Oculomotor Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the oculomotor nerve or nucleus that result in weakness or paralysis of the superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, inferior oblique, or levator palpebrae muscles, or impaired parasympathetic innervation to the pupil. With a complete oculomotor palsy, the eyelid will be paralyzed, the eye will be in an abducted and inferior position, and the pupil will be markedly dilated. Commonly associated conditions include neoplasms, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, ischemia (especially in association with DIABETES MELLITUS), and aneurysmal compression. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p270)Oculomotor Nerve: The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.Oculomotor Nerve Injuries: Traumatic injuries to the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. This may result in various eye movement dysfunction.Oculomotor Muscles: The muscles that move the eye. Included in this group are the medial rectus, lateral rectus, superior rectus, inferior rectus, inferior oblique, superior oblique, musculus orbitalis, and levator palpebrae superioris.Ophthalmoplegia: Paralysis of one or more of the ocular muscles due to disorders of the eye muscles, neuromuscular junction, supporting soft tissue, tendons, or innervation to the muscles.Mydriasis: Dilation of pupils to greater than 6 mm combined with failure of the pupils to constrict when stimulated with light. This condition may occur due to injury of the pupillary fibers in the oculomotor nerve, in acute angle-closure glaucoma, and in ADIE SYNDROME.Trochlear Nerve: The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.Abducens Nerve: The 6th cranial nerve which originates in the ABDUCENS NUCLEUS of the PONS and sends motor fibers to the lateral rectus muscles of the EYE. Damage to the nerve or its nucleus disrupts horizontal eye movement control.Anisocoria: Unequal pupil size, which may represent a benign physiologic variant or a manifestation of disease. Pathologic anisocoria reflects an abnormality in the musculature of the iris (IRIS DISEASES) or in the parasympathetic or sympathetic pathways that innervate the pupil. Physiologic anisocoria refers to an asymmetry of pupil diameter, usually less than 2mm, that is not associated with disease.InkParasympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic: Nerve fibers which project from parasympathetic ganglia to synapses on target organs. Parasympathetic postganglionic fibers use acetylcholine as transmitter. They may also release peptide cotransmitters.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper lid due to deficient development or paralysis of the levator palpebrae muscle.Cranial Nerve Neoplasms: Benign and malignant neoplasms that arise from one or more of the twelve cranial nerves.Nerve Compression Syndromes: Mechanical compression of nerves or nerve roots from internal or external causes. These may result in a conduction block to nerve impulses (due to MYELIN SHEATH dysfunction) or axonal loss. The nerve and nerve sheath injuries may be caused by ISCHEMIA; INFLAMMATION; or a direct mechanical effect.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Abducens Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the sixth cranial (abducens) nerve or its nucleus in the pons. The nerve may be injured along its course in the pons, intracranially as it travels along the base of the brain, in the cavernous sinus, or at the level of superior orbital fissure or orbit. Dysfunction of the nerve causes lateral rectus muscle weakness, resulting in horizontal diplopia that is maximal when the affected eye is abducted and ESOTROPIA. Common conditions associated with nerve injury include INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ISCHEMIA; and INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Surgical Instruments: Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.Reflex, Pupillary: Constriction of the pupil in response to light stimulation of the retina. It refers also to any reflex involving the iris, with resultant alteration of the diameter of the pupil. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Cranial Nerve Diseases: Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Exotropia: A form of ocular misalignment where the visual axes diverge inappropriately. For example, medial rectus muscle weakness may produce this condition as the affected eye will deviate laterally upon attempted forward gaze. An exotropia occurs due to the relatively unopposed force exerted on the eye by the lateral rectus muscle, which pulls the eye in an outward direction.Sciatic Nerve: A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Hematoma, Subdural, Chronic: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with delayed onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Pupil: The aperture in the iris through which light passes.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Petrous Bone: The dense rock-like part of temporal bone that contains the INNER EAR. Petrous bone is located at the base of the skull. Sometimes it is combined with the MASTOID PROCESS and called petromastoid part of temporal bone.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Muscle Development: Developmental events leading to the formation of adult muscular system, which includes differentiation of the various types of muscle cell precursors, migration of myoblasts, activation of myogenesis and development of muscle anchorage.Nerve Fibers: Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Ganglia, Parasympathetic: Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.Tuberculosis, Meningeal: A form of bacterial meningitis caused by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS or rarely MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. The organism seeds the meninges and forms microtuberculomas which subsequently rupture. The clinical course tends to be subacute, with progressions occurring over a period of several days or longer. Headache and meningeal irritation may be followed by SEIZURES, cranial neuropathies, focal neurologic deficits, somnolence, and eventually COMA. The illness may occur in immunocompetent individuals or as an OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTION in the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunodeficiency syndromes. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp717-9)Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Nerve Regeneration: Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Muscle Fibers, Fast-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type II MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have high ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment. Several fast types have been identified.Muscle Denervation: The resection or removal of the innervation of a muscle or muscle tissue.Muscle Fibers, Slow-Twitch: Skeletal muscle fibers characterized by their expression of the Type I MYOSIN HEAVY CHAIN isoforms which have low ATPase activity and effect several other functional properties - shortening velocity, power output, rate of tension redevelopment.Nerve Endings: Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.Decompression, Surgical: A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Nerve Block: Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.Sural Nerve: A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Myocytes, Smooth Muscle: Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).Mitochondria, Muscle: Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Facial Nerve: The 7th cranial nerve. The facial nerve has two parts, the larger motor root which may be called the facial nerve proper, and the smaller intermediate or sensory root. Together they provide efferent innervation to the muscles of facial expression and to the lacrimal and SALIVARY GLANDS, and convey afferent information for TASTE from the anterior two-thirds of the TONGUE and for TOUCH from the EXTERNAL EAR.Nerve Crush: Treatment of muscles and nerves under pressure as a result of crush injuries.Peripheral Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the PERIPHERAL NERVES.Neck Muscles: The neck muscles consist of the platysma, splenius cervicis, sternocleidomastoid(eus), longus colli, the anterior, medius, and posterior scalenes, digastric(us), stylohyoid(eus), mylohyoid(eus), geniohyoid(eus), sternohyoid(eus), omohyoid(eus), sternothyroid(eus), and thyrohyoid(eus).Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Muscle Spindles: Skeletal muscle structures that function as the MECHANORECEPTORS responsible for the stretch or myotactic reflex (REFLEX, STRETCH). They are composed of a bundle of encapsulated SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS, i.e., the intrafusal fibers (nuclear bag 1 fibers, nuclear bag 2 fibers, and nuclear chain fibers) innervated by SENSORY NEURONS.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Muscle, Striated: One of two types of muscle in the body, characterized by the array of bands observed under microscope. Striated muscles can be divided into two subtypes: the CARDIAC MUSCLE and the SKELETAL MUSCLE.Femoral Nerve: A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.Respiratory Muscles: These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Spinal Nerves: The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
... the oculomotor nerve, to innervate the circular layer of muscle of the eye (sphincter pupillae). Damage to this nerve typically ... It usually involves either a disruption of the parasympathetic nerve supply to the eye (which normally constricts the pupil) or ... A brain catastrophe, or a rapidly increasing brain mass, can cause compression of the oculomotor nerve. In cases of head injury ... There are two types of muscle that control the size of the iris: the iris sphincter, composed of circularly arranged muscle ...
Ptosis occurs due to dysfunction of the muscles that raise the eyelid or their nerve supply (oculomotor nerve for levator ... 3rd cranial nerve (oculomotor nerve)) which controls this muscle. Such damage could be a sign or symptom of an underlying ... The ptosis caused by the oculomotor palsy can be unilateral or bilateral, as the subnucleus to the levator muscle is a shared, ... Ptosis can be caused by the aponeurosis of the levator muscle, nerve abnormalities, trauma, inflammation or lesions of the lid ...
... the accessory parasympathetic cranial nerve nucleus of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III), supplying the constricting ... muscles of the Iris Westphal balance, scientific instrument for measuring the density of liquids Westphal-Schmidt House, ...
Since the oculomotor nerve controls most of the eye muscles, it may be easier to detect damage to it. Damage to this nerve, ... It supplies the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris. The inferior branch of the oculomotor nerve or the inferior ... The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles ... Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve ...
... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements. Thus, damage to this nerve will result in ... The condition can also result from aplasia or hypoplasia of one or more of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. It can ... In addition, the nerve also supplies the upper eyelid muscle (levator palpebrae superioris) and the muscles responsible for ... Oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a branch ...
... neuropathies of the oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve #3 or CNIII) are most common. The oculomotor nerve controls all the muscles ... as they are closer to the vascular supply). The sixth nerve, the abducens nerve, which innervates the lateral rectus muscle of ... All the oculomotor muscles innervated by the third nerve may be affected, but those that control pupil size are usually well- ... "Muscle & Nerve. 43 (6): 910-917. doi:10.1002/mus.22092. hdl:2027.42/84412. PMID 21484835. Archived from the original on 2015-02 ...
