Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Magnesium Sulfate: A small colorless crystal used as an anticonvulsant, a cathartic, and an electrolyte replenisher in the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. It causes direct inhibition of action potentials in myometrial muscle cells. Excitation and contraction are uncoupled, which decreases the frequency and force of contractions. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1083)Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.SulfatasesSulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate: An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).GlucosamineSulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.HexosaminesMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Zinc Sulfate: A compound given in the treatment of conditions associated with zinc deficiency such as acrodermatitis enteropathica. Externally, zinc sulfate is used as an astringent in lotions and eye drops. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Ammonium Sulfate: Sulfuric acid diammonium salt. It is used in CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION of proteins.Hyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose: A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate: An anionic surface-active agent used for its wetting properties in industry and used in medicine as an irritant and sclerosing agent for hemorrhoids and varicose veins.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Electrophoresis: An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Hymecromone: A coumarin derivative possessing properties as a spasmolytic, choleretic and light-protective agent. It is also used in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES for the determination of NITRIC ACID.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chemical Precipitation: The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Cartilage, Articular: A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Aggrecans: Large HYALURONAN-containing proteoglycans found in articular cartilage (CARTILAGE, ARTICULAR). They form into aggregates that provide tissues with the capacity to resist high compressive and tensile forces.Centrifugation, Isopycnic: A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Ferrous Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain divalent iron.Indican: A substance occurring in the urine of mammals and also in blood plasma as the normal metabolite of tryptophan. An increased urinary excretion of indican is seen in Hartnup disease from the bacterial degradation of unabsorbed tryptophan.Centrifugation, Density Gradient: Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chromatography, Agarose: A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.Minoxidil: A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)Chondroitinsulfatases: A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.PolysaccharidesLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Heparin Antagonists: Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Harmine: Alkaloid isolated from seeds of Peganum harmala L., Zygophyllaceae. It is identical to banisterine, or telepathine, from Banisteria caapi and is one of the active ingredients of hallucinogenic drinks made in the western Amazon region from related plants. It has no therapeutic use, but (as banisterine) was hailed as a cure for postencephalitic Parkinson disease in the 1920's.Barium Sulfate: A compound used as an x-ray contrast medium that occurs in nature as the mineral barite. It is also used in various manufacturing applications and mixed into heavy concrete to serve as a radiation shield.Protamines: A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. Protamines contain very few kinds of amino acids. Protamine sulfate combines with heparin to form a stable inactive complex; it is used to neutralize the anticoagulant action of heparin in the treatment of heparin overdose. (From Merck Index, 11th ed; Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p692)Epiphyses: The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.Glycoside HydrolasesCarbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Eclampsia: Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).Sulfate Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.Isoelectric Focusing: Electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.Comb and Wattles: Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.GalactosamineUmbelliferones: 7-Hydroxycoumarins. Substances present in many plants, especially umbelliferae. Umbelliferones are used in sunscreen preparations and may be mutagenic. Their derivatives are used in liver therapy, as reagents, plant growth factors, sunscreens, insecticides, parasiticides, choleretics, spasmolytics, etc.Borohydrides: A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Copper Sulfate: A sulfate salt of copper. It is a potent emetic and is used as an antidote for poisoning by phosphorus. It also can be used to prevent the growth of algae.Papain: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Carica papaya. It is also the name used for a purified mixture of papain and CHYMOPAPAIN that is used as a topical enzymatic debriding agent. EC 3.4.22.2.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Decorin: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan that interacts with FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and modifies the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX structure of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. Decorin has also been shown to play additional roles in the regulation of cellular responses to GROWTH FACTORS. The protein contains a single glycosaminoglycan chain and is similar in structure to BIGLYCAN.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Nasal Septum: The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.Chondrosarcoma: A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Ultracentrifugation: Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of CONNECTIVE TISSUE CELLS embedded in a large amount of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.Sclerosing Solutions: Chemical agents injected into blood vessels and lymphatic sinuses to shrink or cause localized THROMBOSIS; FIBROSIS, and obliteration of the vessels. This treatment is applied in a number of conditions such as VARICOSE VEINS; HEMORRHOIDS; GASTRIC VARICES; ESOPHAGEAL VARICES; PEPTIC ULCER HEMORRHAGE.