Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The active mental process of keeping out and ejecting, banishing from consciousness, ideas or impulses that are unacceptable to it.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
Genes that have a suppressor allele or suppressor mutation (SUPPRESSION, GENETIC) which cancels the effect of a previous mutation, enabling the wild-type phenotype to be maintained or partially restored. For example, amber suppressors cancel the effect of an AMBER NONSENSE MUTATION.
An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.
Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.
Interruption or suppression of the expression of a gene at transcriptional or translational levels.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins that are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. Deficiencies or abnormalities in these proteins may lead to unregulated cell growth and tumor development.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The decrease in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.
The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Proteins, protein complexes, or glycoproteins secreted by suppressor T-cells that inhibit either subsequent T-cells, B-cells, or other immunologic phenomena. Some of these factors have both histocompatibility (I-J) and antigen-specific domains which may be linked by disulfide bridges. They can be elicited by haptens or other antigens and may be mass-produced by hybridomas or monoclones in the laboratory.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Agents that suppress immune function by one of several mechanisms of action. Classical cytotoxic immunosuppressants act by inhibiting DNA synthesis. Others may act through activation of T-CELLS or by inhibiting the activation of HELPER CELLS. While immunosuppression has been brought about in the past primarily to prevent rejection of transplanted organs, new applications involving mediation of the effects of INTERLEUKINS and other CYTOKINES are emerging.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
Genes that inhibit expression of the tumorigenic phenotype. They are normally involved in holding cellular growth in check. When tumor suppressor genes are inactivated or lost, a barrier to normal proliferation is removed and unregulated growth is possible.
A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
A method to identify and enumerate cells that are synthesizing ANTIBODIES against ANTIGENS or HAPTENS conjugated to sheep RED BLOOD CELLS. The sheep red blood cells surrounding cells secreting antibody are lysed by added COMPLEMENT producing a clear zone of HEMOLYSIS. (From Illustrated Dictionary of Immunology, 3rd ed)
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
Endogenous or exogenous substances which inhibit the normal growth of human and animal cells or micro-organisms, as distinguished from those affecting plant growth (= PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS).
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.
Diseases of plants.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.
Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
4-Imidazoleacrylic acid.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
The decrease in the cell's ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs, 21-25 nucleotides in length generated from single-stranded microRNA gene transcripts by the same RIBONUCLEASE III, Dicer, that produces small interfering RNAs (RNA, SMALL INTERFERING). They become part of the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX and repress the translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of target RNA by binding to homologous 3'UTR region as an imperfect match. The small temporal RNAs (stRNAs), let-7 and lin-4, from C. elegans, are the first 2 miRNAs discovered, and are from a class of miRNAs involved in developmental timing.
Transplantation between animals of different species.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.

The Drosophila kismet gene is related to chromatin-remodeling factors and is required for both segmentation and segment identity. (1/2958)

The Drosophila kismet gene was identified in a screen for dominant suppressors of Polycomb, a repressor of homeotic genes. Here we show that kismet mutations suppress the Polycomb mutant phenotype by blocking the ectopic transcription of homeotic genes. Loss of zygotic kismet function causes homeotic transformations similar to those associated with loss-of-function mutations in the homeotic genes Sex combs reduced and Abdominal-B. kismet is also required for proper larval body segmentation. Loss of maternal kismet function causes segmentation defects similar to those caused by mutations in the pair-rule gene even-skipped. The kismet gene encodes several large nuclear proteins that are ubiquitously expressed along the anterior-posterior axis. The Kismet proteins contain a domain conserved in the trithorax group protein Brahma and related chromatin-remodeling factors, providing further evidence that alterations in chromatin structure are required to maintain the spatially restricted patterns of homeotic gene transcription.  (+info)

Splicing factor Prp8 governs U4/U6 RNA unwinding during activation of the spliceosome. (2/2958)

The pre-mRNA 5' splice site is recognized by the ACAGA box of U6 spliceosomal RNA prior to catalysis of splicing. We previously identified a mutant U4 spliceosomal RNA, U4-cs1, that masks the ACAGA box in the U4/U6 complex, thus conferring a cold-sensitive splicing phenotype in vivo. Here, we show that U4-cs1 blocks in vitro splicing in a temperature-dependent, reversible manner. Analysis of splicing complexes that accumulate at low temperature shows that U4-cs1 prevents U4/U6 unwinding, an essential step in spliceosome activation. A novel mutation in the evolutionarily conserved U5 snRNP protein Prp8 suppresses the U4-cs1 growth defect. We propose that wild-type Prp8 triggers unwinding of U4 and U6 RNAs only after structurally correct recognition of the 5' splice site by the U6 ACAGA box and that the mutation (prp8-201) relaxes control of unwinding.  (+info)

Role of ribosome release in regulation of tna operon expression in Escherichia coli. (3/2958)

Expression of the degradative tryptophanase (tna) operon of Escherichia coli is regulated by catabolite repression and tryptophan-induced transcription antitermination. In cultures growing in the absence of added tryptophan, transcription of the structural genes of the tna operon is limited by Rho-dependent transcription termination in the leader region of the operon. Tryptophan induction prevents this Rho-dependent termination, and requires in-frame translation of a 24-residue leader peptide coding region, tnaC, that contains a single, crucial, Trp codon. Studies with a lacZ reporter construct lacking the spacer region between tnaC and the first major structural gene, tnaA, suggested that tryptophan induction might involve cis action by the TnaC leader peptide on the ribosome translating the tnaC coding region. The leader peptide was hypothesized to inhibit ribosome release at the tnaC stop codon, thereby blocking Rho's access to the transcript. Regulatory studies with deletion constructs of the tna operon of Proteus vulgaris supported this interpretation. In the present study the putative role of the tnaC stop codon in tna operon regulation in E. coli was examined further by replacing the natural tnaC stop codon, UGA, with UAG or UAA in a tnaC-stop codon-tnaA'-'lacZ reporter construct. Basal level expression was reduced to 20 and 50% when the UGA stop codon was replaced by UAG or UAA, respectively, consistent with the finding that in E. coli translation terminates more efficiently at UAG and UAA than at UGA. Tryptophan induction was observed in strains with any of the stop codons. However, when UAG or UAA replaced UGA, the induced level of expression was also reduced to 15 and 50% of that obtained with UGA as the tnaC stop codon, respectively. Introduction of a mutant allele encoding a temperature-sensitive release factor 1, prfA1, increased basal level expression 60-fold when the tnaC stop codon was UAG and 3-fold when this stop codon was UAA; basal level expression was reduced by 50% in the construct with the natural stop codon, UGA. In strains with any of the three stop codons and the prfA1 mutation, the induced levels of tna operon expression were virtually identical. The effects of tnaC stop codon identity on expression were also examined in the absence of Rho action, using tnaC-stop codon-'lacZ constructs that lack the tnaC-tnaA spacer region. Expression was low in the absence of tnaC stop codon suppression. In most cases, tryptophan addition resulted in about 50% inhibition of expression when UGA was replaced by UAG or UAA and the appropriate suppressor was present. Introduction of the prfA1 mutant allele increased expression of the suppressed construct with the UAG stop codon; tryptophan addition also resulted in ca. 50% inhibition. These findings provide additional evidence implicating the behavior of the ribosome translating tnaC in the regulation of tna operon expression.  (+info)

Identification of RNase T as a high-copy suppressor of the UV sensitivity associated with single-strand DNA exonuclease deficiency in Escherichia coli. (4/2958)

There are three known single-strand DNA-specific exonucleases in Escherichia coli: RecJ, exonuclease I (ExoI), and exonuclease VII (ExoVII). E. coli that are deficient in all three exonucleases are abnormally sensitive to UV irradiation, most likely because of their inability to repair lesions that block replication. We have performed an iterative screen to uncover genes capable of ameliorating the UV repair defect of xonA (ExoI-) xseA (ExoVII-) recJ triple mutants. In this screen, exonuclease-deficient cells were transformed with a high-copy E. coli genomic library and then irradiated; plasmids harvested from surviving cells were used to seed subsequent rounds of transformation and selection. After several rounds of selection, multiple plasmids containing the rnt gene, which encodes RNase T, were found. An rnt plasmid increased the UV resistance of a xonA xseA recJ mutant and uvrA and uvrC mutants; however, it did not alter the survival of xseA recJ or recA mutants. RNase T also has amino acid sequence similarity to other 3' DNA exonucleases, including ExoI. These results suggest that RNase T may possess a 3' DNase activity capable of substituting for ExoI in the recombinational repair of UV-induced lesions.  (+info)

Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae through a balance of distinct arrest and proliferative functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. (5/2958)

In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mating pheromones activate two MAP kinases (MAPKs), Fus3p and Kss1p, to induce G1 arrest prior to mating. Fus3p is known to promote G1 arrest by activating Far1p, which inhibits three Clnp/Cdc28p kinases. To analyze the contribution of Fus3p and Kss1p to G1 arrest that is independent of Far1p, we constructed far1 CLN strains that undergo G1 arrest from increased activation of the mating MAP kinase pathway. We find that Fus3p and Kss1p both control G1 arrest through multiple functions that operate in parallel with Far1p. Fus3p and Kss1p together promote G1 arrest by repressing transcription of G1/S cyclin genes (CLN1, CLN2, CLB5) by a mechanism that blocks their activation by Cln3p/Cdc28p kinase. In addition, Fus3p and Kss1p counteract G1 arrest through overlapping and distinct functions. Fus3p and Kss1p together increase the expression of CLN3 and PCL2 genes that promote budding, and Kss1p inhibits the MAP kinase cascade. Strikingly, Fus3p promotes proliferation by a novel function that is not linked to reduced Ste12p activity or increased levels of Cln2p/Cdc28p kinase. Genetic analysis suggests that Fus3p promotes proliferation through activation of Mcm1p transcription factor that upregulates numerous genes in G1 phase. Thus, Fus3p and Kss1p control G1 arrest through a balance of arrest functions that inhibit the Cdc28p machinery and proliferative functions that bypass this inhibition.  (+info)

Evolution of the RECQ family of helicases: A drosophila homolog, Dmblm, is similar to the human bloom syndrome gene. (6/2958)