Close to the midline are the motor efferent nuclei, such as the oculomotor nucleus, which control skeletal muscle. Just lateral ... All the nuclei except that of the trochlear nerve (CN IV) supply nerves of the same side of the body. In general, motor nuclei ... in the brain stem that is associated with one or more cranial nerves. Axons carrying information to and from the cranial nerves ... This area is a bit below the autonomic motor nuclei, and includes the nucleus ambiguus, facial nerve nucleus, as well as the ...
Lesions in CN III can cause ptosis because without stimulation from the oculomotor nerve, the levator palpebrae cannot oppose ... Such damage to the sympathetic supply occurs in Horner's syndrome, and presents as a partial ptosis. It is important to ... Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... It is a skeletal muscle. The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and ...
The abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle of the human eye. This muscle is responsible for outward gaze. The ... Tolosa-Hunt syndrome is an idiopathic granulomatous disease that causes painful oculomotor (especially sixth nerve) palsies. ... It is also known as the abducent nerve, the sixth cranial nerve, sixth nerve, or simply CNVI. It is a somatic efferent nerve. ... The abducens nerve is a nerve that controls the movement of the lateral rectus muscle in humans, responsible for outward gaze. ...
The oculomotor nerve (cranial nerve III) supplies the inferior oblique muscle (along with four other eye muscles - superior ... Three nerves control the eye muscles. These are the oculomotor nerve, which controls the majority of the muscles, the trochlear ... The muscles are supplied by the oculomotor nerve, with the exception of the superior oblique, which is supplied by the ... trochlear nerve) palsy. The trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle, and when this muscle is non-functional (as in ...
The muscle, skin, or additional function supplied by a nerve on the same side of the body as the side it originates from, is ... the optic nerve (II), oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), trigeminal nerve (V), abducens nerve (VI), facial nerve ( ... Cranial nerve mnemonics. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Vilensky, Joel; Robertson, ... The oculomotor nerve (III), trochlear nerve (IV), abducens nerve (VI) and the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve (V1) ...
In half of these cases, the oculomotor nerve (the third cranial nerve), which controls a number of eye muscles, is affected. ... as this corresponds to areas on the retinas supplied by these parts of the optic nerve; it is encountered in 75% of cases. ... The oculomotor nerve is predominantly affected as it lies closest to the pituitary. The cavernous sinus also contains the ... This contains a number of nerves that control the eye muscles. 70% of people with pituitary apoplexy experience double vision ...
Hence the subsequent nerve supply (innervation) of the eye muscles is from three cranial nerves. The development of the ... The nuclei or bodies of these nerves are found in the brain stem. The nuclei of the abducens and oculomotor nerves are ... This "tonic" activity is brought on by discharges of the motor nerve to the muscle. The extraocular muscles develop along with ... View of the orbit from the front, with nerves and extraocular muscles. Extraocular muscles ALS#Late stages Hering's law of ...
Most commonly, the abducens nerve (sixth nerve) is involved. This nerve supplies the muscle that pulls the eye outward. Those ... More rarely, the oculomotor nerve and trochlear nerve (third and fourth nerve palsy, respectively) are affected; both play a ... The facial nerve (seventh cranial nerve) is affected occasionally -- the result is total or partial weakness of the muscles of ... The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the brain ...
... orbit between the two heads of the lateral rectus muscles and between the superior and inferior rami of the oculomotor nerve ( ... Normally both eyes should blink when either cornea (not the conjunctiva, which is supplied by the adjacent cutaneous nerves) is ... Plan of oculomotor nerve. Nerves of the orbit. Seen from above. Distribution of the maxillary and mandibular nerves, and the ... ethmoidal nerves anterior ethmoidal nerve posterior ethmoidal nerve infratrochlear nerve long ciliary nerve communicating ...
The parasympathetics arise from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus and synapse in the ciliary ganglion via the oculomotor nerve, the ... and are distributed to the ciliary muscle, iris, and cornea. The short ciliary nerve contains parasympathetic and sympathetic ... postganglionic parasympathetics leave the ciliary ganglion in the short ciliary nerve and supply the ciliary body and iris. ... Long ciliary nerves This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy (1918) "3-11". ...
H. C. (1971). The nerve supply to the second metamere basicranial muscle in osteolepiform vertebrates, with some remarks on the ... orbital muscle innervated by the oculomotor nerve and notes on the metameric character of the head in craniates. Zoologica ... According to Bjerring, this holds both for the distribution and composition of cranial nerves, the pharyngeal arches and their ... Bjerring, H. C. (1970). Nervus tenuis, a hitherto unknown cranial nerve of the fourth metamere. Acta Zoologica, 51, 107-114. ...
... Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... The ophthalmic nerve is joined by filaments from the cavernous plexus of the sympathetic, and communicates with the oculomotor ... Compare this to the maxillary nerve, which supplies general somatic afferents to the mid-face and skull: Face: Lower eyelid and ... nerve long ciliary nerve infratrochlear nerve anterior ethmoidal nerve lacrimal nerve frontal nerve supratrochlear nerve ...
In pupillary constriction induced by pilocarpine, not only is the sphincter nerve supply activated but that of the dilator is ... These muscles are sometimes referred to as intrinsic eye muscles. The sensory pathway (rod or cone, bipolar, ganglion) is ... will send signals to the oculomotor nerve, specifically the parasympathetic part coming from the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, ... which terminates on the circular iris sphincter muscle. When this muscle contracts, it reduces the size of the pupil. This is ...
... the oculomotor nerve) and travel through the ciliary ganglion. Postsynaptic fibers from the ciliary ganglion form the short ... The ciliary body is a part of the eye that includes the ciliary muscle, which controls the shape of the lens, and the ciliary ... which do not have their own blood supply. Eighty percent of aqueous humor production is carried out through active secretion ... ciliary nerves. Parasympathetic activation of the M3 muscarinic receptors causes ciliary muscle contraction, the effect of ...
The extraocular muscles may have two types of fiber each with its own nerve supply, hence a dual mechanism.[citation needed] ... These are innerved from three cranial nerves: the abducens nerve, the trochlear nerve and the oculomotor nerve. Horizontal ... This action is mediated by the medial rectus muscle, which is innervated by Cranial nerve III. It is a type of vergence eye ... Diplopia, commonly referred to as double vision, can result if one of the eye's extrinsic muscles are weaker than the other. ...
It supplies motor fibers to stylopharyngeus muscle, the only motor component of this cranial nerve. ... Oculomotor. *Nuclei *oculomotor nucleus. *Edinger-Westphal nucleus. *Branches *superior. *parasympathetic root of ciliary ... The glossopharyngeal nerve, known as the ninth cranial nerve (CN IX), is a mixed nerve that carries afferent sensory and ... The glossopharyngeal nerve as noted above is a mixed nerve consisting of both sensory and motor nerve fibers. The sensory ...
Oculomotor nerve nucleus: This is the third cranial nerve nucleus. Trochlear nerve nucleus: This is the fourth cranial nerve. ... The cranial nerves III-XII emerge from the brainstem. These cranial nerves supply the face, head, and viscera. (The first two ... muscle weakness, hearing problems, vertigo, swallowing and speech difficulty, voice change, and co-ordination problems. ... Cranial nerve III (the oculomotor nerve) emerges ventrally from the midbrain, while the CN IV (the trochlear nerve) emerges out ...
Pupillary dilation often precedes the somatic motor effects of CN III compression called oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve ... position due to loss of innervation to all ocular motility muscles except for the lateral rectus (innervated by abducens nerve ... Because herniation puts extreme pressure on parts of the brain and thereby cuts off the blood supply to various parts of the ... The uncus can squeeze the oculomotor nerve (a.k.a. CN III), which may affect the parasympathetic input to the eye on the side ...
... oculomotor nerve, trochlear nerve or abducens nerve), decreased sensation of the face (trigeminal nerve), hearing loss or ... glossopharyngeal nerve) and weakness of the shoulder muscles (accessory nerve) or the tongue (hypoglossal nerve). Visual ... but abnormalities of the cranial nerves (a group of twelve nerves supplying the head and neck area) are the most common. It may ... Abnormalities of the cranial nerves are present 50-70% of cases. The most common abnormality is involvement of the facial nerve ...
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as in reading). The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain. The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to the cerebral aqueduct, on the pre-aqueductal grey matter. The fibers from the two ...
... is a form of brainstem stroke syndrome characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral ataxia, and contralateral hemiplegia of the lower face, tongue, and shoulder. Claude's syndrome affects oculomotor nerve, red nucleus and brachium conjunctivum Claude's syndrome is caused by midbrain infarction as a result of occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery. This lesion is usually a unilateral infarction of the red nucleus and cerebral peduncle, affecting several structures in the midbrain including: It is very similar to Benedikt's syndrome. It has been reported that posterior cerebral artery stenosis can also precipitate Claude's syndrome. It carries the name of Henri Charles Jules Claude, a French psychiatrist and neurologist, who described the condition in 1912. Wallenberg's syndrome Moritz Benedikt Harrison's "Claude's ...
