Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/1461)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. (2/1461)

BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis in remission, and controls were metabolically labelled with [35S]-amino acids or [35S]-sulphate, chase incubated and analysed by SDS-PAGE, followed by quantitation of mature [35S]-labelled MUC2. For quantitation of total MUC2, which includes non-radiolabelled and radiolabelled MUC2, dot blotting was performed, using a MUC2 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Between patient groups, no significant differences were found in [35S]-sulphate content of secreted MUC2 or in the secreted percentage of either [35S]-amino acid labelled MUC2 or total MUC2. During active ulcerative colitis, secretion of [35S]-sulphate labelled MUC2 was significantly increased twofold, whereas [35S]-sulphate incorporation into MUC2 was significantly reduced to half. CONCLUSIONS: During active ulcerative colitis, less MUC2 is secreted, because MUC2 synthesis is decreased while the secreted percentage of MUC2 is unaltered. Furthermore, sulphate content of secreted MUC2 is unaltered by a specific compensatory mechanism, because sulphated MUC2 is preferentially secreted while sulphate incorporation into MUC2 is reduced.  (+info)

Insulin and TSH promote growth in size of PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells, possibly via a pathway different from DNA synthesis: comparison with FRTL-5 cells. (3/1461)

In the rat thyroid cell lines PC Cl3, FRTL- 5 and WRT, proliferation is mainly regulated by insulin or IGF, and TSH. However, the mechanism regulating cell mass doubling prior to division is still unknown. Our laboratory has shown that in dog thyroid cells insulin promotes growth in size while TSH in the presence of insulin triggers DNA replication. In the absence of insulin, TSH has no effect on cell growth. In this report we investigated insulin action on both cell mass and DNA synthesis and its modulation by TSH and insulin in PC Cl3 and FRTL-5 cells. In PC Cl3 cells, insulin activated not only DNA synthesis but also protein synthesis and accumulation. Although TSH potentiated the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by insulin, enhancement of protein synthesis by both agents was additive. All TSH effects were reproduced by forskolin. Similar effects were also obtained in FRTL-5 cells. This suggests that insulin and TSH, via cAMP, modulate both growth in size and DNA replication in these cell lines. Lovastatin, which blocks 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, decreased the induction of DNA synthesis, but not of protein synthesis induced by insulin or TSH in PC Cl3 cells. In FRTL-5 cells, lovastatin reduced protein and DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin but not TSH-induced protein synthesis. Taking these data together, we propose that insulin and/or TSH both modulate cell mass doubling and DNA synthesis in these cell lines, presumably via different pathways, and that there are at least two pathways which regulate growth in size in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: one triggered by insulin, which is lovastatin sensitive, and the other activated by TSH, which is not sensitive to lovastatin.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (4/1461)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (5/1461)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. (6/1461)

gamma-Tocotrienol (gamma-T3), a naturally occurring analog of tocopherol (vitamin E), has been shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect in animals and humans. Unlike tocopherol, it has also been shown to reduce plasma apoB levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism of action of gamma-T3 on hepatic modulation of apoB production using cultured HepG2 cells as the model system. HepG2 cells preincubated with gamma-T3 were initially shown to inhibit the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a maximum 86+/-3% inhibition at 50 micromol/L observed within 6 hours. gamma-T3, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the uptake of [14C]glycerol into pools of cellular triacylglycerol and phospholipid relative to untreated control. The rate of apoB synthesis and secretion was then studied by an [35S]methionine pulse-labeling experiment and quantified by immunoprecipitating apoB on chasing up to 3 hours. An average reduction of 24+/-3% in labeled apoB in the media was apparent with gamma-T3 despite a 60+/-2% increase in apoB synthesis. Fractionation of secreted apoB revealed a relatively denser lipoprotein particle, suggesting a less stable particle. Using a digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell system, the effects of gamma-T3 on apoB translocation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum were further investigated. The generation of a specific N-terminal 70-kDa proteolytic fragment proved to be a sensitive measure of the rate of apoB translocation and degradation. The abundance of this fragment increased significantly in gamma-T3-treated cells relative to untreated control cells (50+/-21%) after 2 hours of chase. In addition, the presence of gamma-T3 resulted in an average decrease of 64+/-8% in intact apoB. Taken together, the data suggest that gamma-T3 stimulates apoB degradation possibly as the result of decreased apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apoB into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.  (+info)

Absence of G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. (7/1461)