Several eukaryotic homologs of the Escherichia coli RecQ DNA helicase have been found. These include the human BLM gene, whose mutation results in Bloom syndrome, and the human WRN gene, whose mutation leads to Werner syndrome resembling premature aging. We cloned a Drosophila melanogaster homolog of the RECQ helicase family, Dmblm (Drosophila melanogaster Bloom), which encodes a putative 1487-amino-acid protein. Phylogenetic and dot plot analyses for the RECQ family, including 10 eukaryotic and 3 prokaryotic genes, indicate Dmblm is most closely related to the Homo sapiens BLM gene, suggesting functional similarity. Also, we found that Dmblm cDNA partially rescued the sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate of Saccharomyces cerevisiae sgs1 mutant, demonstrating the presence of a functional similarity between Dmblm and SGS1. Our analyses identify four possible subfamilies in the RECQ family: (1) the BLM subgroup (H. sapiens Bloom, D. melanogaster Dmblm, and Caenorhabditis elegans T04A11.6); (2) the yeast RECQ subgroup (S. cerevisiae SGS1 and Schizosaccharomyces pombe rqh1/rad12); (3) the RECQL/Q1 subgroup (H. sapiens RECQL/Q1 and C. elegans K02F3.1); and (4) the WRN subgroup (H. sapiens Werner and C. elegans F18C5.2). This result may indicate that metazoans hold at least three RECQ genes, each of which may have a different function, and that multiple RECQ genes diverged with the generation of multicellular organisms. We propose that invertebrates such as nematodes and insects are useful as model systems of human genetic diseases.  (+info)

The yeast non-Mendelian factor [ETA+] is a variant of [PSI+], a prion-like form of release factor eRF3. (7/2958)

The yeast non-Mendelian factor [ETA+] is lethal in the presence of certain mutations in the SUP35 and SUP45 genes, which code for the translational release factors eRF3 and eRF1, respectively. One such mutation, sup35-2, is now shown to contain a UAG stop codon prior to the essential region of the gene. The non-Mendelian inheritance of [ETA+] is reminiscent of the yeast [PSI+] element, which is due to a self-propagating conformation of Sup35p. Here we show that [ETA+] and [PSI+] share many characteristics. Indeed, like [PSI+], the maintenance of [ETA+] requires the N-terminal region of Sup35p and depends on an appropriate level of the chaperone protein Hsp104. Moreover, [ETA+] can be induced de novo by excess Sup35p, and [ETA+] cells have a weak nonsense suppressor phenotype characteristic of weak [PSI+]. We conclude that [ETA+] is actually a weak, unstable variant of [PSI+]. We find that although some Sup35p aggregates in [ETA+] cells, more Sup35p remains soluble in [ETA+] cells than in isogenic strong [PSI+] cells. Our data suggest that the amount of soluble Sup35p determines the strength of translational nonsense suppression associated with different [PSI+] variants.  (+info)

The JAK-binding protein JAB inhibits Janus tyrosine kinase activity through binding in the activation loop. (8/2958)

The Janus family of protein tyrosine kinases (JAKs) regulate cellular processes involved in cell growth, differentiation and transformation through their association with cytokine receptors. However, compared with other kinases, little is known about cellular regulators of the JAKs. We have recently identified a JAK-binding protein (JAB) that inhibits JAK signaling in cells. In the studies presented here we demonstrate that JAB specifically binds to the tyrosine residue (Y1007) in the activation loop of JAK2, whose phosphorylation is required for activation of kinase activity. Binding to the phosphorylated activation loop requires the JAB SH2 domain and an additional N-terminal 12 amino acids (extended SH2 subdomain) containing two residues (Ile68 and Leu75) that are conserved in JAB-related proteins. An additional N-terminal 12-amino-acid region (kinase inhibitory region) of JAB also contributes to high-affinity binding to the JAK2 tyrosine kinase domain and is required for inhibition of JAK2 signaling and kinase activity. Our studies define a novel type of regulation of tyrosine kinases and might provide a basis for the design of specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  (+info)