... , also called Benedikt's syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures. It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include CNIII nucleus, Red nucleus, corticospinal tracts, brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation. It has a very similar cause, morphology and signs and symptoms to Weber's syndrome; the main difference between the two being that Weber's is more associated with hemiplegia (i.e. paralysis), and Benedikt's with hemiataxia (i.e. disturbed coordination of movements). It is also similar to Claude's syndrome, but is distinguishable in that Benedikt's has more predominant tremor and choreoathetotic movements while ...
... , or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
Because the trochlear nerve is the thinnest and has the longest intracranial course of the cranial nerves, it is particularly vulnerable to traumatic injury. To compensate for the double-vision resulting from the weakness of the superior oblique, patients characteristically tilt their head down and to the side opposite the affected muscle. When present at birth, it is known as congenital fourth nerve palsy. ...
மூளைத் தண்டு (brain stem) என்பது மூளையின் கீழ்ப்பகுதி ஆகும். இது மூளையின் பிற பகுதிகளை தண்டுவடத்துடன் இணைக்கின்றது. இதை மூன்று பகுதிகளாகப் பிரிக்கலாம். அவை பான்ஸ், நடுமூளை, பின்மூளை(முகுளம்) என்பனவாம். முதல் இரண்டு கபால நரம்புகள் (cranial nerves) தவிர மற்ற கபால நரம்புகள் மூளைத் தண்டில் இருந்து தான் புறப்படுகின்றன. ...
The oculomotor nerve is the third cranial nerve. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital fissure and innervates muscles that enable most movements of the eye and that raise the eyelid. The nerve also contains fibers that innervate the muscles that enable pupillary constriction and accommodation (ability to focus on near objects as in reading). The oculomotor nerve is derived from the basal plate of the embryonic midbrain. Cranial nerves IV and VI also participate in control of eye movement. The oculomotor nerve originates from the third nerve nucleus at the level of the superior colliculus in the midbrain. The third nerve nucleus is located ventral to the cerebral aqueduct, on the pre-aqueductal grey matter. The fibers from the two ...
... is a form of brainstem stroke syndrome characterized by the presence of an ipsilateral oculomotor nerve palsy, contralateral hemiparesis, contralateral ataxia, and contralateral hemiplegia of the lower face, tongue, and shoulder. Claude's syndrome affects oculomotor nerve, red nucleus and brachium conjunctivum Claude's syndrome is caused by midbrain infarction as a result of occlusion of a branch of the posterior cerebral artery. This lesion is usually a unilateral infarction of the red nucleus and cerebral peduncle, affecting several structures in the midbrain including: It is very similar to Benedikt's syndrome. It has been reported that posterior cerebral artery stenosis can also precipitate Claude's syndrome. It carries the name of Henri Charles Jules Claude, a French psychiatrist and neurologist, who described the condition in 1912. Wallenberg's syndrome Moritz Benedikt Harrison's "Claude's ...
The sympathetic root of ciliary ganglion is one of three roots of the ciliary ganglion, a tissue mass behind the eye. It contains postganglionic sympathetic fibers whose cell bodies are located in the superior cervical ganglion. Their axons ascend with the internal carotid artery as a plexus of nerves, the carotid plexus. Sympathetic fibers innervating the eye separate from the carotid plexus within the cavernous sinus. They run forward through the superior orbital fissure and merge with the long ciliary nerves (branches of the nasociliary nerve) and the short ciliary nerves (from the ciliary ganglion). Sympathetic fibers in the short ciliary nerves pass through the ciliary ganglion without forming synapses. Preganglionic sympathetic fibers originate from neurons in the intermediolateral column of the thoracic spinal cord, at the level of thoracic spinal nerve 1 (T1) and thoracic spinal ...
In addition to controlling the amount of light that enters the eye, the pupillary light reflex provides a useful diagnostic tool. It allows for testing the integrity of the sensory and motor functions of the eye.[1] Under normal conditions, the pupils of both eyes respond identically to a light stimulus, regardless of which eye is being stimulated. Light entering one eye produces a constriction of the pupil of that eye, the direct response, as well as a constriction of the pupil of the unstimulated eye, the consensual response. Comparing these two responses in both eyes is helpful in locating a lesion.[1][11] For example, a direct response in the right pupil without a consensual response in the left pupil suggests a problem with the motor connection to the left pupil (perhaps as a result of damage to the oculomotor nerve or Edinger-Westphal nucleus of the brainstem). Lack of response to light stimulation of the right eye if both eyes respond normally to ...
