An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)
A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of humans and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
Colorless to yellow dye that is reducible to blue or black formazan crystals by certain cells; formerly used to distinguish between nonbacterial and bacterial diseases, the latter causing neutrophils to reduce the dye; used to confirm diagnosis of chronic granulomatous disease.
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A potent oxidant synthesized by the cell during its normal metabolism. Peroxynitrite is formed from the reaction of two free radicals, NITRIC OXIDE and the superoxide anion (SUPEROXIDES).
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A trihydroxybenzene or dihydroxy phenol that can be prepared by heating GALLIC ACID.
The protein components of enzyme complexes (HOLOENZYMES). An apoenzyme is the holoenzyme minus any cofactors (ENZYME COFACTORS) or prosthetic groups required for the enzymatic function.
A morpholinyl sydnone imine ethyl ester, having a nitrogen in place of the keto oxygen. It acts as NITRIC OXIDE DONORS and is a vasodilator that has been used in ANGINA PECTORIS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A colorimetric reagent for iron, manganese, titanium, molybdenum, and complexes of zirconium. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Use of a pulse of X-rays or fast electrons to generate free radicals for spectroscopic examination.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
A cytochrome oxidase inhibitor which is a nitridizing agent and an inhibitor of terminal oxidation. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A large increase in oxygen uptake by neutrophils and most types of tissue macrophages through activation of an NADPH-cytochrome b-dependent oxidase that reduces oxygen to a superoxide. Individuals with an inherited defect in which the oxidase that reduces oxygen to superoxide is decreased or absent (GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC) often die as a result of recurrent bacterial infections.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A group of cytochromes with covalent thioether linkages between either or both of the vinyl side chains of protoheme and the protein. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539)
A CALCIUM-dependent, constitutively-expressed form of nitric oxide synthase found primarily in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS.
A diverse group of agents, with unique chemical structures and biochemical requirements, which generate NITRIC OXIDE. These compounds have been used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and the management of acute myocardial infarction, acute and chronic congestive heart failure, and surgical control of blood pressure. (Adv Pharmacol 1995;34:361-81)
Ions with the suffix -onium, indicating cations with coordination number 4 of the type RxA+ which are analogous to QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (H4N+). Ions include phosphonium R4P+, oxonium R3O+, sulfonium R3S+, chloronium R2Cl+
A xanthine oxidase inhibitor.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The salts or esters of salicylic acids, or salicylate esters of an organic acid. Some of these have analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis.
A technique for detecting short-lived reactive FREE RADICALS in biological systems by providing a nitrone or nitrose compound for an addition reaction to occur which produces an ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY-detectable aminoxyl radical. In spin trapping, the compound trapping the radical is called the spin trap and the addition product of the radical is identified as the spin adduct. (Free Rad Res Comm 1990;9(3-6):163)
Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)
Adverse functional, metabolic, or structural changes in ischemic tissues resulting from the restoration of blood flow to the tissue (REPERFUSION), including swelling; HEMORRHAGE; NECROSIS; and damage from FREE RADICALS. The most common instance is MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION INJURY.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that are common in the marine environment and on the surfaces and in the intestinal contents of marine animals. Some species are bioluminescent and are found as symbionts in specialized luminous organs of fish.
A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Inorganic oxides that contain nitrogen.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Complex cytotoxic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces flocculus or S. rufochronmogenus. It is used in advanced carcinoma and causes leukopenia.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A natural product that has been considered as a growth factor for some insects.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A XANTHINE OXIDASE inhibitor that decreases URIC ACID production. It also acts as an antimetabolite on some simpler organisms.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Inorganic chemicals that contain manganese as an integral part of the molecule.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
A formylated tripeptide originally isolated from bacterial filtrates that is positively chemotactic to polymorphonuclear leucocytes, and causes them to release lysosomal enzymes and become metabolically activated.
Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
3-Mercapto-D-valine. The most characteristic degradation product of the penicillin antibiotics. It is used as an antirheumatic and as a chelating agent in Wilson's disease.
A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.
A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Pigment obtained by the oxidation of epinephrine.
A compound formed by the combination of hemoglobin and oxygen. It is a complex in which the oxygen is bound directly to the iron without causing a change from the ferrous to the ferric state.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Pesticides used to destroy unwanted vegetation, especially various types of weeds, grasses (POACEAE), and woody plants. Some plants develop HERBICIDE RESISTANCE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Cells that can carry out the process of PHAGOCYTOSIS.

Overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against nitric oxide cytotoxicity. (1/8742)

Initiation of nitric oxide (NO.)-mediated apoptotic cell death in RAW 264.7 macrophages is associated with up-regulation of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD; SOD2) and down-regulation of cytosolic copper zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD; SOD1) at their individual mRNA and protein levels. To evaluate the decreased CuZnSOD expression and the initiation of apoptosis we stably transfected macrophages to overexpress human CuZnSOD. Individual clones revealed a 2-fold increase in CuZnSOD activity. Expression of a functional and thus protective CuZnSOD was verified by attenuated superoxide (O2(.)-)-mediated apoptotic as well as necrotic cell death. In this study we showed that SOD-overexpressing macrophages (R-SOD1-12) were also protected against NO.-initiated programmed cell death. Protection was substantial towards NO. derived from exogenously added NO donors or when NO. was generated by inducible NO synthase activation, and was evident at the level of p53 accumulation, caspase activation and DNA fragmentation. Stimulation of parent and SOD-overexpressing cells with a combination of lipopolysaccharide and murine interferon gamma produced equivalent amounts of nitrite/nitrate, which ruled out attenuated inducible NO. synthase activity during protection. Because protection by a O2(.)--scavenging system during NO. -intoxication implies a role of NO. and O2(.)- in the progression of cell damage, we used uric acid to delineate the role of peroxynitrite during NO.-elicited apoptosis. The peroxynitrite scavenger uric acid left S-nitrosoglutathione or spermine-NO-elicited apoptosis unaltered, blocking only 3-morpholinosydnonimine-mediated cell death. As a result we exclude peroxynitrite from contributing, to any major extent, to NO. -mediated apoptosis. Therefore protection observed with CuZnSOD overexpression is unlikely to stem from interference with peroxynitrite formation and/or action. Unequivocally, the down-regulation of CuZnSOD is associated with NO. cytotoxicity, whereas CuZnSOD overexpression protects macrophages from apoptosis.  (+info)

In vivo formation of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase disulfide bond in Escherichia coli. (2/8742)

We have found that the in vivo folding of periplasmic Escherichia coli Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase is assisted by DsbA, which catalyzes the efficient formation of its single disulfide bond, whose integrity is essential to ensure full catalytic activity to the enzyme. In line with these findings, we also report that the production of recombinant Xenopus laevis Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase is enhanced when the enzyme is exported in the periplasmic space or is expressed in thioredoxin reductase mutant strains. Our data show that inefficient disulfide bond oxidation in the bacterial cytoplasm inhibits Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase folding in this cellular compartment.  (+info)

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells. (3/8742)

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1x10(5) cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a 'foreign body', i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GPchi, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells.  (+info)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 enhances the susceptibility of breast cancer cells to doxorubicin-induced oxidative damage. (4/8742)

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the hormonal form of vitamin D, has anticancer activity in vivo and in vitro. Doxorubicin exerts its cytotoxic effect on tumor cells mainly by two mechanisms: (a) generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); and (b) inhibition of topoisomerase II. We studied the combined cytotoxic action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Pretreatement with 1,25(OH)2D3 resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity of doxorubicin. The average enhancing effect after a 72-h pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 (10 nM) followed by a 24-h treatment with 1 microg/ml doxorubicin was 74+/-9% (mean +/- SE). Under these experimental conditions, 1,25(OH)2D3 on its own did not affect cell number or viability. 1,25(OH)2D3 also enhanced the cytotoxic activity of another ROS generating quinone, menadione, but did not affect cytotoxicity induced by the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine slightly reduced the cytotoxic activity of doxorubicin but had a marked protective effect against the combined action of 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. These results indicate that ROS are involved in the interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin. 1,25(OH)2D3 also increased doxorubicin cytotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cardiomyocytes. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with 1,25(OH)2D3 alone markedly reduced the activity, protein, and mRNA levels of the cytoplasmic antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, which indicated that the hormone inhibits its biosynthesis. This reduction in the antioxidant capacity of the cells could account for the synergistic interaction between 1,25(OH)2D3 and doxorubicin and may also suggest increased efficacy of 1,25(OH)2D3 or its analogues in combination with other ROS-generating anticancer therapeutic modalities.  (+info)

A cell-surface superoxide dismutase is a binding protein for peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase in crayfish. (5/8742)

Peroxinectin, a cell-adhesive peroxidase (homologous to human myeloperoxidase), from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, was shown by immuno-fluorescence to bind to the surface of crayfish blood cells (haemocytes). In order to identify a cell surface receptor for peroxinectin, labelled peroxinectin was incubated with a blot of haemocyte membrane proteins. It was found to specifically bind two bands of 230 and 90 kDa; this binding was decreased in the presence of unlabelled peroxinectin. Purified 230/90 kDa complex also bound peroxinectin in the same assay. In addition, the 230 kDa band binds the crayfish beta-1,3-glucan-binding protein. The 230 kDa band could be reduced to 90 kDa, thus showing that the 230 kDa is a multimer of 90 kDa units. The peroxinectin-binding protein was cloned from a haemocyte cDNA library, using immuno-screening or polymerase chain reaction based on partial amino acid sequence of the purified protein. It has a signal sequence, a domain homologous to CuZn-containing superoxide dismutases, and a basic, proline-rich, C-terminal tail, but no membrane-spanning segment. In accordance, the 90 and 230 kDa bands had superoxide dismutase activity. Immuno-fluorescence of non-permeabilized haemocytes with affinity-purified antibodies confirmed that the crayfish CuZn-superoxide dismutase is localized at the cell surface; it could be released from the membrane with high salt. It was thus concluded that the peroxinectin-binding protein is an extracellular SOD (EC-SOD) and a peripheral membrane protein, presumably kept at the cell surface via ionic interaction with its C-terminal region. This interaction with a peroxidase seems to be a novel function for an SOD. The binding of the cell surface SOD to the cell-adhesive/opsonic peroxinectin may mediate, or regulate, cell adhesion and phagocytosis; it may also be important for efficient localized production of microbicidal substances.  (+info)

Role of iNOS in the vasodilator responses induced by L-arginine in the middle cerebral artery from normotensive and hypertensive rats. (6/8742)

1. The substrate of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), L-arginine (L-Arg, 0.01 microM - 1 mM), induced endothelium-independent relaxations in segments of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and hypertensive rats (SHR) precontracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). These relaxations were higher in SHR than WKY arteries. 2. L-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and 2-amine-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-1,3-tiazine (AMT), unspecific and inducible NOS (iNOS) inhibitors, respectively, reduced those relaxations, specially in SHR. 3. Four- and seven-hours incubation with dexamethasone reduced the relaxations in MCAs from WKY and SHR, respectively. 4. Polymyxin B and calphostin C, protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitors, reduced the L-Arg-induced relaxation. 5. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 7 h incubation) unaltered and inhibited these relaxations in WKY and SHR segments, respectively. LPS antagonized the effect polymyxin B in WKY and potentiated L-Arg-induced relaxations in SHR in the presence of polymyxin B. 6. The contraction induced by PGF2alpha was greater in SHR than WKY arteries. This contraction was potentiated by dexamethasone and polymyxin B although the effect of polymyxin B was higher in SHR segments. LPS reduced that contraction and antagonized dexamethasone- and polymyxin B-induced potentiation, these effects being greater in arteries from SHR. 7. These results suggest that in MCAs: (1) the induction of iNOS participates in the L-Arg relaxation and modulates the contraction to PGF2alpha; (2) that induction is partially mediated by a PKC-dependent mechanism; and (3) the involvement of iNOS in such responses is greater in the hypertensive strain.  (+info)

Effects of pyrogallol, hydroquinone and duroquinone on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation and NO in the rat anococcygeus muscle. (7/8742)

1. The hypothesis that endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) protects the nitrergic transmitter from inactivation by superoxide and that this explains the lack of sensitivity of the transmitter to superoxide generators was tested in the rat isolated anococcygeus muscle. 2. Responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or to NO were not significantly affected by exogenous SOD or by the Cu/Zn SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). 3. Hydroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of responses to NO with an IC50 of 27 microM, and higher concentrations reduced relaxant responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation with an IC50 of 612 microM. The effects of hydroquinone were only slightly reversed by SOD, so it does not appear to be acting as a superoxide generator. 4. Pyrogallol produced a concentration-dependent reduction in responses to NO with an IC50 value of 39 microM and this effect was reversed by SOD (100-1000 u ml(-1)). Pyrogallol did not affect responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation. Treatment with DETCA did not alter the differentiating action of pyrogallol. 5. Duroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of relaxations to NO with an IC50 value of 240 microM and 100 microM slightly decreased nitrergic relaxations. After treatment with DETCA, duroquinone produced greater reductions of relaxant responses to NO and to nitrergic stimulation, the IC50 values being 8.5 microM for NO and 40 microM for nitrergic nerve stimulation: these reductions were reversed by SOD. 6. The findings do not support the hypothesis that the presence of Cu/Zn SOD explains the greater susceptibility of NO than the nitrergic transmitter to the superoxide generator pyrogallol, but suggest that it may play a role in the effects of duroquinone.  (+info)

Stabilization of L-ascorbic acid by superoxide dismutase and catalase. (8/8742)

The effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase on the autoxidation rate of L-ascorbic acid (ASA) in the absence of metal ion catalysts were examined. The stabilization of ASA by SOD was confirmed, and the enzyme activity of SOD, which scavenges the superoxide anion formed during the autoxidation of ASA, contributed strongly to this stabilization. The stabilization of ASA by catalase was observed for the first time; however, the specific enzyme ability of catalase would not have been involved in the stabilization of ASA. Such proteins as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and ovalbumin also inhibited the autoxidation of ASA, therefore it seems that non-specific interaction between ASA and such proteins as catalase and BSA might stabilize ASA and that the non-enzymatic superoxide anion scavenging ability of proteins might be involved.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical characteristics of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene mutations. AU - Abe, Koji. AU - Aoki, M.. AU - Ikeda, M.. AU - Watanabe, M.. AU - Hirai, S.. AU - Itoyama, Y.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - We report clinical characteristics of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) with 4 different missense point mutations in exons 2, 4, and 5 of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene, that result in amino acid substitutions of histidine46 by arginine (H46R), leucine84 by valine (L84V), isoleucine104 by phenylalanine (I104F), and valine148 by isoleucine (V148I), in 5 Japanese families. Although features of progressive neurogenic muscular atrophy were common in patients of these families, patients of each family showed characteristic clinical features. FALS patients with the H46R mutation showed a benign clinical course and stereotype progression of muscular weakness and atrophy beginning from the legs. In FALS with the L84V mutation, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel point mutation in the cu/zn superoxide dismutase gene in a patient with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AU - Ikeda, M.. AU - Abe, K.. AU - Ogasawara, M.. AU - Kameya, T.. AU - Watanabe, M.. AU - Shoji, M.. AU - Hirai, S.. AU - Itoyama, Y.. PY - 1995/3/1. Y1 - 1995/3/1. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1093/hmg/4.3.491. DO - 10.1093/hmg/4.3.491. M3 - Comment/debate. C2 - 7795609. AN - SCOPUS:0028956222. VL - 4. SP - 491. EP - 492. JO - Human Molecular Genetics. JF - Human Molecular Genetics. SN - 0964-6906. IS - 3. ER - ...
Reactive oxygen species play an important role in the cytotoxic effect of inflammatory cytokines on pancreatic beta-cells in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is part of the cellular defenses against these deleterious radicals. MnSOD gene express …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Protective effect of extracellular superoxide dismutase on endothelial function during aging. AU - Lund, Donald D.. AU - Chu, Yi. AU - Miller, Jordan D. AU - Heistad, Donald D.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - Endothelial vasomotor function decreases with increasing age. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) protects against vascular dysfunction in several disease states. The purpose of this study was to determine whether endogenous ecSOD protects against endothelial dysfunction in old mice. Vasomotor function of the aorta was studied ex vivo in wild-type (ecSOD +/+) and ecSOD-deficient (ecSOD -/-) mice at 11 (adult) and 29 (old) mo of age. Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was impaired in vessels from adult ecSOD -/- mice [75 ± 3% (mean ± SE)] compared with wild-type mice (89 ± 2%, P , 0.05). Maximal relaxation to acetylcholine (10 -4 M) was profoundly impaired in aorta from old ecSOD -/- mice (45 ± 5%) compared with wild-type mice (75 ± 4%, P , 0.05). There ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel missense point mutation (S134N) of the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in a patient with familal motor neuron disease. AU - Watanabe, M.. AU - Aoki, M.. AU - Abe, K.. AU - Shoji, M.. AU - Iizuka, T.. AU - Ikeda, Y.. AU - Hirai, S.. AU - Kurokawa, K.. AU - Kato, T.. AU - Sasaki, H.. AU - Itoyama, Y.. PY - 1997. Y1 - 1997. UR - UR - U2 - 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:1,69::AID-HUMU14,3.0.CO;2-N. DO - 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:1,69::AID-HUMU14,3.0.CO;2-N. M3 - Article. C2 - 8990014. AN - SCOPUS:16944364061. VL - 9. SP - 69. EP - 71. JO - Human Mutation. JF - Human Mutation. SN - 1059-7794. IS - 1. ER - ...
Cloning, Expression and Characterization of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase from the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), located in the mitochondria, is a major antioxidant enzyme that plays an important role in protecting cells from oxidative damage. MnSOD has been suggested to have tumor suppressor function in many cancer types. Surprisingly, the levels of MnSOD in ovarian carcinomas were found elevated compared with normal ovarian epithelium. In this study, we aimed to investigate the levels of MnSOD protein in ovarian cancer cell lines and ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells and a possible link between MnSOD expression and resistance to apoptosis. We showed that MnSOD protein was abundant in most ovarian cancer cell lines but was at very low levels in OSE. MnSOD overexpression in ovarian cancer cells caused a ~50% decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis, whereas targeted inhibition of endogenous MnSOD using small interfering RNA promoted growth of these cells, confirming the effect was MnSOD specific. Furthermore, stimulation of mitochondrial ...
This study was carried out to investigate effects of microelements under water deficit stress at different growth stages on antioxidant enzyme alteration, chemical biomarker and grain yield of maize in the years 2007 and 2008. The experiment was conducted in a split plot factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications. There were three factors, water deficit stress at different stages of growth as main plot and combinations of selenium (with and without using) and microelements (with and without using) as sub plots. The result indicated that the activity of superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde content under water deficit stress increased, but grain yield was reduced. The highest grain yield was obtained from optimum irrigation, while in the case of with water deficit stress at V8 stage it was non significant. Selenium spray increased activity of superoxide dismutase enzyme, malondialdehyde content of leaves in V8, R2 and R4 stages and also grain yield. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction in oxidative stress by superoxide dismutase overexpression attenuates acute brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage via activation of Akt/glycogen synthase kinase-3β survival signaling. AU - Endo, Hidenori. AU - Nito, Chikako. AU - Kamada, Hiroshi. AU - Yu, Fengshan. AU - Chan, Pak H.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2007/5/16. Y1 - 2007/5/16. N2 - Recent studies have revealed that oxidative stress has detrimental effects in several models of neurodegenerative diseases, including subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). However, how oxidative stress affects acute brain injury after SAH remains unknown. We have previously reported that overexpression of copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduces oxidative stress and subsequent neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. In this study, we investigated the relationship between oxidative stress and acute brain injury after SAH using SOD1 transgenic (Tg) rats. SAH was produced by ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Arterial baroreflex sensitivity is attenuated in chronic heart failure (CHF) state, which is associated with cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death in patients with CHF. Our previous study showed that CHF-induced sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons was involved in the blunted baroreflex sensitivity in CHF rats. Mitochondria-derived superoxide overproduction decreased expression and activation of the sodium channels in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for the sodium channel dysfunction in the baroreceptor neurons from CHF rats remain unknown. We tested the involvement of nuclear factor κB (NFκB) in the sodium channel dysfunction and evaluated the effects of in vivo transfection of manganese superoxide dismutase gene and NFκB shRNA on the baroreflex function in CHF rats. CHF was developed at 6 to 8 weeks after left coronary artery ligation in adult rats. Western blot and chromatin immunoprecipitation data showed that ...
ROSSA, Marcelo Muniz; OLIVEIRA, Mariana Cabral de; OKAMOTO, Oswaldo Keith; LOPES, Patricia Fátima; COLEPICOLO, Pio. Effect of visible light on superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the red alga Gracilariopsis tenuifrons (Gracilariales, Rhodophyta). Journal of Applied Phycology, Dordrecht, v. 14, p. 151-157, 2002 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced expression of manganese superoxide dismutase mRNA may correlate with invasiveness in esophageal carcinoma. AU - Toh, Yasushi. AU - Kuninaka, Shinji. AU - Mori, Masaki. AU - Oshiro, Tatsuro. AU - Ikeda, Yasuharu. AU - Nakashima, Hideaki. AU - Baba, Hideo. AU - Kohnoe, Shunji. AU - Okamura, Takeshi. AU - Sugimachi, Keizo. PY - 2000/1/1. Y1 - 2000/1/1. N2 - Little is known about the expression and antioxidant function of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. To determine the significance of Mn-SOD in esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, Mn-SOD mRNA expression was examined in 45 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and the corresponding normal mucosal tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The tumor/normal (T/N) ratio of 45 patients with esophageal carcinoma was calculated, and the data were clinicopathologically analyzed. The T/N ratio of Mn-SOD mRNA expression was less than 0.5 in 11 (32.4%) of 34 esophageal ...
2) Measurement of superoxide dismutase in R.B.C.: R.B.C. cytoplasm was obtained by the same process as used in the estimation of cytoplasmic lipoperoxide concentrations. The activity of the cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase was estimated by the following method: Xanthine oxidase will produce superoxide radicals from its substrate xanthine. These superoxide radicals will inhibit the reduction of ferricytochrome C. In the prescence of R.B.C. cytoplasm this inhibition will be reduced by utilization of the superoxide radical by any superoxide dismutase present in the cytoplasm. 2.3ml. of 50 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7.8) and 0.3ml. of 0.5mM xanthine are well mixed in a 3ml. cuvette. This was maintained at 25°C in a water bath and 0.1 ml. of xanthine oxidase soution whose activity produced an increase in the light absorbance at a rate of 0.020/min was added. In a second cuvette, we added cytoplasmic coenzyme and recorded the change in light absorbtion. We designated 1 unit as that activity which ...
An immunosensor assay for the quantitation of intracellular recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) in Escherichia coli cultivations based on detection with surface plasmon resoance (SPR) is described. A monoclonal antibody for rhSOD was immobilized on a SPR dextran gold chip. Bacterial samples were sonicated and centrifugated prior to injection over the antibody chip for SPR detection. The assay time was 7min and allowed quantitation in the range of 1-64nM SOD in lysate samples with a precision of 1.1-3.4%. The assay was applied to monitor the concentration of rhSOD during E. coli bioreactor cultivations where the rhSOD production was induced by iso-propyl-b-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG). The assay allowed accurate monitoring of the production of rhSOD where the important phases in the product formation were possible to see. The report also discusses influence from sample preparation, SPR selectivity and sensitivity and quantitation limits. The assay proved to be fast, sensitive and accurate ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human Superoxide Dismutase 4 protein (ab99300). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
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The cytosolic antioxidant, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption and oxidative cellular injury after phototrombotic cortical ischemia in mice ...
human superoxide dismutase 1, soluble, SOD, soluble antibodies, indophenoloxidase A, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, superoxide dismutase, cytosolicAnti-SOD1 aa 131-153 | superoxide dismutase 1, soluble antibodies, P00441, AS09 540
Deschampsia antarctica shows tolerance to extreme environmental factors such as low temperature, high light intensity and an increasing UV radiation as result of the Antarctic ozone layer thinning. It is very likely that the survival of this species is due to the expression of genes that enable it to tolerate high levels of oxidative stress. On that account, we planned to clone the D. antarctica Cu/ZnSOD gene into Pichia pastoris and to characterize the heterologous protein. The Copper/Zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) gene, SOD gene, was isolated from a D. antarctica by cDNA library screening. This SOD gene was cloned in the expression vector pGAPZαA and successfully integrated into the genome of the yeast P. pastoris SMD1168H. A constitutive expression system for the expression of the recombinant SOD protein was used. The recombinant protein was secreted into the YPD culture medium as a glycosylated protein with a 32 mg/l expression yield. The purified recombinant protein possesses a specific
Background: In diabetic retinopathy, the vascular endothelium is damaged due to oxidative stress and inflammation, and vitreous VEGF concentration becomes elevated. The association of diabetic retinopathy with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was studied on two genes: VEGF, an important mediator of neovascularisation, and MnSOD, a major antioxidant enzyme.. Methods: The study population was 755 individuals consisting of 131 diabetic (type 1 or type 2) patients with diabetic retinopathy (DR group), 98 diabetic controls without retinopathy (DC group) and 526 non-diabetic controls. VEGF SNPs rs699947, rs2010963, rs2146232, rs3025033, rs3025039 and Ala16Val polymorphism of the MnSOD gene were genotyped.. Results: The frequencies of allele and genotype of the single genotyped VEGF SNPs or reconstructed haplotypes of these single SNPs did not differ between DR and DC groups. A higher frequency of the AlaAla genotype (p = 0.03) and Ala16 allele (p = 0.04) of the MnSOD gene in the DR group was ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is predominantly sporadic, but associated with heritable genetic mutations in 5-10% of cases, including those in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). We previously showed that misfolding of SOD1 can be transmitted to endogenous human wild-type SOD1 (HuWtSOD1) in an …
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant that protects many types of cells from the free radical damage. One of the possible ways for the use of SOD is its incorporation in liposomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cationic phospholipids on the entrapment of human erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) in liposomes. Also, in the present study, we examined the effect of this formulation on the permeability of these liposomes for SOD at two different temperatures (4 °C and 37 °C). Cu/Zn SOD was purified from human erythrocytes. Several methods, including, precipitation by acetone, chloroform, centrifugation and also ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-32 were applied. In this study, encapsulated SOD in liposomes was prepared using the film hydration method. The results obtained from the prepared human erythrocyte SOD showed that at the end of the last stage, the purification was 21 times the result of the first stage, with a specific activity of 3000 U
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is highly expressed in renal tissues and a critical regulator of vascular function. We hypothesized that deletion of SOD3 would attenuate recovery of renal blood flow (RBF) and increase oxidative stress and injury following renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). To test this, we evaluated SOD expression and activity, basal superoxide production, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity in kidneys from male and female wild-type (WT) and SOD3-knockout mice. RBF, measured using an ultrasonic flow probe, and histological indices of oxidative stress and injury were assessed after 1 h of ischemia. Following ischemia, RBF was attenuated in kidneys from male, but not female, knockout mice compared with their WT counterparts. Total SOD activity was significantly reduced in male knockout compared with WT male mice but was similar in female mice of both genotypes, suggesting upregulated SOD1 activity. Basal superoxide production and NADPH ...
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme that scavenges superoxide radicals, and are found in all living cells. SODs have been studied as a therapeutic tool for very diverse pathological situations for more than 30 years and, in many animal models and a few clinical trials, their use has shown positive outcomes. In this book, Chapter One begins with an overview of the association between manganese superoxide dismutase and cardiovascular disease. Chapter Two examines the indispensable roles of superoxide dismutation in mammalian erythrocytes. Chapter Three discusses the structure, catalysis and therapeutic uses of the Fe/Mn SOD family. Chapter Four reviews several strategies of nanomedicines development that have been used to prolong the circulation time and improve the therapeutic action of SODs. Chapter Five studies the emerging role of SOD3 in controlling skin inflammation and immune responses. (Imprint: Nova Biomedical). ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational studies of the metal-binding site of the wild-type and the H46R mutant of the copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. AU - Mera-Adasme, Rauìl. AU - Mendizábal, Fernando. AU - Gonzalez, Mauricio. AU - Miranda-Rojas, Sebastián. AU - Olea-Azar, Claudio. AU - Sundholm, Dage. PY - 2012/5/21. Y1 - 2012/5/21. N2 - Impairment of the Zn(II)-binding site of the copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) protein is involved in a number of hypotheses and explanations for the still unknown toxic gain of function mutant varieties of CuZnSOD that are associated with familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In this work, computational chemistry methods have been used for studying models of the metal-binding site of the ALS-linked H46R mutant of CuZnSOD and of the wild-type variety of the enzyme. By comparing the energy and electronic structure of these models, a plausible explanation for the effect of the H46R mutation on the zinc site is obtained. The computational ...