Francisella tularensis is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects hundreds of species including humans, and has evolved to grow efficiently within a plethora of cell types. RipA is a conserved membrane protein of F. tularensis, which is required for growth inside host cells. As a means to determine RipA function we isolated and mapped independent extragenic suppressor mutants in ∆ripA that restored growth in host cells. Each suppressor mutation mapped to one of two essential genes, lpxA or glmU, which are involved in lipid A synthesis. We repaired the suppressor mutation in lpxA (S102, LpxA T36N) and the mutation in glmU (S103, GlmU E57D), and demonstrated that each mutation was responsible for the suppressor phenotype in their respective strains. We hypothesize that the mutation in S102 altered the stability of LpxA, which can provide a clue to RipA function. LpxA is an UDP-N-acetylglucosamine acyltransferase that catalyzes the transfer of an acyl chain from acyl carrier protein (ACP) to UDP-N
The temperature-sensitive prp24-1 mutation defines a gene product required for the first step in pre-mRNA splicing. PRP24 is probably a component of the U6 snRNP particle. We have applied genetic reversion analysis to identify proteins that interact with PRP24. Spontaneous revertants of the temperature-sensitive (ts) prp24-1 phenotype were analyzed for those that are due to extragenic suppression. We then extended our analysis to screen for suppressors that confer a distinct conditional phenotype. We have identified a temperature-sensitive extragenic suppressor, which was shown by genetic complementation analysis to be allelic to prp21-1. This suppressor, prp21-2, accumulates pre-mRNA at the non-permissive temperature, a phenotype similar to that of prp21-1. prp21-2 completely suppresses the splicing defect and restores in vivo levels of the U6 snRNA in the prp24-1 strain. Genetic analysis of the suppressor showed that prp21-2 is not a bypass suppressor of prp24-1. The suppression of prp24-1 by ...
Müller glia function as retinal stem cells in adult zebrafish. In response to loss of retinal neurons, Müller glia partially dedifferentiate, re-express neuroepithelial markers and re-enter the cell cycle. We show that the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Alcama is a novel marker of multipotent retinal stem cells, including injury-induced Müller glia, and that each Müller glial cell divides asymmetrically only once to produce an Alcama-negative, proliferating retinal progenitor. The initial mitotic division of Müller glia involves interkinetic nuclear migration, but mitosis of retinal progenitors occurs in situ. Rapidly dividing retinal progenitors form neurogenic clusters tightly associated with Alcama/N-cadherin-labeled Müller glial radial processes. Genetic suppression of N-cadherin function interferes with basal migration of retinal progenitors and subsequent regeneration of HuC/D+ inner retinal neurons.. ...
Cell-based therapies are a viable option for the long-term treatment of Huntingtons disease (HD), which is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration predominately in the striatum and cortex. Current research focuses on genetic suppression of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) gene and cell replacement therapy of the lost cells in HD. As we discuss here, the recent development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells technology demonstrated the potential of cell-based therapy in rodent models. It was shown that iPSCs were capable of differentiating into lost neurons in HD and stem cell grafts can improve motor deficiency in HD rodent models. Altogether, these findings have shown great promise for developing the foundation of the cell-based therapy ...
Cell-based therapies are a viable option for the long-term treatment of Huntingtons disease (HD), which is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration predominately in the striatum and cortex. Current research focuses on genetic suppression of the mutant huntingtin (mHTT) gene and cell replacement therapy of the lost cells in HD. As we discuss here, the recent development of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells technology demonstrated the potential of cell-based therapy in rodent models. It was shown that iPSCs were capable of differentiating into lost neurons in HD and stem cell grafts can improve motor deficiency in HD rodent models. Altogether, these findings have shown great promise for developing the foundation of the cell-based therapy ...
We have constructed a high-copy-number plasmid carrying an allele of the supD gene (supD43,74). The plasmid conferred temperature-sensitive suppression of amber mutations. Strains carrying the plasmid exhibited 50 to 60% suppression at 30 degrees C but little or no suppression at 42 degrees C. After a temperature shift from 30 to 42 degrees C the efficiency of suppression decreased gradually over a 60- to 90-min period before reaching the 42 degrees C steady-state level of suppression. ...
T-DNA I contains a a codon optimised cp4 epsps expression cassette and a partial suppression cassette. The cp4 epsps expression cassette is under the regulation of FMV/Tsf1 chimeric promoter (1.039 kbp) and E9 polyadenylation sequence. The partial suppression cassette in T-DNA I contains the sense segments of the FAD2-1A intron and FATB1-A 5 UTR, including the chloroplast targeting sequence, which are under the regulation of the seed 7Sα promoter ...
Although mutations in a gene dubbed the guardian of the genome are recognized as being associated with more aggressive cancers, evidence suggests that the deleterious health effects of the mutated gene may in large part be due to other genetic abnormalities.
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4IBS: Structural studies of p53 inactivation by DNA-contact mutations and its rescue by suppressor mutations via alternative protein-DNA interactions.
4IBY: Structural studies of p53 inactivation by DNA-contact mutations and its rescue by suppressor mutations via alternative protein-DNA interactions.
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We have characterized recessive and dominant omnipotent suppressor mutations obtained by conversion of the leu2-1 UAA mutation and the met8-UAG mutation in a ψ+ strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The suppressors that act recessively upon these markers fell into two complementation groups; the sup47 and sup36 suppressors show linkage to the tyr1 locus and the aro1 locus, respectively. Of the suppressors acting dominantly upon both markers, those linked to the tyr1 locus are alleles of the SUP46 ribosomal mutation. The sup47 suppressors differ from the SUP46 suppressors not only in their suppressor activities in heterozygous diploids but also in their map positions relative to the tyr1 locus and their effects on the S11 ribosomal protein. The remaining dominant suppressors are not alleles of sup36 as judged by linkage analysis. The recessive suppressors and the dominant suppressors also differ in their effects on cell growth.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced antitumor efficacy of a herpes simplex virus mutant isolated by genetic selection in cancer cells. AU - Taneja, Samir. AU - MacGregor, Jennifer. AU - Markus, Steven. AU - Ha, Susan. AU - Mohr, Ian. PY - 2001/7/17. Y1 - 2001/7/17. N2 - Replication-competent, attenuated herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) derivatives that contain engineered mutations into the viral γ34.5 virulence gene have been used as oncolytic agents. However, as attenuated mutants often grow poorly, they may not completely destroy some tumors and surviving cancer cells simply regrow. Thus, although HSV-1 γ34.5 mutants can reduce the growth of human tumor xenografts in mice and have passed phase 1 safety studies, their efficacy is limited because they replicate poorly in many human tumor cells. Previously, we selected for a γ34.5 deletion mutant variant that regained the ability to replicate efficiently in tumor cells. Although this virus contains an extragenic suppressor mutation that confers enhanced ...
A post doctoral position is available to study the insertion of membrane proteins into the Chlamy thylakoid. The project involves the analysis and cloning of extragenic suppressor mutations that suppress the negative effect of mutations in the signal petide of cytochrome f. These supressors were isolated so as to identify the protein translocation machinery of the thylakoid. Interested persons should have experience in genetics and/or molecular biology. For more information please contact Bruce Kohorn of Duke University, Botany Dept. Durham NC, 27708. (email: kohorn at ...
Translation termination in sup mutants. Two possible events can occur when a ribosome encounters a nonsense codon in a strain with a nonsense suppressor: (1) termination of peptide elongation can occur if the appropriate release factors associate with the ribosome, or (2) an amino acid can be inserted into the growing peptide chain if the suppressor tRNA associates with the ribosome. The efficiency of suppression depends upon how well the suppressor tRNA is charged with the appropriate amino acid, the concentration of the suppressor tRNA in the cell, and the context of the nonsense codon in the mRNA -- especially the base on the 3 side of the codon (the reasons for the context effect are still poorly understood; see Bossi, 1985). In fact, UGA is misread by tRNATrp about 1-3% of the time even in wild-type cells. Although suppressor tRNAs are often inefficient, the amount of protein produced is often sufficient to repair the mutant phenotype. How do normal proteins terminate in cells with ...
Sixty independent UGA suppressors of Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. They are dominant and are divided into 16 groups (loci) by recombination. Suppressors representing these loci are divided into two classes by action spectra; four in class 1 (a broad action spectrum) and 12 in class 2 (a narrow action spectrum). Class 1 suppressors are less frequent in terms of not only total number but also number per locus than class 2 suppressors, indicating difference in either or both mutation frequency and selective pressure between suppressors of the two classes. Two of the class 1 suppressors, SUP152 and SUP161, do not recombine with SUP28 and SUP33, leucine-inserting UAA suppressors, respectively, indicating that they are mutations in genes coding for tRNA(Leu)UUA. Of the remaining two class 1 suppressors, SUP160 which causes lethality in the psi+ cytoplasm is mapped on chromosome XV very close to the centromere, and SUP165 on the right arm of chromosome XIV 44 cM distal to lys9. Of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Selection of reversions and suppressors of a mutation in the CBF binding site of a lymphomagenic retrovirus. AU - Martiney, Marita J.. AU - Rulli, Karen. AU - Beaty, Robert. AU - Levy, Laura S.. AU - Lenz, Jack. PY - 1999/8/23. Y1 - 1999/8/23. N2 - The retrovirus SL3 induces T-cell lymphomas in mice. The transcriptional enhancer in the long terminal repeat (LTR) of SL3 contains two 72-bp repeats. Each repeat contains a binding site for the transcription factor CBF (also called AML1). The CBF binding sites are called core elements. SAA is a mutant that is identical to SL3 except for the presence of a single-base-pair substitution in each of the two core elements. This mutation significantly attenuates viral lymphomagenicity. Most lymphomas that occur in SAA-infected mice contain proviruses with reversions or second-site suppressor mutations within the core element. We examined the selective pressures that might account for the predominance of the reversions and suppressor ...
The glp-1 gene product mediates cell-cell interactions required for cell fate specification during development in Caenorhabditis elegans. To identify genes that interact with glp-1, we screened for dominant suppressors of two temperature-sensitive glp-1 alleles and recovered 18 mutations that suppress both germline and embryonic glp-1 phenotypes. These dominant suppressors are tightly linked to glp-1 and do not bypass the requirement for a distal tip cell, which is thought to be the source of a signal that is received and transduced by the GLP-1 protein. Using single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and DNA sequencing, we found that at least 17 suppressors are second-site intragenic revertants. The suppressors, like the original glp-1(ts) mutations, are all located in the cdc10/SWI6/ankyrin domain of GLP-1. cdc10/SWI6/ankyrin motifs have been shown to mediate specific protein-protein interactions in other polypeptides. We propose that the glp-1(ts) mutations disrupt contact between GLP-1
