Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Magnesium Hydroxide: An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral brucite. It acts as an antacid with cathartic effects.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Magnesium Chloride: Magnesium chloride. An inorganic compound consisting of one magnesium and two chloride ions. The compound is used in medicine as a source of magnesium ions, which are essential for many cellular activities. It has also been used as a cathartic and in alloys.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phosphorus: A non-metal element that has the atomic symbol P, atomic number 15, and atomic weight 31. It is an essential element that takes part in a broad variety of biochemical reactions.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Vitamin B Complex: A group of water-soluble vitamins, some of which are COENZYMES.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Fatty Acids, Omega-3: A group of fatty acids, often of marine origin, which have the first unsaturated bond in the third position from the omega carbon. These fatty acids are believed to reduce serum triglycerides, prevent insulin resistance, improve lipid profile, prolong bleeding times, reduce platelet counts, and decrease platelet adhesiveness.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Copper: A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.Eicosapentaenoic Acid: Important polyunsaturated fatty acid found in fish oils. It serves as the precursor for the prostaglandin-3 and thromboxane-3 families. A diet rich in eicosapentaenoic acid lowers serum lipid concentration, reduces incidence of cardiovascular disorders, prevents platelet aggregation, and inhibits arachidonic acid conversion into the thromboxane-2 and prostaglandin-2 families.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Hypocalcemia: Reduction of the blood calcium below normal. Manifestations include hyperactive deep tendon reflexes, Chvostek's sign, muscle and abdominal cramps, and carpopedal spasm. (Dorland, 27th ed)Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Magnesium Silicates: A generic term for a variety of compounds that contain silicon, oxygen, and magnesium, and may contain hydrogen. Examples include TALC and some kinds of ASBESTOS.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Milk, HumanLutein: A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Ferritins: Iron-containing proteins that are widely distributed in animals, plants, and microorganisms. Their major function is to store IRON in a nontoxic bioavailable form. Each ferritin molecule consists of ferric iron in a hollow protein shell (APOFERRITINS) made of 24 subunits of various sequences depending on the species and tissue types.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.Tocolytic Agents: Drugs that prevent preterm labor and immature birth by suppressing uterine contractions (TOCOLYSIS). Agents used to delay premature uterine activity include magnesium sulfate, beta-mimetics, oxytocin antagonists, calcium channel inhibitors, and adrenergic beta-receptor agonists. The use of intravenous alcohol as a tocolytic is now obsolete.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Mineral Waters: Water naturally or artificially infused with mineral salts or gases.Cations, Divalent: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Flax: A plant genus of the family LINACEAE that is cultivated for its fiber (manufactured into linen cloth). It contains a trypsin inhibitor and the seed is the source of LINSEED OIL.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Selenomethionine: Diagnostic aid in pancreas function determination.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Manganese: A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.GuatemalaDietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.6-Phytase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate and water to 1L-myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5-pentakisphosphate and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.26.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Neural Tube Defects: Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Indonesia: A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Cottonseed Oil: Oil obtained from the seeds of Gossypium herbaceum L., the cotton plant. It is used in dietary products such as oleomargarine and many cooking oils. Cottonseed oil is commonly used in soaps and cosmetics.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Tocotrienols: Natural analogs of TOCOPHEROLS exhibiting antioxidant activity. These tocol derivatives and isomers contain a benzopyran ring and an unsaturated isoprenoid side chain.NepalTriglyceridesChromium: A trace element that plays a role in glucose metabolism. It has the atomic symbol Cr, atomic number 24, and atomic weight 52. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP85-002,1985), chromium and some of its compounds have been listed as known carcinogens.Zinc Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain zinc as an integral part of the molecule.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Sodium Selenite: The disodium salt of selenious acid. It is used therapeutically to supply the trace element selenium and is prepared by the reaction of SELENIUM DIOXIDE with SODIUM HYDROXIDE.Linseed Oil: The fixed oil obtained from the dried ripe seed of linseed, Linum usitatissimum (L. Linaceae). It is used as an emollient in liniments, pastes, and medicinal soaps, and in veterinary medicine as a laxative. It is also called flaxseed oil. (Dorland, 28th ed)Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Deficiency Diseases: A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.gamma-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Boron: A trace element with the atomic symbol B, atomic number 5, and atomic weight [10.806; 10.821]. Boron-10, an isotope of boron, is used as a neutron absorber in BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Nephrocalcinosis: A condition characterized by calcification of the renal tissue itself. It is usually seen in distal RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS with calcium deposition in the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULES and the surrounding interstitium. Nephrocalcinosis causes RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Tetany: A disorder characterized by muscle twitches, cramps, and carpopedal spasm, and when severe, laryngospasm and seizures. This condition is associated with unstable depolarization of axonal membranes, primarily in the peripheral nervous system. Tetany usually results from HYPOCALCEMIA or reduced serum levels of MAGNESIUM that may be associated with HYPERVENTILATION; HYPOPARATHYROIDISM; RICKETS; UREMIA; or other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1490)Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.North DakotaDiarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.gamma-Linolenic Acid: An omega-6 fatty acid produced in the body as the delta 6-desaturase metabolite of linoleic acid. It is converted to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, a biosynthetic precursor of monoenoic prostaglandins such as PGE1. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
by potassium: potassium supplementation. *by magnesium: magnesium supplementation. *by chromium: chromium supplementation; ...