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Intervertebral Disc: Any of the 23 plates of fibrocartilage found between the bodies of adjacent VERTEBRAE.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)SepharoseMacromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.GlucuronidaseMagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Mast-Cell Sarcoma: A unifocal malignant tumor that consists of atypical pathological MAST CELLS without systemic involvement. It causes local destructive growth in organs other than in skin or bone marrow.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.XyloseSulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Cerebroside-Sulfatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of cerebroside 3-sulfate (sulfatide) to yield a cerebroside and inorganic sulfate. A marked deficiency of arylsulfatase A, which is considered the heat-labile component of cerebroside sulfatase, has been demonstrated in all forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.8.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Androsterone: A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pregnanes: Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.Fractional Precipitation: A method which uses specific precipitation reactions to separate or collect substances from a solution.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Diflunisal: A salicylate derivative and anti-inflammatory analgesic with actions and side effects similar to those of ASPIRIN.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Spectrophotometry: The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Biglycan: A small leucine-rich proteoglycan found in a variety of tissues including CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM; SKELETAL MUSCLE; CARTILAGE; BONE; and TENDONS. The protein contains two glycosaminoglycan chains and is similar in structure to DECORIN.Biochemical Phenomena: The chemical processes, enzymatic activities, and pathways of living things and related temporal, dimensional, qualitative, and quantitative concepts.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Selenic Acid: A strong dibasic acid with the molecular formula H2SeO4. Included under this heading is the acid form, and inorganic salts of dihydrogen selenium tetraoxide.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chondro-4-Sulfatase: An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.Acrosin: A trypsin-like enzyme of spermatozoa which is not inhibited by alpha 1 antitrypsin.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)FucoseDialysis: A process of selective diffusion through a membrane. It is usually used to separate low-molecular-weight solutes which diffuse through the membrane from the colloidal and high-molecular-weight solutes which do not. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Chick Embryo: The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Chemical Fractionation: Separation of a mixture in successive stages, each stage removing from the mixture some proportion of one of the substances, for example by differential solubility in water-solvent mixtures. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Optical Rotatory Dispersion: The method of measuring the dispersion of an optically active molecule to determine the relative magnitude of right- or left-handed components and sometimes structural features of the molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Steryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Dicarboxylic AcidsBile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.TritiumPlacenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Culture Techniques: Methods of maintaining or growing biological materials in controlled laboratory conditions. These include the cultures of CELLS; TISSUES; organs; or embryo in vitro. Both animal and plant tissues may be cultured by a variety of methods. Cultures may derive from normal or abnormal tissues, and consist of a single cell type or mixed cell types.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Alkalies: Usually a hydroxide of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium or cesium, but also the carbonates of these metals, ammonia, and the amines. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Astringents: Agents, usually topical, that cause the contraction of tissues for the control of bleeding or secretions.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Mucopolysaccharidoses: Group of lysosomal storage diseases each caused by an inherited deficiency of an enzyme involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides). The diseases are progressive and often display a wide spectrum of clinical severity within one enzyme deficiency.
Cupper sulphate; Licorice; Nicotinamide; Pyridoxine; Riboflavin; Thiamine http://www.lakemedelsvarlden.se/zino.aspx?articleID= ...
For special cements, such as Low Heat (LH) and Sulfate Resistant (SR) types, it is necessary to limit the amount of tricalcium ... This type is for general construction exposed to moderate sulfate attack, and is meant for use when concrete is in contact with ... A limitation on the composition is that the (C3A) shall not exceed 15%. Type II provides moderate sulfate resistance, and gives ... This cement has a very low (C3A) composition which accounts for its high sulfate resistance. The maximum content of (C3A) ...
Among other things, Vigani devised a method for purifying iron sulphate[disambiguation needed] from copper; for making ammonium ... sulphate; and for proving that to form a given salt a metallic base takes always the same amount of acid. He also invented a ...
... sulphate • elevated total dissolved solids, pH, conductivity and alkalinity • lower calcium and magnesium (soft water) • ...
This enzyme participates in chondroitin sulfate biosynthesis. Malmstrom A, Aberg L (1982). "Biosynthesis of dermatan sulphate. ... Other names in common use include polyglucuronate 5-epimerase, dermatan-sulfate 5-epimerase, urunosyl C-5 epimerase, and ...
Secondary sulfate and nitrate aerosols are strong light-scatterers. This is mainly because the presence of sulfate and nitrate ... Sulfate aerosol has two main effects, direct and indirect. The direct effect, via albedo, is a cooling effect that slows the ... "6.7.2 Sulphate Aerosol". IPCC Third Assessment Report, Working Group I: The Scientific Basis. IPPCC. 2001. Retrieved 10 August ... The particles are hygroscopic due to the presence of sulfur, and SO2 is converted to sulfate when high humidity and low ...
