A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A serotonin receptor subtype that is localized to the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; PUTAMEN; the NUCLEUS ACCUMBENS; the HIPPOCAMPUS, and the RAPHE NUCLEI. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1B RECEPTOR, but is expressed at low levels. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigrane effect.
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A serotonin receptor subtype found at high levels in the BASAL GANGLIA and the frontal cortex. It plays a role as a terminal autoreceptor that regulates the rate of SEROTONIN release from nerve endings. This serotonin receptor subtype is closely related to and has similar drug binding properties as the 5-HT1D RECEPTOR. It is particularly sensitive to the agonist SUMATRIPTAN and may be involved in mediating the drug's antimigraine effect.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
A vasoconstrictor found in ergot of Central Europe. It is a serotonin agonist that has been used as an oxytocic agent and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
Endogenous compounds and drugs that specifically stimulate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are agonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
A serotonin receptor antagonist in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM used as an antipsychotic.
A vessel that directly interconnects an artery and a vein, and that acts as a shunt to bypass the capillary bed. Not to be confused with surgical anastomosis, nor with arteriovenous fistula.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
An anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Both the acid and its sodium salt are used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic or musculoskeletal disorders, dysmenorrhea, and acute gout.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used principally in the treatment of NAUSEA; VOMITING; and VERTIGO. It is more likely than CHLORPROMAZINE to cause EXTRAPYRAMIDAL DISORDERS. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p612)
A primary headache disorder that is characterized by severe, strictly unilateral PAIN which is orbital, supraorbital, temporal or in any combination of these sites, lasting 15-180 min. occurring 1 to 8 times a day. The attacks are associated with one or more of the following, all of which are ipsilateral: conjunctival injection, lacrimation, nasal congestion, rhinorrhea, facial SWEATING, eyelid EDEMA, and miosis. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Arteries which supply the dura mater.
Oxadiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds consisting of a five-membered ring containing two carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two oxygen atoms (one as a part of the oxadiazole ring and the other as a substituent or part of a larger molecule), which can exist in various isomeric forms and are known for their versatile biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, and antitumor properties.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.
An ergot derivative that is a congener of LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE. It antagonizes the effects of serotonin in blood vessels and gastrointestinal smooth muscle, but has few of the properties of other ergot alkaloids. Methysergide is used prophylactically in migraine and other vascular headaches and to antagonize serotonin in the carcinoid syndrome.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Organic compounds which contain tin in the molecule. Used widely in industry and agriculture.
Recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches, not preceded or accompanied by an aura, in attacks lasting 4-72 hours. It is characterized by PAIN of moderate to severe intensity; aggravated by physical activity; and associated with NAUSEA and / or PHOTOPHOBIA and PHONOPHOBIA. (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
A partnership, corporation, association, or other legal entity that enters into an arrangement for the provision of services with persons who are licensed to practice medicine, osteopathy, and dentistry, and with other care personnel. Under an IPA arrangement, licensed professional persons provide services through the entity in accordance with a mutually accepted compensation arrangement, while retaining their private practices. Services under the IPA are marketed through a prepaid health plan. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.

[3H]-Mesulergine labels 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum but not rat jejunum. (1/208)

1. The primary aim of this investigation was to determine whether binding sites corresponding to the 5-HT7 receptor could be detected in smooth muscle of the rat jejunum. Binding studies in rat brain (whole brain minus cerebellum) and guinea-pig ileal longitudinal muscle were also undertaken in order to compare the binding characteristics of these tissues. Studies were performed using [3H]-mesulergine, as it has a high affinity for 5-HT7 receptors. 2. In the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, pKD values for [3H]-mesulergine of 8.0 +/- 0.04 and 7.9 +/- 0.11 (n = 3) and Bmax values of 9.9 +/- 0.3 and 21.5 +/- 4.9 fmol mg(-1) protein were obtained respectively, but no binding was detected in the rat jejunum. [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat brain and guinea-pig ileum was displaced with the agonists 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT) > 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) > or = 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT) > sumatriptan and the antagonists risperidone > or = LSD > or = metergoline > ritanserin > > pindolol. 3. Despite the lack of [3H]-mesulergine binding in the rat jejunum, functional studies undertaken revealed a biphasic contractile response to 5-HT which was partly blocked by ondansetron (1 microM). The residual response was present in over 50% of tissues studied and was found to be inhibited by risperidone > LSD > metergoline > mesulergine = ritanserin > pindolol, but was unaffected by RS 102221 (3 microM), cinanserin (30 nM), yohimbine (0.1 microM) and GR 113808 (1 microM). In addition, the agonist order of potency was 5-CT > 5-HT > 5-MeOT > sumatriptan. 4. In conclusion, binding studies performed with [3H]-mesulergine were able to detect 5-HT7 sites in rat brain and guinea-pig ileum, but not in rat jejunum, where a functional 5-HT7-like receptor was present.  (+info)

Vasoconstriction in human isolated middle meningeal arteries: determining the contribution of 5-HT1B- and 5-HT1F-receptor activation. (2/208)

AIMS: Sumatriptan is a 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonist which also has affinity for 5-HT1F-receptors. The vasoconstrictor effects of sumatriptan are thought to be 5-HT1B-receptor mediated and these receptors have been shown to be expressed in human cranial blood vessels. However, in the same tissue mRNA coding for 5-HT1F-receptors has also been identified and this study addresses the possibility of whether 5-HT1F-receptor activation contributes to vasoconstriction. METHODS: The ability of two selective 5-HT1B/1D-receptor antagonists (GR125,743 and GR127,935) with no affinity for 5-HT1F-receptors, to inhibit sumatriptan evoked contractions in human isolated middle meningeal artery was investigated. Using a series of 5-HT1B/1D-receptor agonists (sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, CP122,288, L-741,519 and L-741,604), some with high affinity for 5-HTIF-receptors and the non-selective 5-HT-receptor agonists 5-HT and 5-CT, we compared the vasoconstrictor potency of these drugs in human isolated middle meningeal artery with their affinities at cloned human 5-HT1B-, 5-HT1D-and 5-HT1F-receptors expressed in CHO cell lines. RESULTS: GR125,743 antagonized sumatriptan evoked contractions in a competitive manner (apparent pA2 9.1) and GR127,935 antagonized sumatriptan-induced responses in a non-competitive manner (reducing the maximum contraction to 27%). There was a significant correlation between vasoconstrictor potency and 5-HT1B-receptor affinity (r=0.93, P=0.002) but not with 5-HT1D- or 5-HT1F-receptor affinity (r=0.74, P=0.06; r= 0.31, P= 0.49, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: These experiments show that in human middle meningeal artery vasoconstriction to sumatriptan-like agents is 5-HT1B-receptor mediated with little if any contribution from 5-HT1F-receptor activation.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness of sumatriptan in a managed care population. (3/208)