The experiments described here reveal the existence of three serendipitous pathways that allow synthesis of PLP in the ΔpdxB strain when any one of seven different genes is overexpressed. The number of genes that allow complementation is surprising; most multicopy suppression experiments reveal fewer genes that can complement a strain lacking a metabolic enzyme. For example, Patrick et al (2007) found that 21 of 104 knockout strains of E. coli could be complemented by multicopy suppression using the ASKA library, but in most cases by only one or two genes. One exception, the ΔglyA strain, was complemented by four genes, one of which encodes an antisigma factor. A second unusual case was described by Miller and Raines (2004, 2005), who found that overexpression of four genes encoding glycokinases with promiscuous glucokinase activity complemented a strain lacking glucokinase. Our finding that seven different genes complement the ΔpdxB strain is, to our knowledge, the record. Furthermore, our ...
Britton, ZT, et al. (2019) Tag-on-Demand: exploiting amber codon suppression technology for the enrichment of high-expressing membrane protein cell lines. Protein Eng. Des. Sel.. 2019 Feb 12;. PM ID: ...
Genetic suppressor elements (GSEs) are short biologically active gene fragments that encode inhibitory antisense RNAs or truncated proteins that function as negative dominants. GSEs can be constructed from a single gene or isolated from a multigene library consisting of short random fragments of the target gene or genes. The goal of this study was to determine if gene inhibition in bacterial cells could be achieved by isolating GSEs from a genomic library. Additionally, if it was possible to use GSEs to inhibit gene function in E. coli JM109DE3 cells, could this method be used to locate and determine the function of unknown genes? In this study, antisense GSEs were isolated clearly showing that it was possible to inhibit function of known and unknown genes in bacterial cells using genetic suppressor elements derived from a genomic library.
New uses for cheap sequences and the need for easy-to-use comparative genomics tools: an example with suppression analysis Monday, May 10, 2010, 2:10pm, 1022 Life Sciences ...
COPYRIGHT (C) 2016 KISTI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] ...
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Amber Mark shares a slightly less devastating track from her debut EP 3:33AM, out this fall. The EP is an emotional ode to Ambers late mother Mia, and Way Back is a soulful and inspiringly hopeful (may still be aching / but i see the sun come up) track about starting the long path to healing a broken heart:. Read More. ...
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Amoroso, G., D. Sueltemeyer, C. Thyssen and H.P. Fock (1998). Uptake of HCO3- and CO2 in cells and chloroplasts from the microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Dunaliella tertiolecta. Plant Physiol. 116, 193-201. Asleson, C.M. and P.A. Lefebvre (1998). Genetic analysis of flagellar length control in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A new long-flagella locus and extragenic suppressor mutations. Genetics 148, 693-702. Bhattacharya, D. and L. Medlin (1998). Algal phylogeny and the origin of land plants. Plant Physiol. 116, 9-15. Boschetti, A. and K. Schmid (1998). Energy supply for ATP-synthase deficient chloroplasts of Chlamydomonas reinhardii. Plant Cell Physiol. 39, 160-168. Brosch-Salomon, S., M. Hoeftberger, A. Holzinger and U. Luetz-Meindl (1998). Ultrastructural localization of polysaccharides and N-acetyl-D-galactosamine in the secretory pathway of green algae (Desmidiaceae). J. Exp. Bot. 49, 145-153. Calenberg, M., U. Brohsonn, M. Zedlacher and G. Kreimer (1998). Light- and Ca2+-modulated ...
Promoting post-stroke neurogenesis has long been proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for the enhancement of functional recovery after cerebral ischemic stroke. Despite numerous approaches have been widely reported the proliferation or differentiation of the neurogenic population therapeutic strategies by targeting adult neurogenesis not yet to be successfully clarified in clinical settings. Here, we hypothesized that alterations in microenvironment of the ischemic brain might impede the functional maturation of adult newly generated neurons that limits functional recovery after stroke. The in vivo retroviral based labeling model was applied to directly birth-date and trace the maturation process of adult newly generating neurons after hypoxic challenge. A rehabilitation therapy procedure was adopted through the combination of task-specific motor rehabilitating training with environmental enrichment to promote functional recovery after stroke. In addition, a pharmacological or genetic suppression of
Amber mutations were introduced into every codon (except the initiating AUG) of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene. The amber alleles were introduced into a bacteriophage P22 hybrid, called P22 e416, in which the normal P22 lysozyme gene is replaced by its T4 homologue, and which consequently depends upon T4 lysozyme for its ability to form a plaque. The resulting amber mutants were tested for plaque formation on amber suppressor strains of Salmonella typhimurium. Experiments with other hybrid phages engineered to produce different amounts of wild-type T4 lysozyme have shown that, to score as deleterious, a mutation must reduce lysozyme activity to less than 3% of that produced by wild-type P22 e416. Plating the collection of amber mutants covering 163 of the 164 codons of T4 lysozyme, on 13 suppressor strains that each insert a different amino acid substitutions at every position in the protein (except the first). Of the resulting 2015 single amino acid substitutions in T4 lysozyme, 328 were found to
The effect of the 3 codon context on the efficiency of nonsense suppression in mammalian tissue culture cells has been tested. Measurements were made following the transfection of cells with a pRSVgal reporter vector that contained the classical Escherichia coli lacZ UAG allele YA559. The position of this mutation was mapped by virtue of its fortuitous creation of a CTAG MaeI restriction enzyme site. Determination of the local DNA sequence revealed a C--,T mutation at codon 600 of the lacZ gene: CAG--,TAG. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to create a series of vectors in which the base 3 to the nonsense codon was either A, C, G, or U. Suppression of the amber-containing reporter was achieved by cotransfection with genes for human tRNA(Ser) or tRNA(Gln) UAG nonsense suppressors and by growth in the translational error-promoting aminoglycoside drug G418. Nonsense suppression was studied in the human cell lines 293 and MRC5V1 and the simian line COS-7. Overall, the rank order for the effect of ...
Release Factor 1 (RF1) recognizes the termination codons UAA and UAG, and is responsible for stopping translation at these codons. While obviously important for proper functioning of translation, the presence of RF1 also limits the amount of full-length protein produced if the gene contains an in-frame stop codon by competing with the Amber suppressor tRNA at the ribosome. This problem is compounded with each additional Amber in the gene, leading to a rapid dropoff of full-length protein isolated with greater than one stop codon. Until recently, it was thought that RF1 was essential for cell survival. Several methods have recently been used to make RF1 conditionally inessential, enabling its knockout. Mukai et al. introduced all seven essential genes normally ending in Amber codons on a plasmid, instead ending in UAA. [15] Johnson et al. fixed the expression of RF2, the other primary release factor in E. coli.[16] Both these measures enabled the knockout of RF1. The benefit of this knockout ...
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The 274 (active) tRNA genes in strain S288C can be grouped into 42 families of distinct codon specificity. The two methionine-specific tRNAs are counted as separate families, as initiator and elongator tRNAs are clearly distinguished both by primary structure and function. No tRNA(Sec) gene has been identified in yeast. No suppressor tRNA genes are found in this strain; Tables 1 and 1a list suppressors that have been identi fied as particular variants in other yeast strains . Table 4a presents a more detailed version of Table 4 by including cross-references to the tRNAs and tRNA genes the sequences of which had been determined prior to the yeast genome project. Figure 2. Codon usage in highly and lowly expressed yeast genes ...
nonsense mutation [遗] 无义突变 ; [遗] 无意义突变 ; 无义突变基因发生突变 ; 无义渐变 Idiotic nonsense 痴人说梦 talk nonsense 胡言乱语 ; 胡说八道 ; 扯淡 ; 说废话 stuff and nonsense 废话 ; 乱说八道 ; 胡言乱语 nonsense codon [遗] 无义密码子 ; [遗] 无意义密码子 ; 又常被叫作无意义码 ; 翻译 nonsense syllable 无意义音节 nonsense suppressor 无意义抑制基因 ; 无义抑制基因 ; 无义抑制因子 ; 无义抑制 CHILDISH NONSENSE 童稚趣语 That nonsense 说胡话 ...
In this report, McClintock clarified some of the previously puzzling aspects of the system of control of gene expression of a2-m1 cultures noted in some of her earlier articles ...
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I am so glad to see the list below. I think that they are all helpful to the AMBER community. Thank you. I look forward to utilize some more of the RESP charges and FF parameters in the list when they are available in REDDB in the near future ...
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Amber Valletta makes her Vogue Netherlands debut with a pair of delightful and dreamy covers both captured by Annemarieke van Drimmelen.
Manfaat Sup Sarang Burung Walet untuk Kesehatan dan Kecantikan Protein hewani spesifik dalam sarang burung dapat dimakan mempunyai tiga fungsi berikut : 1. Merangsang regenerasi sel 2. Untuk meningkatkan imunitas diperantarai sel 3. Untuk meningkatkan ketahanan individu untuk X-iradiasi kerusakan KOMPOSISI SUP SARANG BURUNG WALET Komposisi sarang burung walet terdiri dari 50% glikoprotein. Glikoprotein adalah…
入谷 英司 , 片桐 誠之 , 湊 純平 , 西川 匡子 ,p,活性汚泥への超音波照射と塩添加による協奏凝集効果を明らかにするため,超音波照射汚泥への添加無機塩のカチオン価数と濃度が,その回分重力沈降挙動におよぼす影響を調べた.その結果,Ca,sup,2+,/sup,やMg,sup,2+,/sup,の二価カチオンが超音波処理汚泥の沈降特性の改善に最も効果的であることが明らかとなった.たとえば,C … 化学工学論文集 43(5), 327-335, 2017 J-STAGE ...
Hodgkin J. Genetic suppression. 2005 Dec 27. In: WormBook: The Online Review of C. elegans Biology [Internet]. Pasadena (CA): ... Genetic suppression therefore restores the phenotype seen prior to the original background mutation. Suppressor mutations are ... In a classic study, Francis Crick (et al.) used intragenic suppression to study the fundamental nature of the genetic code. ... Intergenic suppression is useful for identifying and studying interactions between molecules, such as proteins. For example, a ...
Genetic Analysis of Tumour Suppression. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Klein, George; Klein, Eva (16 May 1985). "Evolution of ... Genetic Analysis of Tumour Suppression. John Wiley & Sons, p. 1. "About the Master". Cancer Immunology Research. 3 (2). ... He was responsible, with Henry Harris, for establishing the "phenomenon of tumour suppression ... using the technique of ...
"Tissue Regeneration Promoted through Gene Suppression". Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. March 2016. Kato H, Tjernberg ...
Ichikawa T, Ichikawa Y, Isaacs JT (July 1991). "Genetic factors and suppression of metastatic ability of prostatic cancer". ...
Conservation activities include genetic analysis in an effort to understand the genetic variability of populations. Plant ... Today, fire suppression is practiced and normal periodic wildfires are prevented. The result is overgrowth of the vegetation, ... 2002). Genetic Variation and Evidence of Hybridization in the Genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). Journal of Heredity. 93(1) 37-41. ... It is clonal, often reproducing vegetatively, so populations are low in genetic variability. It may hybridize with the common ...
The nuclear genetic code is flexible as illustrated by variant genetic codes that reassign standard stop codons to amino acids ... Stop codon suppression or translational readthrough occurs when in translation a stop codon is interpreted as a sense codon, ... In the standard genetic code, there are three different termination codons: There are variations on the standard genetic code, ... Genetic code: Stop codons". An Introduction to Genetic Analysis. W.H. Freeman and Company. Barrell, B. G.; Bankier, A. T.; ...
There are three known genetic causes of BFNE, two being in the channels KCNQ2 and KCNQ3. Brown DA, Adams PR (February 1980). " ... "Muscarinic suppression of a novel voltage-sensitive K+ current in a vertebrate neurone". Nature. 283 (5748): 673-6. Bibcode: ...
Use of steroids joint injections may also result in adrenal suppression after discontinuation. All causes in this category are ... genetic, and generally very rare. These include mutations to the SF1 transcription factor, congenital adrenal hypoplasia due to ... With prolonged suppression, the adrenal glands atrophy (physically shrink), and can take months to recover full function after ... Use of high-dose steroids for more than a week begins to produce suppression of the person's adrenal glands because the ...