1LUV: Catalytic and structural effects of amino acid substitution at histidine 30 in human manganese superoxide dismutase: insertion of valine C gamma into the substrate access channel
Cheung, C. Y., McCartney, S. J. and Anseth, K. S. (2008), Synthesis of Polymerizable Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics to Reduce Reactive Oxygen Species Damage in Transplanted Biomedical Devices. Adv. Funct. Mater., 18: 3119-3126. doi: 10.1002/adfm.200800566 ...
The SCOP classification for the Fe,Mn superoxide dismutase (SOD), N-terminal domain superfamily including the families contained in it. Additional information provided includes InterPro annotation (if available), Functional annotation, and SUPERFAMILY links to genome assignments, alignments, domain combinations, taxonomic visualisation and hidden Markov model information.
Highlights: • Aging process increases ROS accumulation. • Aging process increases DNA damage levels. • Absence of SOD activity does not cause DNA damage in young cells. • Absence of SOD activity accelerate aging and increase oxidative DNA damages during the aging process. - Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Even though involvement of superoxide dismutase enzymes in ROS scavenging and the aging process has been studied extensively in different organisms, analyses of DNA damages has not been performed for replicatively old superoxide dismutase deficient cells. In this study, we investigated the roles of SOD1, SOD2 and CCS1 genes in preserving genomic integrity in replicatively old yeast cells using the single cell comet assay. We observed that extend of DNA damage was not significantly different among the ...
Abstract: Using a model of hemorrhagic shock, the possibility of protection byCu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) of the phospholipid bilayer of plasma membranes ofhepatocytes and adipocytes as well as of the blood lipoproteins was studied. SOD (5mg/kg), injected 30 min after the onset of bleeding, efficiently prevented changes in thephospholipid bilayer of hepatocytic plasma membranes in cats. Simultaneous injection ofSOD partly restored the concentration of different classes of phospholipids in plasmamembranes of mesenterial fatty tissue adipocytes altered by shock. When incorporated intoliposomes, SOD exerted a weaker corrective effect on the phospholipid composition ofhepatocytic plasma membranes in animals with hemorrhagic shock and simultaneously produceda membrane-stabilizing effect on adipocytes. In contrast to pure SOD (which had no effecton the lipoprotein composition of the blood in animals with hemorrhagic shock),SOD-containing liposomes decreased the amount of chylomicrons and very low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular superoxide dismutase haplotypes are associated with acute lung injury and mortality. AU - Arcaroli, John J.. AU - Hokanson, John E.. AU - Abraham, Edward. AU - Geraci, Mark. AU - Murphy, James R.. AU - Bowler, Russell P.. AU - Dinarello, Charles A.. AU - Silveira, Lori. AU - Sankoff, Jeff. AU - Heyland, Daren. AU - Wischmeyer, Paul. AU - Crapo, James D.. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - Rationale: Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is a potent antioxidant that plays an important role in controlling oxidant-mediated stress and inflammation. High levels of EC-SOD are found in the lung. Acute lung injury (ALI) frequently occurs in patients with infection, and levels of EC-SOD have been shown to modulate severity of lung injury in transgenic animal models of endotoxemia-induced ALI. An R213G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been shown to alter levels of EC-SOD and patient outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ischemic heart ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The amino acid sequence of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase from bakers yeast. AU - Steinman, Howard M.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 6993479. AN - SCOPUS:0018951988. VL - 255. SP - 6758. EP - 6765. JO - Journal of Biological Chemistry. JF - Journal of Biological Chemistry. SN - 0021-9258. IS - 14. ER - ...
Manganese is a cellular toxicant that can impair transport systems, enzyme activities, and receptor functions. It primarily targets the central nervous system, particularily the globus pallidus of the basal ganglia. It is believed that the manganese ion, Mn(II), enhances the autoxidation or turnover of various intracellular catecholamines, leading to increased production of free radicals, reactive oxygen species, and other cytotoxic metabolites, along with a depletion of cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, leading to oxidative damage and selective destruction of dopaminergic neurons. In addition to dopamine, manganese is thought to perturbations other neurotransmitters, such as GABA and glutamate. In order to produce oxidative damage, manganese must first overwhelm the antioxidant enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase. The neurotoxicity of Mn(II) has also been linked to its ability to substitute for Ca(II) under physiological conditions. It can enter mitochondria via the calcium uniporter ...
Journal of Animals is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of animal biology.
INTRODUCTION: Antioxidants play an important role in counteracting the effects of potential carcinogens. We investigated the risk of lung cancer development with respect to manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase genetic polymorphisms and their association with erythrocyte antioxidant activities. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a case-control study involving patients with confirmed lung cancer and age-matched healthy controls. Genotyping of MnSOD and catalase in DNA extracted from peripheral white cells was performed by polymerase chain reaction-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured spectrophotometrically using chemical kinetic reactions. RESULTS: We recruited 240 patients with lung cancer (63% male, aged 55.6 ± 11.9 years, 58% adenocarcinoma, 85% clinical stage III or IV) and 240 age-matched healthy controls. The frequencies of the Val allele of MnSOD gene and the C allele of catalase gene were common ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Copper atom in PDB 2aqs: Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase From Neisseria Meningitidis K91E, K94E Double Mutant
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Mechanisms of H2O2-induced oxidative stress in endothelial cells. AU - Coyle, Christian H.. AU - Martinez, Luis J.. AU - Coleman, Mitchell C.. AU - Spitz, Douglas R.. AU - Weintraub, Neal L.. AU - Kader, Khalid N.. PY - 2006/6/15. Y1 - 2006/6/15. N2 - Hydrogen peroxide, produced by inflammatory and vascular cells, induces oxidative stress that may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. In smooth muscle cells, H2O2 induces production of O2{radical dot}- by activating NADPH oxidase. However, the mechanisms whereby H2O2 induces oxidative stress in endothelial cells are poorly understood. We examined the effects of H2O2 on O2{radical dot}- levels on porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAEC). Treatment with 60 μmol/L H2O2 markedly increased intracellular O2{radical dot}- levels (determined by conversion of dihydroethidium to hydroxyethidium) and produced cytotoxicity (determined by propidium iodide staining) in PAEC. Overexpression of human manganese superoxide dismutase in PAEC ...
Superoxide dismutases play a crucial role in the chemical protection strategies many cells adopt to counter the considerable threat posed by the superoxide anion radical. Iron-containing superoxide dismutases are essentially confined to prokaryotes, algae, higher plants and certain protozoa [12]. In contrast, the human superoxide dismutases are either Mn- or Cu/Zn-dependent. Thus, selective inhibitors of FeSODs have potential uses in therapy against diseases caused by pathogens. At first sight it would appear difficult to inhibit Pf FeSOD using classical active-site directed approaches. The substrate-binding site is small, it needs to accommodate just two atoms and the design of selective inhibitors may be hampered by the structural similarity that the iron-containing superoxide dismutases share with the manganese-dependent enzymes. Superoxide is attracted to the active site of dismutases through a funnel, which comprises residues from both subunits in the dimer. The funnel lies at the top of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltammetric study of the antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase. AU - Korotkova, E. I.. AU - Lipskikh, O. I.. AU - Kiseleva, M. A.. AU - Ivanov, V. V.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - The antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been studied by voltammetry. The effect of pH on the antioxidant properties of catalase and SOD has been evaluated. It is established that the antioxidant activity of both enzymes is maximum at pH 6.86. Mechanisms of the interaction of enzymes with reactive oxygen species are considered. Antioxidant activity criterion (IC50) for SOD and some copper complexes have been estimated by voltammetry and spectrophotometry.. AB - The antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been studied by voltammetry. The effect of pH on the antioxidant properties of catalase and SOD has been evaluated. It is established that the antioxidant activity of both enzymes is maximum at pH 6.86. Mechanisms ...
Cabelli, D.E., Guan, Y., Leveque, V., Hearn, A.S., Tainer, J.A., Nick, H.S., Silverman, D.N. Role of tryptophan 161 in catalysis by human manganese superoxide dismutase. Biochemistry 38:11686, 1999. Crane, B.R., Arvai, A.S., Ghosh, D.K., Getzoff, E.D., Stuehr, D.J., Tainer, J.A. Structures of the Nw-hydroxy-L-arginine complex of inducible nitric oxide synthase dimer with active and inactive pterins. Biochemistry 39:4608, 2000. Crane, B.R., Rosenfield, R.A., Arvai, A.S., Ghosh, D.K., Tainer, J.A., Stuehr, D.J., Getzoff, E.D. N-terminal domain swapping and metal ion binding in nitric oxide synthase dimerization. EMBO J. 18:6271, 1999. Daniels, D.S., Mol, C.D., Arvai, A.S., Kanugula, S., Pegg, A.E., Tainer J.A. Active and alkylated human AGT structures: A novel zinc site, inhibitor, and extrahelical base binding. EMBO J. 19:1719, 2000. Daniels, D.S., Tainer, J.A. Conserved structural motifs governing the stoichiometric repair of alkylated DNA by O(6)-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase. Mutat. Res. ...
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Measurement of the free radical detoxifing enzymes superoxide dismutases (copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD I), manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) and catalase (CAT) at the site of motor neurone loss (i.e. the anterior horn in the spinal cord) showed a significant increase in the percentage of SOD2, in MND patients than controls, at the thoracic level. GSHPX activity was approximately 10-fold higher in the white matter of the spinal cord compared to that in the gray matter, whilst CAT activity was approximately 100-fold higher than GSHPX and equally distributed between the white and gray matter of the spinal cord ...
The research presented in this thesis is divided in two: The first part is a study of the intracellular protein human copper zinc superoxide dismutase which has been associated with the fatale disease Amyotrophic lateral Selerosis (ALS). ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons, and in the cases where the disease is inheriled (fALS), roughly 15% is caused by mutations in human copper·zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD). The mechanism by which mutations in SOD1 causes ALS is still unknown, but it is believed that mutant CuZnSOD proteins misfold followed by aggregation into high molecular species that ultimately lead to the death of motor neurons. In our study we have investigated the dynamical and structural differences between the wt of CuZnSOD and the ALS-associated variant G93A. 1H-15N·HSQC NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze hydrogen deuterium exchange at the backbone amide groups. The study showed that the mutation selectively destabilizes the remote metal binding ...
This downloadable document (GMI PUB) is filled with medically researched knowledge, relevant information and pertinent data on Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. The GMI PUB contains 415 abstracts which consists of a Cumulative Knowledge * of 1039. This GMI PUB document will greatly reduce your research time due to the Cumulative Knowledge feature, and contains a condensed form of the studies that we have accumulated on Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Endogenous superoxide dismutase levels regulate iron-dependent hydroxyl radical formation in Escherichia coli exposed to hydrogen peroxide. AU - Mccormick, Michael L.. AU - Buettner, Garry R.. AU - Britigan, Bradley E.. PY - 1998/2/1. Y1 - 1998/2/1. N2 - Aerobic organisms contain antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, to protect them from both direct and indirect effects of reactive oxygen species, such as O2- and H2O2. Previous work by others has shown that Escherichia coli mutants lacking SOD not only are more susceptible to DNA damage and killing by H2O2 but also contain larger pools of intracellular free iron. The present study investigated if SOD- deficient E. coli cells are exposed to increased levels of hydroxyl radical (OH) as a consequence of the reaction of H2O2 with this increased iron pool. When the parental E. coli strain AB1157 was exposed to H2O2 in the presence of an α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butyl-nitrone (4-POBN)-ethanol ...
Gurbuzler, L.; Sogut, E.; Koc, S.; Eyibilen, A.; Yelken, K.; Senkal, H.A.; Aksakal, C., 2013: Manganese-superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase 1 polymorphisms in recurrent tonsillitis and tonsillar hypertrophy
Lu Z, Xu X, Hu X, Zhu G, Zhang P, Deel EVD, French JP, Fassett JT, Oury TD, Bache RJ, et al. Extracellular superoxide dismutase deficiency exacerbates pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction. Hypertension [Internet]. 2008;(1):19-25.
In the preceding paper the mechanism of catalysis of the manganese-containing superoxide dismutase from Bacillus stearothermophilus was shown to involve a fast cycle and a slow cycle [McAdam, Fox, Lavelle & Fielden, 1977 (Biochem. J. 165, 71-79)]. Further properties of the enzyme was considered in the present paper. Pulse-radiolysis studies, under conditions of low substrate concentration to (i.e. when the fast cycle predominates), showed that enzyme activity decreases as pH increases (6.5-10.2). Activity was unaffected by the addition of H2O2 or NaN3 but slightly decreased by KCN. Both H2O2 and the reducing radical anion CO2- caused a decrease in A480 of the native enzyme. The rate of the fast catalytic cycle was independent of temperature (5-55 degrees C), and as temperature increases the slow cycle becomes relatively more important. Arrhenius parameters of the rate contants were estimated. The possible identity of the various forms of the enzyme is considered. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Periplasmic copper-zinc superoxide dismutase of Legionella pneumophila. T2 - Role in stationary-phase survival. AU - St. John, Gregory. AU - Steinman, Howard M.. PY - 1996/3. Y1 - 1996/3. N2 - Copper-zinc superoxide dismutases (CuZnSODs) are infrequently found in bacteria although widespread in eukaryotes. Legionella pneumophila, the causative organism of Legionnaires disease, is one of a small number of bacterial species that contain a CuZnSOD, residing in the periplasm, in addition to an iron SOD (FeSOD) in their cytoplasm. To investigate CuZnSOD function, we purified the enzyme from wild-type L. pneumophila, obtained amino acid sequence data from isolated peptides, cloned and sequenced the gene from a L. pneumophila library, and then constructed and characterized a CuZnSOD null mutant. In contrast to the cytoplasmic FeSOD, the CuZnSOD of L. pneumophila is not essential for viability. However, CuZnSOD is critical fur survival during the stationary phase of growth. The CuZnSOD ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by adult-onset progressive degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons. Increasing numbers of genes are found to be associated with ALS; among those, the first identified gene, SOD1 coding a Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase protein (SOD1), has been regarded as the gold standard in the research on a pathomechanism of ALS. Abnormal accumulation of misfolded SOD1 in affected spinal motor neurons has been established as a pathological hallmark of ALS caused by mutations in SOD1 (SOD1-ALS). Nonetheless, involvement of wild-type SOD1 remains quite controversial in the pathology of ALS with no SOD1 mutations (non-SOD1 ALS), which occupies more than 90% of total ALS cases. In vitro studies have revealed post-translationally controlled misfolding and aggregation of wild-type as well as of mutant SOD1 proteins; therefore, SOD1 proteins could be a therapeutic target not only in SOD1-ALS but also in more prevailing cases, non-SOD1 ALS. In order to search for evidence
Superoxide dismutase is one of the most important antioxidant enzymes that protect cells against destructive effects of superoxide anion.The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the C47T polymorphism (rs4880) of the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene and the risk of malignant lymphoproliferative disorders (MLDs).Manganese superoxide dismutase polymorphism was genotyped using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 103 patients with MLDs and 103 healthy control subjects.The frequencies of the CC, CT and TT genotypes were 29.1%, 51.5% and 19.4%, respectively, in patients with MLDs and 24.3%, 47.6% and 28.2%, respectively, in the control group. There were no statistical differences in the genotype or allele frequency of rs4880 between cases and controls.According to the fact that Mn-SOD gene polymorphisms have been considered as a major risk factor in some malignancies, this single center study did not find any association between the
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a very important reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzyme. In this study, the functions of a Cu/Zn SOD gene (SaCu/Zn SOD), from Sedum alfredii, a cadmium (Cd)/zinc/lead co-hyperaccumulator of the Crassulaceae, was characterized. The expression of SaCu/Zn SOD was induced by Cd stress. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, overexpression of SaCu/Zn SOD gene in transgenic Arabidopsis plants enhanced the antioxidative defence capacity, including SOD and peroxidase (POD) activities. Additionally, it reduced the damage associated with the overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide radicals (O2•-). The influence of Cd stress on ion flux across the root surface showed that overexpressing SaCu/Zn SOD in transgenic Arabidopsis plants has greater Cd uptake capacity existed in roots. A co-expression network based on microarray data showed possible oxidative regulation in Arabidopsis after Cd-induced oxidative stress, suggesting that SaCu/Zn SOD may participate in