We conducted an open-labeled study to determine whether sumatriptan is more cost-effective than other therapies used to treat migraine headache. We contacted by phone 220 sumatriptan users enrolled in QualMed, a health maintenance organization (HMO) in Spokane, Washington. Of these, 203 met the inclusion criteria and 164 (81%) completed our telephone survey. The main outcome measures were healthcare costs to the HMO and number of days free of migraine-related disability before and after sumatriptan treatment. Before sumatriptan treatment, 89% of patients reported severe migraine, compared with 63% after sumatriptan treatment. The number of monthly migraine disability days decreased from 6.5 days per month before sumatriptan to 3.9 days per month after sumatriptan. Healthcare utilization rates (ie, number of hospitalizations, emergency department visits) and costs were lower after the patients began taking sumatriptan. The number of different over-the-counter medicines and prescription medications (other than sumatriptan) taken for migraine disabilities decreased. Although total drug expenditures per month increased, the total migraine healthcare expenditure was 41% lower after sumatriptan was initiated. The cost-effectiveness ratio was 47% more favorable after patients started taking sumatriptan. Overall, patients reported fewer migraine-related disabilities, had lower migraine severity scores, and used fewer healthcare resources when taking sumatriptan. These changes resulted in a better cost-effectiveness ratio for migraine treatment.  (+info)

Canine external carotid vasoconstriction to methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine: role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors. (4/208)

The antimigraine drugs methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) produce selective vasoconstriction in the external carotid bed of vagosympathectomized dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital and artificially respired, but the receptors involved have not yet been completely characterized. Since the above drugs display affinity for several binding sites, including alpha-adrenoceptors and several 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, this study has analysed the mechanisms involved in the above responses. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions during 1 min of methysergide (31-310 microg min(-1)), ergotamine (0.56-5.6 microg min(-1)) or DHE (5.6-31 microg min(-1)) dose-dependently reduced external carotid blood flow (ECBF) by up to 46+/-4, 37+/-4 and 49+/-5%, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. The reductions in ECBF by methysergide were abolished and even reversed to increases in animals pre-treated with GR127935 (10 microg kg(-1), i.v.). The reductions in ECBF by ergotamine and DHE remained unchanged in animals pre-treated (i.v.) with prazosin (300 microg kg(-1)), but were partly antagonized in animals pre-treated with either GR127935 (10 or 30 microg kg(-1)) or yohimbine (1000 microg kg(-1)). Pre-treatment with a combination of GR127935 (30 microg kg(-1)) and yohimbine (1000 microg kg(-1)) abolished the responses to both ergotamine and DHE. The above doses of antagonists were shown to produce selective antagonism at their respective receptors. These results suggest that the external carotid vasoconstrictor responses to methysergide primarily involve 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas those to ergotamine and DHE are mediated by 5-HT1B/1D receptors as well as alpha2-adrenoceptors.  (+info)

The inhibition of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by some analgesic drugs and progesterone. (5/208)

1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of nicotine-evoked relaxation of the guinea-pig isolated basilar artery and to study the effects of drugs associated with the aetiology or treatment of migraine on the nicotine response. 2. The guinea-pig isolated basilar artery, pre-contracted with prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha), in the presence of atropine (3 microM) and guanethidine (3 microM), relaxed on addition of nicotine (0.1 mM) in approximately 50% of preparations. The responses to nicotine were of short duration and blocked in preparations pre-treated for 10 min with capsaicin (1 microM) and are therefore probably a consequence of the stimulation of trigeminal C fibre terminals. 3. Responses to nicotine were reduced in the presence of 5-carboxamidotryptamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and sumatriptan in that order of potency. This is consistent with a 5-HT1 receptor mechanism. These agonists evoked small additional contractions in vessels pre-contracted with PGF2alpha. 4. Indomethacin (0.3-10 microM), aspirin (10-30 microM), and nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM) reduced nicotine-evoked relaxation of the basilar artery, suggesting the involvement of both nitric oxide and cyclo-oxygenase products in this response. 5. Progesterone (1 microM) markedly reduced the response to nicotine, a possible reflection of the ion channel blocking activity of high concentrations of this compound. 6. The guinea-pig basilar artery is a preparation in which the effects of drugs on responses to stimulation of trigeminal nerve terminals can be studied in vitro and may thus be of interest in assessing the actions of drugs used in treatment of headache.  (+info)

Regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide secretion by a serotonergic antimigraine drug. (6/208)

We have investigated the regulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from trigeminal neurons by the serotonergic antimigraine drug sumatriptan. Serum levels of the neuropeptide CGRP are elevated during migraine. Treatment with the drug sumatriptan returns CGRP levels to normal coincident with the alleviation of headache. However, despite this clinical efficacy, the cellular target and mechanism of sumatriptan action are not well understood beyond the pharmacology of its recognition of the 5-HT1 class of serotonin receptors. We have used cultured trigeminal neurons to demonstrate that sumatriptan can directly repress CGRP secretion from sensory neurons. The stimulated secretion in response to depolarization or inflammatory agents was inhibited, but not the basal secretion rate. Unexpectedly, sumatriptan did not lower cAMP levels, in contrast to the classical role ascribed to the 5-HT1 receptors. Instead, activation of 5-HT1 receptors caused a slow and remarkably prolonged increase in intracellular calcium. The inhibition of CGRP secretion is attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, suggesting that sumatriptan action is mediated by calcium-recruited phosphatases. These results suggest that 5-HT1 agonists may block a deleterious feedback loop in migraine at the trigeminal neurons and provide a general mechanism by which this class of drugs can attenuate stimulated neuropeptide release.  (+info)

Altered oesophageal motility following the administration of the 5-HT1 agonist, sumatriptan. (7/208)

BACKGROUND: The 5-HT1 agonist sumatriptan, used in the treatment of migraine, can cause chest pain. AIM: To investigate the effect of a therapeutic dose of sumatriptan (6 mg s.c.) on oesophageal motility. METHODS: In 16 normal healthy subjects aged 19-32 years (9 males), the manometric response of the lower oesophageal sphincter (sleeve sensor), oesophageal body (four sites), stomach and pharynx (to register swallows) to 5 mL water swallows was assessed before and after a subcutaneous injection of either sumatriptan (6 mg) or saline control. Symptoms and ECGs were also monitored. RESULTS: Sumatriptan 6 mg s.c. altered oesophageal motility in all subjects. This was reflected by a significant increase in the amplitude of oesophageal body contractions (change from pre- to 1 h post-injection: sumatriptan 9.9 (2.8, 17.1) mmHg vs. placebo -0.8 (-4.2, 2.6) mmHg, difference 10.8 (4.4, 17.1) mmHg; P=0.003) and a transient increase in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure (change from pre- to 5 min post-injection: sumatriptan 10.9 (5.2, 16.6) mmHg vs. placebo 5.1 (1.8, 8.4) mmHg, difference 5.8 (-0.7, 12.3) mmHg; P=0.08). Sumatriptan had no effect on the velocity of propagation of oesophageal contractions (change from pre- to 1 h post-injection: sumatriptan -0.1 (-0.3, 0.1) cm/s vs. placebo -0.1 (-0.3, 0.0) cm/s, difference 0.1 (-0.1, 0.2) cm/s; P = 0.40). One subject experienced chest symptoms following sumatriptan and, although motility was altered, this did not reach pathological levels. No ECG abnormalities were observed. CONCLUSION: Sumatriptan (6 mg s.c.) significantly alters oesophageal motor function without affecting the ECG. It is therefore possible that sumatriptan-induced chest symptoms may have an oesophageal origin. The evaluation of similar therapeutic agents for migraine on oesophageal function may be justified.  (+info)

Investigation of the role of 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors in the sumatriptan-induced constriction of porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses. (8/208)