Suppression[edit]. The HPG axis can be suppressed by hormonal birth control administration. Although often described as ... Genetic mutations and chromosomal abnormalities are two sources of HPG axis alteration.[15] Single mutations usually lead to ... Ovulation suppression as part of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in in vitro fertilization, in order to prevent the ... Ovarian suppression as breast cancer management, to prevent the body's formation of estrogen which may stimulate breast cancer ...
Bone-marrow suppression is especially common in people with a genetic deficiency of the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase. ... Certain genetic variations within the TPMT gene can lead to decreased or absent TPMT enzyme activity, and individuals who are ... However, an assay of TPMT activity in red blood cells or a TPMT genetic test can identify patients with reduced TPMT activity, ... of genetic variations may have increased levels of TGN metabolites and an increased risk of severe bone marrow suppression ( ...
Fire suppression is another threat. When the natural fire regime is prevented, large and woody vegetation encroaches on the ... This tends to reduce the genetic diversity of populations, so grazing is a major threat to the species. At least 82% of all the ...
"Short-term suppression of Aedes aegypti using genetic control does not facilitate Aedes albopictus". Pest Management Science. ... Such a population has been identified to exist in parts of Washington, DC, and genetic evidence suggests they survived at least ... The effort in sequencing its DNA was intended to provide new avenues for research into insecticides and possible genetic ... This mosquito suppression effect is achieved by a self-limiting gene that prevents the offspring from surviving. Male modified ...
... of genetic variations may have increased levels of TGN metabolites and an increased risk of severe bone marrow suppression ( ... Certain genetic variations within the TPMT gene can lead to decreased or absent TPMT enzyme activity, and individuals who are ... People with a genetic deficiency in thiopurine S-methyltransferase are at higher risk of side effects. Avoiding pregnancy when ... However, an assay of TPMT activity in red blood cells or a TPMT genetic test can identify patients with reduced TPMT activity, ...
"Genetic and pharmacological suppression of oncogenic mutations in ras genes of yeast and humans". Science. 245 (4916): 379-85. ...
"Male eye span in stalk-eyed flies indicates genetic quality by meiotic drive suppression". Nature. 391 (6664): 276-279. doi: ... and this allows females to evaluate male genetic quality. Genetic variation underlies the response to environmental stress, ... If the genetic correlation is high relative to the heritability of the male ornament, then a runaway process can occur leading ... Thus, females that mate with these males gain a direct genetic benefit by producing male offspring in a female-biased ...
Genetic suppression can be mediated by tRNA genes when a mutation alters their anticodon sequence. For example, a tRNA ... Interaction-mediated suppression occurs when a deleterious mutation in a component of a protein complex destabilizes the ... Synthetic rescue (or synthetic recovery or synthetic viability when a lethal phenotype is rescued ) refers to a genetic ... As thus, this kind of suppression provides indirect information on the molecular structure of the proteins involved. The ...
Concepcion D, Flores-García L, Hamilton BA (May 2009). "Multipotent genetic suppression of retrotransposon-induced mutations by ...
Fire suppression in the fire-prone chaparral habitat threaten those plants occurring near residential areas. Introduced species ... Some of the populations are very small, made up of just a few individuals, reducing their genetic viability. The species name ...
Suppression of estradiol production in a subpopulation of subfertile men may improve the semen analysis. Males with certain sex ... chromosome genetic conditions, such as Klinefelter's syndrome, will have a higher level of estradiol. Estradiol has a profound ...
It depends on periodic natural fires to clear away the trees and brush that have taken over its habitat; fire suppression ... Habitat is lost to development and habitat fragmentation has reduced the genetic variability of the already small number of ...
International Multiple Sclerosis Genetic Consortium; Hafler, D.A., Compston, A., Sawcer, S., Lander, S., Daly, M.J., DeJager, P ... J Immunol 167(3): 1245-53 2004 Viglietta V, Baecher-Allan C, Hafler DA, Loss of suppression by CD+CD25+ regulatory T cells in ... Viglietta, V; Baecher-Allan C; Weiner HL; Hafler DA (2004). "Loss of functional suppression by CD+CD25+ regulatory T cells in ... David Hailer on the genetic roadmap to ending MS". Momentum. 3 (4): 61-64. ISSN 1940-3410. Curriculum vitae Immunobiology / ...
He also described Liddle's syndrome, a genetic syndrome causing high blood pressure. Liddle developed the dexamethasone ... suppression test for assessing adrenal function and the metyrapone test for pituitary reserve. He discovered a method for ...
... not the extent of suppression.) Is there a genetic basis for any health problems associated with the breed other than Manx ... Although tail suppression (or tail length variety) is not the sole characteristic feature of the breed, the chief defining one ... Regardless of the genetic and historical reality, there are various fanciful Lamarckian folktales that seek to explain why the ... "Feline Genetic Loci Table , Cat-World". 4 August 2017. Archived from the original on 15 June 2006. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
Early observations of mouse t-haplotypes by Mary Lyon described numerous genetic loci on chromosome 17 that suppress X- ... Jaenike J (February 1999). "Suppression of Sex-Ratio Meiotic Drive and the Maintenance of Y-Chromosome Polymorphism in ... Stalker HD (February 1961). "The Genetic Systems Modifying Meiotic Drive in Drosophila Paramelanica". Genetics. 46 (2): 177-202 ... a QTL approach reveals the complex polygenic determinism of Paris drive suppression". Heredity. 122 (6): 906-915. doi:10.1038/ ...
... (DS or DNS), also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third ... "Halifax mom questions Down syndrome suppression". Archived from the original on 2015-11-05. Retrieved 2015-09-26.. ... The extra genetic material present in DS results in overexpression of a portion of the 310 genes located on chromosome 21.[63] ... 2011). Handbook of neurodevelopmental and genetic disorders in children (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. p. 365. ISBN 978-1 ...
An important genetic component of this process is Sox9, a HMG box transcription factor, which marks progenitor cells for ... It has been found that expressing this gene will result in the suppression of the differentiation of chondroblasts. Expression ... Runx2 is another important genetic component of Chondroblast formation. ...
"Hybridization Leads to Loss of Genetic Integrity in Shortleaf Pine: Unexpected Consequences of Pine Management and Fire ... Suppression". Journal of Forestry. 110 (4): 216-224. doi:10.5849/jof.11-044. ISSN 0022-1201. "Silvics of Shortleaf Pine" (PDF ...
May 2004). "Genetic and functional diversification of small RNA pathways in plants". PLOS Biology. 2 (5): E104. doi:10.1371/ ... As a result, one prominent role of RdDM is the stable, transgenerational suppression of transposable element (TE) activity. ... Liu J, Feng L, Li J, He Z (2015-04-24). "Genetic and epigenetic control of plant heat responses". Frontiers in Plant Science. 6 ... GMOs are defined by the inclusion of "foreign" genetic material into the genome. The treatment of plants with engineered RNAs ...
Genetic mutations have been identified that increase a person's risk for SUDEP (some are discussed below), but ultimately their ... These include cases of post-ictal generalized EEG suppression described as cerebral shutdown, but its significance remains ... Genetic factors: mutations in several genes have been associated with an increased susceptibility to SUDEP. Over 33% of these ... genetic risk is determined by the function of multiple genes that is not yet well understood. Overlap is seen between these ion ...
Asexual people may be socially discriminated against due to beliefs of heterosexuality being the default sexuality, or the belief that asexual people are just gay or lesbian people in denial of their "real" identity.[14][23] Spaces designed for asexual people have also been known to internally discriminate based on age, and to centre on whiteness.[22] Asexuality has also been used as a tool in anti-blackness to "de-sexualise" some black people through racist stereotypes, such as in the mammy archetype in the United States.[24] Two studies found that asexual people are more dehumanised than heterosexuals, homosexuals, and bisexuals, often being compared to animals or robots due to their sexuality.[25][9][26] Having emerged more recently as an identity, asexual people often have less legal protection than gay, lesbian, and bisexual people,[27] although in New York, the Sexual Orientation Non-Discrimination Act categorises asexuals as a protected class.[28] Asexuals have also been known to have ...
BaP was shown to cause genetic damage in lung cells that was identical to the damage observed in the DNA of most malignant lung ... pyrene diol epoxide inactivates the tumor suppression ability in certain cells, leading to cancer. ...
Main article: Genetic pollution. Native species can be threatened with extinction[113] through the process of genetic pollution ... Fire suppression vehicles are often major culprits in such outbreaks, as the vehicles are often driven on back roads overgrown ... Genetic Pollution from Farm Forestry using eucalypt species and hybrids; A report for the RIRDC/L&WA/FWPRDC]; Joint Venture ... For example, L. leucozonium, shown by population genetic analysis to be an invasive species in North America,[77] has become an ...
The HPA axis in turn modulates the immune response, with high levels of cortisol resulting in a suppression of immune and ... The three "hits" - chronological and synergistic - are as follows: genetic predisposition (which predispose higher/lower HPA ... The latter scenario may represent maladaptation due to early programming, genetic predisposition, and mismatch. This mismatch ... depending on an individual's genetic predispositions, programming effects of early-life environment, and match or mismatch with ...
"Genetic unmasking of an epigenetically silenced microRNA in human cancer cells". Cancer Res. 67 (4): 1424-9. doi:10.1158/0008- ... "miR-506: a regulator of chemo-sensitivity through suppression of the RAD51-homologous recombination axis". Chin J Cancer. 34 ...
aDNA analysis of past populations is used by archaeology to genetically determine the sex of individuals, determine genetic ... such as suppression of the immune system and a possible concomitant decrease in antimicrobial activity in the oral cavity. ...
This occurs when Whi5 is phosphorylated by Cdc8 which is a G1/S Cdk.[114] Suppression of histone gene expression outside of S ...
After Sisebut took the Visigothic throne in 612, these privileges were revoked, and suppression of the Jewish religion became ... Genetic history. Languages. Refugees. Schisms. *Political movements. Timeline. WP:Jewish history. *v ...
"Genetic and Cultural Evolution of Cooperation, Chapter 11". Berlin: Dahlem Workshop Reports. 2003. ISBN 0-262-08326-4.. ... Koenig, L. B.; McGue, M.; Krueger, R. F.; Bouchard (2007). "Religiousness, antisocial behavior, and altruism: Genetic and ... which is a mathematical equation used to study genetic evolution. An interesting example of altruism is found in the cellular ...
GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... bone marrow suppression - booster - branched DNA assay - breakthrough infection - Broadway Cares/Equity Fights AIDS - ...
Hall JD, Scherer K (1981). "Repair of psoralen-treated DNA by genetic recombination in human cells infected with herpes simplex ... for the suppression of effector memory T cells in autoimmune diseases". Molecular Pharmacology. 68 (5): 1254-1270. doi:10.1124/ ... mechanism and genetic control". J. Mol. Biol. 103 (1): 39-59. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(76)90051-6. PMID 785009.. ... effects of mutations influencing genetic recombination and DNA metabolism". J. Bacteriol. 136 (2): 538-47. doi:10.1128/JB.136.2 ...
"Genetic secrets of poppies' painkillers unlocked". Toronto Star. The Canadian Press. 2010-03-15. Retrieved 2010-03-15.. ... Some small companies also attempt to profit from the misinformation and information suppression by claiming that varieties that ...
"Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News. 22 September 2009.. *^ a b c Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, Novick AC, Partin AW, Peters CA ( ... Suppression of spontaneous ovulation as part of controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, which is an essential component in in ... Usage of GnRH agonist for this purpose necessitates using a GnRH antagonist instead of a GnRH agonist for suppression of ...