Excessive dietary magnesium, as with supplementation.[citation needed]. *Excessive dietary zinc, as with supplementation ( ... Magnesium research. International Society for the Development of Research on Magnesium. 10 (2): 169-95. PMID 9368238.. ... Initial treatment for severe disease is with intravenous calcium chloride and possibly magnesium sulfate.[1] Other treatments ... neuromuscular and autonomic nervous form of magnesium imbalance". ...
Magnesium supplementation decreases serum cortisol levels after aerobic exercise,[67][68] but not after resistance training.[69 ... cortisol and electrolyte concentrations in physical exercise after magnesium supplementation". Journal of Clinical Chemistry ... Golf SW, Bender S, Grüttner J (September 1998). "On the significance of magnesium in extreme physical stress". Cardiovascular ... "Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA) Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism" ...
Another review found Vitamin B1 to be effective.[citation needed] Magnesium supplementation are a promising possible treatment ... Taking vitamin B or magnesium may help. Evidence for yoga, acupuncture, and massage is insufficient. Surgery may be useful if ...
Teigen, L; Boes, CJ (September 2015). "An evidence-based review of oral magnesium supplementation in the preventive treatment ... Tentative evidence also supports the use of magnesium supplementation. Increasing dietary intake may be better. Amitriptyline ... Kelley, NE; Tepper, DE (January 2012). "Rescue therapy for acute migraine, part 1: triptans, dihydroergotamine, and magnesium ...
Additionally, magnesium supplementation is a promising potential treatment for XMEN. One of the consequences of loss of MAGT1 ... Early evidence suggests continuous oral magnesium threonate supplementation is safe and well tolerated. Nonetheless, further ... The protein serves as a magnesium-specific transporter and is known to play an essential role in magnesium homeostasis. MAGT1 ... Remarkably, Mg2+ supplementation can restore NKG2D expression and other functions that are abnormal in patients with XMEN. ...
A low level of magnesium in the blood can also cause hypokalemia. Magnesium is required for adequate processing of potassium. ... This may become evident when hypokalemia persists despite potassium supplementation. Other electrolyte abnormalities may also ... Magnesium replacement may also be required. Hypokalemia is one of the most common water-electrolyte imbalances. It affects ...
Hypocalcemia and prolonged QTc intervals may require calcium and magnesium supplementation. Various treatments have been tested ...
Magnesium supplementation lowers high blood pressure in a dose dependent manner. Magnesium therapy is recommended for people ... 2002). "The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials". Am J ... While a healthy diet is beneficial, the effect of antioxidant supplementation (vitamin E, vitamin C, etc.) or vitamins has not ... There is no evidence to support omega-3 fatty acid supplementation. Cardiovascular disease is treatable with initial treatment ...
... and magnesium supplementation may reduce or alleviate symptoms. In some cases, arthritis from injury can cause ...
Improved nutrition, supplementation, ready-to-use therapeutic foods, treating the underlying cause[6][8][9]. ... In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium.[106] This can be obtained by following the above ... Milne, AC; Potter, J; Vivanti, A; Avenell, A (15 April 2009). "Protein and energy supplementation in elderly people at risk ... In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily ...
