Dorsal sural nerve conduction studies (NCS) may increase the sensitivity for the diagnosis of polyneuropathy, but clinical use is limited by a lack of reliable normative reference values in all age-groups. (regsj.dk)
  • The aim of our study was to develop reference values for the dorsal sural nerve, based on a large multicenter cohort of healthy subjects. (regsj.dk)
  • Conclusions: Dorsal sural nerve NCS are robust and have well defined normative limits. (regsj.dk)
  • Udforsk hvilke forskningsemner 'Normative reference values for the dorsal sural nerve derived from a large multicenter cohort' indeholder. (regsj.dk)
  • Reference limits were e (3.712515 - 0.0000956 * age2 - 0.0115883 * height ± 1.96 * 0.51137) for amplitude and e (4.354374 - 0.0021081 * age - 0.0023354 * height ± 1.96 * 0.11161) for CV.Conclusions: Dorsal sural nerve NCS are robust and have well defined normative limits.Significance: The findings provide a basis for more sensitive NCS in clinical practice and future studies of the diagnostic accuracy of NCS in polyneuropathy. (regsj.dk)
  • The Superior Gluteal Nerve ( n. glutæus superior ) arises from the dorsal divisions of the fourth and fifth lumbar and first sacral nerves: it leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen above the Piriformis, accompanied by the superior gluteal vessels, and divides into a superior and an inferior branch. (theodora.com)
  • On the dorsum of the foot, and lateral to the tendon of the extensor hallucis longus muscle passing over the first metatarsal towards the hallux, the dorsal digital branch of the deep peroneal nerve is visible emerging to supply the skin between the first two pedal digits. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • This nerve is part of the sciatic nerve sensorium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sural nerve has a contribution from both the tibial nerve and the common peroneal nerve, each of which originates from the sciatic nerve. (medscape.com)
  • The nerves forming the sacral plexus converge toward the lower part of the greater sciatic foramen, and unite to form a flattened band, from the anterior and posterior surfaces of which several branches arise. (theodora.com)
  • A limited number of other tissues (sural/sciatic nerve, GI tract, skin, etc.) are also available. (cdc.gov)
  • Acrylamide was applied to exposed sciatic nerves in concentrations of 320, 180, and 160mg per milliliter for 45 minutes. (cdc.gov)
  • After 5 days animals were killed and sciatic nerves were examined. (cdc.gov)
  • The areas to anesthetize include a line along the anterior ankle for the superficial peroneal nerve (blue line), the deep peroneal nerve (red star), the saphenous nerve (pink star), the sural nerve (green arrow), and the posterior tibial nerve (orange arrow). (medscape.com)
  • Accompanying these venous structures are several cutaneous nerves, including the sural nerve posteriorly, the saphenous nerve medially, and the superficial peroneal nerve anteriorly. (anatomywarehouse.com)
  • the sural nerve is the most frequently accessed donor nerve site for peripheral nerve grafting and serves as the primary diagnostic site for nerve conduction studies for understanding of peripheral nerve pathologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Christopher Dy, MD, the author of this blog, is an orthopedic hand surgeon at Washington University in St. Louis specializing in hand and wrist surgery, peripheral nerve surgery and brachial plexus surgery. (wustl.edu)
  • Now a large and ever increasing number of genetic subtypes has been described, and major advances in molecular and cellular biology have clarified the understanding of the role of different proteins in the physiology of peripheral nerve conduction in health and in disease. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -To assess the relevance of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the maintenance of peripheral nerve integrity in diabetic neuropathy we have assessed the expression of VEGF and intra-epidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD) in skin biopsy samples from diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The company develops and markets innovative products for the detection, diagnosis, and monitoring of peripheral nerve disorders such as those associated with diabetes and carpal tunnel syndrome. (businesswire.com)
  • The NC-stat DPNCheck device measures sural nerve conduction velocity and amplitude which are recognized early and quantitative biomarkers for DPN. (businesswire.com)
  • Electromyography demonstrated impairment of bilateral peroneal nerve function: evoked amplitude was markedly reduced, with slight slowing of nerve conduction velocity. (who.int)
  • Left posterior tibial motor nerve showed normal distal latency, CMAP amplitude and conduction velocity with normal minimal F wave latency and waveform. (alsforums.com)