... , or CFEOM, is a class of rare genetic disorders affecting one or more of the muscles that move the eyeballs. Individuals with CFEOM have varying degrees of ophthalmoplegia (an inability to move the eyes in one or more directions) and ptosis. The condition is present from birth and non-progressive, runs in families, and usually affects both eyes similarly. In the most common form, the superior recti are dysfunctional and the inferior recti, lacking proper opposition, pull the eyes down, forcing the head to be tilted upward in order to see straight ahead.[citation needed] There are three types of CFEOM, numbered 1-3. CFEOM1, the most common type, is now known to be caused by one of several mutations in the KIF21A gene, while CFEOM2 is caused by mutations in the PHOX2A gene. CFEOM3 is caused by mutations in the TUBB3 gene. CFEOM was first named in 1956, although papers describing conditions now known or assumed to be CFEOM appear in the medical ...
... , also called Benedikt's syndrome or paramedian midbrain syndrome, is a rare type of posterior circulation stroke of the brain, with a range of neurological symptoms affecting the midbrain, cerebellum and other related structures. It is characterized by the presence of an oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy and cerebellar ataxia including tremor and involuntary choreoathetotic movements. Neuroanatomical structures affected include CNIII nucleus, Red nucleus, corticospinal tracts, brachium conjunctivum, and the superior cerebellar peduncle decussation. It has a very similar cause, morphology and signs and symptoms to Weber's syndrome; the main difference between the two being that Weber's is more associated with hemiplegia (i.e. paralysis), and Benedikt's with hemiataxia (i.e. disturbed coordination of movements). It is also similar to Claude's syndrome, but is distinguishable in that Benedikt's has more predominant tremor and choreoathetotic movements while ...
... , also known as dorsal midbrain syndrome, vertical gaze palsy, and Sunset Sign, is an inability to move the eyes up and down. It is caused by compression of the vertical gaze center at the rostral interstitial nucleus of medial longitudinal fasciculus (riMLF). The eyes lose the ability to move upward and down. It is a group of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction. It is caused by lesions of the upper brain stem and is named for Henri Parinaud (1844-1905), considered to be the father of French ophthalmology. Parinaud's Syndrome is a cluster of abnormalities of eye movement and pupil dysfunction, characterized by: Paralysis of upgaze: Downward gaze is usually preserved. This vertical palsy is supranuclear, so doll's head maneuver should elevate the eyes, but eventually all upward gaze mechanisms fail. Pseudo-Argyll Robertson pupils: Accommodative paresis ensues, and pupils become mid-dilated and show light-near dissociation. Convergence-Retraction nystagmus: ...
This cranial nerve works together with the cranial nerve III (oculomotor nerve) and the cranial nerve VI (abducens nerve) in ... The trochlear nerve is the pair of nerves that innervates the superior oblique muscle (i.e. the fusiform muscle originating in ... Cranial nerves are paired nerves that emerge from the brain and the brainstem. They supply the motor pathways between organs in ... One of the cranial nerves is the trochlear nerve, which is also referred to as the fourth cranial nerve or cranial nerve IV (CN ...
Benign Sixth Nerve Palsy Syndrome): Read more about Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Complications, Causes and Prognosis. ... Cranial Nerve Muscle(s) Lesion(s) Oculomotor nerve (CN III) Extraocular muscles innervated by CN III are superior rectus (SR) ... Angiographic evidence of a blood supply from the external carotid artery system, especially the ascending pharyngeal artery, ... Cranial nerve involvement produces hoarseness and dysphagia. [karger.com] nerve involvement; proptosis; disc edema; orbital ...
... muscle). Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions. ... nerve supply, oculomotor (inferior branch). ... Definition: extraocular muscle in orbit; origin, orbital plate ...
What is Rectus inferior muscle? Meaning of Rectus inferior muscle medical term. What does Rectus inferior muscle mean? ... Looking for online definition of Rectus inferior muscle in the Medical Dictionary? Rectus inferior muscle explanation free. ... nerve supply, oculomotor (inferior branch). Synonym(s): musculus rectus inferior [TA] . inferior rectus muscle. Extraocular ... Related to Rectus inferior muscle: medial rectus. in·fe·ri·or rec·tus mus·cle (in-fērē-ŏr rektŭs mŭsĕl) Origin, inferior ...
It is one of six muscles that control the movements of the eye. The inferior rectus muscle moves the eyeball downward. ... The inferior rectus muscle is located within the orbit (eye socket). ... Motor functions of the muscle are supplied by the oculomotor nerve. Illness or trauma affecting this nerve impacts the movement ... Oculomotor nerve palsy results from damage to the oculomotor nerve, which controls the inferior rectus and other muscles that ...