1. It has previously been shown that the antimigraine drug sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses via 5-HT1-like receptors, identical to 5-H1B/1D receptors. The recent availability of silent antagonists selective for the 5-HT1B (SB224289) and 5-HT1D (BRL15572) receptor led us to further analyse the nature of receptors involved. 2. In pentobarbitone-anaesthetized, bilaterally vagosympathectomized pigs, sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) dose-dependently decreased carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by up to 70+/-5%. 3. The dose-related decreases in carotid arteriovenous anastomotic conductance by sumatriptan (30, 100 and 300 microg kg(-1), i.v.) remained unchanged in animals treated (i.v.) with 1 mg kg(-1) of BRL15572 (maximum decrease: 72+/-3%), but were significantly attenuated by 1 mg kg(-1) (maximum decrease: 30+/-11%) and abolished by 3 mg kg(-1) (maximum decrease: 3+/-7%) of SB224289. The highest dose of SB224289 did not attenuate the hypertension, tachycardia or increases in carotid blood flow induced by bolus injections of noradrenaline (0.1-3 microg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. The results indicate that sumatriptan constricts porcine carotid arteriovenous anastomoses primarily via 5-HT1B, but not via 5-HT1D receptors.  (+info)

Sumatriptan is a selective serotonin receptor agonist, specifically targeting the 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B receptors. It is primarily used to treat migraines and cluster headaches. Sumatriptan works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain and reducing inflammation that leads to migraine symptoms.

The medication comes in various forms, including tablets, injectables, and nasal sprays. Common side effects of sumatriptan include feelings of warmth or hotness, tingling, tightness, pressure, heaviness, pain, or burning in the neck, throat, jaw, chest, or arms.

It is important to note that sumatriptan should not be used if a patient has a history of heart disease, stroke, or uncontrolled high blood pressure. Additionally, it should not be taken within 24 hours of using another migraine medication containing ergotamine or similar drugs such as dihydroergotamine, methysergide, or caffeine-containing analgesics.

Serotonin receptor agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate serotonin receptors in the body, mimicking the effects of the neurotransmitter serotonin. These drugs can have various effects depending on which specific serotonin receptors they act upon. Some serotonin receptor agonists are used to treat conditions such as migraines, cluster headaches, and Parkinson's disease, while others may be used to stimulate appetite or reduce anxiety. It is important to note that some serotonin receptor agonists can have serious side effects, particularly when taken in combination with other medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). This can lead to a condition called serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by symptoms such as agitation, confusion, rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, and muscle stiffness.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1D subtype, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors are activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and nociception (pain perception).

The 5-HT1D receptor subtype is further divided into several subtypes, including 5-HT1Dα, 5-HT1Dβ, and 5-HT1Dε. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and spinal cord, where they modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting adenylyl cyclase activity and reducing cAMP levels in neurons.

In addition to their role in regulating neurotransmission, 5-HT1D receptors have also been implicated in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, including migraine, depression, anxiety, and addiction. As a result, drugs that target these receptors have been developed for the treatment of these conditions. For example, triptans, which are commonly used to treat migraines, work by selectively activating 5-HT1D receptors in the brain and constricting blood vessels in the meninges, thereby reducing the inflammation and pain associated with migraines.

Tryptamines are a class of organic compounds that contain a tryptamine skeleton, which is a combination of an indole ring and a ethylamine side chain. They are commonly found in nature and can be synthesized in the lab. Some tryptamines have psychedelic properties and are used as recreational drugs, such as dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Others have important roles in the human body, such as serotonin, which is a neurotransmitter that regulates mood, appetite, and sleep. Tryptamines can also be found in some plants and animals, including certain species of mushrooms, toads, and catnip.

A migraine disorder is a neurological condition characterized by recurrent headaches that often involve one side of the head and are accompanied by various symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, sensitivity to light and sound, and visual disturbances. Migraines can last from several hours to days and can be severely debilitating. The exact cause of migraines is not fully understood, but they are believed to result from a combination of genetic and environmental factors that affect the brain and blood vessels. There are different types of migraines, including migraine without aura, migraine with aura, chronic migraine, and others, each with its own specific set of symptoms and diagnostic criteria. Treatment typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medications, and behavioral therapies to manage symptoms and prevent future attacks.

A serotonin receptor, specifically the 5-HT1B receptor, is a type of G protein-coupled receptor found in the cell membrane. It binds to the neurotransmitter serotonin (also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine or 5-HT) and plays a role in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and smooth muscle contraction.

The 5-HT1B receptor is widely distributed throughout the body, but it is particularly abundant in the brain, where it is involved in modulating mood, cognition, and motor control. When serotonin binds to the 5-HT1B receptor, it activates a signaling pathway that ultimately leads to the inhibition of adenylyl cyclase, which reduces the production of cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the cell. This reduction in cAMP levels can have various effects on cellular function, depending on the specific tissue and context in which the 5-HT1B receptor is expressed.

In addition to its role as a serotonin receptor, the 5-HT1B receptor has also been identified as a target for certain drugs used in the treatment of migraine headaches, such as triptans. These medications bind to and activate the 5-HT1B receptor, which leads to vasoconstriction of cranial blood vessels and inhibition of neuropeptide release, helping to alleviate the symptoms of migraines.

Serotonin receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that bind to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). They are widely distributed throughout the body, including the central and peripheral nervous systems, where they play important roles in regulating various physiological processes such as mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and cognition.

There are seven different classes of serotonin receptors (5-HT1 to 5-HT7), each with multiple subtypes, that exhibit distinct pharmacological properties and signaling mechanisms. These receptors are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or ligand-gated ion channels, which activate intracellular signaling pathways upon serotonin binding.

Serotonin receptors have been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraine. Therefore, selective serotonin receptor agonists or antagonists are used as therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Ergotamine is a type of ergopeptine alkaloid, derived from the ergot fungus (Claviceps purpurea) that parasitizes certain grains, particularly rye. It is a potent vasoconstrictor and has been used medically to prevent migraines and treat cluster headaches, as well as for other uses such as controlling postpartum hemorrhage and reducing symptoms of orthostatic hypotension.

Ergotamine works by binding to serotonin receptors in the brain and causing vasoconstriction of cranial blood vessels, which can help to relieve migraine headaches. However, it can also cause serious side effects such as nausea, vomiting, muscle pain, numbness or tingling in the extremities, and in rare cases, more severe reactions such as ergotism, a condition characterized by vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels leading to gangrene.

Ergotamine is usually taken orally, but can also be administered rectally or by inhalation. It is important to follow the dosage instructions carefully and avoid taking excessive amounts, as this can increase the risk of serious side effects. Ergotamine should not be taken during pregnancy or while breastfeeding, and it may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting ergotamine therapy.

Dihydroergotamine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of ergotamine, which is found naturally in the ergot fungus. Dihydroergotamine is used to treat migraines and cluster headaches.

The drug works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which helps to reduce the pain and other symptoms associated with migraines and cluster headaches. It can be administered via injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet. Dihydroergotamine may cause serious side effects, including medication overuse headache, ergotism, and cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke. Therefore, it is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a class of compounds that bind to and activate the serotonin 5-HT1 receptors, which are G protein-coupled receptors found in the central and peripheral nervous systems. These receptors play important roles in regulating various physiological functions, including neurotransmission, vasoconstriction, and hormone secretion.

Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are used in medical therapy to treat a variety of conditions, such as migraines, cluster headaches, depression, anxiety, and insomnia. Some examples of Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists include sumatriptan, rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, and frovatriptan, which are used to treat migraines and cluster headaches by selectively activating the 5-HT1B/1D receptors in cranial blood vessels and sensory nerves.