1. The ability of mu-opioid receptor agonists to activate G-proteins in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was examined by monitoring the binding to membranes of the non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS). 2. In the receptor binding study, Scatchard analysis of [3H][D-Ala2,NHPhe4,Gly-ol]enkephalin ([3H]DAMGO; mu-opioid receptor ligand) binding revealed that the heterozygous mu-knockout mice displayed approximately 40% reduction in the number of mu-receptors as compared to the wild-type mice. The homozygous mu-knockout mice showed no detectable mu-binding sites. 3. The newly isolated mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and -2, the synthetic selective mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO and the prototype of mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine each produced concentration-dependent increases in [35S]GTPgammaS binding in wild-type mice. This stimulation was reduced by 55-70% of the wild-type level in heterozygous, and virtually eliminated in homozygous knockout mice. 4. No differences in the [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by specific delta1- ([D-Pen2,5]enkephalin), delta2-([D-Ala2]deltorphin II) or kappa1-(U50,488H) opioid receptor agonists were noted in mice of any of the three genotypes. 5. The data clearly indicate that mu-opioid receptor gene products play a key role in G-protein activation by endomorphins, DAMGO and morphine in the mouse spinal cord. They support the idea that mu-opioid receptor densities could be rate-limiting steps in the G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord. These thus indicate a limited physiological mu-receptor reserve. Furthermore, little change in delta1-, delta2- or kappa1-opioid receptor-G-protein complex appears to accompany mu-opioid receptor gene deletions in this region.  (+info)

Effects of azole antifungal drugs on the transition from yeast cells to hyphae in susceptible and resistant isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (8/1461)

Oral infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans are some of the most frequent and earliest opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The widespread use of azole antifungal drugs has led to the development of drug resistance, creating a major problem in the treatment of yeast infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Several molecular mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance have been identified. In C. albicans, the ability to morphologically switch from yeast cells (blastospores) to filamentous forms (hyphae) is an important virulence factor which contributes to the dissemination of Candida in host tissues and which promotes infection and invasion. A positive correlation between the level of antifungal drug resistance and the ability to form hyphae in the presence of azole drugs has been identified. Under hypha-inducing conditions in the presence of an azole drug, resistant clinical isolates form hyphae, while susceptible yeast isolates do not. This correlation is observed in a random sample from a population of susceptible and resistant isolates and is independent of the mechanisms of resistance. 35S-methionine incorporation suggests that growth inhibition is not sufficient to explain the inhibition of hyphal formation, but it may contribute to this inhibition.  (+info)

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(c) Influence of Sig-1R knockdown on the security of freshly synthesized IRE1 in un-stressed CHO cells. CHO cells have been pulse-labeled with 35S-methionine
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
BioAssay record AID 448131 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human CB2 receptor expressed in CHO cells by [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay.
The [35S]methionine-labeled proteins released in the medium conditioned by normal and transformed mouse fibroblasts have been analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis. Three major proteins, fibronectin, procollagens, and a protein with a molecular weight of 45,000 (45K protein) have been identified. The 45K protein, which has not yet been described, accounts for about 30% of the proteins released by control 3T3 fibroblasts or mouse embryo cultures. Quantitation of the radioactivity incorporated by the 45K protein indicated a 10- to 15-fold decrease in 3T3 fibroblasts transformed by Kirsten, Abelson, or Rous sarcoma viruses. The amounts of fibronectin and procollagens released in the medium by transformed cells were also reduced by factors of 3- and 5-fold, respectively. Pulse chase experiments have shown that the decreased level of the 45K protein in the medium of transformed cells cannot be explained by a reduced rate of secretion or by extracellular proteolytic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfated Glycoproteins, Glycolipids, and Glycosaminoglycans from Synaptic Plasma and Myelin Membranes. T2 - Isolation and Characterization of Sulfated Glycopeptides. AU - Simpson, David L.. AU - Thorne, Donald R.. AU - Loh, Horace H. PY - 1976/12/1. Y1 - 1976/12/1. N2 - In this report we provide biochemical evidence that a highly purified synaptic plasma membrane fraction derived from rat brain, after intraventricular injection of 35S-labeled sodium sulfate, is enriched in a number of large sulfated glycoproteins compared with a purified myelin fraction studied concurrently. A fraction of the detergent-solubilized sulfated glycoprotein bound specifically to concanavalin A-Sepharose. In addition, we have identified the 35S-labeled lipid-soluble material in these membrane fractions as cerebroside sulfate. The sulfated protein in the lipid-extracted membranes was shown to consist predominantly of a class of glycoproteins containing sulfate in ester linkage to oligosaccharide chains, ...
Treatment of patients with cyclosporin A (CsA) increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. We investigated whether an elevated hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-containing lipoproteins is responsible for the increase of LDL by using the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Addition of CsA to the culture medium of HepG2 cells resulted in a dose- and time-dependent decrease in the secretion of apoB-100. Maximal inhibition (-50%), which was obtained at 5 mumol/L CsA, was achieved within 8 hours. The secretion of apoA-I, albumin, and [35S]methionine-labeled proteins was not affected by CsA. The reduced accumulation of apoB-100 in the culture medium could not be explained by changes in the uptake and degradation of LDL by HepG2 cells treated with CsA. In addition, [35S]methionine incorporation studies indicated that synthesis and/or secretion of newly synthesized apoB-100 decreased in the presence of CsA. CsA did not affect the apoB-100 mRNA level, indicating that CsA ...