Decreased magnesium.[9]. *Excessive dietary zinc, as with supplementation (causes rapid hypocalcemia).[citation needed] ... neuromuscular and autonomic nervous form of magnesium imbalance". Magnesium Research. 10 (2): 169-95. PMID 9368238.. ... Initial treatment for severe disease is with intravenous calcium chloride and possibly magnesium sulfate.[1] Other treatments ... "Magnesium metabolism and its disorders". The Clinical Biochemist. Reviews. 24 (2): 47-66. ISSN 0159-8090. PMC 1855626. PMID ...
PMC 3127524 Chacko SA, Sul J, Song Y, Li X, LeBlanc J, You Y, Butch A, Liu S. Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and ... PMID 17003353 Song Y, He K, Levitan EB, Manson JE, Liu S. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on glycaemic control in ... Vitamin D Supplementation and Depression in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D Trial. Am J Epidemiol 2012;176: ... Song Y, Liu S. Magnesium for cardiovascular health: time for intervention. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:269-70. Lin X, Zhang IL, Li A ...
"Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA) Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism". ... The original ZMA formula is composed of zinc monomethionine and aspartate (30 mg), magnesium aspartate (450 mg), and vitamin B6 ... "More than half of Americans don't get nearly enough magnesium" (PDF). Retrieved 2006-08-11. Brilla, L; Conte, V (October 2000 ... ZMA (Zinc Monomethionine Aspartate, Magnesium Aspartate and Vitamin B6) is a supplement used primarily by athletes, gymnasts, ...
... nutritional supplementation that includes a high-potency multi-nutrient, fish oil, magnesium, vitamin C, and coenzyme Q10; ...
Vitamin A, potassium, magnesium, and zinc should be added with other vitamins and minerals if available. For a malnourished ... There is also good evidence supporting the supplementation of a number of micronutrients to women during pregnancy and among ... In those with diarrhea, once an initial four-hour rehydration period is completed, zinc supplementation is recommended. Daily ... In addition, malnourished children need both potassium and magnesium. This can be obtained by following the above ...
Osteopathic treatment, oral magnesium supplementation with 325 mg and the use of digestive enzymes caused improvement in one ...
"Effect of soluble or partly soluble dietary fibres supplementation on absorption and balance of calcium, magnesium, iron and ...
Supplementations of minerals are often required because grains, which is the main components of commercial feed contain very ... Calcium, phosphorus, chlorine, magnesium, potassium, and sodium are required in larger amounts by poultry. Vitamins, such as ... Preston, C.M.; McCracken, K.J; McAllister, A. (2000). "Effect of diet form and enzyme supplementation on growth, efficiency and ...
Rapid recovery from major depression using magnesium treatment. Medical Hypotheses. 2006. *↑ Frizel, D., et al. Plasma calcium ... Effect of zinc supplementation on antidepressant therapy in unipolar depression: a preliminary placebo-controlled study. Pol J ... Does thyroid supplementation accelerate tricyclic antidepressant response? A review and meta-analysis of the literature. Am J ... Magnesium-deficient diet alters depression- and anxiety-related behavior in mice--influence of desipramine and Hypericum ...
Oral supplementation is also useful where no intravenous treatment are available. Historically one of the first demonstrations ... Phosphorus levels should be monitored after 2 to 4 hours after each dose, also monitor serum potassium, calcium and magnesium. ...
Supplementation is generally only required when there is not enough calcium in the diet. Supplementation may be done to treat ... Excess magnesium sulfate results in magnesium sulfate toxicity, which results in both respiratory depression and a loss of deep ... As a medication it is used by injection into a vein to treat low blood calcium, high blood potassium, and magnesium toxicity. ... Omu AE, Al-Harmi J, Vedi HL, Mlechkova L, Sayed AF, Al-Ragum NS (2008). "Magnesium sulphate therapy in women with pre-eclampsia ...
Richardson, AJ; Montgomery, P (May 2005). "The Oxford-Durham study: a randomized, controlled trial of dietary supplementation ... magnesium and zinc in children seeking medical advice for attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems - an observational cohort ... Sinn, N.; Bryan, J. (April 2007). "Effect of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids and micronutrients on learning ... Huss, Michael; Volp, Andreas; Stauss-Grabo, Manuela (24 September 2010). "Supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, ...
Anecdotal and indirect evidence suggests a trial of magnesium supplementation may improve symptoms (in subjects with known or ... Mauskop, A.; Altura, B. T.; Cracco, R. Q.; Altura, B. M. (1996). "Intravenous Magnesium Sulfate Rapidly Alleviates Headaches of ...