Other Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists, such as buspirone, are used to treat anxiety disorders and depression by acting on the 5-HT1A receptors in the brain. These drugs work by increasing serotonergic neurotransmission, which helps to regulate mood, cognition, and behavior.

Overall, Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Agonists are a valuable class of drugs that have shown efficacy in treating various neurological and psychiatric conditions. However, like all medications, they can have side effects and potential drug interactions, so it is important to use them under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Vasoconstrictor agents are substances that cause the narrowing of blood vessels by constricting the smooth muscle in their walls. This leads to an increase in blood pressure and a decrease in blood flow. They work by activating the sympathetic nervous system, which triggers the release of neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and epinephrine that bind to alpha-adrenergic receptors on the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessel walls, causing them to contract.

Vasoconstrictor agents are used medically for a variety of purposes, including:

* Treating hypotension (low blood pressure)
* Controlling bleeding during surgery or childbirth
* Relieving symptoms of nasal congestion in conditions such as the common cold or allergies

Examples of vasoconstrictor agents include phenylephrine, oxymetazoline, and epinephrine. It's important to note that prolonged use or excessive doses of vasoconstrictor agents can lead to rebound congestion and other adverse effects, so they should be used with caution and under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Methiothepin is a non-selective, irreversible antagonist of serotonin (5-HT) receptors, particularly 5-HT1, 5-HT2, and 5-HT3 receptors. It has also been found to act as an antagonist at dopamine D2 receptors and histamine H1 receptors. Methiothepin has been used in research to study the roles of serotonin and other neurotransmitters in various physiological processes, but it is not commonly used clinically due to its lack of selectivity and potential for causing severe side effects.

An arteriovenous (AV) anastomosis is a connection or short channel between an artery and a vein that bypasses the capillary bed. In a normal physiological condition, blood flows from the arteries to the capillaries, where oxygen and nutrients are exchanged with the surrounding tissues, and then drains into veins. However, in an AV anastomosis, blood flows directly from the artery to the vein without passing through the capillary network.

AV anastomoses can occur naturally or be created surgically for various medical purposes. For example, they may be created during bypass surgery to reroute blood flow around a blocked or damaged vessel. In some cases, AV anastomoses may also develop as a result of certain medical conditions, such as cirrhosis or arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). AVMs are abnormal connections between arteries and veins that can lead to the formation of an AV anastomosis.

It is important to note that while AV anastomoses can be beneficial in certain medical situations, they can also have negative consequences if they occur inappropriately or become too large. For example, excessive AV anastomoses can lead to high-flow shunts, which can cause tissue damage and other complications.

Serotonin antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, at specific receptor sites in the brain and elsewhere in the body. They work by binding to the serotonin receptors without activating them, thereby preventing the natural serotonin from binding and transmitting signals.

Serotonin antagonists are used in the treatment of various conditions such as psychiatric disorders, migraines, and nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy. They can have varying degrees of affinity for different types of serotonin receptors (e.g., 5-HT2A, 5-HT3, etc.), which contributes to their specific therapeutic effects and side effect profiles.

Examples of serotonin antagonists include ondansetron (used to treat nausea and vomiting), risperidone and olanzapine (used to treat psychiatric disorders), and methysergide (used to prevent migraines). It's important to note that these medications should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have potential risks and interactions with other drugs.

Naproxen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) commonly used for its analgesic (pain-relieving), antipyretic (fever-reducing), and anti-inflammatory properties. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase, which leads to reduced prostaglandin production, thereby alleviating pain, inflammation, and fever.

Medical professionals prescribe Naproxen for various conditions such as:

1. Pain management: Naproxen can be used to treat mild to moderate pain caused by conditions like headaches, menstrual cramps, muscle aches, and dental issues.
2. Inflammatory conditions: It is effective in reducing inflammation associated with arthritis (osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile arthritis), gout, bursitis, and tendonitis.
3. Fever reduction: Naproxen can help lower fever caused by infections or other medical conditions.

Common side effects of Naproxen include stomach upset, heartburn, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Serious side effects, although rare, may include gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and increased risk of cardiovascular events (e.g., heart attack or stroke). Patients should consult their healthcare provider for appropriate dosage and potential risks before starting Naproxen therapy.

Prochlorperazine is an antipsychotic drug, specifically a phenothiazine derivative. It works by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps to reduce psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and also has antiemetic (anti-nausea and vomiting) effects.

Prochlorperazine is used to treat various conditions, including:

* Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders
* Nausea and vomiting, including motion sickness and postoperative nausea and vomiting
* Severe anxiety or agitation
* Tension headaches

The drug can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or rectally, depending on the formulation. Common side effects of prochlorperazine include drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation. More serious side effects can include neurological symptoms such as tardive dyskinesia (involuntary movements), neuroleptic malignant syndrome (a life-threatening condition characterized by fever, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction), and seizures. Prochlorperazine should be used with caution in elderly patients, those with a history of seizures or cardiovascular disease, and those taking other medications that may interact with it.

A cluster headache is a type of primary headache disorder characterized by severe, one-sided headaches that occur in clusters, meaning they happen several times a day for several weeks or months and then go into remission for a period of time. The pain of a cluster headache is typically intense and often described as a sharp, stabbing, or burning sensation around the eye or temple on one side of the head.

Cluster headaches are relatively rare, affecting fewer than 1 in 1000 people. They tend to affect men more often than women and usually start between the ages of 20 and 50. The exact cause of cluster headaches is not fully understood, but they are thought to be related to abnormalities in the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates various bodily functions, including hormone production and sleep-wake cycles.

Cluster headache attacks can last from 15 minutes to several hours and may be accompanied by other symptoms such as redness or tearing of the eye, runny nose, sweating, or swelling on the affected side of the face. During a cluster period, headaches typically occur at the same time each day, often at night or in the early morning.

Cluster headaches can be treated with various medications, including triptans, oxygen therapy, and local anesthetics. Preventive treatments such as verapamil, lithium, or corticosteroids may also be used to reduce the frequency and severity of cluster headache attacks during a cluster period.

Meningeal arteries refer to the branches of the major cerebral arteries that supply blood to the meninges, which are the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These arteries include:

1. The middle meningeal artery, a branch of the maxillary artery, which supplies the dura mater in the cranial cavity.
2. The anterior and posterior meningeal arteries, branches of the internal carotid and vertebral arteries, respectively, that supply blood to the dura mater in the anterior and posterior cranial fossae.
3. The vasorum nervorum, small arteries that arise from the spinal branch of the ascending cervical artery and supply the spinal meninges.

These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and integrity of the meninges and the central nervous system they protect.

Oxadiazoles are heterocyclic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of two carbon atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two oxygen atoms in an alternating sequence. There are three possible isomers of oxadiazole, depending on the position of the nitrogen atom: 1,2,3-oxadiazole, 1,2,4-oxadiazole, and 1,3,4-oxadiazole. These compounds have significant interest in medicinal chemistry due to their diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and anticancer properties. Some oxadiazoles also exhibit potential as contrast agents for medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT).

Dura Mater is the thickest and outermost of the three membranes (meninges) that cover the brain and spinal cord. It provides protection and support to these delicate structures. The other two layers are called the Arachnoid Mater and the Pia Mater, which are thinner and more delicate than the Dura Mater. Together, these three layers form a protective barrier around the central nervous system.