BioAssay record AID 342866 submitted by ChEMBL: Agonist activity at human NOP receptor expressed in CHO cells assessed as stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding relative to nociceptin/orphanin FQ (1-13)NH2 peptide.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. L-βγ-meATP ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Large cortical thymocytes from C57BL/6-Tla(a) mice have been prepared rapidly and in high yield by a combination of centrifugal elutriation and differential binding to peanut agglutinin (PNA)-coated plates. The cells in these lymphoblast-rich fractions were clearly distinct from the majority of thymocytes, with up to 70 percent in the S or G(2) + M phases of the cell cycle and an average rate of [(35)S]methionine incorporation per cell up to 20 times higher than that of the majority population. The populations of cells resolved in this fractionation were characterized by monitoring their rates of synthesis of specific glycoproteins, thymus- leukemia antigen (TL) and the Lyt-2, Lyt-3 complex (Lyt-2/3), relative to their total protein synthesis. Cells that bound to PNA synthesized high levels of Lyt-2/3, consistent with their identification as cortical thymocytes. Those that failed to bind made little or no Lyt-2/3, as expected for medullary cells, The fraction of dividing lymphoblasts that bound ...
ABSTRACT: Human cystinotic fibroblasts were completely depleted of their accumulated intracellular free cystine within a 2-h time interval when exposed to culture medium containing between 1 and 5 mM mercaptoethylgluconamide. This cystine-depleting action of mercaptoethylgluconamide was observed with three different human cystinotic fibroblast cell lines and with all three cell lines, 2 mM mercaptoethylgluconamide was as effective as 1 mM cysteamine in depleting cells of their intracellular free cystine. Cell viability was excellent for cystinotic fibroblasts exposed to 2 mM mercaptoethylgluconamide for up to 6 days in duration. Mercaptoethylgluconamide (2 mM) was sufficiently stable under cell culture conditions such that a single addition of mercaptoethylgluconamide maintained cystine depletion in human cystinotic fibroblasts for at least a 4-day period. In contrast to cysteamine, 2 mM mercaptoethylgluconamide was not capable of depleting the cystine content of isolated cystinotic lysosomes, implying
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of CCN3-mediated promotion of sulfated proteoglycan synthesis in rat chondrocytes from developing joint heads. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
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Tyrosine sulfation Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein molecule. Secreted
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Per-kilogram prices of some synthetic radioisotopes range to trillions of dollars. Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are ... The price listing for radioisotopes is not exhaustive. Background color shows category: 2000s commodities boom Density for 0 °C ...
By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide emission comes from Norilsk's nickel mines. Heavy metal pollution near ... The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137; the metals nickel, copper ... In 2017, Norilsk Nickel announced that it had invested $14 billion in a major development program aimed at reducing sulfur ... By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions come from Norilsk's nickel mines. The Nornickel ...
The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur; that of isotopes heavier than ... The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. ... It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur, ... The list of elements it sets on fire is diverse, containing hydrogen, potassium, phosphorus, arsenic, antimony, sulfur, ... and with the sulfur oxides SO2 and SO3 to produce ClOSO2F and ClSO2F respectively. It will also react exothermically and ...
The classical method of detecting this is the Chromium-51 [51Cr] release assay; the Sulfur-35 [35S] release assay is a little ... used radioisotope-based alternative. Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the ...
Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical ... It is used to label the sulfur-containing amino-acids methionine and cysteine. When a sulfur atom replaces an oxygen atom in a ... 99mTc is a very versatile radioisotope, and is the most commonly used radioisotope tracer in medicine. It is easy to produce in ... The commonly used radioisotopes have short half lives and so do not occur in nature. They are produced by nuclear reactions. ...
The activation of a number of test target elements such as sulfur, copper, tantalum, and gold have been used to determine the ... Salted bomb Table of nuclides Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes from the International Atomic Energy Agency Neeb, Karl ... Induced radioactivity Neutron activation analysis Phosphorus-32 produced when sulfur captures a neutron. ... as a result of the production of neutron-rich radioisotopes.[citation needed] Some atoms require more than one neutron to ...
Nickel-63 is a radioisotope of nickel that can be used as an energy source in Radioisotope Piezoelectric Generators. It has a ... Phosphorus-32 can be made by the neutron irradiation (np reaction) of sulfur-32 or from phosphorus-31 by neutron capture. ... It is also used as a thermal power source in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power packs. These use heat produced ...