TY - JOUR. T1 - The superoxide dismutase gene sodM is unique to Staphylococcus aureus. T2 - Absence of sodM in coagulase-negative staphylococci. AU - Wright Valderas, Michelle. AU - Gatson, Joshua W.. AU - Wreyford, Natalie. AU - Hart, Mark E.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Superoxide dismutase (SOD) profiles of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) were determined by using whole-cell lysates and activity gels. All S. aureus clinical isolates exhibited three closely migrating bands of activity as previously determined for laboratory strains of S. aureus: SodM, SodA, and a hybrid composed of SodM and SodA (M. W. Valderas and M. E. Hart, J. Bacteriol. 183:3399-3407, 2001). In contrast, the CoNS produced only one SOD activity, which migrated similarly to SodA of S. aureus. Southern analysis of eight CoNS species identified only a single sod gene in each case. A full-length sod gene was cloned from Staphylococcus epidermidis and determined to be more ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Down-regulation of superoxide dismutase gene expression in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) after long-term incubation with vitamin C. AU - Liu, J. C.. AU - Chow, J. M.. AU - Tsai, M. F.. AU - Hsieh, M. H.. AU - Chen, Y. J.. AU - Chan, P.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - Background: Oxygen free radicals have been linked to the process of cardiovascular disease and aging. Epidemiological studies supported the beneficial effect of supplementation of antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a endogenous enzyme system which can scavenge oxygen free radicals. This study investigated the effect of supplementation of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) on the changes of SOD. Methods: Rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) were divided into 4 groups: a control group (without vitamin C) and treatment groups with vitamin C at 50 μM, 100 μM and 200 μM. After a short-term (2 days) or long-term (7 days) incubation, the enzyme activity and mRNA level of SOD ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative syndrome of unknown etiology that most commonly affects people in middle and high age. The hallmark of ALS is a progressive and simultaneous loss of upper and lower motor neurons in the central nervous system that leads to a progressive muscle atrophy, paralysis and death usually by respiratory failure. ALS is not a pure motor neuronal syndrome; it extends beyond the motor system and affects extramotor areas of the brain as well. The majority of the patients suffer from a sporadic ALS disease (SALS) while in at least ten percent the disease appears in a familial form (FALS). Mutations in the gene encoding the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) are the most common cause of FALS. More than 165 SOD1 mutations have been described, and these confer the enzyme a cytotoxic gain of function. Evidence suggests that the toxicity results from structural instability which makes the mutated enzyme prone to misfold and form ...
1995) Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mutations in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). In: 16th Annual Neuroscience Colloquium of Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia. ...
Oxidative stress is a key feature of sepsis and could be a common pathophysiological pathway between septic shock and acute kidney injury (AKI) Our objective was to evaluate the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity as predictor of AKI in patients with septic shock. This is a prospective observational study that evaluated 175 consecutive patients over the age of 18 years with septic shock upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission. However, 43 patients were excluded (27 due to AKI at ICU admission). Thus, 132 patients were enrolled in the study. At the time of the patients enrollment, demographic information was recorded. Blood samples were taken within the first 24 h of the patients admission to determine the erythrocyte SOD1 activity. All patients were followed throughout the ICU stay, and the development of AKI was evaluated. In addition, we also evaluated 17 control subjects. The mean age of patients with septic shock was 63.2 ± 15.7 years, 53 % were male and the median ICU stay was 8
Figure 8: Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), Superoxide Dismutase (SOD), and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) in Oropharyngeal Cancer Associated with EBV Infection
Background: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a primary malignant brain tumor which has poor prognosis. High incidence of oxidative stress-based therapy resistance could be related to the high antioxidant status of GBM cells. Our previous study has reported that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antioxidant expression was significantly higher in high grade glioma than in low grade. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of MnSOD suppression toward GBM cell survival.. Methods: This study is an experimental study using human glioblastoma multiforme T98G cell line. Suppression of MnSOD expression was performed using in vitro transfection MnSOD-siRNA. The MnSOD expression was analyzed by measuring the mRNA using real time RT-PCR, protein using ELISA technique, and specific activity of enzyme using inhibition of xantine oxidase. Concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) intracellular was determined by measuring superoxide radical and hydrogen peroxide. Cell survival was analyzed by ...
Purpose: : Copper-zinc superoxide dismutases, SOD1 and SOD3, are both enzymes involved in the protection against oxidative stress, in the cytosol and extracellular space respectively. Polymorphisms of their encoding genes have been associated with various age-related diseases. This study reports different single nucleotide polymorphisms of SOD1 and SOD3 in Estonian patients with age-related cataract. Methods: : TaqMan SNP genotyping assays for polymorphisms in SOD1 (rs17881180, rs17880135, rs2234694) and SOD3 (rs1799895, rs2536512) were used to genotype cataract patients (N=492) and controls (n=186). The cataract group was divided into different subtypes; cortical (n=151), nuclear (n=75), posterior subcapsular (n=119) and mixed (n=147) cataract. Statistical analyses for SNP associations were performed using Χ2-test and binary logistic regression including relevant covariates (age, sex, smoking habits, genotypes and cataract subtypes). Results: : Genotype frequencies for the cataract and the ...
The present study highlights the following novel findings on the mechanisms responsible for the normalization of endothelial dysfunction by calcium antagonists. (1) The calcium antagonist nifedipine indirectly upregulates SOD activity and expression in ECs through activation of adjacent VSMCs. (2) VEGF released from VSMCs is involved in the mechanism underlying the upregulation of endothelial SOD activity by nifedipine. (3) Nifedipine stimulates the release of VEGF from VSMCs through activation of the bradykinin B2 receptor. (4) Upregulation of endothelial SOD by nifedipine results in the enhancement of NO production from ECs.. Calcium antagonists are widely used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris. Recent evidence suggests that these drugs improve clinical outcome in patients with certain cardiovascular diseases.12,13⇓ It is noteworthy that calcium antagonists have been shown to normalize endothelial dysfunction in many cardiovascular diseases,14 because endothelial ...
Both (-)-deprenyl and pergolide have been found to induce superoxide dismutase (SOD) in rat striata. There are several reports showing that strains or species with higher levels of SOD live longer. Other studies indicate that (-)-deprenyl can increase life expectancy in rats and that both (-)-deprenyl and pergolide may retard nigrostriatal degeneration. This present paper suggests that all these findings are linked, and that (-)-deprenyl and pergolide possess neuroprotective properties by virtue of an activated removal of toxic oxygen radicals. ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disease in which the motor neurons die in a progressive manner, leading to paralysis and muscle wasting. ALS is always fatal, usually through respiratory failure when the disease reaches muscles needed for breathing. Most cases are sporadic, but approximately 5-10% are familial. The first gene to be linked to familial ALS encodes the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1). Today, more than 160 different mutations in SOD1 have been found in ALS patients. The mutant SOD1 proteins cause ALS by gain of a toxic property that should be common to all. Aggregates of SOD1 in motor neurons are hallmarks of ALS patients and transgenic models carrying mutant SOD1s, suggesting that misfolding, oligomerization, and aggregation of the protein may be involved in the pathogenesis. SOD1 is normally a very stable enzyme, but the structure has several components that make SOD1 sensitive to misfolding. The aim of the work in this thesis was to study misfolded SOD1 ...
Embryonic stem (ES) cells can be induced to differentiate into motor neurons (MN). Animal models resembling MN degeneration and paralysis observed in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have been previously reported. In this work, we aimed to investigate whether transplanted MN could prevent motor deterioration in transgenic rats expressing a mutant form of human superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1G93A) associated with inherited ALS. Mouse ES cells were differentiated to neurons that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the promoter of the MN-specific gene hb9, as well as molecular markers indicative of MN identity. Cells were grafted into the lumbar spinal cord of adult wild-type (WT) or hSOD1G93A rats at 10 weeks of age, when transgenic animals are presymptomatic. Grafted cells with MN phenotype can survive for at least 1 week in hSOD1G93A animals. To quantitatively evaluate motor performance of WT and transgenic rats, we carried out weekly rotarod tests starting when the animals ...
Abstract. Bmi1 (B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus insertion site 1) had been found to involve in self -renewal of stem cells and tumorigenesis in various malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of Bmi1 in the development of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and its functional effect on the migration and invasion of TSCC. Initially, immunohistochemistry revealed that Bmi1 overexpression was a common event in premalignant dysplasia, primary TSCC, and lymph node metastases and was associated with a poor prognosis. A significant correlation between Bmi1 and SOD2 (manganese superoxide dismutase) expression was observed. Side population (SP) cells were used as cancer stem-like cells and further assessed by sphere and colony formation assays, and the expression of stem cell markers. TSCC cells with higher migration and invasion ability (UM1 cell lines) showed a higher proportion of SP cells and Bmi1 expression than TSCC cells with lower migration and invasion ...
Nicotinic acid (also known as vitamin B3) is a dietary element essential for physiological and antihyperlipidemic functions. This study reports the synthesis of novel mixed ligand complexes of copper with nicotinic and other select carboxylic acids (phthalic, salicylic and anthranilic acids). The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. Copper complex of nicotinic-phthalic acids (CuNA/Ph) was the most potent with a SOD mimetic activity of IC50 34.42 μM. The SOD activities were observed to correlate well with the theoretical parameters as calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/LANL2DZ level of theory. Interestingly, the SOD activity of the copper complex CuNA/Ph was positively correlated with the electron affinity (EA) value. The two quantum chemical parameters, highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied
Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is essential in assisting patients with respiratory failure in the intensive care unit and facilitating oxygenation in the operating room. However, it was also recognized as a primary factor leading to hospital-acquired pulmonary dysfunction, in which pulmonary oxidative stress and lung inflammation had been known to play important roles. Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant, and possesses anti-inflammatory capacity. In this study, we aimed to study the efficacy of Cu/Zn SOD, administered intravenously during high tidal volume (HTV) ventilation, to prevent impairment of lung function. Thirty-eight male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: 5 h ventilation with (A) low tidal volume (LTV; 8 mL/kg; n = 10), (B) high tidal volume (HTV; 18 mL/kg; n = 14), or (C) HTV and intravenous treatment of Cu/Zn SOD at a dose of 1000 U/kg/h (HTV + SOD; n = 14). Lung function was evaluated both at baseline and after 5-h ventilation. Lung injury
10.Collaboration and License Agreements The Company has entered into three license agreements related to its planned preclinical programs in Rett syndrome and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by mutations in the gene that produces the copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) enzyme (genetic ALS). REGENXBIO Inc. Effective June 7, 2017, the Company entered into a License Agreement (the REGENX Rett and ALS License) with REGENXBIO Inc. (REGENX). Under the terms of the REGENX Rett and ALS License, REGENX granted the Company an exclusive worldwide license to utilize REGENXs proprietary adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene delivery platform for the treatment of Rett syndrome and genetic ALS caused by mutations in the gene that produces the copper zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) enzyme by in vivo gene therapy, using REGENXs AAV9 gene delivery vector. Under the REGENX Rett and ALS License, REGENX granted the Company an exclusive, worldwide license under the licensed patent ...
Methods and Results-We demonstrated that systemic administration of endogenous nitric oxide donor S-nitrosoglutathione in mice blocked the reduction of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD) protein expression, as well as the induction of MAFbx/Atrogin-1 mRNA expression and muscle atrophy induced by glucocorticoid. We further showed that endogenous EcSOD, expressed primarily by type IId/x and IIa myofibers and enriched at endothelial cells, is induced by exercise training. Muscle-specific overexpression of EcSOD by somatic gene transfer or transgenesis (muscle creatine kinase [MCK]-EcSOD) in mice significantly attenuated muscle atrophy. Importantly, when crossbred into a mouse genetic model of CHF (α-myosin heavy chain-calsequestrin), MCK-EcSOD transgenic mice had significant attenuation of cachexia with preserved whole body muscle strength and endurance capacity in the absence of reduced HF. Enhanced EcSOD expression significantly ameliorated CHF-induced oxidative stress, MAFbx/Atrogin-1 ...
Title: Experimental Antioxidant Biotherapy for Protection of the Vascular Wall by Modified Forms of Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase. VOLUME: 11 ISSUE: 16. Author(s):Alexander V. Maksimenko. Affiliation:Institute of ExperimentalCardiology, Russian Cardiology Research Centre, 3rd Cherepkovskaya str.,Moscow 121552, Russia.. Keywords:superoxide dismutase, catalase, enzyme modification, glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulphate, thrombosis, antithrombotic effect, vascular wall, antioxidant therapy, thrombolysis. Abstract: The antithrombotic activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase are determined by their effects on reactive oxygen species. Modification of these enzymes with chondroitin sulphate enhances the effect due to accumulation of the derivatives on the surface of the vascular wall cells. We have shown that the effects of covalently modified biocatalysts exceed those of native enzymes, free chondroitin sulphate and their mixtures. The superoxide dismutase-chondroitin sulphate conjugate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Muscle-derived extracellular superoxide dismutase inhibits endothelial activation and protects against multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in mice. AU - Call, Jarrod A.. AU - Donet, Jean. AU - Martin, Kyle S.. AU - Sharma, Ashish K.. AU - Chen, Xiaobin. AU - Zhang, Jiuzhi. AU - Cai, Jie. AU - Galarreta, Carolina A.. AU - Okutsu, Mitsuharu. AU - Du, Zhongmin. AU - Lira, Vitor A.. AU - Zhang, Mei. AU - Mehrad, Borna. AU - Annex, Brian H.. AU - Klibanov, Alexander L.. AU - Bowler, Russell P.. AU - Laubach, Victor E.. AU - Peirce, Shayn M.. AU - Yan, Zhen. PY - 2017/12. Y1 - 2017/12. N2 - Multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is a detrimental clinical complication in critically ill patients with high mortality. Emerging evidence suggests that oxidative stress and endothelial activation (induced expression of adhesion molecules) of vital organ vasculatures are key, early steps in the pathogenesis. We aimed to ascertain the role and mechanism(s) of enhanced extracellular ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Copper atom in PDB 1cbj: Crystal Structure of Bovine Superoxide Dismutase Crystal.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduced p75NTRexpression delays disease onset only in female mice of a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. AU - Küst, B.M.. AU - Brouwer, N.. AU - Mantingh, I.J.. AU - Boddeke, H.W.G.M.. AU - Copray, J.C.V.M.. PY - 2003/6/1. Y1 - 2003/6/1. N2 - hSOD1 (G93A) transgenic mice develop pathological changes similar to those in patients with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). In particular, the progressive degeneration of motoneurons is charactered in this mouse model. One feature of stressed motoneurons in ALS and the hSOD1 mice is the induction of the p75 neurotrophin receptor, which is thought, under certain circumstances, to be a death-signaling molecule. We have studied disease progression of hSOD1 (G93A) mice in the absence of the p75NTRreceptor and we monitored histological changes in the ventral spinal cord. Whereas female double transgenics showed prolonged survival, this effect was not observed in males. Improved survival in female mice was ...