Fire A., Xu S., Montgomery M.K., Kostas S.A., Driver S.E., Mello C.C. (1998). „Potent and specific genetic interference by ... NAPOLI, C. Introduction of a Chimeric Chalcone Synthase Gene into Petunia Results in Reversible Co-Suppression of Homologous ... Dehio C. and Schell J. (1994). „Identification of plant genetic loci involved in a post transcriptional mechanism for ... Introduction of a chalcone synthase gene into Petunia results in reversible co-suppression of homologous genes in trans". Plant ...
The cause of anxiety disorders is a combination of genetic and environmental factors.[45] Risk factors include a history of ... For example, persistent parental discouragement of anger may result in repression/suppression of angry feelings which manifests ... Genetic differences account for about 43% of variance in panic disorder and 28% in generalized anxiety disorder.[55] Although ... Anxiety disorders are partly genetic but may also be due to drug use, including alcohol, caffeine, and benzodiazepines (which ...
Reciprocal sign epistasis also leads to genetic suppression whereby two deleterious mutations are less harmful together than ... Quantitative genetics focuses on genetic variance due to genetic interactions. Any two locus interactions at a particular gene ... In this regression, the observed two locus genetic effects are treated as dependent variables and the "pure" genetic effects ... Genetic and molecular causes[edit]. Additivity[edit]. This can be the case when multiple genes act in parallel to achieve the ...
... and environmental controls such as ventilation and suppression of dust.[53] When mold cannot be prevented, the CDC recommends ... of the population have the genetic capability of experiencing chronic inflammation to mold exposure, but it is unknown how many ...
Hurwitz BE, Klaus JR, Llabre MM, et al. (January 2007). "Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 viral load with ... 2004). "Identification of modifiable factors that affect the genetic diversity of the transmitted HIV-1 population". AIDS 18 (4 ...
Hammerstein, P. (2003). "Why is reciprocity so rare in social animals? A protestant appeal". The Genetic and Cultural Evolution ... and mechanisms of fertility suppression in female cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus oedipus)". American Journal of ... Unrelated males that join the group can release the females from this reproductive suppression; this may result in more than ...
There are several genetic mutations implicated in the disease, including loss of function PINK1 [89] and Parkin.[90] Loss of ... As discussed above, autophagy plays both a role in tumor suppression and tumor cell survival. Thus, the qualities of autophagy ... The first autophagy genes were identified by genetic screens conducted in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.[8][9][10] ... The first strategy is to induce autophagy and enhance its tumor suppression attributes. The second strategy is to inhibit ...
Genetic studies. Main article: Genetic studies on Jews. Y DNA studies tend to imply a small number of founders in an old ... The revolts in and suppression of diaspora communities in Egypt, Libya and Crete in 115-117 CE had a severe impact on the ... "Genetic study offers clues to history of North Africa's Jews , Reuters". Retrieved 12 April 2013.. ... One set of genetic characteristics which is shared with modern-day Europeans and Central Asians is most prominent in the Levant ...
Genetic origins. Main article: Genetic studies on Jews. Efforts to identify the origins of Ashkenazi Jews through DNA analysis ... The revolts in and suppression of diaspora communities in Egypt, Libya and Crete in 115-117 CE had a severe impact on the ... The genome-wide genetic study carried out in 2010 by Behar et al. examined the genetic relationships among all major Jewish ... Genetic counseling and genetic testing are often undertaken by couples where both partners are of Ashkenazi ancestry. Some ...
Many forms of female-controlled contraception rely on suppression of the menstrual cycle using progesterones and/or estrogens.[ ... is true both for patients who are already known to be at high risk for ovarian or fallopian tube cancer secondary to genetic ...
Suppression of damping-off disease in host plants by the rhizoplane bacterium Lysobacter sp. Strain SB-K88 Is linked to plant ... Bacterial diversity in maize rhizospheres: conclusions on the use of genetic profiles based on PCR-amplified partial small ... Possible role of xanthobaccins produced by Stenotrophomonas sp strain SB-K88 in suppression of sugar beet damping-off disease. ... Biological control and mode of actions of disease suppression by Lysobacter spp. has been reviewed Islam 2011 L. enzymogenes ...
Lamb MJ, Jablonka E (2005). Evolution in four dimensions: genetic, epigenetic, behavioral, and symbolic variation in the ... Cox BS (1965). "[PSI], a cytoplasmic suppressor of super-suppression in yeast". Heredity. 20 (4): 505-521. doi:10.1038/hdy. ... These are normal genetic diseases caused by gene deletions or inactivation of the genes, but are unusually common because ... It could confer an adaptive advantage by giving cells the ability to switch into a PSI+ state and express dormant genetic ...
According to one theory this suppression may be the cause of the flashbacks that can affect people with PTSD. When someone with ... True WR, Rice J, Eisen SA, Heath AC, Goldberg J, Lyons MJ, Nowak J (April 1993). "A twin study of genetic and environmental ... The HPA axis is responsible for coordinating the hormonal response to stress.[45] Given the strong cortisol suppression to ... Panic and generalized anxiety disorders and PTSD share 60% of the same genetic variance. Alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence ...
Since pure Formosans are extremely rare, there is a high risk of genetic disorder and unstable behavior due to the shallow gene ... and military suppression. During Japanese occupation, Taiwanese aboriginals were under repressive rule, and the Formosan ...
Just as suicide risks rise from an interaction between familial, genetic, and environmental factors, so do protective factors. ... Wegner, Daniel M. (1989). White Bears and Other Unwanted Thoughts: Suppression, Obsession, and the Psychology of Mental Control ... Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory. Neuropsychologia, doi: 10.1016/j. ...
These genetic studies allow that ALOX5 along with the chemotactic factors and SPMs that they contribute to making may play ... However, the suppression of inflammation appears also to be a function of Alox5, presumably by contributing to the production ... The tissue, animal model, and animal and human genetic studies cited above implicate ALOX5 in a wide range of diseases: a) ... These studies suggest genetic variants may play a role, albeit a relatively minor one, in the overall susceptibility to ...
The genetic variants influencing breast size have not been identified.[82] Through genome-wide association studies, a variety ... suppression of PGE2 in breast tissue is relevant because, via activation of prostaglandin EP receptors, PGE2 potently induces ... Genetic variations in the AR have been linked to both breast volume (as well as body mass index) and breast cancer ... "Genetic variants associated with breast size also influence breast cancer risk". BMC Med. Genet. 13: 53. doi:10.1186/1471-2350 ...
Genetic suppression and phenotypic masking of a Myxococcus xanthus frzF- defect.. Kashefi K1, Hartzell PL. ... Thus, the suppression of frz- mutations by sgl- mutations is allele-specific, and depends on the sgl allele, but not the frz ... Because the phenotypes of frz- mutations have been determined in a (suppressing) sglA1 genetic background, the frz genes may ...
Genetic Suppression of Polyglutamine Toxicity in Drosophila Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
Chemical suppression of a genetic mutation in a zebrafish model of aortic coarctation.. Peterson RT, Shaw SY, Peterson TA, ...
Genetic suppression of cryoprotectant toxicity.. Cypser, J.R., Chick, W.S., Fahy, G.M., Schumacher, G.J., and Johnson, T.E. ( ...
... Curr Biol. 2001 Dec 11;11(24):R1041-53. doi: ... Recent advances promise to change this situation by supplying molecular genetic tools for modulating neuronal activity that can ...
... J Plant Physiol. 2010 ... These results demonstrated that genetic engineering to reduce the accumulation of polyacylated anthocyanins could cause ...
Defining the genetic basis of herpesvirus suppression and reactivation using GWAS in INTERVAL blood donors ...
AFLP-based genetic map of the Hessian fly genome: To test the possibility of recombination suppression further, we developed an ... Genetic linkage between vH3 and vH5: Mapping population 1 was used in an attempt to determine the genetic distance between ... A Physically Anchored Genetic Map and Linkage to Avirulence Reveals Recombination Suppression Over the Proximal Region of ... A Physically Anchored Genetic Map and Linkage to Avirulence Reveals Recombination Suppression Over the Proximal Region of ...
Complete Genetic Suppression of Polyp Formation and Reduction of CpG-Island Hypermethylation in ApcMin/+ Dnmt1-Hypomorphic Mice ... Complete Genetic Suppression of Polyp Formation and Reduction of CpG-Island Hypermethylation in ApcMin/+ Dnmt1-Hypomorphic Mice ... Complete Genetic Suppression of Polyp Formation and Reduction of CpG-Island Hypermethylation in ApcMin/+ Dnmt1-Hypomorphic Mice ... Complete Genetic Suppression of Polyp Formation and Reduction of CpG-Island Hypermethylation in ApcMin/+ Dnmt1-Hypomorphic Mice ...
Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization. Ricardo ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ... Genetic Differences between Two Strains of Xylella fastidiosa Revealed by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization ...
Role in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and viral persistence.. R Ahmed, A Salmi, L D Butler, J M Chiller, M B ... Role in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and viral persistence.. R Ahmed, A Salmi, L D Butler, J M Chiller, M B ... The suppression of LCMV -specific CTL responses by carrier spleen cells is not mediated by a suppressor cell, but is due to the ... The suppression was specific for the CTL response and LCMV -specific antibody responses were not affected. Associated with the ...
Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in ... Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in ... Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in ... Partial genetic suppression of a loss-of-function mutant of the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis-associated protease TPP1 in ...
Antigen-specific suppression in genetic responder mice to L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 (GAT). Characterization of ... C M Sorensen, C W Pierce; Antigen-specific suppression in genetic responder mice to L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 ... The presence of GAT-TsFR in the first 36 h of in vitro culture is required for significant suppression. Furthermore, only ... whereas suppression mediated by the second hybridoma GAT-TsFR (372.B3.5) is genetically unrestricted. These hybridoma GAT-TsFR ...
Genetic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Suppression, Genetic" was a major or minor topic of these publications ... "Suppression, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Suppression, Genetic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Suppression, Genetic". ...
Thus, our findings have implications for proper genetic counseling. ... Thus, our findings have implications for proper genetic counseling. ... is a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the gut. RET is considered to be the main ... is a genetic disorder characterized by the absence of ganglion cells in the gut. RET is considered to be the main ...
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M. M. Winslow, T. L. Dayton, R. G. W. Verhaak et al., "Suppression of lung adenocarcinoma progression by Nkx2-1," Nature, vol. ... Genetic and Biochemical Alterations in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. Jackie L. Johnson,1 Smitha Pillai,2 and Srikumar P. ... S. A. Melo, C. Moutinho, S. Ropero et al., "A genetic defect in exportin-5 traps precursor MicroRNAs in the nucleus of cancer ... 3. Inactivation of Tumor Suppression Pathways. 3.1. TP53 Mutations. Alteration in the TP53 gene is one of the most significant ...
Liu, Y., M. Tarsounas, P. ORegan and S. C. West, 2007 Role of RAD51C and XRCC3 in genetic recombination and DNA repair. J. ... Suppression of the DSB-induced gene conversion defect of the rad57 mutant:. Although we observed suppression of the IR and CPT ... there was additive suppression (Figure 3). We found that there was almost full suppression of the IR and CPT sensitivity of the ... suppression was not complete (P = 0.0012). The degree of suppression of foci brightness was temperature dependent; at 23°, the ...
