Smog: A mixture of smoke and fog polluting the atmosphere. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bone Cements: Adhesives used to fix prosthetic devices to bones and to cement bone to bone in difficult fractures. Synthetic resins are commonly used as cements. A mixture of monocalcium phosphate, monohydrate, alpha-tricalcium phosphate, and calcium carbonate with a sodium phosphate solution is also a useful bone paste.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Industry: Any enterprise centered on the processing, assembly, production, or marketing of a line of products, services, commodities, or merchandise, in a particular field often named after its principal product. Examples include the automobile, fishing, music, publishing, insurance, and textile industries.Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Germany, WestGlass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Silicate Cement: A relatively hard, translucent, restorative material used primarily in anterior teeth. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p50)Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Polycarboxylate Cement: Water-soluble low-molecular-weight polymers of acrylic or methacrylic acid that form solid, insoluble products when mixed with specially prepared ZnO powder. The resulting cement adheres to dental enamel and is also used as a luting agent.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Although London was accustomed to heavy fogs, this one was denser and longer-lasting than any previous fog.[13] Visibility was reduced to a few metres ("It's like you were blind"[14]) making driving difficult or impossible. Public transport ceased, apart from the London Underground, and the ambulance service stopped, forcing users to transport themselves to hospital. The smog was so dense that it even seeped indoors, resulting in cancellation or abandonment of concerts and film screenings as visibility decreased in large enclosed spaces, and stages and screens became harder to see from the seats.[15] Outdoor sports events were also cancelled.[citation needed] In the inner London suburbs and away from town centres, there was no disturbance by moving traffic to thin out the dense fog in the back streets. The result was that visibility could be down to a metre or so in the daytime. Walking out of doors became a matter of shuffling one's feet to feel for potential obstacles such ...
Steven Dale Ittel (born 1946 in Hamilton, Ohio) is an American chemist specializing in organometallic chemistry and homogeneous catalysis. His father was a superintendent of a rural school district and a YMCA camp director, so he spent the first 19 summers of his life at Camp Campbell Gard. He is married with two children. He attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, where he received a bachelor's degree in chemistry in 1968. He was then commissioned as an officer in the United States Public Health Service and studyed photochemical smog in the New York City metropolitan area from 1968-1970. He attended Northwestern University where he received his PhD in chemistry under the direction of James A. Ibers in 1974. Ittel worked on hydride activation of lanthanides for Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) at Monsanto's Mound Laboratories for a short time. Upon receiving his PhD from Northwestern, Ittel joined DuPont's Central Research Department at the Experimental Station in Wilmington, ...
... is quite a serious issue with the major sources being fuelwood and biomass burning, fuel adulteration, vehicle emission and traffic congestion. In autumn and winter months, large scale crop residue burning in agriculture fields - a low cost alternative to mechanical tilling - is a major source of smoke, smog and particulate pollution. India has a low per capita emissions of greenhouse gases but the country as a whole is the third largest after China and the United States. A 2013 study on non-smokers has found that Indians have 30% lower lung function compared to Europeans. The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act was passed in 1981 to regulate air pollution and there have been some measurable improvements. However, the 2016 Environmental Performance Index ranked India 141 out of 180 countries. In 2015, Government of India, together with IIT Kanpur launched the National Air Quality Index. Fuelwood and biomass burning is the primary reason for near-permanent haze ...
ஓசோன் (Ozone) என்பது மூன்று ஆக்சிசன் அணுக்கள் சேர்ந்திருக்கும் ஒரு மூலக்கூறு (சேர்மம்). இது வளிம நிலையில் உள்ளது. ஆக்சிசனின் பிறிதொரு மாற்றுரு (allotrope). இது ஈரணு ஆக்சிசன் மூலக்கூறு போல் நிலைத்தன்மை இல்லாதது. எளிதில் சிதைந்து விடும். தரைக்கு அருகே காணப்படும் ஓசோன் சூழல் மாசுத்தன்மை ஊட்டுவதாகக் கருதப்படுகின்றது. ஏனெனில் மாந்தர்கள் உட்பட, விலங்குகள் பலவற்றின் மூச்சு இயக்கத்திற்கு ...
... are cements consisting predominantly of hydraulic calcium aluminates. Alternative names are "aluminous cement", "high-alumina cement" and "Ciment fondu" in French. They are used in a number of small-scale, specialized applications. The method of making cement from limestone and low-silica bauxite was patented in France in 1908 by Bied of the Pavin de Lafarge Company. The initial development was as a result of the search for a cement offering sulfate resistance. The cement was called in the French "Ciment fondu". Subsequently, its other special properties were discovered, and these guaranteed its future in niche applications. The main active constituent of calcium aluminate cements is monocalcium aluminate (CaAl2O4, CaO · Al2O3, or CA in the cement chemist notation). It usually contains other calcium aluminates as well as a number of less reactive phases ...
... is a surgical alternative in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). It is an image-guided procedure that requires conscious sedations and either general or local anesthesia. Vesselplasty is a latest minimally invasive procedure that increases mobility and reduces the pain of patients' with vertebral compression fractures by restoring the height of compressed vertebrae. It is an alternative to vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty-two conventional VCF treatment methods-that solves the problem of leakage of cement out of the vertebral body, which can happen during both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty. The main purpose of Vesselplasty is to reduce pain and hospital staying because it is a minimal invasive procedure. Patients usually go home the same day as the procedure. Vesselplasty is generally performed by a spine surgeon or interventional radiologist. With the patient placed under general or local anesthesia, the procedure is performed under C-arm imaging. The correct ...