Abstract: The effects of superoxide-generating agents on the growth and viability of Escherichia coli was investigated using two different strains, a lab strain (ER2566) and a clinical isolate (ATCC 4157). Endogenous superoxide was generated using the redoxcycling agent paraquat, while exogenous superoxide was generated using the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) enzyme system. Using optical density measurements to monitor culture growth, the bacteriostatic effect of paraquat was tested in three different growth media: Luria-Bertani broth, double strength Luria-Bertani broth, and nutrient broth. For both strains, paraquat toxicity was greatest in nutrient broth, with toxicity in each medium dependent upon the time of paraquat addition following inoculation. Protection against paraquat toxicity by salts and yeast extract was suggested by the differences observed between growth rates of ER2566 treated cultures in each medium. Addition of the copper/zinc superoxide dismutase inhibitor ...
Gln-70, which is located near the active-site metal, is conserved in aligned amino acid sequences of iron-containing superoxide dimutases (Fe-SODs) and cambialistic SOD from Porphyromonas gingivalis, but is complementarily substituted with Gln-142 in manganese-containing SODs (Mn-SODs). In order to clarify the contribution of this exchange of Gln to the metal-specific activity of P. gingivalis SOD, we have prepared a mutant of the enzyme with conversions of Gln-70 to Gly and Ala-142 to Gln. The ratio of the specific activities of Mn- to Fe-reconstituted P. gingivalis SOD increased from 1.4 in the wild-type to 3.5 in the mutant SODs. Furthermore, the visible absorption spectra of the Mn- and Fe-reconstituted mutant SODs more closely resembled that of Mn-specific SOD than that of the wild-type SOD. We conclude that a difference in configuration of the Gln residues of P. gingivalis SOD partially accounts for the metal-specific activity of the enzyme.. ...
Cyclic changes in dissolved oxygen occur naturally in shallow estuarine systems, yet little is known about the adaptations and responses of estuarine organisms to cyclic hypoxia. Here we examine the responses of Palaemonetes pugio, a species of grass shrimp, to cyclic hypoxia (1.5-8 mg/l dissolved oxygen; 4.20-22.42 kPa) at both the molecular and organismal levels. We measured alterations in gene expression in hepatopancreas tissue of female grass shrimp using custom cDNA macroarrays. After short-term (3-d) exposure to cyclic hypoxia, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) was upregulated and 70-kd heat shock proteins (HSP70) were downregulated. After 7-d exposure, nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins (ribosomal protein S2, ATP synthase, very-long-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase [VLCAD]) were downregulated, whereas mitochondrial phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEP Cbk) was upregulated. After 14 d, vitellogenin and apolipoprotein A1 were upregulated. Taken together, these
The identification by conventional methods of viridans streptococcal species, which are rarely encountered clinically, requires confirmation by genomic methods. We characterized a strain of Streptococcus sinensis responsible for infective endocarditis by sequencing both the 16S rRNA and the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase genes.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Superoxide anion radicals activate hepatic stellate cells after entry through chloride channels. T2 - A new target in liver fibrosis. AU - den Hartog, G.J.. AU - Qi, S.. AU - van Tilburg, J.H.. AU - Koek, G.H.. AU - Bast, A.. PY - 2014/2/5. Y1 - 2014/2/5. N2 - It is generally accepted that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis. ROS, however, constitute a group of species with varying properties making it likely that their contribution to the pathological mechanism varies. LX-2 hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were exposed to superoxide anion radicals (O2−) generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. To rule out that the activation of HSCs is due to hydrogen peroxide derived from O2−, control incubations with copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase and tempol were studied as well. Influx of O2− activated HSCs, evidenced by the expression of α-smooth muscle actin and the secretion of transforming growth factor β1 and collagen. We ...
Burkholderia pseudomallei is an intracellular pathogen and the causative agent of melioidosis, a life-threatening disease of humans. Within host cells, superoxide is an important mediator of pathogen killing. In this study, we have identified the B. pseudomallei K96243 sodC gene, shown that it has superoxide dismutase activity, and constructed an allelic deletion mutant of this gene. Compared with the wild-type, the mutant was more sensitive to killing by extracellular superoxide, but not to superoxide generated intracellularly. The sodC mutant showed a markedly decreased survival in J774A.1 mouse macrophages, and reduced numbers of bacteria were recovered from human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) when compared with the wild-type. The numbers of wild-type or mutant bacteria recovered from human diabetic neutrophils were significantly lower than from normal human neutrophils. The sodC mutant was attenuated in BALB/c mice. Our results indicate that SodC plays a key role in the virulence of B.
Mitochondrial antioxidant genes are major regulators of oxidative stress in the vasculature. Previous data has shown that reducing antioxidant capacity accelerates atherosclerotic plaque size, however, it is unclear whether reducing mitochondrial antioxidant capacity alters plaque composition. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that reductions of mitochondrial antioxidant capacity will increase osteogenic markers and intimal plaque calcification in aorta from hypercholesterolemic mice. We used Ldlr-/-ApoB100/100 (LA) mice that were either wild-type (LA-MnSOD+/+) or heterozygous (LA-MnSOD+/-) for manganese superoxide dismutase that were fed a Western Diet (TD88137) for 3 or 6 months. Changes in changes gene expression were assessed in aortic arch using qRT-PCR, plaque calcium levels were examined using histological evaluation from aortic cryosections, and endothelial function was measured using isolated organ bath chambers (ex vivo). While expression of SP7 (an osteogenic transcription factor) ...
BACKGROUND: Under conditions of oxidative stress, the removal of superoxide, a free radical associated with chronic inflammation, is catalysed by superoxide dismutase (SOD). Thus in addition to acting as an antioxidant, SOD may also be utilized as an anti-inflammatory agent. Some plant derived foods have been shown to have SOD mimetic (SODm) activity however it is not known if this activity is possessed by culinary herbs which have previously been shown to possess both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of the study was to ascertain if the culinary herbs rosemary, sage and thyme possess SODm activity, and to investigate the influence of cooking and digestion on this activity. Transition metal ion content was also determined to establish if it could likely contribute to any SODm activity detected. FINDINGS: All extracts of uncooked (U), cooked (C) and cooked and digested (C&D) herbs were shown to possess SODm activity, which was significantly correlated with previously ...
Mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are one cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), induce misfolding and aggregation of the protein. Misfolding can be detected by the binding of antibodies raised against peptide epitopes that are normally buried in the native conformation, shifts in solubility in non-ionic detergents, and the formation of macromolecular inclusions. In the present study, we investigate the relationship between detergent-insoluble and sedimentable forms of mutant SOD1, forms of mutant SOD1 with aberrantly accessible epitopes, and mutant protein in inclusions with the goal of defining the spectrum of misfolded states that mutant SOD1 can adopt. Using combined approaches in cultured cell models, we demonstrate that a substantial fraction of mutant SOD1 adopts a non-native conformation that remains soluble and freely mobile. We also show that mutant SOD1 can produce multimeric assemblies of which some are insoluble in detergent and large enough to sediment by
TY - JOUR. T1 - Features of wild-type human SOD1 limit interactions with misfolded aggregates of mouse G86R Sod1. AU - Qualls, David A.. AU - Prudencio, Mercedes. AU - Roberts, Brittany Lt. AU - Crosby, Keith. AU - Brown, Hilda. AU - Borchelt, David R.. PY - 2013/12/17. Y1 - 2013/12/17. N2 - Mutations in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) account for about 20% of the cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS). It is well established that mutations in SOD1, associated with fALS, heighten the propensity of the protein to misfold and aggregate. Although aggregation appears to be a factor in the toxicity of mutant SOD1s, the precise nature of this toxicity has not been elucidated. A number of other studies have now firmly established that raising the levels of wild-type (WT) human SOD1 (hSOD1) proteins can in some manner augment the toxicity of mutant hSOD1 proteins. However, a recent study demonstrated that raising the levels of WT-hSOD1 did not affect disease in mice that ...
Colonic effects of extruded whole-grain sorghum diets were evaluated using a model of growing rats. In all, twenty-four male Wistar rats were fed control (C), extruded white sorghum (EWS) or red sorghum (ERS). Consumption of sorghum diets showed satiety properties, with reduction of caecal pH, and lower activity of β-glucosidase and β-glucuronidase enzymes. Decreased copper zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase and increased catalase and glutathione peroxidase levels were observed in colonic mucosa. The induction of antioxidant enzymes occurred through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 protein and its subsequent translocation into the nucleus. ERS was able to decrease the proliferation of proximal mucosa of colon, demonstrating a possible effect against colorectal tumourigenesis. EWS increased proliferation and also apoptosis, ensuring the re-establishment of homoeostasis of the colonic mucosa. No antioxidant systemic effect (serum or ...
Lentiviral-mediated silencing of SOD1 through RNA interference retards disease onset and progression in a mouse model of ALS. Raoul, Cédric; Abbas-Terki, Toufik; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; Guillot, Sandrine; Haase, Georg; Szulc, Jolanta; Henderson, Christopher E.; Aebischer, Patrick // Nature Medicine;Apr2005, Vol. 11 Issue 4, p423 Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (encoded by SOD1), one of the causes of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), lead to progressive death of motoneurons through a gain-of-function mechanism. RNA interference (RNAi) mediated by viral vectors allows for long-term reduction in gene... ...
Mitochondrial pathology is a seminal pathogenic hallmark of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) which is extensively manifested by human patients and mutant SOD1G93A mammalian models. Rodents expressing human FALS-associated mutations successfully mimic several human disease features; although they are not as amenable to genetic and therapeutic compound screenings as non-mammalian models. In this study, we report a newly generated and characterized Drosophila model that expresses human SOD1G93A in muscle fibers. Presence of SOD1G93A in thoracic muscles causes mitochondrial pathology and impairs normal motor behavior in these flies. Use of this new FALS-24B-SOD1G93A fly model holds promise for better understanding of the mitochondrial affectation process in FALS and for the discovery of novel therapeutic compounds able to reverse mitochondrial dysfunction in this fatal disease ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzymes of the cell and catalyze the dismutation of superoxide radicals O2- to H2O2 and molecular oxygen (O2). Among the three forms of SOD identified, manganese-containing SOD (MnSOD, SOD2) is a homotetramer located wholly in the mitochondrial matrix. Because of the SOD2 strategic location, it represents the first mechanism of defense against the augmentation of ROS/reactive nitrogen species levels in the mitochondria for preventing further damage. This study seeks to understand the effects that the partial lack (SOD2-/+) or the overexpression (TgSOD2) of MnSOD produces on oxidative/nitrative stress basal levels in different brain isolated cellular fractions (i.e., mitochondrial, nuclear, cytosolic) as well as in the whole-brain homogenate. Furthermore, because of the known interaction between SOD2 and p53 protein, this study seeks to clarify the impact that the double mutation has on oxidative/nitrative ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Hepatic ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury is characterized by the generation of superoxide anions and other superoxide anion-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. To combat these ROS, free radical scavengers, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase play crucial roles in the attenuation of hepatic I/R injury. The general goals of this proposal are to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and/or catalase gene delivery employing non-viral approaches in a mouse model of hepatic I/R injury, and to develop an ex vivo gene delivery approach for small graft liver transplantation. Specific Aims: 1. To deliver the EC-SOD and/or catalase gene with polycationic liposomes in order to prevent subsequent liver damage caused by I/R in mice; 2. To develop an ex vivo technique to deliver the EC-SOD and/or catalase gene to small size liver grafts with polycationic liposomes. ...
... the reaction of superoxide with SOD is first order with respect to superoxide concentration. Moreover, superoxide dismutase has ... "Phenotypes of mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase". The ... Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, alpha-hairpin domain. Structure of domain1 (color), human mitochondrial Mn superoxide ... Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, C-terminal domain. Structure of domain2 (color), human mitochondrial Mn superoxide ...
Otherwise, the superoxide ion must be destroyed before it does unwanted damage in a cell. The superoxide dismutase enzymes ... It involves both oxidation and reduction of superoxide ions. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) group of enzymes increase the rate ... Packer, L. (editor) (2002). Superoxide Dismutase: 349 (Methods in Enzymology). Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-182252-4.. CS1 maint: ... This enzyme also contains zinc ions for stabilization and is activated by copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS). ...
Radio-protective effects of superoxide dismutase[edit]. Petkau conducted further experiments with simulated cells in 1976 and ... 10 mSv in 6 months), further supporting the hypothesis that superoxide dismutase is a radioprotective agent.[7] Thus, Petkau's ... "Role of superoxide dismutase in modification of radiation injury". The British Journal of Cancer. Supplement. 8: 87-95. ISSN ... "Radiation Protection By Superoxide Dismutase". Photochemistry and Photobiology. 28 (4‐5): 765-771. doi:10.1111/j.1751-1097.1978 ...
McCord JM, Fridovich I (November 1969). "Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein)". The ... However, superoxide is often produced with nitric oxide. In the presence of nitric oxide, the reduction of cytochrome c3+ is ... As superoxide is produced, the number of oxidized cytochrome c3+ increases, and reduced cytochrome c2+ decreases. ... and it does so by removing superoxide (O2-) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from mitochondria. Therefore, not only is cytochrome c ...
Gardner, Paul R. (2002). "Aconitase: Sensitive target and measure of superoxide". Superoxide Dismutase. Methods in Enzymology. ... The iron sulfur cluster is highly sensitive to oxidation by superoxide. Aconitase employs a dehydration-hydration mechanism. ...
Keele BB, McCord JM, Fridovich I (November 1970). "Superoxide dismutase from escherichia coli B. A new manganese-containing ... McCord JM, Fridovich I (November 1969). "Superoxide dismutase. An enzymic function for erythrocuprein (hemocuprein)". J. Biol. ... he and his supervisor Irwin Fridovich were the first to describe the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase. McCord joined ... "The induction of human superoxide dismutase and catalase in vivo: a fundamentally new approach to antioxidant therapy". Free ...
Fridovich I (1995). "Superoxide radical and superoxide dismutases" (PDF). Annual Review of Biochemistry. 64: 97-112. doi: ... Kresge N, Simoni RD, Hill RL (2006). "Forty Years of Superoxide Dismutase Research: the Work of Irwin Fridovich (JBC Classics: ... BB Keele Jr; JM McCord; I Fridovich (1970). "Superoxide Dismutase from Escherichia coli B: A new manganese-containing enzyme". ... His discovery of the superoxide dismutase reaction essentially started the field of oxygen free radicals in biology and ...
Miriyala, Sumitra; K. Holley, Aaron; St Clair, Daret K. (1 February 2011). "Mitochondrial Superoxide Dismutase - Signals of ...
Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase is a metalloprotein that is responsible for the delivery of Cu to superoxide ... Culotta VC, Klomp LW, Strain J, Casareno RL, Krems B, Gitlin JD (Sep 1997). "The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase". ... Moore SD, Chen MM, Cox DW (2000). "Cloning and mapping of murine superoxide dismutase copper chaperone (Ccsd) and mapping of ... Rae TD, Torres AS, Pufahl RA, O'Halloran TV (Feb 2001). "Mechanism of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase activation by the human ...
... manganese superoxide dismutase in disease". Free Radic. Res. 34 (4): 325-36. doi:10.1080/10715760100300281. PMID 11328670. ...
Superoxide dismutase Oxidative stress Antioxidants C. Muth; Y. Glenz; M. Klaus; P. Radermacher; Guenter Speit; X. Leverve (2004 ... Superoxide dismutase (SOD) helps to slow the creation of ROS, ultimately playing a key role in the defense against cell damage ... which typically contains high quantities of the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) Gliadin, a wheat protein designed to protect ...
Determination and analysis of the 2 Å structure of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Journal of Molecular Biology. 1982 Sep 15 ... Structure and mechanism of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase. Nature. 1983 Nov;306(5940):284-7. According to Google Scholar, ... Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and structural defects in Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase. Science. 1993 Aug 20;261(5124):1047-51. ...
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] also known as superoxide dismutase 1 or SOD1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD1 ... SOD1 binds copper and zinc ions and is one of three superoxide dismutases responsible for destroying free superoxide radicals ... "Entrez Gene: SOD1 superoxide dismutase 1, soluble (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 1 (adult))". Murray CJ, Lopez AD (May 1997). " ... Pan L, Yoshii Y, Otomo A, Ogawa H, Iwasaki Y, Shang HF, Hadano S (2012). "Different human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase ...