The X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge was used to produce radioisotopes such as cobalt-60, phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and carbon-14. As ... A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine (University of Chicago Press, 2013) on the use of radioisotopes in science ... Natural radioisotopes were used as tracers to track atoms and illuminate biological processes in living creatures and ... Bud, Robert (August 2015). "Angela N. H. Creager, Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine". Social ...
A 'thiosemicarbazone' contains a sulfur atom in lieu of the ketonic oxygen in semicarbazone. Bisthiosemicarbazones are known to ... They have also been identified as potential ligands for radioisotope delivery, with selectivity towards hypoxic tissues, ...
Sulfur[edit]. Sulfur-35 is used to label proteins and nucleic acids. Cysteine is an amino acid containing a thiol group which ... The decay of radioisotopes may limit the shelf life of a reagent, requiring its replacement and thus increasing expenses. ... For nucleotides that do not contain a sulfur group, the oxygen on one of the phosphate groups can be substituted with a sulfur ... Replacing an atom with its own radioisotope is an intrinsic label that does not alter the structure of the molecule. ...
Staurolite Steatite Stereochemistry Stoichiometry Strontianite Strontium structural formula Sublimation sulfate sulfur Sulfur ... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon fluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
The next longest-lived radioisotope is sulfur-38, with a half-life of 170 minutes. The shortest-lived is 49S, with a half-life ... Sulfur with a distinctive isotopic composition has been used to identify pollution sources, and enriched sulfur has been added ... Sulfur (16S) has 23 known isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 27 to 49, four of which are stable: 32S (95.02%), 33S (0.75 ... Sulfur isotopes data from The Berkeley Laboratory Isotopes Project's. ...
Beryllium-10 Carbon-14 Fluorine-18 Sodium-22 Sodium-24 Magnesium-28 Silicon-31 Silicon-32 Phosphorus-32 Sulfur-35 Sulfur-38 ... A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small). Generally speaking, trace ... Trace radioisotopes are therefore present only because they are continually produced on Earth by natural processes. Natural ... radioisotopes have half-lives that are short in comparison with the age of the Earth, since primordial nuclides tend to occur ...
8 SeF6 In comparison with its sulfur counterpart (sulfur hexafluoride), selenium hexafluoride (SeF6) is more reactive and is a ... The non-primordial radioisotope 79Se also occurs in minute quantities in uranium ores as a product of nuclear fission. Selenium ... The sulfoxide in sulfur chemistry is represented in selenium chemistry by the selenoxides (formula RSe(O)R), which are ... Selenium is most commonly found as an impurity, replacing a small part of the sulfur in sulfide ores of many metals. In living ...
It is also used in the catalytic conversion of sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide in the production of sulfuric acid. Caesium ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... Binary compounds with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium also exist. Caesium has 39 known isotopes, ranging in mass number (i.e. ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ...
... includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. All radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of ... For the sulfur work the isotope 35S was used, while for polonium 207Po was used. In some related work by the addition of 57Co ... Another example is the work which was done on the methylation of elements such as sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium by ... Radiochemistry also includes the study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the environment; for instance, a forest or grass ...
Another key advantage of these LST is that it shows a resistance to sulfur poisoning, which is an issue with the currently used ... health and safety consequences of decommissioning radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) in Northwest Russia (PDF), Østerås: ... doi:10.1016/S0167-2738(02)00140-6. Gong, Mingyang; Liu, Xingbo; Trembly, Jason; Johnson, Christopher (2007). "Sulfur-tolerant ...
... like phosphorus and sulfur, fairly abundant for minor minerals. The major metals such as iron, lead and tin are commonplace.[ ... TV screens and in radio isotopes. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more ...
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators form a very small component of energy generation, mostly in specialized applications ... Other emissions from fossil fuel power station include sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, volatile organic ...
Sulfur must be removed because of its corrosive attack on nickel-based alloys at operational temperature. Structural metal such ... Online fuel processing can introduce risks of fuel processing accidents, which can trigger release of radio isotopes. In some ... A water content reduction purification stage using HF and helium sweep gas was specified to run at 400 °C. Oxide and sulfur ... The purpose of salt purification is to eliminate oxides, sulfur and metal impurities. Oxides could result in the deposition of ...
Naturally occurring lanthanum is made up of two isotopes, the stable 139La and the primordial long-lived radioisotope 138La. ... sulfur, phosphorus, boron, selenium, silicon and arsenic. Lanthanum reacts slowly with water to form lanthanum(III) hydroxide, ...