... as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. Historically, more ALPS patients have died due to overwhelming ... years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic ... years is highlighted here and can be extrapolated to manage refractory cytopenias in patients with as yet undetermined genetic ... multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. ...
Genetic suppression of plant development and chloroplast biogenesis via the Snowy Cotyledon 3 and Phytochrome B pathways. In: ... Genetic suppression of plant development and chloroplast biogenesis via the Snowy Cotyledon 3 and Phytochrome B pathways. / ... T1 - Genetic suppression of plant development and chloroplast biogenesis via the Snowy Cotyledon 3 and Phytochrome B pathways ... Genetic suppression of plant development and chloroplast biogenesis via the Snowy Cotyledon 3 and Phytochrome B pathways. ...
Genetic analysis of tumour suppression. Material type: BookSeries: Ciba Foundation symposium ; 142 , Publisher: Chichester : ...
The suppression of LCMV -specific CTL responses by carrier spleen cells is not mediated by a suppressor cell, but is due to the ... The suppression was specific for the CTL response and LCMV -specific antibody responses were not affected. Associated with the ... Our results show that LCMV variants that emerge during infection in vivo play a crucial role in the suppression of virus- ... presence of genetic variants of LCMV in spleens of carrier mice. Such virus variants selectively suppress LCMV-specific CTL ...
Resistance mechanisms to genetic suppression of mutant NRAS in melanoma. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Genetic ... Resistance mechanisms to genetic suppression of mutant NRAS in melanoma. James P. Robinson, Vito W. Rebecca, David A. Kircher, ... Resistance mechanisms to genetic suppression of mutant NRAS in melanoma. / Robinson, James P.; Rebecca, Vito W.; Kircher, David ... title = "Resistance mechanisms to genetic suppression of mutant NRAS in melanoma",. abstract = "Targeted therapies have ...
Recombination Suppression. BstLG1 showed very low levels of recombination over much of its length, with most recombination only ... The genetic map of B. stricta is largely collinear to the ancestral karyotype based on the genetic maps of A. lyrata and ... Overall, our genetic map is highly collinear with the n = 8 genetic maps from A. lyrata and Capsella. However, we found that ... The genetic position and comparative genetic data for each marker is summarized in Table I and includes the position of the ...
Nonsense Suppression Techniques for Unnatural Amino Acids in Genetic Encoding. Since experimental biology often requires that ... To inhibit this barrier, it is necessary to devise means to inhibit natural nonsense suppression. Excellent but limited ... multiphoton chemical imaging is that higher cellular systems protect themselves by mechanisms of genetic nonsense suppression. ... and the genetic basis of the disease. All of these developments have relied on the use of chemical imaging techniques. ...
Now a research team led by two University of Michigan biologists has used a large-scale genetic study of the lowly house dust ... For the genetic analysis, the same five nuclear genes were sequenced in each species. ... Genetic study of house dust mites demonstrates reversible evolution. March 8, 2013. ...
Genetic suppression of seizure-like phenotypes in a Drosophila model of epilepsy Kitamoto, Toshihiro University of Iowa, Iowa ... Genetic suppression of seizure-like phenotypes in a Drosophila model of epilepsy. Kitamoto, Toshihiro / University of Iowa. ... Genetic suppression of seizure-like phenotypes in a Drosophila model of epilepsy. Kitamoto, Toshihiro / University of Iowa. $ ... The long-term goals of this project are to 1) identify the genetic and environmental modifiers of epilepsy, and elucidate their ...
TGF-β-mediated suppression varies with genetic background. We have previously found that mast cells from the Th2-prone 129/Sv ... We propose that TGF-β1 regulates mast cell homeostasis, and that this feedback suppression may be dependent on genetic context ... Genetic background affects TGF-β1 effects in vivo. (A and B) 129/Sv mice (n = 5) were injected with TGF-β1 for 4 d as described ... Endogenous suppression of mast cell development and survival by IL-4 and IL-10. J. Leukoc. Biol. 85: 826-836. ...
The Genetic Manipulation of Staphylococci von - Englische Bücher zum Genre günstig & portofrei bestellen im Online Shop von Ex ... Practical and authoritative, The Genetic Manipulation of Staphylococci: Methods and Protocols serves as a vital resource and ... 2. Restriction-Modification Systems as a Barrier for Genetic Manipulation of Staphylococcus aureus ... Includes cutting-edge methods and protocols for the study of Staphylococci genetic manipulation ...
genetic diversity (22) * population (22) * suppression (22) * campsites (22) * Fraser Experimental Forest (22) ... followed by more than 100 years of fire suppression. ...
  • Chemical suppression of a genetic mutation in a zebrafish model of aortic coarctation. (
  • Genetic suppression therefore restores the phenotype seen prior to the original background mutation. (
  • Intragenic suppression results from suppressor mutations that occur in the same gene as the original mutation. (
  • Intergenic (also known as extragenic ) suppression relieves the effects of a mutation in one gene by a mutation somewhere else within the genome . (
  • Mutation Gene - Genetic Mimic or Creationist. (
  • Genetic suppression of CRMP2 phosphorylation by mutation of the obligatory Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)-targeted serine-522 site prevented axonal degradation in the nigrostriatal pathway of transgenic mice. (
  • Scientists have known for some time that these individuals carry a genetic mutation (known as CCR5-delta32) that prevents the virus from entering the cells of the immune system but have been unable to account for the high levels of the gene in Scandinavia and relatively low levels in areas bordering the Mediterranean. (
  • Suppression results when one mutation counteracts the effect of another mutation to give a wild‐type phenotype. (
  • 2017) Gentamicin B1 is a minor gentamicin component with major nonsense mutation suppression activity. (
  • This has facilitated the development of potent and specific targeted therapies, based on the genetic and biochemical alterations present in the tumor, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • Figure 4: BACH2 mediates PAX5-dependent tumor suppression in pre-B ALL through activation of TP53. (
  • In particular, the let-7 miRNA family has been proposed to function in tumor suppression, because reduced expression of let-7 family members is common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). (
  • Importantly, let-7g-mediated tumor suppression was more potent in lung cancer cell lines harboring oncogenic K-Ras mutations than in lines with other mutations. (
  • Ectopic expression of K-Ras G12D largely rescued let-7g mediated tumor suppression, whereas ectopic expression of HMGA2 was less effective. (
  • Tumor-derived exosomes (TEX) are harbingers of tumor-induced immune suppression: they carry immunosuppressive molecules and factors known to interfere with immune cell functions. (
  • Following the uptake of GIP-34 and GIP-8 into the cell cytoplasm, each follows slightly different signal transduction cascades en route to inhibitory pathways of tumor cell growth and proliferation. (
  • In many cancer types, including colorectal cancer, accumulation of DNA damage has been linked to cancer, and genetic deficiencies in DNA damage repair mechanisms are associated with susceptibility to tumor development ( 7 ). (
  • Thus, the suppression of frz- mutations by sgl- mutations is allele-specific, and depends on the sgl allele, but not the frz allele. (
  • Because the phenotypes of frz- mutations have been determined in a (suppressing) sglA1 genetic background, the frz genes may play more central roles in development than initially recognized. (
  • Heritable diseases result from genetic mutations that cause essential proteins in the body to malfunction. (
  • [1] Suppressor mutations are useful for identifying new genetic sites which affect a biological process of interest. (
  • Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a group of genetic disorders caused by mutations of XP-associated genes, resulting in impairment of DNA restoration. (
  • For families with hereditary cancer gene mutations, pre-implantation genetic testing for single gene defects can be performed on an embryo before it is transferred to the woman. (
  • Incomplete virologic suppression results in mutations associated with resistance and is a major obstacle to disease control. (
  • The number of mutations associated with nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI(t)s) did not affect virologic suppression (9.3% for zero NRTI(t)-associated mutations vs 48.6% for 1-2 NRTI(t)-associated mutations vs 42.1% for ≥3 NRTI(t)-associated mutations, p = 0.179). (
  • Manipulation of the accuracy of translation holds promise as a method for the treatment of genetic diseases, many of which result from nonsense mutations. (
  • According to Brummelkamp - who is also a Professor at the Netherlands Cancer Institute - a big reason for this disease resistance is because of genes called genetic modifiers. (
  • Thus, the genetic architecture, molecular evolution, epigenetic regulation, and accumulation of interspecific incompatibilities among genes that function in spermatogenesis may all be shaped by recurrent evolution of sex-ratio distorters and suppressors ( 5 , 14 , 18 ). (
  • Specifically, we will use a candidate gene approach focusing on genes known to interact with the TO x pathway (Aim 1) and a discovery-based GWAS approach (Aim 2) to identify the most important host genetic determinants of the TO x pathway in vivo. (
  • Interaction annotations are curated by BioGRID and include physical or genetic interactions observed between at least two genes. (
  • Genes are 1% of the genetic code. (
  • These results suggest that sufficient DNA methyltransferase expression is a prerequisite for polyp formation and that hypomorphic alleles of Dnmt1 are not merely genetic modifiers but the first identified true genetic suppressors of the Min phenotype. (
  • We found that extensive resistance to NRTI(t)s at the time of the first virologic failure did not impact virologic suppression at 48 weeks after switching to a second-line therapy based on NRTI(t)s plus protease inhibitors. (
  • Role in suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte response and viral persistence. (
  • However, mortality remains high, and persistent immune activation during early ART-mediated viral suppression is an independent predictor of mortality in this setting. (
  • Many bacteria store strands of viral DNA in their genetic material to recognize future attacks. (
  • Genetic suppression and phenotypic masking of a Myxococcus xanthus frzF- defect. (
  • The combination of all suppressors, elevated temperature, srs2 , rad51-I345T , and mating-type ( MAT ) heterozygosity resulted in almost complete suppression of the rad57 mutant defect in the recruitment of Rad51 to DNA-damaged sites, as well as survival in response to ionizing radiation and camptothecin. (
  • Unlike most of the self-limiting autoimmune cytopenias sporadically seen in childhood, multi lineage cytopenias due to ALPS are often refractory, as their inherited genetic defect is not going to go away. (
  • Patients with undetermined genetic defect are classified as ALPS-U. ALPS presents in childhood with lymphadenopathy, hypersplenism, and multilineage cytopenias. (
  • While it may sound promising, the task of finding genetic modifiers that delay disease - also known as genetic suppressors - is a huge one. (
  • Second, finding people with effective genetic suppressors for these diseases is tricky because many healthy people don't typically go for genetic screens. (
  • For most human diseases, we do not know what the genetic suppressors are ," explained Brummelkamp. (
  • Both clinical data and population genetics suggests that these genetic suppressors exist, but it has been really difficult to identify them. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Details for: Genetic analysis of tumour suppression. (
  • Genetic analysis of tumour suppression. (
  • The company's preclinical pipeline is focused on identifying genetic modifiers that can suppress the effects of rare diseases in the lab, and then developing antibody or small molecule drugs to activate them in patients. (
  • Genetic modifiers are already being targeted by several biotechs. (
  • For example, the US company Maze Therapeutics raised an impressive €173M ($191M) Series A last year to screen genomic datasets for new genetic modifiers. (
  • While the field of genetic modifiers in therapeutics is still emerging, investors are already sharing in Brummelkamp's excitement, demonstrated by Scenic Biotech's €6.5M Series A raised early after founding. (