Oury, TD; Ho, YS; Piantadosi, Claude A; Crapo, JD (1992). "Extracellular superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and central ... Freiberger, John J; Coulombe, Kathy; Suliman, Hagir; Carraway, Martha-sue; Piantadosi, Claude A (2004). "Superoxide dismutase ... One species produced by the body, the superoxide anion (O 2−), is possibly involved in iron acquisition. Higher than normal ... Thom, Steven R (1992). "Inert gas enhancement of superoxide radical production". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 295 ( ...
PLIN deficiency also reduces superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Furthermore, deficiency in PLIN5 initiates excessive ...
Mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (SOD2) ordinarily protects against ROS. Loss of SOD2 in mouse epidermal cells was observed ...
Manganese functions as a co-factor for another form of superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) that is only found within mitochondria, ... Webb, Craig B.; Lehman, Tracy L.; McCord, Kelly W. (October 2008). "Effects of an oral superoxide dismutase enzyme ... Zinc and copper are co-factors for superoxide dismutase to form Cu-Zn-SOD, an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown ... zinc superoxide dismutase". Nature. 306 (5940): 284-287. doi:10.1038/306284a0. ISSN 0028-0836. PMID 6316150. ...
Three-dimensional structure of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase. Superoxide and superoxide disumases. Ed. By A.M. Michelson, J.M. ... The Richardson group published partial atomic structure results of the protein superoxide dismutase the same year, in 1977. All ...
Examples include superoxide dismutase, urease, nickel-iron hydrogenase. Many Non-heme iron proteins have diiron active sites, e ...
Superoxide. →. Superoxide. dismutase. H. 2. O. 2. Hydrogen. peroxide. →. Peroxidases. catalase. H. 2. O. Water. {\displaystyle ... Superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxiredoxins[edit]. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are a class of closely related enzymes ... ce {{\underset {Oxygen}{O2}}-,{\underset {Superoxide}{*O2^{-}}}-,[{\ce {Superoxide \atop dismutase}}]{\underset {Hydrogen \atop ... Johnson F, Giulivi C (2005). "Superoxide dismutases and their impact upon human health". Molecular Aspects of Medicine. 26 (4-5 ...
Therefore, copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase is proposed to be one of the most promising biomarkers of Cu toxicity in ... Youn HD, Kim EJ, Roe JH, Hah YC, Kang SO (1996). "A novel nickel-containing superoxide dismutase from Streptomyces spp". ... Gray EH, De Vos KJ, Dingwall C, Perkinton MS, Miller CC (2010). "Deficiency of the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase ... Improperly folded metal proteins, for example, CCS or Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) present in brain, blood or other ...
Catalase Superoxide dismutase Glutathione reductase Selenium deficiency PDB: 1GP1​; Epp O, Ladenstein R, Wendel A (Jun 1983). " ... One study has suggested that glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase polymorphisms play a role in the development of ... Yang S, Jensen MK, Rimm EB, Willett W, Wu T (Nov 2014). "Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase ... Katar M, Ozugurlu AF, Ozyurt H, Benli I (2014). "Evaluation of glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase enzyme ...
Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial (SOD2), also known as manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), is an enzyme ... As a member of the iron/manganese superoxide dismutase family, this protein transforms toxic superoxide, a byproduct of the ... Kang SW (2015). "Superoxide dismutase 2 gene and cancer risk: evidence from an updated meta-analysis". Int J Clin Exp Med. 8 (9 ... "Entrez Gene: SOD2 superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial". Becuwe P, Ennen M, Klotz R, Barbieux C, Grandemange S (Dec 2014). " ...
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3). *Angiotensin converting enzyme. *Antithrombin-III. *Lipoprotein lipase. * ...
SOD1 The SOD1 gene on chromosome 21 that codes for the superoxide dismutase protein is associated with 2% of cases and is ... Zn-superoxide dismutase aggregates in spinal cords of model mice". primary. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ... "Epidemiology of mutations in superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis". primary. Annals of Neurology. 41 (2): 210- ... SOD1 protein is responsible for destroying naturally occurring, but harmful superoxide radicals produced by the mitochondria. ...
Pharmacokinetics of superoxide dismutase in rats after oral administration », Bio. Drug. Disp., 17, 1996, p. 165-174 V.Dapsance ... Immunoregulatory properties of Superoxide Dismutase in Oxidative Stress in cancer, AIDS and Neurodegenerative Diseases., New- ...
"Chlorovirus PBCV-1 Encodes an Active Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase". Journal of Virology. 88 (21): 12541-12550. doi:10.1128/ ... which can decompose the rapid accumulated superoxide in host cells during infection, thereby benefiting virus replication. ...
In higher plants, peroxisomes contain also a complex battery of antioxidative enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, the ... It has been demonstrated that peroxisomes generate superoxide (O2•−) and nitric oxide (•NO) radicals.[10][11] ...
positive regulation of superoxide dismutase activity. • defense response. • positive regulation of ceramide biosynthetic ...
Superoxide dismutase/Orgotein. *Tenidap. Combinations. *Ibuprofen/hydrocodone. *Ibuprofen/oxycodone. *Ibuprofen/paracetamol. * ...
... superoxide dismutase, glutathione transferase, class 3 aldehyde dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, and tissue ...
Superoxide dismutase/Orgotein. *Tenidap. Items listed in bold indicate initially developed compounds of specific groups. #WHO- ...
Zn superoxide dismutase from Peking duck". Acta Crystallographica. 57 (11): 1646-1649. doi:10.1107/S0907444901011106.. ...
... melatonin promotes the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione ... 1. A slow transfer of one electron from the THB to O2 could produce a superoxide which could recombine with the THB radical to ... 2. O2 could react with the active site iron (II) first, producing iron (III) superoxide which could then react with the THB to ... radical scavenger within mitochondria which also promotes the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, ...
... by increasing the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). The rhesus monkey's vision amplitude reduction is noticeable in its ...
bNOS plays a key role in the transcription of superoxide dismutase (SodA). Bacteria late in the log phase who do not possess ... such as superoxide production at the expense of NADPH. As such, this stoichiometry is not generally observed, and reflects the ... and thus high levels of NO have the opportunity to react with superoxide leading to peroxynitrite formation and cell toxicity. ...
In turn, micro-organisms genetically engineered to lack the superoxide-scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) lose ... A superoxide is a compound that contains the superoxide ion, which has the chemical formula O−. 2.[1] The systematic name of ... Superoxide can also be generated in aprotic solvents by cyclic voltammetry. Superoxide salts also decompose in the solid state ... Superoxide and hydroperoxyl (HO2) are often discussed interchangeably, although superoxide predominates at physiological pHs. ...
... superoxide dismutase) ଓ ଖାଦ୍ୟରେ ଥିବା ଜୀବସାର କ, ଜୀବସାର ଗ ଓ ଜୀବସାର ଇ (vitamin E) ସାହାଯ୍ୟରେ ଜଟିଳ ଓଭରଲାପିଙ୍ଗ ଆଣ୍ଟିଅକ୍ସିଡାଣ୍ଟ ...
La peroxidation des lipides augmente; Les enzymes antioxidants tels que superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione ...
Superoxide dismutase/Orgotein. *Tenidap. Tinutukoy lamang ng mga bagay na may atrebido ang mga naunang naiusad na kompuwesto ng ...
... and antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and peroxidases,[80] which detoxify the reactive species, ... Superoxide. →. e. −. O. 2. 2. −. Peroxide. {\displaystyle {\ce {O2-,[{\ce {e^{-}}}]{\underset {Superoxide}{O2^{\underline {\ ... This unstable species can lead to electron "leakage" when electrons transfer directly to oxygen, forming superoxide.[84] As the ... Although oxidative phosphorylation is a vital part of metabolism, it produces reactive oxygen species such as superoxide and ...
... such as with the superoxide radical through Cu-Zn dependent superoxide dismutase.[not in citation given] Excessive free copper ...
superoxide dismutase activity. • superoxide dismutase copper chaperone activity. Cellular component. • cytoplasm. • ... SOD3, EC-SOD, superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular, superoxide dismutase 3. External IDs. MGI: 103181 HomoloGene: 2334 ... Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD3 gene. ... This gene encodes a member of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein family. SODs are antioxidant enzymes that catalyze the ...
"Superoxide dismutase responds to hyperoxia in rat hippocampus". Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine. 31 (2): 227-32. PMID 15485085 ... "Extracellular superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, and central nervous system O2 toxicity" (PDF). Proceedings of the National ... Thom, Steven R (1992). "Inert gas enhancement of superoxide radical production". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 295 ( ... the superoxide anion (O. 2−),[51] is possibly involved in iron acquisition.[52] Higher than normal concentrations of oxygen ...
Superoxide dismutase/Orgotein. *Tenidap. Items listed in bold indicate initially developed compounds of specific groups. #WHO- ...
Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] also known as superoxide dismutase 1 or SOD1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SOD1 ... SOD1, ALS, ALS1, HEL-S-44, IPOA, SOD, hSod1, homodimer, superoxide dismutase 1, soluble, superoxide dismutase 1. ... SOD1 binds copper and zinc ions and is one of three superoxide dismutases responsible for destroying free superoxide radicals ... superoxide dismutase activity. • Rac GTPase binding. • protein homodimerization activity. • zinc ion binding. • protein binding ...
Superoxide decays spontaneously or is broken down via enzymes known as superoxide dismutases (Cu/ZnSOD and MnSOD), to hydrogen ... The respiratory burst involves the activation of the enzyme NADPH oxidase, which produces large quantities of superoxide, a ...
Response of superoxide dismutase isoenzymes in tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) during thermo-acclimation of the ...
Especially valuable for immune response is cortisol's stimulation of the superoxide dismutase,[13] since this copper enzyme is ... almost certainly used by the body to permit superoxides to poison bacteria. ...
The Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene in ALS and parkinsonism-dementia of Guam. „Neuroreport". 5. 5, s. 557-560, 1994. PMID: ...
Superoxide dismutase. *Triosephosphate isomerase. See also[edit]. *Diffusion-controlled reaction. *Enzyme *Enzyme catalysis ...
... the reaction of superoxide with SOD is first order with respect to superoxide concentration. Moreover, superoxide dismutase has ... "Phenotypes of mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase". The ... Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, alpha-hairpin domain. Structure of domain1 (color), human mitochondrial Mn superoxide ... Iron/manganese superoxide dismutases, C-terminal domain. Structure of domain2 (color), human mitochondrial Mn superoxide ...
... the reaction of superoxide with SOD is first order with respect to superoxide concentration. Moreover, superoxide dismutase has ... "Phenotypes of mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase". The ... Three forms of superoxide dismutase are present in humans, in all other mammals, and most chordates. SOD1 is located in the ... Superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the ...
Nickel superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) is a metalloenzyme that, like the other superoxide dismutases, protects cells from ... repressing the transcription of other superoxide dismutases. In particular, expression of iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) is ... Sheng, Yuewei (2014). "Superoxide Dismutases and Superoxide Reductases". Chemical Reviews. 114 (7): 3854-3918. doi:10.1021/ ... Nickel superoxide dismutase is an incredibly efficient enzyme, indicating the redox mechanism is very fast. This means that ...
Superoxide dismutases and superoxide reductases.. Sheng Y1, Abreu IA, Cabelli DE, Maroney MJ, Miller AF, Teixeira M, Valentine ... The rate constants of superoxide self-disproportionation (◆) and disproportionation catalyzed by human CuZnSOD as a function of ... metal ion in SODs and SORs fall between the potentials for one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction of superoxide. ...
... user ratings and products that contain Superoxide Dismutase ... As a shot, superoxide dismutase is used for treating pain and ... Learn more about Superoxide Dismutase uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, ... The superoxide dismutase that is used as medicine is sometimes taken from cows.. Superoxide dismutase is taken by mouth for ... SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE. OTHER NAME(S): Orgotein, SOD, Super Dioxide Dismutase, Superóxido Dismutasa, Superoxydase Dismutase, ...
CuZn Superoxide Dismutase Deficiency. Culprit of Accelerated Vascular Aging Process. Dan-Dan Chen, Alex F. Chen ... Vascular protection: superoxide dismutase isoforms in the vessel wall. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004; 24: 1367-1373. ... Heterozygous CuZn superoxide dismutase deficiency produces a vascular phenotype with aging. Hypertension. 2006; 48: 1072-1079. ... Hypertrophy of cerebral arterioles in mice deficient in expression of the gene for CuZn superoxide dismutase. Stroke. 2006; 37 ...
Superoxide dismutase mimics: chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic potential.. Batinić-Haberle I1, Rebouças JS, Spasojević I ... Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. ... Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Sep 15;13(6):877- ... Superoxide Dismutase Mimics: Chemistry, Pharmacology, and Therapeutic Potential. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Sep 15;13(6):877- ...
Kwon M-J, Kim B, Lee YS, Kim T-Y (2012) Role of superoxide dismutase 3 in skin inflammation. J Dermatol Sci 67(2):81-87CrossRef ... topical catalase/dismutase superoxide in vitiligo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 22(11):1359-1364CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... skin, superoxide dismutase reactive oxygen species UV radiation inflammation fibrosis This is a preview of subscription content ... Bafana A, Dutt S, Kumar A, Kumar S, Ahuja P (2011) The basic and applied aspects of superoxide dismutase. J Molec Catal B 68(2 ...
Conditioner Products Containing Superoxide Dismutase Sort by. Best to worst. Worst to best. Alphabetical A-Z. Alphabetical Z-A ...
... of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase does not prevent neonatal lethality in mutant mice that lack manganese superoxide dismutase ... A. M. L. Janssen, C. B. Bosman, C. F. M. Sier et al., "Superoxide dismutases in relation to the overall survival of colorectal ... Clair, "Molecular structure and organization of the human manganese superoxide dismutase gene," DNA and Cell Biology, vol. 13, ... H. M. van Baar, P. C. van de Kerkhof, J. Schalkwijk, and P. D. Mier, "Cutaneous superoxide dismutase activity in psoriasis," ...
Superoxide dismutase [Mn]. A, B, C, D. 205. Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: sodA, b3908, JW3879. EC: ... Subunit dissociation and metal binding by Escherichia coli apo-manganese superoxide dismutase.. Whittaker, M.M., Lerch, T.F., ... Metal binding by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-MnSOD) is essential for functional maturation of the enzyme. Previous ... Metal binding by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-MnSOD) is essential for functional maturation of the enzyme. Previous ...
Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy- ... Superoxide anions have a proinflammatory role in many diseases. Treatment of a rat model of lung pleurisy with the MnSOD ... studies have reported that this enzyme has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its superoxide ... The three-dimensional (3D) structure of human manganese superoxide dismutase (a) and that of the synthetic superoxide dismutase ...
... superoxide dismutase 1, soluble Identifiers Symbol SOD1 Alt. Symbols ALS, ALS1 Entrez 6647 HUGO 11179 OMIM 147450 RefSeq NM_ ... is purified bovine liver superoxide dismutase. Delivery systems. Superoxide dismutase is effective as a nutritional supplement ... "Phenotypes of mice lacking extracellular superoxide dismutase and copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase". J. Biol. ... The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC, catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. ...
... kjetil.aursland at kjetil.aursland at Thu Nov 13 ... Next message: measure superoxide dismutase activity in a flowcytometer * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Next message: measure superoxide dismutase activity in a flowcytometer * Messages sorted by: [ date ] [ thread ] [ subject ] [ ... Does someone have an assay or references on how to measure superoxide dismutase activity in a flowcytometer? Have a nice day to ...
Find treatment reviews for Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) from other patients. Learn from their experiences about effectiveness, ...
8 Abstracts with Superoxide Dismutase Downregulation Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... 1 Problem Substances Researched for Superoxide Dismutase Downregulation Name. AC. CK. Focus. ... Acute 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure decreases superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione activity in rats.Dec 01, 2010 ... Pharmacological Actions : Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors, Malondialdehyde Down-regulation, Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation ...
Two alternative hypotheses were tested: (i) that overexpression of Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) in the mitochondria of ... Overexpression of Mn-containing superoxide dismutase in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Nov 15; ... Two alternative hypotheses were tested: (i) that overexpression of Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) in the mitochondria of ... that there is an evolved optimum level of superoxide anion radical, such that overexpression of Mn SOD would have deleterious ...