At some places white, water-bearing carbonates and sulfates are incorporated. The main characteristic of CI chondrites is the ... sulfates. Carbonaceous minerals include: graphite. diamond (microscopic). amino acids. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The ... CI chondrite mineralogy is dominated by a fine-grained phyllosilicate matrix, hosting carbonates, sulfates, sulfides, and ... but also by carbonates and sulfates. Liquid water must have penetrated the parent body through cracks and fissures and then ...
Sulfur can be found in elemental form or in the form of sulfide minerals, sulfate minerals, or sulfosalt minerals. Stars of at ... Plant roots take up sulfate ions from the soil and reduce it to sulfide ions. Metalloproteins also use sulfur to attach to ... The highest formal oxidation number is +6. This oxidation number is found in sulfates, selenates, tellurates, polonates, and ... 1995). "Sulfates". Retrieved November 25, 2013. Amethyst Galleries, Inc. (1995). "Tellurates". Retrieved November 25, 2013. ...
The powder contains sugar; two antacids, sodium bicarbonate and citric acid; and a laxative, magnesium sulphate. The product is ...
... sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and H2O, whereas its two products are adenosine ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate sulfohydrolase. Other names in common use include 3- ... BALASUBRAMANIAN AS, BACHHAWAT BK (1962). "Enzymic degradation of active sulphate". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 59 (2): 389-97. doi: ... 3',5'-bisphosphate and sulfate. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides ...
"D-amphetamine sulfate". Tocris. 2015. Retrieved 19 August 2015. "Amphetamine Sulfate USP". Mallinckrodt Pharmaceuticals. March ... Benzedrine sulfate was introduced 3 years later and was used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including ... The free base is then dissolved in an organic solvent, sulfuric acid added, and amphetamine precipitates out as the sulfate ... The values in this column were scaled to a 30 mg dose of dextroamphetamine sulfate. Due to pharmacological differences between ...
Ammonium salts, e.g. Ammonium chloride, sulphate and nitrate. Metal salts e.g. Magnesium chloride, Zinc nitrate, Zinc chloride ... sodium sulfate or sodium carbonate. Direct dyes are used on cotton, paper, leather, wool, silk and nylon. Mordant dyes require ...
... psychosine sulfate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate and galactosylsphingosine, whereas ... Nussbaum JL, Mandel P (1972). "Enzymic synthesis of psychosine sulphate". J. Neurochem. 19 (7): 1789-802. doi:10.1111/j.1471- ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3'-phosphoadenylyl-sulfate:galactosylsphingosine sulfotransferase. Other names in ... its two products are adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate and psychosine sulfate. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, ...
OT, an Acidophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacterium from Copper Mining Waste in Norilsk, Northern Siberia". Journal of Bacteriology. ... nov., a sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from pristine freshwater lake sediments". International Journal of Systematic and ... nov., a mesophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from permafrost". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... nov.: an acidophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from acidic sediments". Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions. ...
It involved two stages: production of sodium sulfate from sodium chloride, followed by reaction of the sodium sulfate with coal ... In the first step, the sodium chloride was heated with sulfuric acid to produce sodium sulfate (called the salt cake) and ... First the coal (carbon) was oxidized to carbon dioxide, reducing the sulfate to sulfide. Second, the calcium and sodium swap ... ISBN 0-8122-1297-5. "Hydrochloric Acid and Sodium Sulphate". Lenntech. Retrieved 22 April 2007. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). " ...
... ferrous sulphate (FeS04)-no change; Melzer's reagent-dark blue; phenol-blue green (very slow); formalin-mid blue (slow). Like ...
Examples, with the lipophilic part of the molecule represented by an R, are: carboxylates: RCO2−; sulfates: RSO4−; sulfonates: ... Some typical members of this group are: sodium dodecyl sulfate (anionic), Benzalkonium chloride (cationic), Cocamidopropyl ... Sodium dodecyl sulfate Wetting "Amphipathic - Biology-Online Dictionary". Retrieved 2016-11-17. Structure of a Membrane - The ...
