Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid: A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Water Supply: Means or process of supplying water (as for a community) usually including reservoirs, tunnels, and pipelines and often the watershed from which the water is ultimately drawn. (Webster, 3d ed)Solvents: Liquids that dissolve other substances (solutes), generally solids, without any change in chemical composition, as, water containing sugar. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Hedeoma: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is closely related to the European pennyroyal (MENTHA PULEGIUM).Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Calophyllum: A plant genus of the family CLUSIACEAE. Members contain costatolide, calanolides and 4-phenylfuranocoumarins (FUROCOUMARINS).Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Rosmarinus: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Hexanes: Six-carbon saturated hydrocarbon group of the methane series. Include isomers and derivatives. Various polyneuropathies are caused by hexane poisoning.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Drug Residues: Drugs and their metabolites which are found in the edible tissues and milk of animals after their medication with specific drugs. This term can also apply to drugs found in adipose tissue of humans after drug treatment.Thermogravimetry: Technique whereby the weight of a sample can be followed over a period of time while its temperature is being changed (usually increased at a constant rate).Prazepam: A benzodiazepine that is used in the treatment of ANXIETY DISORDERS.Coal Ash: Residue generated from combustion of coal or petroleum.Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Ionic Liquids: Salts that melt below 100 C. Their low VOLATILIZATION can be an advantage over volatile organic solvents.Methanol: A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.Coriandrum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE. The leaves are the source of cilantro and the seeds are the source of coriander, both of which are used in SPICES.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Satureja: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE used to flavor food.Foeniculum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used in SPICES.EthaneSolubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Frozen FoodsWater Pollution: Contamination of bodies of water (such as LAKES; RIVERS; SEAS; and GROUNDWATER.)Epitestosterone: The 17-alpha isomer of TESTOSTERONE, derived from PREGNENOLONE via the delta5-steroid pathway, and via 5-androstene-3-beta,17-alpha-diol. Epitestosterone acts as an antiandrogen in various target tissues. The ratio between testosterone/epitestosterone is used to monitor anabolic drug abuse.Water Purification: Any of several processes in which undesirable impurities in water are removed or neutralized; for example, chlorination, filtration, primary treatment, ion exchange, and distillation. It includes treatment of WASTE WATER to provide potable and hygienic water in a controlled or closed environment as well as provision of public drinking water supplies.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Etiocholanolone: The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.Silica Gel: A non-crystalline form of silicon oxide that has absorptive properties. It is commonly used as a desiccating agent and as a stationary phase for CHROMATOGRAPHY. The fully hydrated form of silica gel has distinct properties and is referred to as SILICIC ACID.Pesticide Residues: Pesticides or their breakdown products remaining in the environment following their normal use or accidental contamination.Lavandula: A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Polygala: A plant genus of the family POLYGALACEAE that contains onjisaponins, xanthones, pyrones, and benzophenones. The name is similar to other snakeroots such as ASARUM; SANICULA; ARISTOLOCHIA; AGERATINA; and others.Nanocapsules: Nanometer-sized, hollow, spherically-shaped objects that can be utilized to encapsulate small amounts of pharmaceuticals, enzymes, or other catalysts (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechnology, 4th ed).Sideritis: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that contains isoscutellarein-7-O-(allosyl(1-2)glucoside).Liquid-Liquid Extraction: The removal of a soluble component from a liquid mixture by contact with a second liquid, immiscible with the carrier liquid, in which the component is preferentially soluble. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Sterilization: The destroying of all forms of life, especially microorganisms, by heat, chemical, or other means.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Catharanthus: A plant genus of the family Apocynaceae. It is the source of VINCA ALKALOIDS, used in leukemia chemotherapy.Water Pollutants, Chemical: Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.Laurus: A plant genus in the LAURACEAE family. Laurus nobilis L. leaves are known for use in SPICES, having a similar flavor as UMBELLULARIA.Chemistry Techniques, Analytical: Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.Sulfamethazine: A sulfanilamide anti-infective agent. It has a spectrum of antimicrobial action similar to other sulfonamides.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Tetralones: A group of TETRAHYDRONAPHTHALENES containing a keto oxygen.Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Water Pollutants: Substances or organisms which pollute the water or bodies of water. Use for water pollutants in general or those for which there is no specific heading.Porosity: Condition of having pores or open spaces. This often refers to bones, bone implants, or bone cements, but can refer to the porous state of any solid substance.Distillation: A chemical process for separating the components of a liquid mixture by boiling and collecting condensed vapors.Cardenolides: C(23)-steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a five-membered lactone at C-17. They are aglycone constituents of CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES and must have at least one double bond in the molecule. The class includes cardadienolides and cardatrienolides. Members include DIGITOXIN and DIGOXIN and their derivatives and the STROPHANTHINS.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.AcrylatesDrug Stability: The chemical and physical integrity of a pharmaceutical product.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Flurbiprofen: An anti-inflammatory analgesic and antipyretic of the phenylalkynoic acid series. It has been shown to reduce bone resorption in periodontal disease by inhibiting CARBONIC ANHYDRASE.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Chromatography, Liquid: Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.Lignans: A class of dibenzylbutane derivatives which occurs in higher plants and in fluids (bile, serum, urine, etc.) in man and other animals. These compounds, which have a potential anti-cancer role, can be synthesized in vitro by human fecal flora. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.PicratesPlant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Stearic Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of octadecanoic acid which is one of the most abundant fatty acids found in animal lipids. (Stedman, 25th ed)Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
  • Talks that focus on using other supercritical fluids should consider existing sessions on "Reactions in Near and Supercritical Fluids", with the exception of near and supercritical alchohols as these solvents have critical properties comparable to water and have been recently used to achieve similar results. (aiche.org)
  • This thesis introduces supercritical fluids - a highly regarded technology in process engineering and chemical industry - in a new field: the treatment and purification of aqueous streams. (rug.nl)
  • Brunner G (2001) Applications of supercritical fluids. (springer.com)
  • Due to the recent advancement in computer capability, numerical modelling starts to play an important role in making predictions and improving the understanding of physics in the studies of convective heat transfer to supercritical fluids. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The sensitivity studies of mesh parameters, user-defined fluid properties, turbulent Prandtl number, gravitational orientation, and various boundary conditions (e.g. heat flux, mass flux, pressure, and inlet temperature) have also been carried out, aiming to ensure the reliability of the obtained results, and to gain a deeper insight into the physics of heat transfer deterioration in supercritical fluids. (mcmaster.ca)
  • The use of supercritical fluids (SCF's) as non-toxic solvent replacements in fine chemical synthesis is one such strategy that is gaining increasing attention. (epa.gov)
  • Journal of Supercritical Fluids , 44 (3), 331-340. (elsevier.com)
  • Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. (booktopia.com.au)
  • Water is an inorganic , transparent , tasteless , odorless , and nearly colorless chemical substance , which is the main constituent of Earth 's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms . (wikipedia.org)
  • Our objective in this project is to determine the feasibility of carrying out organic synthesis reactions in supercritical fluids. (epa.gov)
  • The objective of this study is to assess the potential benefits of using supercritical fluids as solvents in organic synthesis. (epa.gov)
  • Our objective is to answer the fundamental question 'is it feasible and perhaps even more advantageous to carry organic synthesis reactions in supercritical fluids? (epa.gov)
  • We are proposing to use three different reactions as model reactions, (1) non catalytic Diels-Alder reaction to assess the fundamentals or reactions in supercritical fluids, (2) an asymmetric synthesis to assess the value of the approach in enantioselective pharmaceuticals synthesis and (3) metathesis reaction to demonstrate selectivity in specialty chemicals synthesis. (epa.gov)
  • Water is a major component of fluids in the Earth's mantle, where its properties are substantially different from those at ambient conditions. (pnas.org)
  • This lack of knowledge of water dielectric properties greatly limits our ability to model water-rock interactions and, in general, our understanding of aqueous fluids below the Earth's crust. (pnas.org)
  • Water, a major component of fluids in the Earth's mantle ( 1 , 2 ), is expected to play a substantial role in hydrothermal reactions occurring in the deep Earth at supercritical conditions ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this regime the properties of water and thus of aqueous fluids are remarkably different from those at ambient conditions. (pnas.org)
  • The current lack of knowledge of the dielectric constant of water under the P and T of the mantle hampers our ability to model water-rock interactions, to study the solubility of minerals, and hence our understanding of geochemical processes involving aqueous fluids below the Earth's crust. (pnas.org)
  • We predict that MgCO 3 -an important mineral stable in the mantle up to 82 GPa ( 19 ) and insoluble in water at ambient conditions-becomes slightly soluble, at least millimolal levels at ∼10 GPa and 1,000 K. This result suggests that aqueous fluids may be carbon hosts and transport carbonate in the deep Earth, with important implications for the dynamics of the global carbon cycle ( 20 , 21 ). (pnas.org)
  • Journal of Supercritical Fluids , 55 (3), 1027-1037. (elsevier.com)