Ketanserin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called serotonin antagonists. It works by blocking the action of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain, on certain types of receptors. Ketanserin is primarily used for its blood pressure-lowering effects and is also sometimes used off-label to treat anxiety disorders and alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

It's important to note that ketanserin is not approved by the FDA for use in the United States, but it may be available in other countries as a prescription medication. As with any medication, ketanserin should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider and should be taken exactly as prescribed.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

Indole is not strictly a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that can be found in the human body and has relevance to medical and biological research. Indoles are organic compounds that contain a bicyclic structure consisting of a six-membered benzene ring fused to a five-membered pyrrole ring.

In the context of medicine, indoles are particularly relevant due to their presence in certain hormones and other biologically active molecules. For example, the neurotransmitter serotonin contains an indole ring, as does the hormone melatonin. Indoles can also be found in various plant-based foods, such as cruciferous vegetables (e.g., broccoli, kale), and have been studied for their potential health benefits.

Some indoles, like indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane, are found in these vegetables and can have anti-cancer properties by modulating estrogen metabolism, reducing inflammation, and promoting cell death (apoptosis) in cancer cells. However, it is essential to note that further research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits and risks associated with indoles.

Prostaglandin endoperoxides are naturally occurring lipid compounds that play important roles as mediators in the body's inflammatory and physiological responses. They are intermediate products in the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins and thromboxanes, which are synthesized by the action of enzymes called cyclooxygenases (COX-1 and COX-2).

Synthetic prostaglandin endoperoxides, on the other hand, are chemically synthesized versions of these compounds. They are used in medical research and therapeutic applications to mimic or inhibit the effects of naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides. These synthetic compounds can be used to study the mechanisms of prostaglandin action, develop new drugs, or as stand-in agents for the natural compounds in experimental settings.

It's important to note that while synthetic prostaglandin endoperoxides can serve as useful tools in research and medicine, they also carry potential risks and side effects, much like their naturally occurring counterparts. Therefore, their use should be carefully monitored and regulated to ensure safety and efficacy.

Methysergide is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is primarily used for the prophylaxis (prevention) of migraine headaches. Methysergide works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which is thought to help prevent migraines.

The medical definition of Methysergide is:
A semisynthetic ergot alkaloid derivative used in the prophylaxis of migraine and cluster headaches. It has both agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin receptors, and its therapeutic effects are thought to be related to its ability to block the binding of serotonin to its receptors. However, methysergide can have serious side effects, including fibrotic reactions in various organs, such as the heart, lungs, and kidneys, so it is usually used only for short periods of time and under close medical supervision.

Sulfonamides are a group of synthetic antibacterial drugs that contain the sulfonamide group (SO2NH2) in their chemical structure. They are bacteriostatic agents, meaning they inhibit bacterial growth rather than killing them outright. Sulfonamides work by preventing the bacteria from synthesizing folic acid, which is essential for their survival.

The first sulfonamide drug was introduced in the 1930s and since then, many different sulfonamides have been developed with varying chemical structures and pharmacological properties. They are used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including urinary tract infections, respiratory tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections, and ear infections.

Some common sulfonamide drugs include sulfisoxazole, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (a combination of a sulfonamide and another antibiotic called trimethoprim). While sulfonamides are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can cause side effects such as rash, nausea, and allergic reactions. It is important to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully and to report any unusual symptoms or side effects promptly.

The spinal trigeminal nucleus is a component of the trigeminal nerve sensory nuclear complex located in the brainstem. It is responsible for receiving and processing pain, temperature, and tactile discrimination sensations from the face and head, particularly from the areas of the face that are more sensitive to pain and temperature (the forehead, eyes, nose, and mouth). The spinal trigeminal nucleus is divided into three subnuclei: pars oralis, pars interpolaris, and pars caudalis. These subnuclei extend from the pons to the upper part of the medulla oblongata.

Organotin compounds are a group of chemical compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, and tin. They have the general formula RnSnX4-n, where R represents an organic group (such as a methyl or phenyl group), X represents a halogen or other substituent, and n can range from 1 to 3. These compounds are used in a variety of applications, including as biocides, PVC stabilizers, and catalysts. However, they have also been found to have toxic effects on the immune system, endocrine system, and nervous system, and some organotin compounds have been restricted or banned for use in certain products due to these concerns.

"Migraine without Aura," also known as "Common Migraine," is defined by the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3) as follows:

"Headaches fulfilling criteria C and D:

C. At least five attacks fulfilling criterion B

B. Headache lasting 4-72 hours (untreated or unsuccessfully treated)

1. a) Has at least two of the following characteristics:
b) One-sided location
c) Pulsating quality
d) Moderate or severe pain intensity
e) Aggravation by or causing avoidance of routine physical activity (e.g., walking or climbing stairs)

D. During headache at least one of the following:

1. a) Nausea and/or vomiting
2. b) Photophobia and phonophobia"

In simpler terms, Migraine without Aura is a recurring headache disorder characterized by moderate to severe headaches that typically occur on one side of the head, have a pulsating quality, and are aggravated by physical activity. The headaches last between 4 and 72 hours if not treated or if treatment is unsuccessful. Additionally, during the headache, at least one of the following symptoms must be present: nausea/vomiting, sensitivity to light (photophobia), or sensitivity to sound (phonophobia).

An Independent Practice Association (IPA) is a type of legal and administrative structure in the US healthcare system. It is an association made up of independent physicians and other healthcare professionals who come together to coordinate healthcare delivery and negotiate contracts with health insurance plans, Medicare Advantage plans, and other managed care organizations.

In an IPA model, the participating providers maintain their independence and autonomy while benefiting from economies of scale, shared resources, and improved bargaining power. The IPA typically provides administrative services such as claims processing, utilization review, quality improvement, and practice management support to its members. By pooling resources and expertise, IPAs aim to enhance the quality of care, increase efficiency, and reduce healthcare costs for both providers and patients.

It is important to note that IPAs are not responsible for direct patient care but rather serve as intermediaries between healthcare providers and insurance networks.

The trigeminal ganglion, also known as the semilunar or Gasserian ganglion, is a sensory ganglion (a cluster of nerve cell bodies) located near the base of the skull. It is a part of the trigeminal nerve (the fifth cranial nerve), which is responsible for sensation in the face and motor functions such as biting and chewing.

The trigeminal ganglion contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that carry information from three major branches of the trigeminal nerve: the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular divisions. These divisions provide sensation to different areas of the face, head, and oral cavity, including the skin, mucous membranes, muscles, and teeth.

Damage to the trigeminal ganglion or its nerve branches can result in various sensory disturbances, such as pain, numbness, or tingling in the affected areas. Conditions like trigeminal neuralgia, a disorder characterized by intense, stabbing facial pain, may involve the trigeminal ganglion and its associated nerves.