What is inferior rectus (muscle)? Meaning of inferior rectus (muscle) medical term. What does inferior rectus (muscle) mean? ... muscle) in the Medical Dictionary? inferior rectus (muscle) explanation free. ... nerve supply, oculomotor (inferior branch). ... in·fe·ri·or rec·tus (mus·cle). [TA] extraocular muscle in orbit ... inferior rectus (muscle). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus. ... Inferior rectus (muscle) , definition of inferior rectus ( ...
... nerve supply, oculomotor. Synonym(s): musculus levator palpebrae superioris [TA] , elevator muscle of upper eyelid. ... levator palpebrae superioris muscle. (redirected from musculus levator palpebrae superioris) le·va·tor pal·pe·brae su·pe·ri·o· ... ris mus·cle (le-vātŏr pal-pēbrē sū-pēr-ē-ōris mŭsĕl) Origin, orbital surface of the lesser wing of the sphenoid, above and ...
Oculomotor Nerve. The 3rd cranial nerve supplies all muscles that move the eye except the superior oblique and rectus lateralis ... Trigeminal Nerve. The 5th cranial nerve is the great sensory nerve to the face and the motor supply to the muscles of ... Trochlear Nerve. The 4th cranial nerve supplies only the superior oblique muscle of the eye. Test for ability to move the eye ... Abducens Nerve. The 6th cranial nerve supplies only the rectus lateralis muscle of the eye. Test for ability to move the eye ...
Oculomotor nerve supplies 5 muscles: Superior rectus, inferior rectus, medial rectus, levator, & inferior oblique. NB: NOT ... Abducens nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle. A palsy here will cause convergent deviation. ... Trochlear nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle. Pulley just behind superonasal rim. ... and V1 of the fifth cranial nerve (the lacrimal, frontal and nasociliary nerves). ...
This nerve is responsible for eyeball and eyelid movement. It follows the olfactory and optic nerves in terms of order. ... The oculomotor nerve is the third of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the brain. ... The somatic motor component supplies four extraocular muscles in the eye and the upper eyelids levator palpebrae superioris ... The oculomotor nerve is the third of 12 pairs of cranial nerves in the brain. This nerve is responsible for eyeball and eyelid ...
... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements ... Thus, damage to this nerve will result ... Oculomotor Nerve. The oculomotor nerve is the 3rd of 12 paired cranial nerves. It enters the orbit via the superior orbital ... Oculomotor Nerve Palsy. ... Oculomotor nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a ... Oculomotor Nerve - Additional Images. ... Oculomotor nerve Dura mater and its processes exposed by removing part of the right ...
... nerve will supply the sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles. The hypoglossal (XII) nerve will supply the muscles of the ... The oculomotor (III) and trochlear (IV) nerves arise from the midbrain, and the abducens (VI) nerve arises from the pons; all 3 ... The facial (VII) nerve will supply the muscles of facial expression. The vestibulocochlear (VIII) nerve will supply the organs ... The vagus (X) nerve too is composite. It contains a large sensory element for the supply of the mucous membranes of the ...
The oculomotor nerve supplies efferent fibers to the extraocular muscles of the eye. Pupillomotor fibers travel along the ... More specifically, the location of the pupilomotor nuclei in the dorsal midbrain and the efferent oculomotor nerve running from ... dorsal periphery of the oculomotor nerve and are more sensitive to mass effect. The parasympathetic oculomotor nuclei in the ... 1995). In addition to herniation and third nerve compression, it has been shown through blood flow imaging that pupil changes ...
What is the anatomical oculomotor nerve proper? Pure somatic efferent nerve that supplies all extra ocular muscles including ... Why is the clinically examined oculomotor nerve different form the anatomical oculomotor nerve proper? ... What happens to the anatomical oculomotor nerve proper between the superior orbital fissure and tendinous ring of the orbit? ... What is seen in a patient with complete oculomotor nerve palsy proximal to the ciliary ganglion? ...
Matching Questions Figure 13.1 Using Figure 13.1, match the following: 1) Innervates the superior oblique muscle. Answer: B ... Answer: three cranial nerves are: oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens. The oculomotor is mostly motor, The with branches to the ... The trochlear supplies mostly motor fibers to the superior oblique muscles of the eye. The abducens supplies mostly motor ... A) edial rectus muscle m B) ateral rectus muscle l C) uperior rectus muscle s D) nferior rectus muscle i Answer: B Diff: 1 Page ...
Oculomotor Nerve (CN III) *This supplies the levator palpebrae superioris and all the internal and external muscles of the ... Hypoglossal Nerve *This nerve supplies the muscles of the tongue.. *The fibres originate in the ipsilateral hypoglossal nucleus ... Clinical Significance of the Oculomotor Nerve *Although the oculomotor nerve has a partly-crossed, uncrossed nature, this is of ... However, once a given oculomotor nerve leaves the brainstem, it supplies only ipsilateral muscles. ...