  • There is a long-standing debate about whether the fluids released from a subducting slab are aqueous fluid, hydrous silicate melt, supercritical fluid (SCF), or a combination of these ( 2 , 4 , 8 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • He was a Council Member of the IChemE (2009-13) and Foreign Secretary and Vice-President of the Royal Society (2011-16) His research interests are focussed on supercritical fluids, continuous reactions and their applications to Green Chemistry. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Water and seawater have both been pushed past this critical point in labs, but until Koschinsky and her colleagues sailed to just south of the Atlantic equator in 2006, no-one had seen supercritical fluids in nature. (newscientist.com)
  • But because supercritical fluids have never been observed in nature, little is really known about how this happens. (newscientist.com)
  • It focuses on the synthesis of natural products and drugs, using industrial green solvents, water, supercritical water, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. (booktopia.com.au)
  • 3. This study compares the efficacy of ten different extraction techniques, with an emphasis on, quote - instant controlled pressure drop (DIC), supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), ultrasound assisted extraction, microwave extraction, enzyme-assisted extraction, and alternative solvents - unquote. (supercritical-co2-extraction.com)
  • New and unique experimental data on behavior and solubility of inorganic compounds in supercritical water are presented. (rug.nl)
  • In this study, cellulose solubility in ambient and supercritical water of varying density (0.2, 0.7, and 1.0 g cm(-3)) was studied by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations using the CHARMM36 force field and TIP3P water. (diva-portal.org)
  • Alvarez VH, Saldaña MDA (2011) Modeling solubility of polycyclic aromatic compounds in subcritical water. (springer.com)
  • Anderson GM, Burnham CW (1965) The solubility of quartz in supercritical water. (springer.com)
  • Prior reports also indicate that the solubility of cellulose substantially increases near the critical point of water. (aalto.fi)
  • Using ab initio molecular dynamics, we computed the dielectric constant of water under the conditions of the Earth's upper mantle, and we predicted the solubility products of carbonate minerals. (pnas.org)
  • We computed the dielectric constant of hot, compressed water using ab initio calculations ( 16 , 17 ) with semilocal density functionals ( 18 ) and used our results to predict the solubility of carbonates in the Earth's upper mantle, well into subduction zones. (pnas.org)
  • Because of the practical importance of an accurate knowledge of critical parameters for industrial, geochemical, and biological applications, an empirical equation for the critical locus of aqueous sodium chloride solutions was adopted in 1999 by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) as a guideline. (umd.edu)
  • Critical lines emanating from the pure-water critical point show how even small additions of solute may significantly affect the thermodynamic properties and phase behavior of supercooled aqueous solutions. (umd.edu)
  • The insolubility of cellulose in ambient water and most aqueous systems presents a major scientific and practical challenge. (diva-portal.org)
  • As illustrated by numerous reports in the literature, direct applications of high-temperature water as an extraction agent or a chromatographic mobile phase are limited by the chemical stability of the particular target substances (analytes) in the high-temperature aqueous systems. (springer.com)
  • Aqueous media and supercritical water involved in organic synthesis are discussed for industrial use. (elsevier.com)
  • Our results indicate that the melting temperature of the subducting oceanic crust can no longer be defined beyond this critical condition and that the fluid released from subducting oceanic crust at depths greater than 100 km under volcanic arcs is supercritical fluid rather than aqueous fluid and/or hydrous melts. (pnas.org)
  • A large range of injection rates, expressed as the dimensionless capillary number ( Ca ), was studied in two sets of experiments: discontinuous-rate injection, where the micromodel was saturated with water before each injection rate was imposed, and continuous-rate injection, where the rate was increased after quasi-steady conditions were reached for a certain rate. (figshare.com)
  • Continuous supercritical water gasification of glucose is investigated with a recently developed updraft gasification apparatus under various conditions: temperatures of 600-767 °C, residence times of 15-60 s, glucose concentrations of 1.8-15 wt% and without added a catalyst. (kist.re.kr)
  • Continuous N-alkylation reactions of amino alcohols using gamma-Al2O3 and supercritical CO2: unexpected formation of cyclic ureas and urethanes by reaction with CO2 BEILSTEIN JOURNAL OF ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • As most commonly envisioned, it would operate on a direct cycle, much like a BWR , but since it uses supercritical water (not to be confused with critical mass ) as the working fluid, would have only one phase present, like the PWR . (thefullwiki.org)
  • With affordable, long-lasting catalysts, water could be split to produce hydrogen that could be used to power fuel cells or combustion engines. (phys.org)
  • Towards the critical point, several of the main properties of water, such as density, viscosity, and dielectric constant gradually decrease with increasing temperature. (rsc.org)
  • With sensitive and easy-to-hydrolyze substances encountered in food-related analyses, the direct applications of water in the above roles are mostly limited to temperatures far below the critical temperature of water. (springer.com)