  • Notably, previous studies have demonstrated that severity of epilepsy is significantly modified by a variety of genetic and environmental factors, raising the exciting future possibility for better management of epilepsy by appropriately manipulating these phenotypic modifiers. (
  • The long-term goals of this project are to 1) identify the genetic and environmental modifiers of epilepsy, and elucidate their action mechanisms. (
  • In preliminary studies, an unbiased forward genetic screen for modifiers of Shu revealed that severity of the seizure-like phenotypes of Shu is significantly reduced when function of the Glutathione S-transferase S1 (GstS1) gene is suppressed. (
  • 2) Identify additional genetic modifiers of Shu and determine if they affect antioxidant signaling and the GABAergic system. (
  • Successful completion of these aims is expected to provide the foundation to understand the role and action mechanisms of genetic modifiers for a fly epilepsy models. (
  • Based on evolutionary conservation of the basic neurobiological processes between flies and humans, the outcomes of the proposed experiments will provide fundamental insights into genetic modifiers of human epilepsy, which is expected to lead to the future development of novel strategies for preventing and treating epilepsy that does not respond to conventional therapies. (
  • These are MicroRNA clusters expressed from imprinted Gtl2 locus maintain adult hematopoietic stem cells through suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolic activity. (
  • This combined with the fact that only 10-20% of smokers are affected by NSCLC suggest that genetic susceptibility and environmental factors also contribute to the risk of NSCLC. (
  • Scientists have long wondered what the contribution of environment is to ALS and in recent years the idea that a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers has taken shape. (
  • Genetic suppression of cryoprotectant toxicity. (
  • The genetic suppression of autophagy in keratinocytes resulted in a significant increase in the number of proteins that survived cornification and in alterations of their abundance in the nail proteome. (
  • A recent study in PNAS has identified a gene required for sex-ratio distortion in Drosophila simulans ( 6 ), providing novel insight into the genetic and molecular mechanisms used by these selfish elements and their effects on genome evolution and species formation. (
  • Recent advances promise to change this situation by supplying molecular genetic tools for modulating neuronal activity that can be deployed in a spatially and temporally restricted fashion. (
  • Recent advances in the detection of genetic alterations in patient samples along with physiologically relevant animal models has yielded a new understanding of the molecular etiology of lung cancer. (
  • There has been considerable progress in the development and integrated application of the SIT against the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata , as reflected by operational programs for prevention, suppression and eradication of this pest. (
  • Our genetic map will facilitate the analysis of ecologically relevant quantitative variation in Boechera . (
  • [2] Intergenic suppression is useful for identifying and studying interactions between molecules, such as proteins . (
  • Using these sequences, scientists have recently developed a new genetic technique called CRISPR interference (CRISPRi), which allows the suppression of genetic transcription. (
  • This is a prospective, single-center, two-phase study to assess the efficacy of single pulsed-dose flutamide in creating double strand breaks (DSBs) in prostate cancer within patients receiving central androgen suppression and brachytherapy. (
  • Interestingly, the functions of these proteins are interwoven in various ways, suggesting a complex genetic interaction. (
  • Genetic analysis shows that the Arabidopsis DELLA proteins RGA and RGL2 jointly repress petal, stamen and anther development in GA-deficient plants, and that this function is enhanced by RGL1 activity. (
  • The classification of schizo affective disorders as a subgroup of schizophrenia has also been criticized, and empirical research in clinical, genetic, therapeutic, and prognostic areas supports the idea that there are some strong similari ties between schizo affective and affective disorders. (
  • Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to rapidly identify 18 gene differences between a citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC) strain and a Pierce's disease of grape (PD) strain of Xylella fastidiosa . (
  • We have created an F 2 genetic map of B. stricta based on 192 individuals scored at 196 microsatellite and candidate gene loci. (
  • Travel Gene - Suppression. (
  • We focus on mouse models in order to employ novel genetic tools to regulate gene function in developing cancerous lesions as well as to track cancer growth and dissemination via bioluminescent and fluorescent techniques. (
  • Genetic determinants of a nickel-specific transport system are part of the plasmid-encoded hydrogenase gene cluster in Alcaligenes eutrophus. (
  • To further test that possibility, an AFLP-based genetic map of the Hessian fly genome was constructed. (
  • Comparative genetic mapping between related organisms within a phylogenetic framework is a powerful method for understanding genome evolution. (
  • Thus, the large component of the genome dedicated to spermatogenesis is also a major source of rapid evolution and genetic novelty, especially on the X chromosome. (
  • This genetic perturbation technique is very promising in areas such as genome engineering and stem cell research. (
  • Suppression, Genetic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • We studied the mechanism of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) persistence and the suppression of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses in BALB/c WEHI mice infected at birth with LCMV Armstrong strain. (
  • Mechanism of Cancer Growth Suppression of Alpha-Fetoprotein Derived Growth Inhibitory Peptides (GIP): Comparison of GIP-34 versus GIP-8 (AFPep). (
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization of 20 markers on the genetic map to the polytene chromosomes of the Hessian fly indicated good correspondence between the linkage groups and the four Hessian fly chromosomes. (
  • To do so they applied multicolor chromosome painting using contiguous bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) pools of Arabidopsis arranged according to the genetic map of A. lyrata and C. rubella . (
  • In the current proposal, we will assess the host genetic determinants of the TO x pathway in this setting to identify targets for novel interventions. (
  • We show that a combination of Dnmt1 hypomorphic alleles results in the complete suppression of polyp formation and an accompanying reduction in the frequency of CpG island methylation in both the normal intestinal mucosa and intestinal adenomas. (
  • Here, we report that hypomorphic alleles of Dnmt1 lead to the complete suppression of intestinal polyp formation. (
  • The suppression of LCMV -specific CTL responses by carrier spleen cells is not mediated by a suppressor cell, but is due to the presence of genetic variants of LCMV in spleens of carrier mice. (
  • The fusion of GAT-TsFR-producing cells with BW5147 resulted in generation of two hybridomas with properties and characteristics identical to those of the conventional GAT-TsFR with one exception: conventional and hybridoma 372.D6.5 GAT-TsFR only suppress responses by spleen cells of the I-Jb haplotype, whereas suppression mediated by the second hybridoma GAT-TsFR (372.B3.5) is genetically unrestricted. (
  • In addition, the company has identified a genetic modifier that could allow it to develop a cancer immunotherapy enhancing the effect of checkpoint inhibitors, which prevent cancer cells from evading the immune system. (
  • However, 28-178 was located in the middle of the short arm of Hessian fly chromosome A2 whereas 23-201 was located in the middle of the long arm of chromosome A2, suggesting the presence of severe recombination suppression over its proximal region. (
  • 3% of the chromosome A2 genetic map. (
  • Selection of genetic variants of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in spleens of persistently infected mice. (
  • Our results show that LCMV variants that emerge during infection in vivo play a crucial role in the suppression of virus-specific CTL responses and in the maintenance of virus persistence. (
  • An international consortium of Crohn's disease researchers has combined data from three independent studies to identify 21 new genetic variants associated with the inflammatory bowel disorder, bringing the total number of risk factors to 32. (
  • The suppression was specific for the CTL response and LCMV -specific antibody responses were not affected. (
  • We found evidence that genetic background may alter TGF responses. (
  • In the present study, SSH was used to identify genetic differences between two strains of X. fastidiosa that differ in pathogenicity and host range and the results were validated by using the available complete genomic DNA sequences. (
  • These intriguing findings has led to the hypothesis that reduced GstS1 function results in suppression of the seizure-like phenotypes of Shu through activation of antioxidant response pathways to modify neural development and enhance GABAergic inhibitory tone in the adult brain. (
  • From these results it was concluded that an inserted or deleted triplet does not disturb the reading frame and the genetic code is in fact a triplet. (
  • These results suggest that suppression of CRMP2 phosphorylation may be a novel therapeutic target for PD. (
  • We propose that TGF-β1 regulates mast cell homeostasis, and that this feedback suppression may be dependent on genetic context, predisposing some individuals to atopic disease. (
  • First North American Encapsulated Islet Transplant without Long-term Immune Suppression into a Patient with Type 1 Diabetes ( Biologists at the University of Liverpo. (
  • Thijn Brummelkamp, Managing Director and founder of the Dutch startup Scenic Biotech, explains how the company is using this genetic resilience to treat rare diseases and cancer. (
  • Atopic diseases, including asthma, atopic dermatitis, and allergic rhinitis, are caused by environmental and genetic factors ( 1 - 3 ). (
  • This is particularly helping in identifying genetic sequences involved in hereditary diseases such as certain forms of cancer. (
  • The question of who should cover the cost of developing treatments for over 5,000 genetic diseases arises. (
  • Antigen-specific suppression in genetic responder mice to L-glutamic acid60-L-alanine30-L-tyrosine10 (GAT). (
  • T cell-specific suppression of Gcn5 partially protected mice from myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an experimental model for human multiple sclerosis. (
  • Associated with the specific CTL suppression was the establishment of persistent LCMV infection. (
  • Other reports suggest a cut-off level for plasma aldosterone of less than 4 ng/dL and/or a relative plasma aldosterone suppression of greater than 80% of the baseline for the diagnosis of GRA following the dexamethasone challenge. (
  • Evaluation of the dexamethasone suppression test for the diagnosis of glucocorticoid-remediable aldosteronism. (
  • Genetic sequencing may become common practice for diagnosis and prevention. (
  • Sager is known primarily for using classical genetic methods to demonstrate the presence of a hereditary system in the chloroplasts of plants and for establishing Chlamydomonas reinhardtii as a model organism for the study of chloroplasts. (
  • Recently, a PCR-based subtraction method, called suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), was developed and applied for rapid identification of differences among pathogenic Helicobacter pylori strains ( 1 ). (
  • One way to achieve this has been the development of genetic sexing strains, making it possible to release only sterile males. (
  • International team identifies 21 new genetic risk factors for Crohn. (
  • Semantic activation and letter search: Blocking or suppression? (
  • Practical and authoritative, The Genetic Manipulation of Staphylococci: Methods and Protocols serves as a vital resource and guide to scientists in the Staphylococcus community as they pursue their studies on these bacteria. (
  • D. simulans is the premiere genetic model system for studies of sex-ratio distortion, as a result of the presence of at least three independent sex-ratio systems ( 19 ) and a lack of inversions that restrict genetic analysis in other species. (
  • Now a research team led by two University of Michigan biologists has used a large-scale genetic study of the lowly house dust mite to uncover an example of reversible evolution that appears to violate Dollo's law. (