The drug is usually manufactured and distributed as the sulphate salt (salbutamol sulphate). It was first sold by Allen & ... "Albuterol Sulfate". Rx List: The Internet Drug Index. Archived from the original on 2014-07-18. Retrieved 2014-07-13. Papich, ... Salbutamol is either filtered out by the kidneys directly or is first metabolized into 4'-O-sulphate, which is excreted in the ... Plumb, Donald C. (2011). "Albuterol Sulfate". Plumb's Veterinary Drug Handbook (7th ed.). Stockholm, Wisconsin; Ames, Iowa: ...
"Paromomycin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 17 November 2016. ... Paromomycin sulfate capsules, USP prescribing information. Detroit, MI; 1997 Mar. Product Information: Humatin(R), paromomycin ... The most common adverse effects associated with paromomycin sulfate are abdominal cramps, diarrhea, heartburn, nausea, and ... sulfate capsules. Parke-Davis, Division of Warner-Lambert Company, Morris Plains, NJ, 1999 Pharmacy and pharmacology portal ...
SbO4 Glauber's Salt - sodium sulfate. Na2SO4 Green Vitriol - a mineral; iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate. (or ferrous sulfate) ... Dutch White - a pigment, formed from one part of white lead to three of barium sulfate. BaSO4 Flowers of antimony - antimony ... Gypsum - a mineral; calcium sulfate. CaSO4 Horn Silver/Argentum Cornu - a weathered form of chlorargyrite, an ore of silver ... Venetian White - formed from equal parts of white lead and barium sulfate. Zaffre - impure cobalt arsenate, formed after ...
"Atazanavir Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. ...
Quinidine sulfate, as a metabolic inhibitor, "increases plasma levels of dextromethorphan by competitively inhibiting ... "Quinidine sulfate". PDRhealth™. 2016. Retrieved 2016-02-18. "Avanir Pharmaceuticals : Announces New Findings from Dementia/ ... "Dextromethorphan (DM) is a sigma-1 receptor agonist and an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist." Quinidine sulfate affects ... "Label: NUEDEXTA- dextromethorphan hydrobromide and quinidine sulfate capsule, gelatin coated". U.S. National Library of ...
"Vincristine Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved ... Silverman, J.; Deitcher, S. (2013). "Marqibo (R) (vincristine sulfate liposome injection) improves the pharmacokinetics and ...
"Gentamicin sulfate". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 15 August 2015. [permanent dead link] "Gentamicin" ( ... access-date= requires ,url= (help) Vydrin, A. F. (2003). "Component Composition of Gentamicin Sulfate Preparations". ... "Gentamicin sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-08-16. Retrieved Aug ... Staphylococcus aureus and other Staphylococci are resistant to gentamicin sulfate, to varying degrees. Adverse effects of ...
"Streptomycin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. ... When purifying protein from a biological extract, streptomycin sulfate is sometimes added as a means of removing nucleic acids ... "Streptomycin Sulfate". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. Hamilton, Richart (2015). Tarascon ...
The dissolution rate of the calcium sulfate pellet is controlled by varying the weight ratio of the beta-calcium sulfate ... wherein said alpha-calcium sulfate hemihydrate and beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate powders have specified properties such as ... The controlled release is achieved by a pellet comprising calcium sulfate. The pellet is prepared by the process comprising ... an additive and a powder consisting essentially of beta-calcium sulfate hemihydrate to form a mixture, and forming said mixture ...
The second option is to minimize sulfate content of the first chlorine dioxide stage in the bleach plant. Sulfate is minimized ... begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate ... Sulfate can also be reduced by operating the initial chlorine dioxide stage at higher pH, but this will work only in mills ... Because barium sulfate will not redissolve in the bleach plant, a barite deposit is less likely to reoccur somewhere else in ...
Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is used to treat small uncomplicated varicose veins in the legs. Sodium tetradecyl... ... Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is a sclerosing (skler-OH-sing) agent. It works by increasing the formation of blood clots and scar ... What is sodium tetradecyl sulfate?. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is a sclerosing (skler-OH-sing) agent. It works by increasing the ... How is sodium tetradecyl sulfate given?. Sodium tetradecyl sulfate is injected into a vein through an IV. A healthcare provider ...
To access full report with TOC, please visit ​North America Precipitated Barium Sulfate Industry 2016. ... The Precipitated Barium Sulfate industry development trends and marketing channels are analyzed. Finally the feasibility of new ... The Precipitated Barium Sulfate market analysis is provided for the North America markets including development trends, ... This report is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the Precipitated Barium Sulfate industry. ...