  • In turn, promising indirect applications of sub- and/or supercritical water in analytical separations capitalize on the ability of high-temperature water to dissolve fused silica. (springer.com)
  • Bandura AV, Lvov SN (2006) The ionization constant of water over wide ranges of temperature and density. (springer.com)
  • We processed phenol with supercritical water in a series of experiments, which systematically varied the temperature, water density, reactant concentration, and reaction time. (elsevier.com)
  • Water" is the name of the liquid state of H 2 O at standard ambient temperature and pressure . (wikipedia.org)
  • After the SC-CO 2 treatment at various conditions of temperature, time and amount of water cosolvent, the colony forming units (CFU) of fungal spores on wheat grains and the germination yields of wheat grains were determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Water is liquid at room temperature - astounding for such a small molecule. (phys.org)
  • Room temperature organic compounds are mostly insoluble in water making for an easy separation. (supercritical-co2-extraction.com)
  • 7. Under high temperature and high pressure, quote - conditions, water is able to solubilize more non- polar molecules - unquote. (supercritical-co2-extraction.com)
  • Water plays an important role in subduction-zone magmatism because it can reduce the melting temperature of rocks in subduction zones and hence can generate magmas ( 1 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • The fluid has a density between that of water vapor and liquid at standard conditions, and exhibits high gas-like diffusion rates along with high liquid-like collision rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • This high-density water is either introduced from cooling tubes inserted into the core or as a reflector or moderated-part of the core. (thefullwiki.org)
  • It is found that the strong density gradients across the water-decane mixing layer in the presence of the adverse pressure gradient, lead to the baroclinic generation of vorticity in a counter-clockwise sense. (aiche.org)
  • I then used steam tables to find the density of water, which I then multiplied the amount of volume I was wanting to fill at that pressure, and used that mass as the basis of water I needed to add. (physicsforums.com)
  • Am I right in assuming that I can just use the mass of the steam and say that (mass of steam from [email protected])=(Mass of water needed)? (physicsforums.com)
  • The molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the thermodynamics favor cellulose dissolution in supercritical water and an increasing water density or pressure decreases the Gibbs energy of dissolution while it predicted insolubility in ambient water. (aalto.fi)
  • At low water density (0-0.16g/cm 3 ), CO 2 Was the main product. (elsevier.com)
  • However, with increasing water density (up to 0.52g/cm 3 ), the CO 2 ratio tended to decrease while the CO and H 2 ratios increased. (elsevier.com)
  • Icebergs float because water has its highest density at four degrees Celsius - actually quite unusual. (phys.org)
  • It reaches its maximum density at four degrees Celsius, so that ice floats on liquid water. (phys.org)
  • The low activity of the ex-situ reduced catalyst is due to the fact that, when exposed to supercritical water for less than 30 minutes, it re-oxidized to CoO. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • For well-controlled reaction Co/YSZ is a promising catalyst that can be highly selective toward hydrogen during ethanol reforming in supercritical water. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Aspromonte SG, Mizrahi MD, Alonso E, Ramallo-López JM, Boix AV (2017) Co/MCM41 catalyst in the COProx reaction prepared by supercritical CO 2 reactive deposition. (springer.com)
  • This flow regime in which sustained vorticity brings about fast transport of both species and energy over large length scales would be conducive for the desulfurization and upgrading process since it would ensure simultaneous quick transfer of hear and water to the hydrocarbon stream. (aiche.org)
  • The material presented is at a specialist's level in materials or corrosion science, or in water chemistry of power plants. (elsevier.com)
  • The book focuses on promoting the concept of green and clean technology using chemistry and chemical engineering practices to reduce or eliminate the use and/or generation of potentially hazardous materials…[It] clearly overviews the methodologies for harnessing water energy for competing their market share. (routledge.com)
  • Catalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene and dibenzothiophene through a water gas shift reaction (CO+H 2 →CO 2 +H 2 ) in supercritical water (SCW) is studied. (elsevier.com)
  • The separation principle of this approach is based on the changed solvation behavior of supercritical water. (rug.nl)
  • The decrease ΔS^≠ is attributed to differential solvation effects due to the existence of supercritical water (e.g., lower ρ and є) while the increases in ΔG^≠ and ΔH^≠ are attributed to changes in the heat capacity of the water due to the formation of a transient supercritical state. (caltech.edu)
  • Renmatix in King of Prussia, Pennsylvania, is being recognized for developing a process using supercritical water to more cost effectively break down plant material into sugars used as building blocks for renewable chemicals and fuels. (epa.gov)
  • This book is a first of its kind where one can refer to for the roles of water in fossil (conventional and unconventional), nuclear, and renewable energy sectors. (routledge.com)
  • Therefore, supercritical water can be used as a green agent to alter the internal diameter of fused-silica capillaries (e.g., to create an inlet taper) or to manipulate the roughness of their inner surfaces. (springer.com)