In human anatomy of the leg, the femoral sheath has three compartments. The lateral compartment contains the femoral artery, the intermediate compartment contains the femoral vein, and the medial and smallest compartment is called the femoral canal. The femoral canal contains efferent lymphatic vessels and a lymph node embedded in a small amount of areolar tissue. It is conical in shape and is about 2 cm long. ...
... (CCN) was developed to simplify the formulas cement chemists use on a daily basis. It is a shorthand way of writing the chemical formula of oxides of calcium, silicon, and various metals. The main oxides present in cement (or in glass and ceramics) are abbreviated in the following way: For the sake of mass balance calculations, hydroxides present in hydrated phases found in hardened cement paste, such as in portlandite, Ca(OH)2, must first be converted into oxide and water. To better understand the conversion process of hydroxide anions in oxide and water, it is necessary to consider the autoprotolysis of the hydroxyl anions; it implies a proton exchange between two OH−, like in a classical acid-base reaction: OH−acid 1 + OH−base 2 → O2−base 1 + H2Oacid 2 or also, 2 OH− → O2− + H2O For portlandite this gives thus the following mass balance: Ca(OH)2 → CaO + H2O Thus portlandite can be written as CaO · H2O or CH. These oxides are used to build more ...
... is a registered trademark for fibre cement. The name "Eternit" is sometimes used as a generic term for fibre cement, but in fact it is a trademark for a brand of fibre cement, currently owned by the Belgian company Etex (parent company of Eternit Gmbh). Fibre is often applied in building and construction materials, mainly in roofing and facade products. The term "cement" originates from the Latin word "Caementum", which signifies chopped stone. Cement describes a binding substance, which will react chemically with water and develop into a material hard as stone. In fibre cement there is a fibre reinforcement, which contributes to making the fibre-cement material even stronger and to better withstand tension. Together with a carefully planned production process, fibre cement makes it possible to develop strong and long-lasting construction materials. ...
... was an American medical device company with headquarters in San Jose, California. It was known for its development of minimally invasive therapeutic devices built upon a radiofrequency platform for the treatment of spinal diseases. The platform included two applications, the StabiliT Vertebral Augmentation System for the treatment of vertebral compression fractures and the STAR Tumor Ablation System for pain relief treatment of metastatic spinal tumors. DFINE was founded in 2004 in San Jose, California. It has had five rounds of funding since inception. The first being $35 million in 2009 led by Prospect Venture Partners. In January 2010 it received an additional $2.8 million. It received $36.2 million in equity finance in July 2010, led by Split Rock Partners with participation from OrbiMed, Prospect Venture Partners, and Vanguard Ventures. Its fourth round was $25 million with an additional $1.8 million coming in April 2012. In 2011, DFINE was awarded a five-year Federal Supply ...
... is the compound Ca4(PO4)2O, (4CaO.P2O5). It is the most basic of the calcium phosphates, and has a Ca/P ratio of 2, making it the most phosphorus poor phosphate. It is found as the mineral hilgenstockite, which is formed in industrial phosphate rich slag (called "Thomas slag"). This slag was used as a fertiliser due to the higher solubility of tetracalcium phosphate relative to apatite minerals. Tetracalcium phosphate is a component in some calcium phosphate cements that have medical applications. Tetracalcium phosphate cannot be prepared in aqueous solution, any precipitates having the correct Ca/P ratio contain hydroxide ions in apatitic phases. Solid state reactions are used, one example is: 2CaHPO4 + 2CaCO3 → Ca4(PO4)2O + CO2 +H2O (1450-1500 °C for up to 12 hours) As tetracalcium phosphate is metastable the molten reaction mixture has to be quenched to rapidly, reduce the temperature and prevent the formation of other compounds such as Ca3(PO4)2, CaO, CaCO3 and ...
... (18 December 1790 - 23 February 1883) was a French physician and surgeon who was born and practiced medicine in Paris. His older brother, Hippolyte Cloquet (1787-1840) and his younger nephew Ernest Cloquet (1818-1855) were also physicians. In 1821 Jules Cloquet became one of the earliest members elected to the Académie Nationale de Médecine in Paris. In 1836, he was elected Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Cloquet was known for his expertise as a surgeon, especially his work with hernial disorders. He was also the first to describe and identify the remnant of the embryonic hyaloid artery. This vestige was to become known as Cloquet's canal. Cloquet's name is associated with three anatomical terms regarding the femoral canal: "Cloquet's hernia": a hernia of the femoral canal "Cloquet's septum": a fibrous membrane bounding the annulus femoralis at the base of the femoral canal "Cloquet's gland": small lymphatic nodes in the femoral canal Cloquet ...
It was originally part of Anomickee County founded in 1840, which in 1843 was changed to Alpena, a pseudo-Native American word - a neologism coined by Henry Schoolcraft, meaning something like "a good partridge country."[8][9][10] This was part of a much larger effort to rename a great many of the Michigan counties at the time.[9] The region, known as the "Sunrise Side" from its location on the east shoreline of Michigan, was first a site of commercial fishing activity and is still home to extensive commercial fishing activities. Later the region, like much of Michigan, was shaped by the logging era of the 1800s. Today, Alpena is known for its limestone quarry, one of the largest in the world, owned and operated by the Lafarge corporation and is a major cement manufacturer and exporter. While at one time the largest in the world, the cement plant is now just the largest cement plant for Lafarge in North America with an annual capacity of almost 3 million ...

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