4. Misfolded superoxide dismutase-1 in CSF from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Open this publication in new window or ... 2. Structure of soluble misfolded superoxide dismutase-1 in murine ALS models. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ... Misfolded superoxide dismutase-1 in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Zetterström, Per Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, ... Mutants of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause ALS by an unidentified cytotoxic mechanism. We have previously shown that the ...
Extracellular superoxide dismutase is a major determinant of nitric oxide bioavailability: in vivo and ex vivo evidence from ... Copper Trafficking and Extracellular Superoxide Dismutase Activity. Kinky Hair, Kinky Vessels. Volker Rudolph, Tanja K. Rudolph ... Role of extracellular superoxide dismutase in hypertension. Hypertension. 2006; 48: 473-481. ... Qin and colleagues4 have discovered that ATP7A plays an important role in the regulation of extracellular superoxide dismutase ...
Complex: SOD1-CCS1 superoxide dismutase heterodimer Macromolecular complex annotations are imported from the Complex Portal. ... 1997) The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 272(38):23469-72 PMID: 9295278 *SGD Paper ... 2001) Heterodimeric structure of superoxide dismutase in complex with its metallochaperone. Nat Struct Biol 8(9):751-5 PMID: ...
415 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Superoxide Dismutase Up- ... Some Example Abstracts on Superoxide Dismutase Up-regulation. These results suggest that paeoniflorin can protect against ... Genetic polymorphisms affect superoxide dismutase activity may potentiate the negative effects of magnetic fields.. ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been studied for their ability to manage the oxidative state of the cell by dismuting ... In particular, manganese superoxide dismutase has clearly shown importance in cell cycle regulation and has been found to be ... Likewise, extracellular superoxide dismutase expression seems to favor suppression of pancreatic cancer growth. With an ... This review summarizes what is known about superoxide dismutases in pancreatic cancer and the most current treatment strategies ...
Social interaction-mediated lifespan extension of Drosophila Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase mutants. Hongyu Ruan and Chun-Fang Wu ... We found that short-lived Drosophila mutants of the antioxidant enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase displayed a robust lifespan ... Social interaction-mediated lifespan extension of Drosophila Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase mutants ... Social interaction-mediated lifespan extension of Drosophila Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase mutants ...
Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems. ...
Superoxide Dismutase: Structure, Synthesis and Applications. Sergei Magliozzi (Editor). Series: Chemistry Research and ... Significance of superoxide dismutases in the crop improvement for stress tolerance is also discussed. This book reviews the ... Chapter 3. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants: An Overview. (Walid Saibi and Faiçal Brini, ... Chapter 4. Superoxide Dismutase and Sensorineural Hearing Loss. (V. Corazzi, C. Bianchini, C. Aimoni, and A. Ciorba, ENT & ...
Superoxide dismutases (SODs; superoxide: superoxide oxidoreductase, EC play a key role in protection against oxygen ... Redox-activated expression of the cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase gene in Nicotiana. D Hérouart, M Van Montagu, and ... Redox-activated expression of the cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase gene in Nicotiana ... Redox-activated expression of the cytosolic copper/zinc superoxide dismutase gene in Nicotiana ...
superoxide dismutase modification of enzyme aldehyde-dextran experimental silicosis fibrosis Institute of Experimental ...
Zn-superoxide dismutase was examined 6 h after contusion in rats using Northern blotting. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene ... To determine the effect of hypothermia on superoxide injury after cerebral contusion, the induction of Cu, ... Zn-superoxide dismutase was examined 6 h after contusion in rats using Northern blotting. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene ... Induction of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase after cortical contusion injury during hypothermia Brain Res. 1994 Sep 19;657(1-2):333- ...
Y. Li, N. Reuter, X. Li and R. Martin, "Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Therapy in a Murine Hepatitis-Associated Injury," ... a Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic, in Carrageenan-Induced Pleurisy," Free Radical Biology & Medicine, Vol. 26, No. 1-2, 1999, pp. ... "Chemoprevention of Carcinogenic Progression to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma by the Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Supplementation ... "Chemoprevention of Carcinogenic Progression to Esophageal Adenocarcinoma by the Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Supplementation ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Superoxide Dismutase 3 antibody [EPR10860] validated for WB, IHC and tested in Human. Referenced ... Anti-Superoxide Dismutase 3 antibody [EPR10860]. See all Superoxide Dismutase 3 primary antibodies. ... Expression of extracellular superoxide dismutase protein in diabetes.. Arch Plast Surg 40:517-21 (2013). WB, IHC-P ; Human . ... All lanes : Anti-Superoxide Dismutase 3 antibody [EPR10860] (ab171738) at 1/1000 dilution. Lane 1 : Human fetal lung lysate. ...
  • The first gene to be linked to familial ALS encodes the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1). (
  • These results suggested that SOD1 deficiency dysregulated luteal formation because of increased superoxide generation in the ovary. (
  • With an aim of reducing cellular senescence and oxidative stress in DPSCs, an intracellular delivery system for superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was developed. (
  • Superoxide dismutase multigene family: a comparison of the CuZn-SOD (SOD1), Mn-SOD (SOD2), and EC-SOD (SOD3) gene structures, evolution, and expression. (
  • In twenty healthy Icelandic heterozygotes for WD and their age- and gender-matched controls, copper concentration in plasma, ceruloplasmin (CP) concentration, CP oxidative activity and CP-specific oxidative activity in serum and superoxide dismutase (SOD1) activity in erythrocytes were determined. (
  • In addition to Atox1 (show ATOX1 Proteins ), the human cytoplasm also contains Cu chaperones for loading of superoxide dismutase 1 (show SOD1 Proteins ) (i.e. (
  • In 1993, a genetic link was established between ALS and mutant forms of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1), an antioxidant enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of the damaging free radical superoxide anion (O2-) to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and dioxygen (O2). (
  • Mutations in the gene encoding the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) are the most common cause of FALS. (
  • Immature copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is activated by its copper chaperone (Ccs1). (
  • Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is an abundant antioxidant enzyme that readily converts superoxide anions into peroxide and molecular oxygen [2O 2 - +2H + → H 2 O 2 +O 2 ] [ 1 ]. (
  • Mutations in the intracellular metalloenzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) are linked to neurotoxicity in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by an unclear mechanism. (
  • Here, we assessed the contribution of TNF-alpha in motor neuron disease in mice overexpressing mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) genes linked to familial ALS. (
  • Ookawara T, Imazeki N, Matsubara O et al (1998) Tissue distribution of immunoreactive mouse extracellular superoxide dismutase. (
  • Qin and colleagues 4 have discovered that ATP7A plays an important role in the regulation of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) activity and the influence that altered steady-state concentrations of the substrate for EC-SOD, superoxide (O 2 ·− ), has on vascular NO signaling. (
  • Likewise, extracellular superoxide dismutase expression seems to favor suppression of pancreatic cancer growth. (
  • Background and Purpose- Extracellular superoxide dismutase (ECSOD) is highly expressed in the wall of blood vessels and plays an important role in modulation of vascular function in extracranial arteries. (
  • We examined whether overexpression of murine extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) alters SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm, oxidative stress, and neurological outcome. (
  • Copper transporter ATP7A protects against endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetic mice by regulating extracellular superoxide dismutase. (
  • Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) is one of the key antioxidant enzymes that obtains copper via copper transporter ATP7A. (
  • Objective- We examined the vascular expression levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD), a major antioxidant enzyme in the cardiovascular system, in patients with acute coronary syndromes. (
  • The extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD or SOD3) is a copper-containing enzyme which is highly expressed in the vasculature. (
  • The skin consists of various antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione reductase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase. (
  • To confront oxidative stress caused by ROS, organisms have evolved a variety of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. (
  • Superoxide dismutase, and catalase protect synaovial fluid against such degradation in vitro. (
  • The control group received saline vehicle only ( n = 6), the GBS group received GBS infusion only ( n = 9), the enzymes (ENZ) group received polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD) and polyethylene glycol-catalase (PEG-CAT) treatment only ( n = 6), and the ENZ+GBS group received PEG-SOD and PEG-CAT then GBS ( n = 9). (
  • Plasma samples were obtained to confirm increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in the groups receiving enzymes. (
  • They include glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and perhaps the most important internally generated antioxidant of all: superoxide dismutase (SOD). (
  • SOD converts superoxides to H 2 O 2 , which is a less reactive, membrane-permeable intermediate that is normally converted to H 2 O and O 2 by myriad cellular antioxidants, including catalase and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx). (
  • Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities in virulent and nonvirulent Staphylococcus aureus isolates. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently detoxified by catalase. (
  • SOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide, which is subsequently detoxified to oxygen and water by catalase or glutathione peroxidase ( Kruidenier and Verspaget, 2002 ). (
  • Antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) reduce levels of superoxide radicals (O 2 ·- ) and H 2 O 2 , thus protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. (
  • Moreover, EPS stimulated the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 and catalase, which also are Nrf2 target gene products. (
  • We demonstrated for the first time that EPS upregulates HO-1, superoxide dismutase, and catalase by activating Nrf2. (
  • Both forms of this metalloenzyme catalyze the inactivation of destructive reactive oxygen species by converting them to hydrogen peroxide which is then transformed to water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase.Superoxide dismutase has been shown to be useful in joint, gastrointestinal and respiratory health. (
  • The specific enzymes catalysing the breakdown of O 2 · - and hydrogen peroxide include superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). (
  • Activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in people protractedly exposed to lead compounds. (
  • Superoxide is a reactive oxygen species that is produced in large amounts during photosynthesis and aerobic cellular respiration. (
  • Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. (
  • The reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium by superoxide radicals generated from photo-reactive riboflavin has been in use for more than four decades to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD) on nondenaturing polyacrylamide gels. (
  • The superoxide anion (O 2 -) and hydroxyl free radical (OH - ) are the most reactive ROS with the biomolecules including protein, lipid and nucleic acids due to the occurrence of unpaired electrons. (
  • Cheung, C. Y., McCartney, S. J. and Anseth, K. S. (2008), Synthesis of Polymerizable Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics to Reduce Reactive Oxygen Species Damage in Transplanted Biomedical Devices. (
  • Ulcerative colitis (UC) involves intestinal mucosal damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS), in particular, superoxide anion. (
  • The cellular redox environment is a balance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS: superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) and their removal by the antioxidant network. (
  • Yeast-Derived Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) Superoxide - is the main reactive oxygen species in each cell and SOD is the body's natural way of out-competing the ongoing and very damaging effect of superoxide in cells. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of the highly reactive superoxide radical anion to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen ( 37 ). (
  • The removal of superoxide effectively blocks secondary reactions that otherwise would lead to formation of the promiscuously reactive hydroxyl radical, which is highly damaging to all classes of biological macromolecules. (
  • 1-3 Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide, is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, 4 hyperlipidemia, 5 diabetes, 6 cigarette smoking, 7 and aging 8 and may play an important role in vascular dysfunction. (
  • The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of highly reactive superoxide . (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a very important reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging enzyme. (
  • Superoxide is highly reactive and toxic. (
  • The mitochondria-located manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, SOD2) successfully converts superoxide to the less reactive hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which may break down further into water and dioxygen by other enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants [7]. (
  • Nickel superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) is a metalloenzyme that, like the other superoxide dismutases, protects cells from oxidative damage by catalyzing the disproportionation of the cytotoxic superoxide radical (O− 2) to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. (
  • Superoxide dismutase is a first line of defense against oxidative stress under physiological and pathological conditions. (
  • Carillon J, Rouanet J, Cristol J, Brion R (2013) Superoxide dismutase administration, a potential therapy against oxidative stress related diseases: several routes of supplementation and proposal of an original mechanism of action. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an enzyme located in mitochondria, is the key enzyme that protects the energy-generating mitochondria from oxidative damage. (
  • Two alternative hypotheses were tested: (i) that overexpression of Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) in the mitochondria of Drosophila melanogaster would slow the accrual of oxidative damage and prolong survival or (ii) that there is an evolved optimum level of superoxide anion radical, such that overexpression of Mn SOD would have deleterious or neutral effects. (
  • Superoxide dismutases (SODs) have been studied for their ability to manage the oxidative state of the cell by dismuting superoxide and inhibiting signals for pancreatic cancer growth. (
  • In this study, we wished to determine if overexpression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in intact lenses could prevent cataract formation induced by oxidative stress. (
  • Mitochondrial susceptibility to oxidative stress exacerbates cerebral infarction that follows permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mutant mice with manganese superoxide dismutase deficiency. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) protects the cells from oxidative damage by scavenging free radicals. (
  • Superoxide dismutase 3 in vascular system unites on the surface of endothelial cells through the heparan sulfate proteoglycan that eradicates the oxygen radicals from the NADP dependent oxidative system of neutrophils . (
  • Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1) is a key enzyme in the dismutation of superoxide radicals resulting from cellular oxidative metabolism into hydrogen peroxide ( 3 ). (
  • To protect against oxidative damage, there are several endogenous antioxidant mechanisms, including a group of superoxide dismutase (SODs). (
  • 4-6 Among them, the 3 superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoforms, the cytosolic copper zinc SOD (CuZnSOD, SOD-1), mitochondrial manganese SOD (MnSOD, SOD-2), and extracellular SOD (EC-SOD, SOD-3), have evolved as the key enzymatic defense system for converting O 2 − to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and molecular oxygen (O 2 ). (
  • Many studies have shown that antioxidant activity, mainly manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), is reduced in various skin cancers. (
  • Metal binding by apo-manganese superoxide dismutase (apo-MnSOD) is essential for functional maturation of the enzyme. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is an enzyme present in mitochondria that is one of the first in a chain of enzymes to mediate the ROS generated by the partial reduction of O 2 . (
  • Here we report that decreased expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in EPCs contributes to impaired would healing in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), encoded by the SOD2 gene, is translocated into the mitochondrial matrix where it scavenges superoxide radicals ( 11 ). (
  • A valine/alanine-polymorphism (rs4880 or V16A) has been identified in the targeting sequence of SOD2 ( 15 ), and an in vitro study shows that valine (Val) instead of alanine (Ala) results in less efficient transport of MnSOD into the mitochondrial matrix ( 16 ), which can compromise the ability to neutralize superoxide radicals in the cell. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a primary antioxidant enzyme (AE) that localizes in the mitochondrial matrix of eukaryotic cells. (
  • This study investigates the hypothesis that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) regulates cellular redox flux and glucose consumption during the cell cycle. (