  • Left peroneal (EDB) motor nerve showed prolonged distal latencies, low CMAP amplitude and slow conduction velocity with not recordable F wave latency. (alsforums.com)
  • The patient nerve conduction velocity. (who.int)
  • The sural nerve (L4-S1) is generally considered a pure cutaneous nerve of the posterolateral leg to the lateral ankle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sural nerve specifically innervates cutaneous sensorium over the posterolateral leg and lower lateral ankle via lateral calcaneal branches. (wikipedia.org)
  • It only provides autonomic and sensory nerve fibers to the skin of the posterolateral leg and ankle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sural nerve is also a source for iatrogenic injuries during orthopedic interventions of the lower ankle and extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • [ 5 ] Because the sural nerve is relatively superficial, it is easily blocked at multiple levels at or above the ankle. (medscape.com)
  • A combination of posterior tibial , saphenous , superficial peroneal , deep peroneal, and sural nerve blocks results in complete block of sensory perception beneath the ankle (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • This block requires anesthetization of 5 nerves for complete sensory block below the ankle. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve is identified near the ankle level and traced up to the knee level. (wustl.edu)
  • A nerve biopsy is most often done on a nerve in the ankle called the sural nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • the common peroneal nerve's contribution is the sural communicating branch. (medscape.com)
  • Intramuscular administration of an engineered zinc finger transcription factor, which activates transcription of all major VEGF-A isoforms, improved sensory and motor nerve conduction velocities ( 4 ) and yielded a positive indication in a phase 1 clinical trial ( 5 ) for establishing a larger phase 2 trial with additional end points including IENF assessment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Subjects were examined for neuropathy, and nerve conduction was measured at the peroneal motor nerve, sural sensory nerve, and ulnar sensory and motor nerves. (cdc.gov)
  • Selecting the appropriate nerve transfer strategy (when the donor pool is narrowing), with its potential impact on the already complex and intricate global and segmental biomechanics of the upper extremity, becomes challenging. (intechopen.com)
  • Among such cases are major and severe upper extremity trauma, flexor tendon injuries, lesions to major nerve trunks and the brachial plexus as well as injuries requiring microvascular reconstruction. (lu.se)
  • Numbness: The sural nerve's normal function is to provide sensation to the back of the calf and the outer border of the foot (area seen in purple). (wustl.edu)
  • Group 1 was characterized by slow nerve conduction velocities and evidence of hypertrophic demyelinating neuropathy. (medscape.com)
  • In the late 1960s, neurophysiologic testing allowed the classification of CMT into 2 groups, one with slow nerve conduction velocities and histologic features of a hypertrophic demyelinating neuropathy (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 1 or CMT1) and another with relatively normal velocities and axonal and neuronal degeneration (hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type 2 or CMT2). (medscape.com)
  • In fact, because the nerve is so accessible, sural nerve biopsy specimens have been used to study inflammatory demyelinating peripheral neuropathies. (medscape.com)
  • A nerve biopsy is the removal of a small piece of a nerve for examination. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nerve biopsy is usually done to look for inflammation that could be damaging the nerve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nerve biopsy is invasive and is useful only in certain situations. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A few Pacinian corpuscles were found at biopsy but no pathological changes were found in sural nerve biopsies. (cdc.gov)
  • Place nerve biopsy in moist gauze and put it in a specimen cup. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • Limb temperature was 35.0 degree centigrade .left median (APB)and ulnar (ADQ) motor nerves showed normal distal latencies , CMAP amplitudes and conduction velocities along with normal minimal F wave latencies and waveforms. (alsforums.com)
  • Recently herpes simplex virus vector-mediated VEGF prevented a reduction in sensory nerve amplitude and loss of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs) ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These fibers originate from perikaryon located in the spinal ganglia and travel via the lumbosacral plexus via nerve roots L4-S1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sural nerve tends to be many surgeons' preferred choice (including mine) because it has the highest percentage of nerve fibers (fascicles), a lot of graft can be harvested (up to 35-40cm), and the downsides seem to be tolerated well. (wustl.edu)