A white, single component masterbatch, with the consistency of ; a clay-like material ; Consists of Barium Sulfate dispersed in ... Consists of Barium Sulfate dispersed in a vinyl-functional silicone polymer which covalently bonds into the matrix of platinum- ... For easy and more precise addition of Barium Sulfate to high consistency silicone elastomers, suitable for molding, calendering ...
SODIUM TETRADECYL SULFATE (SOE dee um tet ra DES uhl SUHL feyt) is used to improve the appearance of varicose veins. ... Generic Name: sodium tetradecyl sulfate. It is used to improve the appearance of varicose veins. ... an unusual or allergic reaction to sodium tetradecyl sulfate, benzyl alcohol, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives ...
Prehardened medical-grade calcium sulfate hemihydrate was placed as a grafting material for sinus floor elevation in the left ... In both the grafted area and the previously existing area of sinus floor, the histology showed complete calcium sulfate ... This case report documented that medicalgrade calcium sulfate hemihydrate, when used as a grafting material for augmentation of ...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek barium sulfate Oral, Rectal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i ...
Intravenous magnesium sulfate for acute wheezing in young children: a randomised double-blind trial. Hannele Pruikkonen, Terhi ... Magnesium sulfate has been shown to be an effective treatment in older children with asthma exacerbations, but it has not been ... Intravenous magnesium sulfate was ineffective in treating acute severe virus-induced wheezing in young children, in contrast to ... The children were randomly allocated to receive either an infusion of magnesium sulfate (40 mg·kg−1) or 0.9% sodium chloride as ...
... and the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate as well as anhydrous calcium sulfate. The lab-scale kinetics of these ... The main goal of this research is to better understand the dehydration properties of calcium sulfate dihydrate, ... to determine their influence on the kinetics of dehydration/hydration of different hydration forms of calcium sulfate. ... and the hydration of calcium sulfate hemihydrate as well as anhydrous calcium sulfate. The lab-scale kinetics of these ...
Barium sulfate Manufacturers, Barium sulfate Exporters, Barium sulfate Wholesalers, Barium sulfate Distributors - Global B2B ... barium sulfate, ferrous sulphate monohydrate, barium sulfate12288, heptahydrate zinc sulphate, activated zinc oxide, zinc ... We are regularly Selling: barium sulfate precipitated, barium sulphate, barium sulphate precipitated, tcca, sdic, choline ... synthetic barium sulfate, barium sulfate natural, barium sulfate modified, rutile.. Member since 31 October, 2011, China - ...
Barium sulfate,physical properties,suppliers,CAS,MSDS,structure,Molecular Formula, Molecular Weight ,Solubility,boiling point, ... 1) barium sulfate. 2) Barium sulfate. 3) Barium Sulfate. 4) barium sulfate. 5) pre-cipitated barium sulfate;barium sulfate. 6) ... Industrial precipitation of barium sulfate itself not toxic, but if the content of soluble compounds of barium can lead ... Barium sulphate. 7) barium sulfite. 8) lithopone;pigment whites. 9) lithopone. 10) aluminium barium white;gloss white;pigment ...
Barium sulfate suspension is an inert agent used as contrast material during radiologic diagnostic procedures. Read for dosage ... Barium Sulfate Suspension Barium sulfate suspension is an inert, insoluble material used as a contrast agent. This radiopaque ... Dosage of Barium Sulfate Suspension. The dose of barium sulfate will be various for different people. Use this only as ... Precautions for Barium Sulfate Suspension. Diagnostic procedures that involve the use of barium sulfate should be done under ...
Barium sulfate has its chemical formula BaSO4. It is colorless or white orthorhombic crystals with relative molecular mass of ... II-type barium sulfate: it is refined from barite sulfate type minerals: barium sulfate. Calculated from the dry goods, the ... What is Barium Sulfate?. Barium sulfate has its chemical formula BaSO4. It is colorless or white orthorhombic crystals with ... Barium sulfate (Ⅰ type and Ⅱ type) are both insoluble in water, organic solvent, acid o and sodium hydroxide. It contains 58.85 ...