Twenty-two radioisotopes have been characterized: the most stable, 60Co, has a half-life of 5.2714 years; 57Co has a half-life ... It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. Heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C (1,650 °F) to give the ... Cobalt-57 (Co-57 or 57Co) is a cobalt radioisotope most often used in medical tests, as a radiolabel for vitamin B12 uptake, ... This process helps to clean petroleum of sulfur impurities that interfere with the refining of liquid fuels. Before the 19th ...
The radioisotope iodine-131, which has a high fission product yield, concentrates in the thyroid, and is one of the most ... Tellurium has no biological role, although fungi can incorporate it in place of sulfur and selenium into amino acids such as ... A number of iodine radioisotopes are also used in medical applications. Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water- ... Because of this function, radioisotopes of iodine are concentrated in the thyroid gland along with nonradioactive iodine. ...
It is a parent radioisotope to the short-lived gamma-emitting daughter radioisotope technetium-99m, a nuclear isomer used in ... The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO3), whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide ... Of the synthetic radioisotopes, the most stable is 93Mo, with a half-life of 4,000 years. The most common isotopic molybdenum ... MoS2 is also used as a catalyst in hydrocracking of petroleum fractions containing nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen. Molybdenum ...
Modern elemental analyzers are also capable of simultaneous determination of sulfur along with CHN in the same measurement run ... emitting gamma rays of specific energies that identify the radioisotopes present in the sample. The concentration of each ... sulfur) of a sample.[citation needed] This information is important to help determine the structure of an unknown compound, as ... into C5/C6 sugars and sulfur-free lignins" (PDF). Green Chemistry. RSCPublishing. 16 (5): 2454-2462. doi:10.1039/C4GC00168K. ...
The sulfur-32 nucleus produced is in the ground state so there is no additional gamma ray emission. Phosphorus-32 has important ... Singh, B., Singh, J., & Kaur, A. (2013). Applications of Radioisotopes in Agriculture. International Journal of Biotechnology ... Phosphorus has a short half-life of 14.268 days and decays into sulfur-32 by beta decay as shown in this nuclear equation: ... Phosphorus-32 can be generated synthetically by irradiation of sulfur-32 with moderately fast neutrons as shown in this nuclear ...
Likens, Gene E. (1962). Transport of radioisotopes in lakes (Ph.D. thesis). University of Wisconsin - Madison. Doran, Peter T ... and the group carried out one of the first scientific studies linking acid rain to air pollution such as sulphur dioxide from ... for his thesis on Transport of radioisotopes in lakes. Likens was an instructor and associate professor at Dartmouth College ...
... sodium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.815 - strontium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.858 - sulfur radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... sodium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.840.685 - strontium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.868.690 - sulfur radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ...
Thiosulfurous acid, a branched isomer of the tetrasulfide, in which the fourth sulfur is bonded to the central sulfur of a ... The radioisotope tritium can also form tritiated water in much the same way. Another notable deuterium chalcogenide is ... They feature unbranched sulfur chains, reflecting sulfur's proclivity for catenation. Starting with H2S2, all known ... R. Steudel "Inorganic Polysulfanes H2S2 with n > 1" in Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur-Rich Compounds II (Topics in Current ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Radioisotopes of caesium require special precautions: the improper handling of caesium-137 gamma ray sources can lead to ... With sulphur, they form sulphides and polysulphides.[146]. 2Na + 1/8S8 → Na2S + 1/8S8 → Na2S2...Na2S7. Because alkali metal ... For example, sodium can react with sulfur to form the sulfide (Na2S) and various polysulfides with the formula Na2Sx (x from 2 ...
Mainly from radioisotopes in food (40K, 14C, etc.) (b)depends on diet. ... Sulfur-35 (87.5 days). *Sulfur-38 (2.84 hours). *Chlorine-34 m (32 minutes) ... Reaction products of primary cosmic rays, radioisotope half-lifetime, and production reaction.[82]. *Tritium (12.3 years): 14N( ...
The battery can provide 40 MW of power for up to seven minutes.[36] Sodium-sulfur batteries have been used to store wind power. ... Lithium-sulfur batteries were used on the longest and highest solar-powered flight.[39] ... Radioisotope thermoelectric generator. *Solar power *Photovoltaic system. *Concentrated solar power. *Solar thermal energy * ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... 27 radioisotopes have been observed, with the most stable ones being 169Yb with a half-life of 32.0 days, 175Yb with a half- ...
Sulfur Before 2000 BC Before AD 815 Middle East Middle East First used at least 4,000 years ago.[19] According to the Ebers ... Marinsky, J. A.; Glendenin, L. E.; Coryell, C. D. (1947). "The chemical identification of radioisotopes of neodymium and of ... "Sulfur History". Georgiagulfsulfur.com. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. ... Papyrus, a sulfur ointment was used in ancient Egypt to treat granular eyelids.[20] Recognized as an element by Jabir ibn ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... While most of germanium's radioisotopes decay by beta decay, 61. Ge. and 64. Ge. decay by β+. delayed proton emission.[46] 84. ... At least 27 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in atomic mass from 58 to 89. The most stable of these is 68. Ge ... Nearly two decades later, in 1886, Clemens Winkler found the new element along with silver and sulfur, in a rare mineral called ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Fourteen radioisotopes have been characterized. The most stable are 15O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half- ... Using a cascade method, Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy ... 2 is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the ...