The trigeminal nerve, also known as the fifth cranial nerve or CNV, is a paired nerve that carries both sensory and motor information. It has three major branches: ophthalmic (V1), maxillary (V2), and mandibular (V3). The ophthalmic branch provides sensation to the forehead, eyes, and upper portion of the nose; the maxillary branch supplies sensation to the lower eyelid, cheek, nasal cavity, and upper lip; and the mandibular branch is responsible for sensation in the lower lip, chin, and parts of the oral cavity, as well as motor function to the muscles involved in chewing. The trigeminal nerve plays a crucial role in sensations of touch, pain, temperature, and pressure in the face and mouth, and it also contributes to biting, chewing, and swallowing functions.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

... is molecularly similar to serotonin (5-HT), and is a 5-HT receptor (types 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B) agonist. Sumatriptan's ... Injected sumatriptan is more effective than other formulations. Oral sumatriptan can be used also in the treatment of post- ... When injected, sumatriptan is faster-acting (usually within 10 minutes), but the effect lasts for a shorter time. Sumatriptan ... Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which presumably accounts for sumatriptan's ...
Comparison with placebo and oral sumatriptan". Functional Neurology. 15 (Suppl 3): 196-201. PMID 11200792. Zhao Y, Shen LH, ... lysine acetylsalicylate has comparable efficacy to sumatriptan for migraine. Clinical trials on the use of lysine ...
Zecuity, a sumatriptan transdermal patch, was approved by the US FDA in January 2013. The sumatriptan nasal powder was approved ... Sumatriptan and zolmitriptan are also available as nasal sprays. For sumatriptan, a number of other application forms are ... Comparison of sumatriptan and dihydroergotamine showed that dihydroergotamine has high affinity and sumatriptan has medium ... In studies, newer triptans are mostly compared to sumatriptan. They are better than sumatriptan for their longer half-life in ...
Arora A, Arora S (September 2006). "Spontaneous splenic infarction associated with sumatriptan use". J Headache Pain. 7 (4): ... sumatriptan or bevacizumab. In a single-center retrospective cases review, people who were admitted to the hospital with a ...
A third Migraleve variant, Migraleve Ultra, contains sumatriptan. The pink tablet is supposed to be taken before the yellow ... The active ingredient of Migraleve Ultra is 50 mg sumatriptan, similar to Imigran recovery. The Product Licence Holder is: ...
A schematic drawing of the binding of sumatriptan to 5-HT1D receptor can be seen in figure 4. One study showed that sumatriptan ... The sumatriptan nasal spray provides faster onset of action than the tablets but it produces a similar headache response at 2 ... Sumatriptan was first launched in the Netherlands in 1991 and became available in the United States during 1993. Triptans are ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new drug April 15, 2008, which is a combination of sumatriptan 85 mg and ...
Therapeutic treatment for the prodromal phase, characterized by the anticipation of an episode, consists of sumatriptan (nasal ... "Adult Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome Successfully Treated with Intranasal Sumatriptan". Journal of General Internal Medicine. 25 (1 ...
Sumatriptan and zolmitriptan have both been shown to improve symptoms during an attack with sumatriptan being superior. Because ... Valproate, sumatriptan, and oxygen are not recommended as preventive measures. Botulinum toxin injections have shown limited ... The hallucinogen DMT has a chemical structure that is similar to the triptan sumatriptan, indicating a possible shared ... The other primarily recommended treatment of acute attacks is subcutaneous or intranasal sumatriptan. ...
This finding provided an incentive for the development of sumatriptan. Novartis withdrew it from the U.S. market after taking ... Dahlöf C, Maassen Van Den Brink A (April 2012). "Dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, methysergide and sumatriptan - basic science in ...
Subcutaneous sumatriptan autoinjectors are used to terminate cluster headache attacks. Naloxone autoinjectors are being ...
Several antimigraine drugs, available by the trade names of Imitrex- sumatriptan; Zomig - Zolmitriptan; Migranal - ...
Triptans such as sumatriptan are effective for both pain and nausea in up to 75% of migraineurs. They are the initially ... as PDF Archived 2010-03-31 at the Wayback Machine Derry, Christopher J.; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew (2012). "Sumatriptan ( ...
Further clinical studies of intranasal administration of sumatriptan (ST) can help evaluate efficacy and safety of such ... A nasal spray containing sumatriptan demonstrated a significant reduction of migraine pain. ... "Harnessing Intranasal Delivery Systems of Sumatriptan for the Treatment of Migraine". BioMed Research International. 2022: ...
Ogunyemi, A; Adams, D (May 1998). "Migraine-like symptoms triggered by occipital lobe seizures: response to sumatriptan". The ...
Triptans such as sumatriptan are medications used to stop an active migraine headache (an abortive medication). Triptans are ... Sumatriptan does not prevent other migraine headaches from starting in the future. For increased effectiveness at stopping ... Some people may find that they respond to one type of sumatriptan better than another. Most side effects are mild, including ... Law S, Derry S, Moore RA (April 2016). "Sumatriptan plus naproxen for the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults". The ...
This includes methotrexate for juvenile idiopathic arthritis and sumatriptan for treatment of migraines. Most injector pens are ... "Subcutaneous sumatriptan delivery devices: comparative ease of use and preference among migraineurs". Patient Preference and ...
Drugs involving succinate include metoprolol succinate, sumatriptan succinate, Doxylamine succinate or solifenacin succinate.[ ...
Amital D, Fostick L, Sasson Y, Kindler S, Amital H, Zohar J (May 2005). "Anxiogenic effects of Sumatriptan in panic disorder: a ...
A 2010 review found rizatriptan to be more efficacious and tolerable than sumatriptan. Rizatriptan and other triptans can cause ... Göbel H (2010). "Efficacy and tolerability of rizatriptan 10 mg compared with sumatriptan 100 mg: an evidence-based analysis". ... Like the other triptans sumatriptan and zolmitriptan, rizatriptan induces vasoconstriction-possibly by inhibiting the release ...
It is a derivative of the migraine medication sumatriptan, but while CP-122,288 is 40,000 times more potent than sumatriptan as ... Waeber C, Moskowitz MA (September 1995). "[3H]sumatriptan labels both 5-HT1D and 5-HT1F receptor binding sites in the guinea ... 5-MeO-MPMI CP-135807 Eletriptan Lee WS, Moskowitz MA (October 1993). "Conformationally restricted sumatriptan analogues, CP- ... a conformationally restricted analogue of sumatriptan". European Journal of Pharmacology. 276 (3): 271-6. doi:10.1016/0014-2999 ...
Shaat, Ahmed Mohamed; Abdalgaleil, Mohamed Mahmoud (2021-01-01). "Is theophylline more effective than sumatriptan in the ...
Fanciullacci M, Sicuteri R, Alessandri M, Geppetti P (March 1995). "Buspirone, but not sumatriptan, induces miosis in humans: ...
Russia - Classified as a Schedule I narcotic, including its derivatives (see sumatriptan and zolmitriptan). Serbia - DMT, along ...
Triptans such as sumatriptan, rizatriptan, and naratriptan are 5-HT1B receptor agonists that are used to abort migraine and ... Triptans such as eletriptan, naratriptan, and sumatriptan are agonists of the 5-HT1F receptor. Lasmiditan is a selective 5-HT1F ... In addition to being 5-HT1B agonists, triptans (i.e. sumatriptan, almotriptan, zolmitriptan, naratriptan, eletriptan, ...
... was shown not to interact with ethinylestradiol, norgestimate or the migraine drug sumatriptan. It is expected to ...
Many synthetic tryptamines have also been made, including the migraine drug sumatriptan, and psychedelic drugs. A 2022 study ...
Cohen ML, Schenck K, Nelson D, Robertson DW (January 1992). "Sumatriptan and 5-benzyloxytryptamine: contractility of two 5-HT1D ... 5-Carboxamidotryptamine 5-Methoxytryptamine BW-723C86 Sumatriptan Lyon RA, Titeler M, Seggel MR, Glennon RA (January 1988). " ...
The triptan drug class includes 1st generation sumatriptan (which has poor bioavailability), and second generation zolmitriptan ...
Abortive therapy for cluster headaches includes subcutaneous sumatriptan (injected under the skin) and triptan nasal sprays. ...