Supplementation with certain nutrients such as taurine, citrulline (or arginine), GABA, and magnesium may also provide some ... "Alterations in magnesium and oxidative status during chronic emotional stress". Magnesium research. 13 (1): 29-36. PMID ... electrolyte imbalances of magnesium, potassium and calcium; and deficiencies of nutrients such as taurine, arginine, and iron. ...
dietary NO3− supplementation such as nitrate-rich vegetable sources or beetroot juice. ... Siervo, M.; Lara, J.; Ogbonmwan, I.; Mathers, J. C. (2013). "Inorganic Nitrate and Beetroot Juice Supplementation Reduces Blood ... McMahon, Nicholas F.; Leveritt, Michael D.; Pavey, Toby G. (6 September 2016). "The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation ... Tentative evidence has found that dietary nitrate supplementation such as from beets and other vegetables results in a small to ...
... needlessly or are having their symptoms treated with expensive drugs when they could be cured with magnesium supplementation. ... We thirst for magnesium rich water.. Magnesium deficiency is often misdiagnosed because it does not show up in blood tests - ... Norman Shealys statements, "Every known illness is associated with a magnesium deficiency" and that, "magnesium is the most ... only 1% of the bodys magnesium is stored in the blood.. Most doctors and laboratories dont even include magnesium status in ...
Magnesium, the fourth most abundant mineral in your body, is a component necessary for the activation of vitamin D, and without ... "Magnesium plays an essential role in the synthesis and metabolism of vitamin D and magnesium supplementation substantially ... To assess your magnesium level, check your RBC magnesium level and track signs and symptoms of magnesium insufficiency to ... To assess your magnesium level, check your RBC magnesium level and track signs and symptoms of magnesium insufficiency to ...
The Magnesium Miracle.. It will help you understand your symptoms and have instructions what Magnesium to take and how much, ... Id like to direct you to Search Magnesium and kidney stones. This is one sure sign of lack of Magnesium, also included are ... Taking Magnesium will also require including Vit D3, Vit B complex and Calcium rich foods (not pills) for balance. I wish you ... My magnesium levels have been tested by urine and also blood on 3 different times this year and are normal. However, my Uro ...
Magnesium citrate: a total of 500 mg of elemental magnesium. Dietary Supplement: Magnesium Citrate: a total of 500 mg elemental ... Chacko SA, Sul J, Song Y, Li X, LeBlanc J, You Y, Butch A, Liu S. Magnesium supplementation, metabolic and inflammatory markers ... The ultimate clinical question is whether magnesium supplementation would be clinically effective for the improvement of ... Dietary Supplement: Magnesium Citrate: a total of 500 mg elemental magnesium Other: Placebo ...
Magnesium is vital for many functions in the body and magnesium supplementation is safe. There is a possible association ... Oral magnesium supplementation in adults with coronary heart disease or coronary heart disease risk ... There were no reports of adverse effects from magnesium supplementation in any of the studies. Subjects reporting lower dietary ... magnesium intake had significantly lower serum magnesium concentrations than those reporting higher dietary magnesium intake ...
If DHEA is low, magnesium is low. They go together. Even a 10% increase in magnesium and DHEA levels is associated with a 48% ... Every known illness is associated with a magnesium deficiency and low levels of the hormone DHEA. ... and magnesium supplementation using magnesium chloride in Magic Oil, Bath Crystals or Dollop of Love. Other available products ... and magnesium supplementation using magnesium chloride in Magic Oil, Bath Crystals or Dollop of Love. Other available products ...
Magnesium supplementation prevents the development of alcohol-induced hypertension.. S T Hsieh, H Sano, K Saito, Y Kubota, M ... Magnesium supplementation prevents the development of alcohol-induced hypertension.. S T Hsieh, H Sano, K Saito, Y Kubota and M ... Magnesium supplementation prevents the development of alcohol-induced hypertension.. S T Hsieh, H Sano, K Saito, Y Kubota and M ... Oral magnesium supplementation (1% MgO in rat chow) attenuated the development of alcohol-induced hypertension accompanied by ...
The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters were studied during a period of 4 wk in adult tae-kwon-do athletes ... F. J. Navas and C. Cordova, Effect of magnesium supplementation and training on magnesium tissue distribution in rats, Biol. ... The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters were studied during a period of 4 wk in adult tae-kwon-do athletes ... Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters of athletes at rest and after exercise. ...
Magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable ... Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP.The pooled results suggest ... The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or ... Magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable ...
These arrhythmias can be alleviated/abolished by magnesium supplementation. ... probably related to increased urine magnesium excretion, is an essential feature of heart failure associated with complex ... Beneficial effects of magnesium supplementation J Intern Med. 2000 Jan;247(1):78-86. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2796.2000.00585.x. ... Design: Serum magnesium and potassium levels, urine magnesium excretion and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias were ...
Oral magnesium supplementation: an adjuvant alternative to facing the worldwide challenge of type 2 diabetes?].. [Article in ... The efficacy of oral magnesium supplementation in the reduction of glucose levels in type 2 diabetic patients is inconsistent. ... Magnesium intake in the customary diet of subjects of the general population and the high-risk groups and/or oral magnesium ... or magnesium intake with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes as well as of clinical trials on the efficacy of oral magnesium ...
The objective of this trial was to test whether supplementation with over-the-counter magnesium chloride improves symptoms of ... Magnesium is effective for mild-to-moderate depression in adults. It works quickly and is well tolerated without the need for ... Consumption of magnesium chloride for 6 weeks resulted in a clinically significant net improvement in PHQ-9 scores of -6.0 ... The intervention was 6 weeks of active treatment (248 mg of elemental magnesium per day) compared to 6 weeks of control (no ...
In conclusion, oral magnesium supplementation with 2.5 g MgCl2 restores serum magnesium and improves insulin sensitivity in ... So, the aim of this study was to determine whether oral magnesium supplementation, as magnesium chloride (MgCl2) solution, 2.5 ... RESULTS-At the end of the study, subjects who received magnesium supplementation showed significant higher serum magnesium ... These findings support the necessity of oral magnesium supplementation to achieve an increase in serum magnesium concentration ...
Oral magnesium supplementation reduces insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects - a double-blind, placebo-controlled, ... Mg supplementation resulted in a significant improvement of fasting plasma glucose and some insulin sensitivity indices (ISIs) ... The incidence of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome correlates with the availability of magnesium (Mg). We studied the ... The results provide significant evidence that oral Mg supplementation improves insulin sensitivity even in normomagnesemic, ...
The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation in Increasing Doses on the Control of Type 2 Diabetes. ... The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation in Increasing Doses on the Control of Type 2 Diabetes ... Our purpose was to evaluate if Mg supplementation (as magnesium oxide [MgO]) would improve metabolic control in patients with ... The Effect of Magnesium Supplementation in Increasing Doses on the Control of Type 2 Diabetes ...
... J Am Coll Nutr. 1992 Jun;11(3):326-9. doi: 10.1080/ ... This study investigated the effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) on strength development during a double-blind, 7-week strength ...
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of magnesium supplementation in preventing muscle damage in ... We conclude that magnesium supplementation seems to exert a protective effect on muscle damage. ... They were divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 9) and the magnesium-supplemented group (n = 9). The supplementation ... Serum and erythrocyte magnesium levels decreased during the race. Circulating tissue markers increased at the end of the race ...
Conversely, deficiencies in calcium and magnesium as a result of the increasing prevalence of a high fat/high sugar ... Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and ... Dietary Supplementation with a Magnesium-Rich Marine Mineral Blend Enhances the Diversity of Gastrointestinal Microbiota. Erin ... "Dietary Supplementation with a Magnesium-Rich Marine Mineral Blend Enhances the Diversity of Gastrointestinal Microbiota." Mar ...
... and magnesium levels in wome were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad. ... PubMed journal article Effects of iron supplementation and discontinuation on serum copper, zinc, calcium, ... Effects of iron supplementation and discontinuation on serum copper, zinc, calcium, and magnesium levels in women.. Med Sci ... "Effects of Iron Supplementation and Discontinuation On Serum Copper, Zinc, Calcium, and Magnesium Levels in Women." Medicine ...
Everything that you need to know about supplementation of magnesium... ... Want to learn more about Magnesium Supplementation? Youve come to the right place. ... magnesium supplementation. by rich (new york) I have had atrial fibrillation twice in the past seven years. After my last bout ... Magnesium supplements are really helping in my case. Ive had many of the symptoms of magnesium deficiency for decades, and had ...