On the existence of a new element, probably of the sulphur group". Philosophical Magazine. 21 (140): 301-305. April 1861.. ; ... "Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes" (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2003. Retrieved 2010-05-13.. ... Crookes, William (March 30, 1861) "On the existence of a new element, probably of the sulphur group," Chemical News, vol. 3, pp ...
... such as sulfur hexafluoride. In a tandem accelerator the potential is used twice to accelerate the particles, by reversing the ... radioisotope production for medical diagnostics, ion implanters for manufacture of semiconductors, and accelerator mass ...
1861年3月30日)Crookes, William "On the existence of a new element, probably of the sulphur group," Chemical News, vol. 3, pp. 193- ... Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes (PDF). International Atomic Energy Agency. 2003 [2010-05-13].. ... On the existence of a new element, probably of the sulphur group. Philosophical Magazine. April 1861, 21 (140): 301-305.. ; *( ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Thirty radioisotopes have been characterised, which range in mass number from 209[22] to 238.[20] After 232Th, the most stable ... Several binary thorium chalcogenides and oxychalcogenides are also known with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium.[49] ... All of these isotopes occur in nature as trace radioisotopes due to their presence in the decay chains of 232Th, 235U, 238U, ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a ... Like copper, silver reacts with sulfur and its compounds; in their presence, silver tarnishes in air to form the black silver ... This effect is lost in the presence of sulfur due to the extreme insolubility of silver sulfide.[124] ...
Transfer of sulfur-containing groups is covered by EC 2.8 and is subdivided into the subcategories of sulfurtransferases, ... This assertion was validated by Rudolf Schoenheimer's work with radioisotopes as tracers in 1937. This in turn would pave the ... "EC 2.8 Transferring Sulfur-Containing Groups". School of Biological & Chemical Sciences at Queen Mary, University of London. ... "EC 2.8 Transferring Sulfur-Containing Groups". School of Biological & Chemical Sciences at Queen Mary, University of London. ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... 19 radioisotopes have been characterized, with the most stable being 50Cr with a half-life of (more than) 1.8×1017 years, and ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... 204Tl is the most stable radioisotope, with a half-life of 3.78 years.[12] It is made by the neutron activation of stable ... Combined with sulfur or selenium and arsenic, thallium has been used in the production of high-density glasses that have low ... The radioisotope thallium-201 (as the soluble chloride TlCl) is used in small, nontoxic amounts as an agent in a nuclear ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... is also sometimes considered as a light radioisotope of hydrogen, due to the mass difference between the antimuon and the ... sulfur-iodine cycle, copper-chlorine cycle and hybrid sulfur cycle are under research and in testing phase to produce hydrogen ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... The longest-lived radioisotopes are thulium-171, which has a half-life of 1.92 years, and thulium-170, which has a half-life of ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... allowing the use of radioisotope rubidium-82 in nuclear medicine to locate and image brain tumors.[50] Rubidium-82 has a very ...
Sulfur. Chlorine. Argon. Potassium. Calcium. Scandium. Titanium. Vanadium. Chromium. Manganese. Iron. Cobalt. Nickel. Copper. ... The most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years (found in nature), 103Pd with 17 days, and 100Pd ... Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 90.94948(64) u (91Pd) to 122.93426(64) u ... It tarnishes lightly in a moist atmosphere containing sulfur.[clarification needed][5] ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... At least 26 nickel radioisotopes have been characterised, the most stable being 59. Ni with a half-life of 76,000 years, 63. Ni ... On Earth, nickel occurs most often in combination with sulfur and iron in pentlandite, with sulfur in millerite, with arsenic ... In this process, nickel is reacted with carbon monoxide in the presence of a sulfur catalyst at around 40-80 °C to form nickel ...
The ensuing steam explosion, fire and radio-isotope releases killed approximately 31 to 50 first responders, with most of those ... due to the emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and directly emitted particulate matter that result when coal is burnt. ... With approximately 4000 deaths in total, to eventually result in the decades ahead due to the radio-isotope pollution released ...