Suppliers of Calcium Sulphate Anhydrous, Dealers of Calcium Sulphate Anhydrous in UAE ... aluminum sulphate , aluminum ammonum sulphate , aluminum potassium sulphate ZIBO LANDING CHEMICAL CO., LTD 0086 533-2160618. ... Calcium Sulphate Anhydrous in Gulf. Looking for Calcium Sulphate Anhydrous in Gulf ? Where to Get Calcium Sulphate Anhydrous in ... Exporters Of Copper & Zinc Salts Copper Sulphate (crystal & Powder), (tech./c.p./i.p./l.r./a.r.) Copper Sulphate ( anhydrous ...
Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ...
... strontium sulfate, lead(II) sulfate, and barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble. Radium sulfate is the most insoluble sulfate ... Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. The sulfate ... The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO2− 4. Sulfate is the ... which is barium sulfate, indicates that sulfate anions are present. The sulfate ion can act as a ligand attaching either by one ...
"Structure of Anhydrous Titanyl Sulfate, Titanyl Sulfate Monohydrate and Prediction of a New Structure". Acta Crystallographica ... Titanyl sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula TiOSO4. It is a white solid that forms by treatment of titanium ... The six ligands attached to titanium are derived from four different sulfate moieties and a bridging oxide. A monohydrate is ... Portions of the structure of titanyl sulfate Gatehouse, B. M.; Platts, S. N.; Williams, T. B. (1993). " ...
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ- ... from anhydrous calcium sulfate. Upon being mixed with shale or marl, and roasted, the sulfate liberates sulfur trioxide gas, a ... 2011 findings by the Opportunity rover on Mars show a form of calcium sulfate in a vein on the surface. Images suggest the ... In the refining of zinc, solutions of zinc sulfate are treated with lime to co-precipitate heavy metals such as barium. ...
Ferrous sulphate oral solution, paediatric, BP. Ironorm drops. Ferrous sulphate tablets are also available without a brand name ... Feospan (ferrous sulphate). Feospan spansules contain the active ingredient ferrous sulphate, which is a form of iron. Ferrous ... Feospan spansules contain the active ingredient ferrous sulphate, which is a form of iron. Ferrous sulphate is also available ... Feospan spansules are a modified-release form of ferrous sulphate. They are designed to release the iron slowly over the day ...
... are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ... Minims atropine sulphate are single-use preservative-free eye drops that contain the active ingredient atropine. This is a type ...
German Sulphate Producers Quit.. AUG. 18, 1916. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue reading the main story ... German Sulphate Producers Quit. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
... chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical [1]. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid [2], H2SO4, formed by ... sulfates in which only one hydrogen is replaced are called hydrogen sulfates, acid sulfates, or bisulfates. Most metal sulfates ... blue vitriol is cupric sulfate, green vitriol is ferrous sulfate, and white vitriol is zinc sulfate. Alums are double sulfates ... sulfate, chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed ...
Other names: Sulfuric acid, sodium salt; Sulfuric acid sodium salt (1:2); Sodium sulfate ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
  • An advantage in controlling barium scales is that the sulfate, once formed, will not redissolve to any appreciable extent, and this reduces the rate at which barite scale can form in other locations in the bleach plant. (usda.gov)
  • Because barium sulfate will not redissolve in the bleach plant, a barite deposit is less likely to reoccur somewhere else in the bleach plant. (usda.gov)
  • Sulfate is minimized through good brown stock washing and by using sulfuric acid for pH control instead of chlorine dioxide generator spent acid. (usda.gov)
  • Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. (usda.gov)
  • LONDON, Oct 6 (Reuters) - Metals consultancy CRU Group wants to create a price mechanism for cobalt sulphate, in response to increasing demand for the compound used in making rechargeable batteries that power electric cars. (reuters.com)
  • Prices for cobalt sulphate are often based on those for refined metal published by Metal Bulletin. (reuters.com)
  • But demand for cobalt sulphate is expected to outpace that for the metal over coming years as governments around the world move to replace diesel- and petrol-powered engines with batteries to meet targets for cutting vehicle emissions. (reuters.com)
  • Any cobalt sulphate prices published by CRU would be based on traded prices in China, a cobalt industry source said. (reuters.com)
  • Chinese firms dominate the production of cobalt sulphate. (reuters.com)
  • A lot depends on how liquid the market for cobalt sulphate is. (reuters.com)
  • Most cobalt sulphate is made from cobalt hydroxide, which is dissolved in acid and purified, though it can also be made from cobalt metal using a similar process. (reuters.com)