  • Nerves treated with acrylamide remained intact although nerve fibers treated with iodoacetic-acid degenerated completely. (cdc.gov)
  • The author concludes that since acrylamide did not damage nerve fibers, it may act at another locus to produce damage seen in animals treated at higher concentrations. (cdc.gov)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Progressive endothelial dysfunction, a reduction in VEGF expression, and loss of intra-epidermal nerve fibers occurs in the foot skin of diabetic patients with increasing neuropathic severity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This is not surprising given the strong evidence for interaction between myelin and axon gene expression in development and after experimental nerve lesions. (medscape.com)
  • There was no objective sensory finding and no cranial nerve lesions. (who.int)
  • There was no objective sensory increased to 23 kg/m², he recovered finding and no cranial nerve lesions. (who.int)
  • Once formed the sural nerve takes its course midline posterior to posterolateral around the lateral malleolus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior division of the third sacral nerve divides into an upper and a lower branch, the former entering the sacral and the latter the pudendal plexus. (theodora.com)
  • In the mid 1970s, Bradley, Davis, and Madrid performed a similar study to those performed by Dyck and Lambert, Thomas and Calne, and Buchthal and Behse, and proposed a CMT classification that included an intermediate group characterized by median motor nerve conduction velocities of 25-45 m/sec and intermediate pathological changes. (medscape.com)
  • The results of median sensory-motor, sural sensory and post-tibial motor nerve conduction studies were normal. (who.int)
  • The results antituberculosis pharmacotherapy is had no history of immunodeficiency, of median sensory-motor, sural sen- relatively uncommon, although the fre- no diabetes, no renal failure, no hepatic sory and post-tibial motor nerve con- quency of the usage of antituberculosis failure, no HIV infection and he was a duction studies were normal. (who.int)
  • The objective of this study was to define the indications and technique of the use of the sural vessels as the recipient pedicle for proximal and middle third leg defects. (thieme-connect.de)
  • It includes the cranial nerves and spinal nerves from their origin to their end. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some disorders can also affect cranial nerves. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The sural nerve (L4-S1) is a cutaneous sensory nerve of the posterolateral calf with cutaneous innervation to the distal one-third of the lower leg. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two contributions come together to form the sural nerve, which arises in the popliteal fossa and courses superficially after piercing the deep fascia in the posterior calf (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The Nerve to the Obturator Internus and Gemellus Superior arises from the ventral divisions of the fifth lumbar and first and second sacral nerves. (theodora.com)
  • Starting in the 1950s, the clinical use of nerve conduction studies combined with pathological information allowed patients to be divided into 2 major groups. (medscape.com)
  • The sural nerve then travels out of deep fascia to the subcutaneous posterior sura. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sural nerve as it travels down the posterior calf. (medscape.com)
  • One of the biggest issues with the allograft is that the process to make the allograft non-reactive and non-infectious removes some of the cells that promote nerve regeneration (Schwann cells). (wustl.edu)
  • Intervention 1: Intervention group: In this group, patients' stem cells were isolated by bone marrow aspiration from the patient or allograft stem cells from the umbilical cord, and Schwann cells were extracted by removing part of the sural nerve. (who.int)
  • Patients and Methods For the period 2006 to 2022, 18 leg defects following road traffic accidents were covered with latissimus dorsi muscle flap using sural vessels as the recipient pedicle. (thieme-connect.de)
  • The sural nerve continues down the posterior calf and supplies the skin of the posterolateral lower third of the lower leg. (medscape.com)
  • Sural nerve dermatome at the level of the posterior calf. (medscape.com)
  • The nerve is identified through either one long incision or a series of small incisions along the back of the calf (just behind the smaller bone in the shin - the fibula). (wustl.edu)
  • Most of the time, the near-end of the nerve retracts into the calf muscles and doesn't see much irritation since it is buried so deeply. (wustl.edu)