  • Results from electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and flow cytometric assays showed a significant increase in cellular superoxide levels in S-phase cells, which was associated with an increase in glucose and oxygen consumption, and a decrease in MnSOD activity. (
  • Methylation-dependent changes in the MnSOD conformation and subsequent changes in the electrostatic potential around the active site during quiescence versus proliferation could increase the accessibility of superoxide, a negatively charged substrate. (
  • Stable expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in insulinoma cells prevents IL-1beta- induced cytotoxicity and reduces nitric oxide production. (
  • In the current study, we show that IL-1beta induces destruction of INS-1 insulinoma cells, while having no effect on a second insulinoma cell line RIN1046-38 and its engineered derivatives, and that this difference is correlated with a higher level of expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) in the latter cells. (
  • Because superoxide primarily emerges from mitochondria, mitochondrial MnSOD is thought to have a fundamental role in ROS detoxification [8]. (
  • The reaction of superoxide with non-radicals is spin forbidden. (
  • Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems. (
  • superoxide: superoxide oxidoreductase, EC play a key role in protection against oxygen radicals, and SOD gene expression is highly induced during environmental stress. (
  • Antioxidants enzymes including superoxide dismutase can help neutralize free radicals, and in doing so may limit or stop some of the damage they cause. (
  • Since phagocytizing polymorphonuclear leukocytes produce superoxide radicals, this reac-tion is sutggested and shown to be quantitatively feasible as the ini vivo mechanism of synovial fluid degradation in anl inflamed joint. (
  • The major source of intracellular ROS is the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which produces large amounts of superoxide radicals ( 10 ). (
  • An enzyme involved as antioxidant that catalyze the dismutation of two superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen that primarily protects the extracellular matrix of the lung . (
  • The hydroxyl free radical (OH-) can cause highly damaging effects on DNA neither superoxide anion (O 2 -) nor hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) but they are the precursors for the proliferative generation of hydroxyl free radicals through Fenton reaction [ 3 ]. (
  • Under normal conditions, superoxide radicals produced by the mitochondria but also by the activity of ion channels are scavenged by the enzyme Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD). (
  • The most predominant ROS are superoxide, peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. (
  • Among the various ROS, superoxide anion is particularly important because it has a potent ability to damage cells and leads to the formation of other ROS, such as hydroxy radicals ( Kruidenier and Verspaget, 2002 ). (
  • Meningococcal sodC encodes periplasmic copper- and zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn SOD) which catalyzes the conversion of the superoxide radical anion to hydrogen peroxide, preventing a sequence of reactions leading to production of toxic hydroxyl free radicals. (
  • A gene on chromosome 21q22.11 that encodes a soluble, copper- and zinc-binding cytoplasmic protein, which is responsible for destroying free superoxide radicals in the body, converting natural-but harmful-superoxide radicals to molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays a key role in the detoxification of superoxide free radicals. (
  • Superoxide dismutases ( SODs ) are a family of enzymes responsible for the detoxification of superoxide free radicals. (
  • It is worth mentioning that roughly 1-5% of the total oxygen consumed during respiration process is transformed to superoxide radicals. (
  • Abstract: Superoxide dismutases (SOD) serve as an important antioxidant defense mechanism in aerobic organisms, and deletion of these genes shortens the replicative life span in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (
  • Superoxide dismutase ( SOD , EC ) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O 2 − ) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O 2 ) or hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). (
  • The enzyme superoxide dismutase ( SOD , EC, catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide . (
  • 247 Superoxide Dismutase 2, Mitochondrial (SOD2) Antibodies from 27 manufacturers are available on (
  • OBJECTIVE To investigate the role of epigenetic regulation of the manganese superoxide dismutase gene ( sod2 ) in the development of diabetic retinopathy and the metabolic memory phenomenon associated with its continued progression after hyperglycemia is terminated. (
  • SODs catalyze the disproportionation of superoxide: 2 HO2 → O2 + H2O2 In this way, O− 2 is converted into two less damaging species. (
  • The reduction potentials of the catalytic metal ion in SODs and SORs fall between the potentials for one-electron oxidation and one-electron reduction of superoxide. (
  • Synthetic peptide (the amino acid sequence is considered to be commercially sensitive) within Human Superoxide Dismutase 3 aa 200 to the C-terminus (Cysteine residue). (
  • An immunosensor assay for the quantitation of intracellular recombinant human superoxide dismutase (rhSOD) in Escherichia coli cultivations based on detection with surface plasmon resoance (SPR) is described. (
  • The copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase. (
  • On are 11 Copper Chaperone For Superoxide Dismutase (CCS) Proteins from 6 different suppliers available. (
  • Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gene expression increased at the periphery of the contusion, which may indicate the severity of the superoxide stimulus. (
  • The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of the polymorphisms Ala-9Val and Ile58Thr of the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase gene in DNA from chagasic and nonchagasic patients and to establish a relationship between these polymorphisms with chronic chagasic cardiomyopathy. (
  • Super oxide dismutase (known as SOD) is an enzyme which acts as a catalyst in the process of dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme responsible for the dismutation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into O2 and H2O2 and thereby reduces the titer of activated oxygen molecules in the cell. (
  • Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase suppresses tumor necrosis factor-induced apoptosis and activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB and activated protein-1. (
  • Overexpression of CuZn superoxide dismutase protects RAW 264.7 macrophages against nitric oxide cytotoxicity. (
  • [4] Likewise, Brewer (1967) identified a protein that later became known as superoxide dismutase as an indophenol oxidase by protein analysis of starch gels using the phenazine-tetrazolium technique. (
  • There are three major families of superoxide dismutase, depending on the protein fold and the metal cofactor: the Cu/Zn type (which binds both copper and zinc), Fe and Mn types (which bind either iron or manganese), and the Ni type (which binds nickel). (
  • Huber W (1981) Orgotein-(bovine Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase), an anti-inflammatory protein drug: discovery, toxicology and pharmacology. (
  • Additionally we are shipping Superoxide dismutase copper chaperone Antibodies (66) and Superoxide dismutase copper chaperone Kits (18) and many more products for this protein. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one such antioxidant protein. (
  • Traber DL, Adams TJ, Sziebert L, Stein M, Traber L 1985 Potentiation of lung vascular response to endotoxin by superoxide dismutase. (
  • Increased production of superoxide anion has been shown under atherosclerotic/inflammatory vascular conditions and during reperfusion after myocardial ischemia, leading to the development of atherosclerosis, myocellular ischemia/reperfusion injury (myocardial dysfunction), and/or arrhythmias. (
  • The vascular production of superoxide (O 2 ·− ) is increased in many common cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, diabetic cardiomyopathy, and heart failure. (
  • Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that alternately catalyzes the dismutation (or partitioning) of the superoxide (O2−) radical into either ordinary molecular oxygen (O2) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). (
  • An enzyme known as superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one the body's most powerful antioxidants. (
  • Three forms of superoxide dismutase are present in humans, in all other mammals, and most chordates. (
  • Injectable (shot) forms of superoxide dismutase that have been used in research studies appear to be safe. (
  • In humans, three forms of superoxide dismutase are present. (
  • FYI: there are 3 forms of superoxide dismutase: copper, manganese and zinc. (
  • Offering a multitude of benefits over your everyday toner, the hydrating formula contains a very high, stabilised concentration of yeast-derived Superoxide Dismutase, an anti-inflammatory compound that effectively fights cellular oxidation that can cause drastic DNA damage and result in premature signs of ageing. (
  • Superoxide dismutase activity was decreased in hypertensive patients, which can be the result of elevated oxidation reactions. (
  • We hypothesized that limb ischemia impairs muscle superoxide dismutase (SOD) thereby leading to abnormal autonomic responsiveness observed in PAD animals, and a chronic compensation of SOD for anti-oxidation improves the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex. (
  • We describe here 17 O-NMR observation of the 17 O 2 -oxidized cysteine side chain of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in solution using selective 17 O 2 oxidation . (
  • Superoxide is produced as a by-product of oxygen metabolism and, if not regulated, causes many types of cell damage. (
  • Superoxide dismutase is an enzyme that helps break down potentially harmful oxygen molecules in cells, which might prevent damage to tissues. (
  • Healthcare providers give superoxide dismutase as a shot for certain bladder infections (interstitial cystitis), osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and lung damage that sometimes develops in premature infants who have been given oxygen to help them survive. (
  • As the first and initiating oxygen free radical in the ROS chain, superoxide (O 2 − ) consumption of NO is one of the most important mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction. (
  • Crapo JD, DeLong DM, Sjostrom K, Hasler GR, Drew RT 1977 The failure of aerosolized superoxide dismutase to modify pulmonary oxygen toxicity. (
  • The role of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), an important enzyme in cellular oxygen metabolism, was examined in activated peritoneal elicited macrophages (PEM) and in several inflammatory processes in vivo. (
  • Superoxide dismutase hunts down Superoxide and converts it into oxygen and hdyrogen peroxide so it can't wreak damage on your cells and give you wrinkles anymore. (
  • It is known that cell damage induced by the superoxide radical (O 2 · - ) and related oxygen species is involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases, including COPD 3 . (
  • Nevertheless, it has been documented that electrons can flee from the electron transport chain and react with oxygen molecules to form superoxide anions, which is the primary member in a wide array of the ROS family. (
  • 1 The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) is a primary cellular defense against ROS. (
  • The megavirus chilensis cu,zn-superoxide dismutase: the first viral structure of a typical cellular copper chaperone-independent hyperstable dimeric enzyme. (
  • The mutant mice also displayed enhanced superoxide generation in the region surrounding the corpora lutea, which was associated with increased apoptotic cells and suppressed vasculature. (
  • Fate of superoxide dismutase in mice following oral route of administration. (
  • Manganese superoxide dismutase mediates the early release of mitochondrial cytochrome C and subsequent DNA fragmentation after permanent focal cerebral ischemia in mice. (
  • Transgenic mice overexpressing superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 (tg-SOD), which maintain high ambient H 2 O 2 , have also been shown to be impaired in their ability to express hippocampal LTP. (
  • Tempol (1 mmol/L), a scavenger of superoxide, restored the impaired dilator responses in ECSOD−/− mice. (
  • Motor neuron degeneration in mice that express a human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase mutation," Science, vol. (
  • Irwin Fridovich and Joe McCord at Duke University discovered the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase in 1968. (
  • 7 The normal activity of CuZnSOD is necessary to limit increases in superoxide, allowing release of NO from endothelium and normal endothelium-dependent relaxation. (
  • Does someone have an assay or references on how to measure superoxide dismutase activity in a flowcytometer? (
  • Acute 60 Hz electromagnetic field exposure decreases superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione activity in rats. (
  • Genetic polymorphisms affect superoxide dismutase activity may potentiate the negative effects of magnetic fields. (
  • The tested copper complexes exhibited superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity and antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, with a minimum inhibition concentration of 256 μg/mL. (
  • Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi triggers inflammatory mechanisms and induces the activity of manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. (
  • Evaluating the relationship between Superoxide Dismutase Activity and Tenderness of USDA Prime and Select-grade beef. (
  • Measurement of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and superoxide dismutase activity in patients with hypertension. (
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and superoxide dismutase activity in sera of hypertensive patients. (
  • The activity of superoxide dismutase in serum was measured by enzymatic colorimetry method. (
  • The level of superoxide dismutase activity in the patients' group was 100+/-27 U/mL, and in the controls' group was 105+/-11 U/mL. (
  • Methods and Results - Coculture studies with ECs and VSMCs were performed to determine whether VSMCs mediate modulation of endothelial superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and expression induced by the calcium antagonist nifedipine. (
  • The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity during growth, following injury and during the recovery of Staphylococcus aureus was examined. (
  • Kit contains the necessary reagents for convenient measurement of activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) by colorimetric method. (
  • In biological systems, this means its main reactions are with itself (dismutation) or with another biological radical such as nitric oxide (NO). The superoxide anion radical (O 2 - ) spontaneously dismutes to O 2 and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) quite rapidly (~10 5 M -1 s -1 at pH 7). (
  • Superoxide reacts with nitric oxide (NO) released from endothelial cells limits bioavailability of NO and thus impairs endothelium-dependent dilator responses. (
  • For years, scientists have sought a way to boost one of the body's most powerful natural antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD). (
  • Menander-Huber KB, Edsmyr F, Huber W (1978) Orgotein (superoxide dismutase): a drug for the amelioration of radiation-induced side effects. (
  • Nickel superoxide dismutase is an incredibly efficient enzyme, indicating the redox mechanism is very fast. (
  • Suksrichavalit T, Prachayasittikul S, Piacham T, Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya C, Nantasenamat C, Prachayasittikul V. Copper Complexes of Nicotinic-Aromatic Carboxylic Acids as Superoxide Dismutase Mimetics. (
  • The enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the body's foremost antioxidant defenses, reducing free radical damage associated with atherosclerosis, stroke, and arthritis. (
  • Superoxide dismutase 3 genes are mapped on chromosome 4p15.3-p15.1 that contains 2 exons which found in plasma , lymph , synovial fluid and tissues . (
  • Subcellular distribution of superoxide dismutases (SOD) in rat liver: Cu,Zn-SOD in mitochondria. (
  • The rate constants of superoxide self-disproportionation (◆) and disproportionation catalyzed by human CuZnSOD as a function of pH (●) are shown for comparison. (
  • Benov and Fridovich recently reported the existence of a copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) in Escherichia coli (L. T. Benov and I. Fridovich, J. Biol. (
  • The body manufactures superoxide to kill bacteria and for other uses, but excess levels of superoxide can injure healthy cells. (
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Expression of superoxide dismutase in whole lens prevents cataract formation. (
  • The effect of tri-iodothyronine (T₃) on superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression was evaluated in a teleost Anabas testudineus (euthyroid fish) by native gel electrophoresis and Western blot analysis. (
  • Its expression is altered by the stress, presumably due to the increase in concentration of superoxide radical in cells. (
  • Past studies have reported that this enzyme has the potential to be used as an anti-inflammatory agent because of its superoxide anion scavenging ability. (
  • Effect of encapsulation on the anti-inflammatory properties of superoxide dismutase after oral administration. (
  • Superoxide Dismutase Enhances Tolerance of Freezing Stress in Transgenic Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. (
  • To determine the effect of hypothermia on superoxide injury after cerebral contusion, the induction of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase was examined 6 h after contusion in rats using Northern blotting. (
  • Regnault C, Soursac M, Roch-Arveiller M, Postaire E, Hazebroucq G. Pharmacokinetics of superoxide dismutase in rats after oral administration. (
  • The sensitivity of copper,zinc (CuZn)- and manganese (Mn)-superoxide dismutase (SOD) to exogenous estradiol benzoate (EB) was investigated in Wistar rats during postnatal brain development. (
  • In doing so, it protects cells from the toxicity of superoxide. (
  • The mutant showed no increased sensitivity to paraquat, which generates superoxide within the cytosol, but was approximately 1,000-fold more sensitive to the toxicity of superoxide generated in solution by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. (
  • Simply-stated, SOD outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. (
  • SOD works as an antioxidant because it outcompetes the damaging reactions of superoxide. (