... the oculomotor nerve supplies the majority of the muscles controlling eye movements. Thus, damage to this nerve will result in ... The condition can also result from aplasia or hypoplasia of one or more of the muscles supplied by the oculomotor nerve. It can ... In addition, the nerve also supplies the upper eyelid muscle (levator palpebrae superioris) and the muscles responsible for ... Oculomotor nerve palsy or third nerve palsy is an eye condition resulting from damage to the third cranial nerve or a branch ...
The extraocular muscles are the six muscles that insert onto the eye and hence control eye movements: superior rectus: ... oculomotor nerve: *superior division: superior rectus muscle. *inferior division: medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior ... blood supply of the head and neck * arterial supply* common carotid artery *carotid body ... muscles of the head and neck * muscles of the tongue (mnemonic) * extrinsic muscles of the tongue *genioglossus muscle ...
Nerve supply to a superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. The muscles have been elevated. Branches of the ... Trochlear nerve (IV) 16 . Upper pointer: Superior branch oculomotor nerve (III) Lower pointer: Inferior branch oculomotor nerve ... Nerve supply to a superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris muscles. Image #56-3. KEYWORDS: Eye, Face, Muscles and ... Branches of oculomotor nerve (III) entering levator palpebrae superioris muscle 3 . Upper pointer: Superior rectus muscle Lower ...
The Edinger-Westphal nucleus is the accessory parasympathetic nucleus of the oculomotor nerve, supplying the constricting ... supplying the constricting muscles of the iris. ... The human eye The pupil is the central transparent area (showing as black ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... Image File history File links Gray696. ... Latin is ... The oculomotor nerve () is the third of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... In biological anatomy, the mesencephalon (or midbrain ...
7), as well as those muscles of the neck which are not supplied by the cranial nerves. The phrenic nerve, which comes chiefly ... Optic tract Oculo-motor nerve "rochlear nerve T aenia semicircularis Trigeminal nerve Ext. geniculate body Abducent nerve Int. ... I.I, Ilio-inguinal nerve.. Circ, Cutaneous branch of circumflex nerve. [nerve. L.I.C, Lesser internal cutaneous each supplies a ... both these muscles are in part supplied by the nerve.. The twelfth or hypoglossal nerve is motor, and rises from a nucleus in ...
Lesions in CN III can cause ptosis because without stimulation from the oculomotor nerve, the levator palpebrae cannot oppose ... Such damage to the sympathetic supply occurs in Horners syndrome, and presents as a partial ptosis. It is important to ... Levator palpebrae superioris muscle Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of orbita. Deep dissection. Extrinsic eye muscle. Nerves of ... It is a skeletal muscle. The superior tarsal muscle, a smooth muscle, is attached to the levator palpebrae superioris, and ...
... nerves misc reproductive s. perio lig) - Anatomic sciences (nerves, misc, reproductive s. perio lig) 205-252 ... Oculomotor nerve (CN III). - Optic nerve (CN II) *Oculomotor nerve (CN III), supplies the following extraocular muscles; medial ... Trigeminal nerve. - Facial nerve. - Vagus nerve. - Hypoglossal nerve *Vagus nerve, is a mixed nerve that leaves the brain from ... Phrenic nerve. - Vagus nerve. - Glossopharyngeal nerve. - Spinal accessory nerve. - Hypoglossal nerve *Hypoglossal nerve*There ...
In each eye, there are 2 muscles that move the eye horizontally. ... The 6 muscles that control the movement of the eye are attached ... muscle behaves like a muscle double innervated by a weak abducens nerve and a stronger oculomotor nerve branch or like a muscle ... This finding demonstrates that, though a muscle is present, it has a functioning yet an abnormal nerve supply. ... Both oculomotor nuclei and nerves were normal at the level of the ciliary ganglion, the inferior division of the oculomotor ...
... which are not supplied by the oculomotor nerves, but aid in moving the muscles of the eye. The trochlear nerves contain some ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. Cranial nerve IV, the trochlear nerve, is the smallest of the cranial nerves. These ... trochlear nerves arise from the mid-brain and carry motor impulses to a pair of external eye muscles, called the superior ... Cranial Nerve IV - Trochlear Nerve. *Cranial Nerve IX - Glossopharyngeal Nerve. *Cranial Nerve V - Trigeminal Mandibular Nerve ...
  • Angiographic evidence of a blood supply from the external carotid artery system, especially the ascending pharyngeal artery, substantiates this diagnosis. (symptoma.com)
more