Bouchelet I, Cohen Z, Case B, Séguéla P, Hamel E (Aug 1996). "Differential expression of sumatriptan-sensitive 5- ... Oxymetazoline Sumatriptan (vasoconstrictor in migraine) Zolmitriptan 5-Carboxamidotryptamine CGS-12066A CP-93,129 (peripherally ...
Sumatriptan is molecularly similar to serotonin (5-HT), and is a 5-HT receptor (types 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B) agonist. Sumatriptans ... Injected sumatriptan is more effective than other formulations. Oral sumatriptan can be used also in the treatment of post- ... When injected, sumatriptan is faster-acting (usually within 10 minutes), but the effect lasts for a shorter time. Sumatriptan ... Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which presumably accounts for sumatriptans ...
Sumatriptan Nasal: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before using sumatriptan nasal,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to sumatriptan, any other medications, or ... If your symptoms improve after you use sumatriptan but come back, you may use a second dose of sumatriptan (Imitrex, Onzetra ... Sumatriptan nasal may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: *sore or ...
... June 9, 2011. Video ... and colleagues found that administering sumatriptan subcutaneously was shown to relieve cyclic vomiting syndrome associated ...
Monahans letter lists sumatriptan and ondansetron as the medication Bachmann takes to control the migraines. ...
Toxicity. Sumatriptan has low chronic toxicity.. Risk. The use of sumatriptan (sales data Sweden 2019) has been considered to ... Aerobic Degradation in Soil: 32.1%-40.2% degradation in 64 days (TAD 3.12). [---] The phrase "Sumatriptan is potentially ... Fass environmental information for Imigran (sumatriptan) from GlaxoSmithKline (downloaded 2023-02-06). ... Bioaccumulation. Sumatriptan has low potential for bioaccumulation.. ...
Sumatriptan is not recommended for other types of headache or for headache prevention. ... Sumatriptan relieves migraine headaches by constricting these blood vessels.. Sumatriptan is not recommended for other types of ... Kidney function: The effect of reduced kidney function on how sumatriptan acts in the body has not been evaluated. Sumatriptan ... A lower dose of sumatriptan may be needed for people with reduced liver function. However, sumatriptan is not recommended for ...
Sumatriptan is a drug used for treating migraine attacks. ... Generic Imitrex (Sumatriptan). Sumatriptan is a drug used for ... Treatment with Sumatriptan should be continued to prevent the next attack. Tablet of Sumatriptan should be swallowed whole, ... Sumatriptan is not meant for regular use, it is taken only during an attack.. Overdose. Be especially attentive to such ... is also possible resulting in increased concentration of Sumatriptan. Concomitant use of Sumatriptan with selective serotonin ...
Sumatriptan ABECE - Sumatriptan uses, dose and side effects. Sumatriptan Abece belongs to a group of medicines called triptans ...
Imigran Online Price - Sumatriptan Best Order Imigran Online Price. Rating 4.7 stars, based on 93 comments ... Meetings are generic Sumatriptan Imigran Online price a month, but there are times opt for a luxury companion the study ...
Sumatriptan Generic Without Prescription Online. " He laughed, a boisterous pointless episode, Sumatriptan Generic Without ... Sumatriptan Generic Without Prescription Online, one of the most - - - - - - - - - - the Sumatriptan generic Without ... Sisterhood is the the Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online to be Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online. In ... Buy Sumatriptan Pay With Paypal. At the novels climax, a makeshift cinema in a warehouse the human aspiration and endeavor ...
Has compare Sumatriptan Prices noticed owning objects is a huge compare Sumatriptan Prices. Apa kalian sadar, be one that ... Like any compare Sumatriptan Prices of expository prose, compare Sumatriptan Prices there are. The men who were responsible for ... The first sentence includes compare Sumatriptan Prices video. The compare Sumatriptan Prices for particular caveat to of my own ... will take to spend a compare Sumatriptan Prices homework compares Sumatriptan Prices during and into Sandhurst. Til sidst lfter ...
... sumatriptan), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... Sumatriptan is excreted in human milk following subcutaneous administration; there are no data on effects of sumatriptan on ... encoded search term (sumatriptan (Imitrex)) and sumatriptan (Imitrex) What to Read Next on Medscape ... sumatriptan (Rx). Brand and Other Names:Imitrex, Imitrex Statdose, more...Zembrace SymTouch ...
A transdermal patch version of sumatriptan is currently in phase I trials in the U.S. under the code name NP101 (NuPathe).. ... Only 3% of the dose is excreted in the urine as unchanged sumatriptan; 42% of the dose is excreted as the major metabolite, the ... Sumatriptan, an antimigraine drug, is a selective agonist of vascular serotonin ((5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) type 1-like ... In vitro studies with human microsomes suggest that sumatriptan is metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO), predominantly the A ...
Sumatriptan Suspension 5 mg/mL published on May 2016 by American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ... Sumatriptan Suspension 5 mg/mL in Extemporaneous Formulations for Pediatric, Geriatric, and Special Needs Patients ...
... and incoordination following the use of a SSRI and sumatriptan. If concomitant treatment with sumatriptan and an SSRI (e.g., ... Sumatriptan There have been rare postmarketing reports describing patients with weakness, hyperreflexia, ...
2010treximet-naproxen-sumatriptan-343038. Drugs naproxen/sumatriptan * 2001/viewarticle/996197. Long COVID and New Migraines: ...
A doctor can prescribe migraine pain medication such as sumatriptan (Imitrex), rizatriptan (Maxalt), or rizatriptan (Axert). ... or a prescription nasal spray like sumatriptan to help ease the pain. ...
Sumatriptan, which is known to have minimal transfer to milk (Wojnar 1996), is a good alternative as a treatment for migraine ... Sumatriptan, which is known to have minimal transfer to milk (Wojnar 1996), is a good alternative as a treatment for migraine ... Distribution and excretion of sumatriptan in human milk. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1996 Abstract Full text (link to original source) ...
Sumatriptan (moderate, probable). Tramadol (major, theoretical). Tranylcypromine (contraindicated, theoretical). Zolmitriptan ( ...
Nucynta IR: Tapentadol belongs to a class of pain relievers known as opioid analgesics (also known as narcotic analgesics) that act on the central nervous system. It relieves pain by acting on specific nerve cells of the spinal cord and brain.
Cady RK, Sheftell F, Lipton RB, Kwong WJ, OQuinn S. Economic implications of early treatment of migraine with sumatriptan ... A comparison of the cost-effectiveness of almotriptan and sumatriptan in the treatment of acute migraine using a composite ... Cost-effectiveness analysis of rizatriptan and sumatriptan versus Cafergot in the acute treatment of migraine. 2005;19:635-42. ... Cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of sumatriptan in patients with migraine. 2001;76:1093-101. https://doi.org/10.4065/76.11. ...
In all cultures, sumatriptan inhibited (35-58%, P < .05) the forskolin-stimulated production of cyclic AMP, an effect ...
sumatriptan patch http://sumatriptannow.com/patch sumatriptan patch. internet drug coupons coupons for prescriptions cialis ...
sumatriptan patch http://sumatriptannow.com/patch sumatriptan patch. internet drug coupons coupons for prescriptions cialis ...
  • Sumatriptan, sold commonly under brand names Imitrex and Treximet among others, is a medication used to treat migraine headaches and cluster headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan comes as a spray (Imitrex, Tosymra) to inhale through the nose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your symptoms improve after you use sumatriptan but come back, you may use a second dose of sumatriptan (Imitrex, Onzetra Xsail) at least 2 hours later, or a second or third dose of sumatriptan (Tosymra) at least 1 hour after each other, if needed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A transdermal patch version of sumatriptan is currently in phase I trials in the U.S. under the code name NP101 (NuPathe). (chembase.cn)
  • in patients who use a transdermal patch containing sumatriptan (Zecuity/Teva) to treat migraine. (hcplive.com)
  • Fass environmental information for Imigran (sumatriptan) from GlaxoSmithKline (downloaded 2023-02-06). (janusinfo.se)
  • Meetings are generic Sumatriptan Imigran Online price a month, but there are times opt for a luxury companion the study reported on in and withdrawals at online sites him of threatening her with of use and high levels the exemplary escorts in Delhi. (redi4changesl.biz)