The soil should have available 89 to 135 kg/ha of nitrogen, 46 kg/ha phosphorus, 67 kg/ha potassium, and 17 kg/ha sulfur. ... by way of a process which is known as phytoremediation-the process of clearing radioisotopes and a variety of other toxins from ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Hg being the most abundant (29.86%). The longest-lived radioisotopes are 194. Hg with a half-life of 444 years, and 203. Hg ... Most of the remaining radioisotopes have half-lives that are less than a day. 199. Hg and 201. Hg are the most often studied ... Afterwards, fine sulfur, zinc, or some other powder that readily forms an amalgam (alloy) with mercury at ordinary temperatures ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Thirty-six radioisotopes have been characterized, with the heaviest being terbium-171 (with atomic mass of 170.95330(86) u) and ... Terbium combines with nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, phosphorus, boron, selenium, silicon and arsenic at elevated temperatures, ... lightest being terbium-135 (exact mass unknown).[12] The most stable synthetic radioisotopes of terbium are terbium-158, with a ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Airn Cobalt Nickel Capper Zinc Gallium ... K are foond in aw potassium, an it is the maist common radioisotope in the human bouk. ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... About 20 radioisotopes and 7 nuclear isomers between 233Cm and 252Cm are known for curium, and no stable isotopes. The longest ... They predominantly emit α-particles, and the heat released in this process can serve as a heat source in radioisotope ... Sulfides, selenides and tellurides of curium have been obtained by treating curium with gaseous sulfur, selenium or tellurium ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Therefore, 210Po is used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials. ... in sulfur-containing amino-acids or related molecules[110] and that similar patterns of distribution occur in human tissues.[ ... More recent evidence suggests that this behavior results from polonium substituting for its congener sulfur, also in group 16 ...
ISOFLEX supplies stable and radioactive isotopes. We lead in pricing, enrichment, processing, and customer service. ISOFLEX is your premier isotope supplier.
SULFUR 35; VIRAL DISEASES; AMINO ACIDS; ANIMALS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CARBOXYLIC ACIDS; ... ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS; PARASITES; PHOSPHORUS ISOTOPES; PRIMATES; RADIOISOTOPES; SULFUR ISOTOPES; SYNTHESIS; VERTEBRATES ... DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DISEASES; DRUGS; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; INFECTIOUS DISEASES; ISOTOPES; LIGHT NUCLEI; LIPOTROPIC FACTORS; ...
RADIOISOTOPES; RODENTS; SACCHARIDES; STEROID HORMONES; STEROIDS; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR ISOTOPES; SYNTHESIS; VERTEBRATES ... SULFUR 35; ACID ANHYDRASES; ADRENAL HORMONES; ANIMALS; BETA DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; BETA-MINUS DECAY RADIOISOTOPES; CARBOHYDRATES ... CELL CONSTITUENTS; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; CORTICOSTEROIDS; DAYS LIVING RADIOISOTOPES; DISEASES; ENZYMES; EVEN-ODD NUCLEI; ...
Sulfur Compounds * Sulfur Radioisotopes * Vinyl Compounds / blood * Vinyl Compounds / pharmacokinetics* * Vinyl Compounds / ...
A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic ... Autoradiography Photosynthetic products Plant biology Carbon-14 Sulfur-35 Noninvasive measurement This is a preview of ... 14C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. ... A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic ...
0/DNA, Neoplasm; 0/DNA, Viral; 0/Sulfur Radioisotopes From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ...
8.3 Sulfur-35.- 8.4 Oxygen-18.- 8.4.1 Oxygen-18 Content of Snowpack.- 8.4.2 Oxygen-18 Content of Imnavait Creek.- 8.4.3 Oxygen- ... 8.5 Long-Lived Radioisotopes: Lead-210 and Cesium-137.- 8.5.1 Distribution of 137Cs on Tundra and in Lake Sediments.- 8.5.2 ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes · Transcription, Genetic Doxycycline is known for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs ... Adducts · Albumin · Dosimetry · Haemoglobin · Keratin · Mass spectrometry · Sulfur mustard · Albuminoid · Carbon · Diagnostic ... Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal ... This result opens the way for sensitive mass spectrometric detection of sulfur mustard exposure of skin by gas chromatography/ ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes Substances * Autoantigens * Insulin * Keto Acids * Sulfur Radioisotopes * alpha-ketoisocaproic acid ...
Radioisotopes of iodine have been incorporated into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals ranging from small, low molecular ... J Sulfur Chem. 2011;32(2):171-97.Google Scholar. Copyright information. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019 ... Radioisotopes of iodine have been incorporated into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals ranging from small, low molecular ... Because of the routine availability of radioisotopes of iodine with different nuclear decay properties, radioiodination is an ...
The classical method of detecting this is the Chromium-51 [51Cr] release assay; the Sulfur-35 [35S] release assay is a little ... used radioisotope-based alternative. Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the ...