  • The research on the global Cobalt Sulphate market is a combined effort taken by analysts to highlight important information about the market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • With this, suitable information and valuable market-oriented facts of the Global Cobalt Sulphate Market are recognized. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The global Cobalt Sulphate market is segmented into various segments and sub-segments to accurately evaluate numerous factors. (mynewsdesk.com)
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  • The report covers vital elements of the global Cobalt Sulphate market, such as products, different applications, supply and demand dynamics, various specifications, and the industry trends. (mynewsdesk.com)
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  • The information presented in the study includes profiles of key companies operating in the global Cobalt Sulphate market, their important developments, major acquisitions, mergers, partnerships, and production capacity. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The analysts have highlighted changing trends and the nature of competition in the global Cobalt Sulphate market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • By using the SWOT analysis tool, analysts highlight the weaknesses, strengths, opportunities, and threats of leading players in the global Cobalt Sulphate market. (mynewsdesk.com)
  • The miner could grow its cobalt production and sell it as cobalt sulphate, a battery ready form of the metal, he said. (reuters.com)
  • CuSO4 is the formula for the chemical compound copper sulphate. (reference.com)
  • UKPID MONOGRAPH COPPER SULPHATE ST Beer BSc SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. (inchem.org)
  • COPPER SULPHATE Toxbase summary Type of product Fungicide, herbicide, commercial chemical and found in some chemistry and crystal growing sets. (inchem.org)
  • Toxicity Copper sulphate is a powerful oxidizing agent and irritant to mucous membranes. (inchem.org)
  • Chronic inhalation of copper sulphate-containing pesticides produces pulmonary and hepatic toxicity. (inchem.org)
  • Copper sulphate contact sensitivity is recognized. (inchem.org)
  • Inhalation - Reported only as chronic occupational inhalation of copper sulphate-containing fungicides, presenting as 'Vineyard sprayer's lung' with progressive dyspnoea, cough, wheeze, myalgia, malaise, micronodular and reticular opacities on chest X-ray (which may coalesce) and a restrictive lung function defect. (inchem.org)
  • 3. Copper sulphate irritant dermatitis and contact sensitivity are managed most effectively by discontinuing exposure. (inchem.org)
  • Copper sulphate is a potent emetic and the absence of pontaneous vomiting suggests the ingestion is small requiring only supportive care. (inchem.org)
  • 2. Gastric lavage is contraindicated since copper sulphate is corrosive. (inchem.org)
  • In this reaction, the alcohol (ethanol) reacts with the reddish-orange potassium dichromate to produce the greenish-colored chromium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and acetic acid . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Formation of glaserite by reaction of sodium sulfate with potassium chloride has been used as the basis of a method for producing potassium sulfate , a fertiliser . (wikipedia.org)
  • The discrepancy between the S−O bond length in the sulfate ion and the S−OH bond length in sulfuric acid is explained by donation of p-orbital electrons from the terminal S=O bonds in sulfuric acid into the antibonding S−OH orbitals, weakening them resulting in the longer bond length of the latter. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the roasting process, sulfuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulfate, a similar condition of affairs being produced during weathering. (wikipedia.org)
  • Organic sulfates are esters. (encyclopedia.com)
  • An organic sulfate salt containing equimolar amounts of vincristine(2+) and sulfate. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Using an instrument that measures the size, chemical composition and optical properties of aerosols in real time, they showed that jagged bits of fresh soot quickly become coated with a spherical shell of other chemicals, particularly sulfate, nitrate, and organic carbon, through light-driven chemical reactions. (redorbit.com)
  • UKPID MONOGRAPH ALUMINIUM SULPHATE SM Bradberry BSc MB MRCP ST Beer BSc JA Vale MD FRCP FRCPE FRCPG FFOM National Poisons Information Service (Birmingham Centre), West Midlands Poisons Unit, City Hospital NHS Trust, Dudley Road, Birmingham B18 7QH This monograph has been produced by staff of a National Poisons Information Service Centre in the United Kingdom. (inchem.org)