In the analysis of all trials, oral magnesium supplementation compared to no magnesium was associated with no significant ... Many women, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, have low intakes of magnesium. Magnesium supplementation during ... no increased risk of neonatal death was seen for the magnesium supplemented group. Magnesium supplementation was associated ... Magnesium supplementation did not reduce the risk of babies being born small for their gestational age, and did not reduce the ...
Supplementing with magnesium was associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men and women with ... "Magnesium supplementation may play role in breaking the cycle between the preclinical conditions and type 2 diabetes and ... "To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable ... "The pooled results suggest that magnesium supplementation significantly lowers blood pressure in individuals with insulin ...
A pilot phase II trial of magnesium supplements to reduce menopausal hot flashes in breast cancer patients. Support Care Cancer ... Magnesium Supplementation Reduces Hot Flashes in Women with Breast Cancer. New study shows that magnesium supplementation may ... Supplementation with magnesium oxide (400 mg/day for 4 weeks, increasing to 800 mg/d if needed, which occurred in 17 patients). ... Magnesium supplementation was found to be associated with a significant reduction in frequency of hot flashes (from 52.2 to ...
Magnesium & Malic Acid Supplementation Often Beneficial for CFS & FM Quality-of-Life Measures - Studies and Top Specialists ... Things to Know About Mg Supplementation. In addition to maintaining normal muscle and nerve function, "magnesium keeps heart ... The Importance of Magnesium for Energy and Muscle Comfort. Magnesium plays a role in at least 300 biochemical functions in the ... Leading CFS and FM specialists routinely recommend magnesium supplementation to their patients specifically for support of ...
The effects of magnesium physiological supplementation on hyperactivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity ...
  • The September 2017 issue of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported the results of a meta-analysis which concluded that supplementing with magnesium was associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men and women with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases including diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (lifeextension.com)
  • Epsom Salt is a magnesium sulfate mineral - giving a double benefit, as sulfur is a plant nutrient as well. (firstrays.com)
  • Magnesium Sulfate: This is the stuff found in Epsom salt. (liveitholistic.com)
  • The full intravenous or intramuscular magnesium sulfate regimens are recommended for the prevention and treatment of eclampsia. (who.int)
  • Magnesium sulfate is a lifesaving drug and should be available in all health-care facilities throughout the health system. (who.int)
  • Clinical evidence supports the use of magnesium sulfate in all pre-eclampsia patients. (who.int)
  • In settings where there are resource constraints to manage the administration of magnesium sulfate safely in all women with pre-eclampsia, there may be a need to accord greater priority to the more severe cases. (who.int)
  • Magnesium sulfate is effective in preventing seizures in both mild and severe pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • The group agreed on the need to treat women with severe pre- eclampsia, but the group members were divided on the use of magnesium sulfate as a prophylaxis for mild pre-eclampsia. (who.int)
  • Large trials have evaluated and demonstrated the effectiveness of full regimens of magnesium sulfate, which include a loading dose followed by 24-hour maintenance therapy. (who.int)
  • Specific guidance on how to administer magnesium sulfate can be found in the WHO manual entitled Managing complications in pregnancy and childbirth: a guide for midwives and doctors. (who.int)
  • The guideline development group deliberated on the best course of action in settings in which it is not possible to administer the full magnesium sulfate regimen. (who.int)
  • The group debated the possible (but yet unproven) benefits of administering only the loading dose versus transferring women with severe preeclampsia and eclampsia without any magnesium sulfate. (who.int)
  • A Cochrane systematic review was conducted, on the comparative effects of alternative magnesium sulfate regimens for the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. (who.int)
  • For settings where it is not possible to administer the full magnesium sulfate regimen, the use of magnesium sulfate loading dose followed by an immediate transfer to a higher level health-care facility is recommended for women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. (who.int)
  • This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of magnesium sulfate (MgSO 4 ) during late gestation and lactation on sow and litter performance, fecal moisture, blood biochemistry parameters, immunoglobulin levels and milk composition in sows. (ajas.info)
  • Lactate supplementation is a form of potential ergogenic aid that might improve acid based balance during exercise to improve physical performance . (ccsu.edu)
  • No statistical significant differences were observed pre to post lactate supplementation . (ccsu.edu)
  • The findings of the current study show that lactate supplementation does not improve direct performance indicators quantified in VO2peak and OBLA . (ccsu.edu)