  • Sumatriptan is in a class of medications called selective serotonin receptor agonists. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sumatriptan nasal products are used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, if your symptoms do not improve after you use sumatriptan, do not use a second dose without talking to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • You may use your first dose of sumatriptan nasal in a doctor's office or other medical facility where you can be monitored for serious reactions. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 42% of the dose is excreted as the major metabolite, the indole acetic acid analogue of sumatriptan. (chembase.cn)
  • Sumatriptan is metabolised primarily by monoamine oxidase A into 2-{5-[(methylsulfamoyl)methyl]-indole-3-yl}acetic acid, which is then conjugated to glucuronic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro studies with human microsomes suggest that sumatriptan is metabolized by monoamine oxidase (MAO), predominantly the A isoenzyme. (chembase.cn)
  • Sumatriptan is administered in several forms: tablets, subcutaneous injection, and nasal spray. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injected sumatriptan is more effective than other formulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • This paradox has, to some extent, been resolved by comparing the rates of absorption of the various sumatriptan formulations, rather than the absolute amounts of drug that they deliver. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1991, Glaxo received approval for sumatriptan, which was the first available triptan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each white, triangular, film-coated tablet, engraved with 'N' on one side and '25' on the other side, contains sumatriptan (base) 25 mg as the succinate salt. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Each pink, triangular, film-coated tablet, engraved with 'N' on one side and '100' on the other side, contains sumatriptan (base) 100 mg as the succinate salt. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Monahan's letter lists sumatriptan and ondansetron as the medication Bachmann takes to control the migraines. (economicpolicyjournal.com)
  • Sumatriptan is a Specific and selective agonist of 5-HT1-serotonin receptors localized mainly in blood vessels of the brain. (usmedsget.com)
  • A selective agonist for serotonin 5-HT1 receptors, naratriptan has higher bioavailability and a longer half-life than sumatriptan, which may contribute to a lower rate of headache recurrences. (medscape.com)
  • Sumatriptan is molecularly similar to serotonin (5-HT), and is a 5-HT receptor (types 5-HT1D and 5-HT1B) agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This video discusses the results of a study in which lead author Toshiyuki Hikita, MD, of Teikyo University School of Medicine in Tokyo, Japan, and colleagues found that administering sumatriptan subcutaneously was shown to relieve cyclic vomiting syndrome associated with migraine. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Sumatriptan is a drug that is used for treating migraine attacks with or without the presence of an aura, to relieve cluster headache attacks. (usmedsget.com)
  • Sumatriptan is used only to treat an acute, classic migraine attack or a cluster headache, it should not be used for treatment of certain unusual types of migraine. (usmedsget.com)
  • Sumatriptan Abece belongs to a group of medicines called triptans, which are used to treat migraine headaches. (zeepedia.com)
  • Serious cardiac events, including some that have been fatal, have occurred following the use of sumatriptan injection or tablets. (wikipedia.org)
  • The efficacy of sumatriptan is 82% at 20 minutes when administered by injection, 52-62% at 2 hours when administered intranasally, and 67-79% at 4 hours when administered orally. (medscape.com)
  • Oral sumatriptan can be used also in the treatment of post-dural puncture headache. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan is not recommended for other types of headache or for headache prevention. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Sumatriptan is effective for ending or relieving the intensity of migraine and cluster headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan is also shown to decrease the activity of the trigeminal nerve, which presumably accounts for sumatriptan's efficacy in treating cluster headaches. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan does not prevent migraine attacks or reduce the number of headaches you have. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor if your headaches do not get better or occur more frequently after using sumatriptan nasal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you use sumatriptan more often or for longer than the recommended period of time, your headaches may get worse or may occur more frequently. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Call your doctor if you need to use sumatriptan nasal to treat more than four headaches in 1-month period. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sumatriptan relieves migraine headaches by constricting these blood vessels. (rxhealthmed.ca)
  • Sumatriptan is a drug used for treating migraine attacks. (usmedsget.com)
  • Nikai T, Basbaum AI, Ahn AH: Profound reduction of somatic and visceral pain in mice by intrathecal administration of the anti-migraine drug, sumatriptan. (chembase.cn)
  • Sumatriptan is like a miracle drug for me, works every time. (womensprosoccer.com)
  • The US Food and Drug Administration is investigation the risk of burns in people who use the sumatriptan iontophoretic system, a device it approved in September. (hcplive.com)
  • Sumatriptan has the most options for drug delivery. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with uncontrolled high blood pressure should not use Sumatriptan. (usmedsget.com)
  • Our Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online essays are so access the website via any device that is internet enabled to understand the main idea do is analyze everything for. (rareamericanparts.com)
  • Brought to you by studentawards ruminating Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online details, replaying conversations, is way higher. (rareamericanparts.com)
  • The Two Types of Admissions EssaysThe Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online type isa PersonalStatement. (rareamericanparts.com)
  • Which he Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online does anymore, travel to Singapore to form no doubt that they would included in the business plan to fight Sumatriptan generic Without Prescription Online. (rareamericanparts.com)
  • The use of sumatriptan (sales data Sweden 2019) has been considered to result in insignificant environmental risk. (janusinfo.se)
  • Malaise/fatigue occurred in less than 1% of the placebo group and 2-3% of the sumatriptan groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sleep disturbance occurred in less than 1% in the placebo group to 2% in the sumatriptan group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Treatment with Sumatriptan should be continued to prevent the next attack. (usmedsget.com)
  • If I Cheapest Norfloxacin Purchase and ComponentsThe compare Sumatriptan Prices I do because if they allow the paws so that you can desensitize them so that you can for Bronx and who they are person's compare Sumatriptan Prices operationally. (comfortcon.co.in)
  • Overdose of sumatriptan can cause sulfhemoglobinemia, a rare condition in which the blood changes from red to green, due to the integration of sulfur into the hemoglobin molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • There is no simple, direct relationship between sumatriptan concentration (pharmacokinetics) per se in the blood and its anti-migraine effect (pharmacodynamics). (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan causes vasoconstriction of the carotid arterial bed which provides extracranial and intracranial tissues with blood without a significant impact on cerebral blood flow. (usmedsget.com)
  • These types of important issue is house passed on necessary or invited when in your end compare Sumatriptan Prices causing these individuals thinking mig, men som someone produce the. (comfortcon.co.in)
  • When injected, sumatriptan is faster-acting (usually within 10 minutes), but the effect lasts for a shorter time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sumatriptan was patented in 1982 and approved for medical use in 1991. (wikipedia.org)

No images available that match "sumatriptan"