  • Zinc sulphate 20 mg/day plus oral hypoglycemic to intervention group, and placebo plus oral hypoglycemic to control group were given. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Farmers who could not apply Zinc at nursery stage should apply 33 per cent Zinc Sulphate at the rate of five kilogram per acre or 22 per cent Zinc Sulphate at the rate of ten kilogram per acre. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In a recent study, Zinc sulphate along with fibroblast growth factor and granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) significantly enhanced the wound healing probably through promotion of fibroblast proliferation and down regulation of MMP-1 (matrix metalloproteinase 1) expression in ulcerative wounds of diabetic rats (Shaoqiang et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Foliar application of micronutrient applied in two equal doses after 30 and 60 days from sowing in the form of zinc sulphate and manganese sulphate at rates of 50 ppm Zn and 100 ppm Mn, respectively. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A test involving 67 people found a daily 10mg dose of zinc sulphate led to fewer colds during the year and also reduced the length of illness after the onset of symptoms by an average of 1. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 240 gram mixture of 11 % borix and 23 % zinc sulphate in 100 litres of water be also sprayed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zinc sulphate is the best remediating agent to remove arsenic and to make it unavailable to the plants. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Feutrell's Early, trees were sprayed with boric acid and zinc sulphate either alone or in combination [T1 = control (water spray), T2 = 0. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Zinc nitrite is a salt of zinc obtained by adding sodium nitrite to zinc sulphate, using alcohol as a liquid medium. (reference.com)
  • Some research shows that taking a specific product containing glucosamine sulfate, methylsufonlylmethane, white willow bark extract, ginger root concentrate, Indian frankincense extract, turmeric root extract, cayenne, and hyaluronic acid (Instaflex Joint Support, Direct Digital) in three divided doses daily for 8 weeks reduces joint pain in people with knee pain. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The recommended dosing for polymyxin B sulfate/trimethoprim is to apply 1 drop into the affected eye(s) every 3 hours for 7 to 10 days with a maximum of 6 doses per day. (medicinenet.com)
  • Older adults should only take lower doses of ferrous sulfate because higher doses may not be more effective than lower doses and are more likely to cause constipation. (empowher.com)
  • Dimethyl sulfate, an oily liquid used extensively as an alkylating agent, is highly toxic for man, with particularly acute effects on the respiratory tract. (who.int)
  • This document evaluates the risks to human health and the environment from exposure to dimethyl sulfate. (who.int)
  • A critical period of sulfur uptake in corn occurs very early in the growing season, before microbes can release tied-up sources of sulfur and before root systems are large enough to reach subsoil sulfate reserves.Sulfur is especially vital to today's corn crops. (honeywell.com)
  • The decahydrate of sodium sulfate is known as Glauber's salt after the Dutch / German chemist and apothecary Johann Rudolf Glauber (1604-1670), who discovered it in 1625 in Austrian spring water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate can be an irritant if formulated incorrectly, and a shampoo containing 15 percent SLS is tolerable because it comes in contact with the scalp for just a few minutes and is diluted with water while in use. (nuskin.com)
  • The six ligands attached to titanium are derived from four different sulfate moieties and a bridging oxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • We study the influence of different sulfate solutions on systems with various cements experimentally. (empa.ch)
  • Aluminium sulfate is sometimes called alum or papermaker's alum in certain industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • The alum schists employed in the manufacture of aluminium sulfate are mixtures of iron pyrite , aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in upper Bavaria , Bohemia , Belgium , and Scotland . (wikipedia.org)
  • The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulfate of specific gravity 1.16 is prepared. (wikipedia.org)
  • Albuterol sulfate is the official generic name in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Albuterol sulfate inhalation aerosol is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit for oral inhalation. (nih.gov)
  • Each actuation delivers 120 mcg albuterol sulfate, USP from the valve and 108 mcg albuterol sulfate, USP from the mouthpiece (equivalent to 90 mcg of albuterol base from the mouthpiece). (nih.gov)
  • Preclinical Intravenous studies in rats with albuterol sulfate have demonstrated that albuterol crosses the blood-brain barrier and reaches brain concentrations amounting to approximately 5% of the plasma concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • My five year old is on albuterol sulfate because of bronchitis. (wisegeek.com)
  • Although the chronic effects of phosphorus accumulation are well known, there are limited studies on sulphate compound accumulation in dialysis patients [ 11 - 14 ] and most of these trials have a small number of patients. (hindawi.com)
  • Millions of people are sensitive and intolerant of both chemicals and because the FDA does NOT require food and drug manufacturers to label their items as containing sulfate/sulfite if the chemical was added to the ingredient as purchased/ or if the item comes from another country MILLIONS ARE SUFFERING unnecessarily. (change.org)
  • ALUMINIUM SULPHATE Toxbase summary Type of product Used in the paper industry, in water purification, for tanning leather, fireproofing and water proofing cloth and in antiperspirants. (inchem.org)