  • Typical symptoms of relapses may be referable to demyelinating pathology involving the optic nerves (e.g. optic neuritis), brainstem (e.g. internuclear ophthalmoplegia) or spinal cord (e.g. partial myelitis), although non-specific symptoms referable to the cerebral hemispheres or other brain regions can also occur (Katz Sand and Lublin, 2013). (medscape.com)
  • The anastomosis forming the sural nerve typically occurs in the deep fascia above or within the surrounding space above the gastrocnemius muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One or more nerve conduction velocities were abnormal in 13 subjects, but nerve velocity measurements were not related to estimated daily arsenic ingestion or arsenic concentrations in water or urine. (cdc.gov)
  • Only one subject, a diabetic, had both abnormal nerve velocities and signs of neuropathy. (cdc.gov)
  • The formation patterns of the sural nerve complex is much more complicated and highly varied as documented by anatomists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dying back patterns of nerve damage from acrylamide were studied in Sprague-Dawley-rats. (cdc.gov)
  • I wanted to write something about sural nerve harvest because it is something I discuss with patients nearly every time we are talking about treatment of nerve injuries. (wustl.edu)
  • The anterior divisions of the sacral and coccygeal nerves ( rami anteriores ) form the sacral and pudendal plexuses. (theodora.com)
  • The anterior divisions of the upper four sacral nerves enter the pelvis through the anterior sacral foramina, that of the fifth between the sacrum and coccyx, while that of the coccygeal nerve curves forward below the rudimentary transverse process of the first piece of the coccyx. (theodora.com)
  • The sacral plexus is formed by the lumbosacral trunk, the anterior division of the first, and portions of the anterior divisions of the second and third sacral nerves. (theodora.com)
  • After the sural nerve is cleared from the surrounding tissue, the nerve is cut, removed from the body, and prepared for grafting. (wustl.edu)
  • Please submit one 20 mm long specimen of the sural nerve for full interpretation. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • The superior gluteal vessels run between the lumbosacral trunk and the first sacral nerve, and the inferior gluteal vessels between the second and third sacral nerves. (theodora.com)
  • Electrodiagnostic tests should always be done to classify the nerve structures involved, distribution, and severity of the disorder and thus help identify the cause. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Type 1 and 2 sural nerve complex formation prevalence is estimated up to greater than 70%, Although the remaining types (3-8) provide difficulty in making consistent clinical approximation of this nerve in the random population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eight formations of the sural nerve complex have been described in cadaveric studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cadaver nerve graft (allograft) is another option, but the studies are still being done to show if it is "good enough" when compared to using the patient's own nerve (autograft). (wustl.edu)
  • All subjects were assessed using SudoscanTM to measure electrochemical skin conductance (ESC) of hands and feet, time and frequency domain analysis of HRV, Neurologic Impairment Scores of lower legs (NIS-LL), quantitative sensory tests (QST) and sural nerve conduction studies. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion The sural vessels as recipient pedicle are easier to access and can be considered as a reliable option for free flaps in limb defects of proximal and middle third leg. (thieme-connect.de)
  • It is frequently a site of iatrogenic nerve injury during percutaneous repair of the Achilles tendon or surgical interventions on the lower extremity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complex causative pathways for the development and progression of nerve damage are as yet not clearly established for human diabetic neuropathy ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors conclude that nerve conduction velocities are insensitive in screening for subclinical neuropathy in subjects exposed to inorganic arsenic. (cdc.gov)
  • Much time is devoted to secondary reconstructive procedures, wrist problems, nerve entrapments, congenital malformations, spastic conditions in children and Dupuytren's contracture. (lu.se)
  • The clinical research projects are related to diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, assessment of hand function and costs with emphasis on nerve injury and repair. (lu.se)
  • Very rarely, another surgery is needed to re-cut the nerve ends and bury them deep in muscle or bone. (wustl.edu)
  • Nociceptors for pain also appear to be "free nerve" endings in skin and muscle. (cdc.gov)
  • The sural nerve provides cutaneous innervation to the skin of the posterior to posterolateral leg. (wikipedia.org)