  • The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Although evidence suggests that magnesium supplementation could be useful in the treatment of diabetes and to prevent the development of its chronic complications ( 11 - 13 ), the possible benefits of magnesium administration as an adjuvant factor for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, based in a randomized controlled trial, are scarce ( 14 - 19 ) and controversial ( 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors observe that magnesium may directly lower blood pressure as well as improve preclinical conditions and chronic diseases that predispose people to develop hypertension. (lifeextension.com)
  • Clinical studies have consistently reported that Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Syndrome patients tend to be deficient in the essential mineral magnesium (Mg), and research indicates many may achieve quality-of-life benefits by adding supplemental Mg to their diets. (prohealth.com)
  • Low magnesium status has been associated with numerous conditions characterized as having a chronic inflammatory stress component. (jle.com)
  • 3.0 mg/L. The findings show that many individuals have a low magnesium status associated with increased chronic inflammatory stress that could be alleviated by increased magnesium intake. (jle.com)
  • Magnesium is an essential mineral which plays a crucial role in more than 300 different enzymatic reactions each day, with research finding that magnesium can help achieve a restful night's sleep and reduce the symptoms of restless legs, chronic pains, anxiety, and migraines. (news-medical.net)
  • Certain diseases, such as Type 2 diabetes and chronic gastrointestinal illnesses, can deplete magnesium over time. (livestrong.com)
  • 1,2 However, severe and persistent tubulopathy causing chronic magnesium wasting many years after cisplatin chemotherapy is rarely seen. (njmonline.nl)
  • 7-9 Intravenous administration of magnesium is used in some clinical settings, yet this is not feasible as a long-term solution for chronic and severe hypomagnesaemia. (njmonline.nl)
  • Research has found that 60 percent of those with chronic migraines have genetic changes that decrease their body's ability to metabolize magnesium, which relaxes blood vessels in the brain. (mindbodygreen.com)
  • Whether circulating magnesium is a relevant biological marker for examining the role of magnesium in HF in older adults who are at particularly high risk of HF has not been well studied. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this review was to overview the role of magnesium supplementation in the treatment of ADHD. (ac.ir)
  • Magnesium is an essential mineral required for regulation of body temperature, nucleic acid and protein synthesis and in maintaining nerve and muscle cell electrical potentials. (cochrane.org)
  • Magnesium is an essential mineral required by every organ in the body for a range of activities including bone, protein and fatty acid formation. (nourishedco.com.au)
  • Accumulating evidence demonstrates that dietary supplementation with functional food ingredients play a role in systemic and brain health as well as in healthy ageing. (mdpi.com)
  • To achieve the same amount of magnesium as if you had supplemented your fertilizer at every feeding, you would need 0.136 x 6 = 0.816 teaspoons - or to make life a bit easier - somewhere between 3/4- and 1 teaspoon per gallon, added to your fertilizer solution once a month. (firstrays.com)
  • The highest amount of magnesium within the whole body is in the heart, specifically within the heart's left ventricle. (nourishedco.com.au)
  • One of the most important is that it activates almost all the enzymes involved in transforming fat and sugar into high-energy adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the body's energy source, reports Georges Ramalanjaona, MD, an expert on the benefits of Mg supplementation for FM patients based at Seton Hall University's School of Graduate Medical Education. (prohealth.com)
  • Up to 60% of the body's Magnesium is found in the skeleton, with only 30% of that available for mobilization during times when it is needed elsewhere in the body. (dlequine.co.nz)
  • Magnesium is required to give the "spark of life" to metabolic functions involving the creation of energy and its transport (ATP, the body's fundamental energy currency), and the creation of proteins-the nucleic acid chemistry of life-RNA and DNA, in all known living organisms. (westonaprice.org)
  • Most testing will use the old serum blood test which isn't all that accurate since less than 1% of the body's total magnesium can be measured in our blood. (infoboil.com)
  • Magnesium supplementation is recommended for a number of reasons, given magnesium's startling impact on the body's central processes. (ancient-minerals.com)
  • This study investigated the effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) on strength development during a double-blind, 7-week strength training program in 26 untrained subjects (14 = control, C and 12 = Mg supplemented, M), 18-30 years old. (nih.gov)
  • C. Henry, H. C. Lukaski, and H. Forrest, Dietry Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses During Submaximal Exercise Postmenopausal Women , American Society for Nutritional Sciences, pp. 930-935 (2002). (springer.com)
  • Magnesium is involved in over 300 metabolic reactions which helps to generate energy inside your body. (drkehres.com)