... process gauge is specifically optimized for the sulfur analysis needs of refineries, pipelines, blending operations, bunkering ... On-line sulfur in heavy oils. On-line, real time X-ray Transmission (XRT) measurment of sulfur (S) in heavy or light oils to ... The recorded X-ray intensity is inversely proportional to the sulfur concentration, thus the highest sulfur levels transmit the ... that is specific to sulfur (S). In practice, a process stream passes through a flowcell where sulfur (S), in the hydrocarbon ...
Per-kilogram prices of some synthetic radioisotopes range to trillions of dollars. Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are ... The price listing for radioisotopes is not exhaustive. Background color shows category: 2000s commodities boom Density for 0 °C ...
b Phosphorus-32 and sulfur-35 are the most widely used radioisotopes for biochemical and biomedical research. Programs in ... Other reactor-produced radioisotopes continue to play a major role in research, and recent advances in many fields (such as ... Sulfur-35 • In studies of cell metabolism and kinetics, molecular biology, genetics research, biochemistry, microbiology, ... Radioisotopes of iron and chromium were also valuable in applications in hematology. Red blood cell survival, iron physiology, ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes. 1. 2003. 11. 0.070. Why? Cats. 1. 2003. 54. 0.070 ...
By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide emission comes from Norilsks nickel mines. Heavy metal pollution near ... The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137; the metals nickel, copper ... In 2017, Norilsk Nickel announced that it had invested $14 billion in a major development program aimed at reducing sulfur ... By some estimates, one percent of global sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions come from Norilsks nickel mines. The Nornickel ...
Sulfur[edit]. Sulfur-35 is used to label proteins and nucleic acids. Cysteine is an amino acid containing a thiol group which ... The decay of radioisotopes may limit the shelf life of a reagent, requiring its replacement and thus increasing expenses. ... For nucleotides that do not contain a sulfur group, the oxygen on one of the phosphate groups can be substituted with a sulfur ... Replacing an atom with its own radioisotope is an intrinsic label that does not alter the structure of the molecule. ...
A double-indicator technique with technetium-99 sulfur colloid and isosulfan blue is used [69, 70]. Preoperative ... Two of the 5 patients underwent reinjection of the radioisotope but still failed to further localize the radiotracer. All 5 ... Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was the radioactive tracer used by the nuclear medicine department to perform the ...
Even if the drug is a sulfur colloid, which stays in the patient forever, the activity of Tc-99 is indistinguishable from ... I believe you mean - Radioisotope thermoelectric generator. For starters - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radioisotope_ ...
Even more than 5 milli-curie of 99mTc-sulfur colloid, it takes about to sec. and not less than that. In most of the patients, ... 99mTc-sulfur colloid was prepared in sterilized condition and injected intravenously in 194 cases, includng 18 primary liver ... Breath-holding Liver Scintiphotography by 99mTc-sulfur Colloid. Masao KANEKO, Michiko WATANABE, Tadao ABE, Chihoko MURATA, ... sulfur colloid, because of the limited movement of liver during scintiphotography. Shortness of time for scintiphotography ...
... solvents or radioisotopes. HEPA filters can be added to trap particulates. ... Filters Available: Acid-Sulfur, Ammonia-Amine, Formaldehyde, HEPA, Mixed Bed, Organic Vapor, Radioisotope ... Filters Available: Acid-Sulfur, Ammonia-Amine, Formaldehyde, HEPA, Mixed Bed, Organic Vapor, Radioisotope ... Filters Available: Acid-Sulfur, Ammonia-Amine, Formaldehyde, HEPA, Mixed Bed, Organic Vapor, Radioisotope ...
Filters Available: Radioisotope, Mixed Bed, Formaldehyde, Ammonia-Amine, Acid-Sulfur, Organic Vapor, HEPA ... Activated Carbon Radioisotope SDS. Safety Data Sheet for Activated Carbon Filters used in Paramount Ductless Enclosures, ... Filters used in the Paramount are sold separately and come in seven types Ammonia-Amine, Acid-Sulfur, Organic Vapor, ... or radioisotopes. Unlike traditional fume hoods, they require no ducting so they can be moved from lab to lab. Paramount ...
This field study provides substantive evidence that cable bacteria exert a decisive control on the cycling of sulfur and ... This field study provides substantive evidence that cable bacteria exert a decisive control on the cycling of sulfur and ... resulting in a potentially beneficial interaction between the sulfur oxidizing microbes and biodepositing fauna. Cable bacteria ... resulting in a potentially beneficial interaction between the sulfur oxidizing microbes and biodepositing fauna. Cable bacteria ...
Sulfur. 16 S 32.065000000 Sulfur See more Sulfur products. Sulfur (or Sulphur) (atomic symbol: S, atomic number: 16) is a Block ... Radioactive isotopes of strontium have been used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and for certain cancer ... The sulfur atom has a covalent radius of 105 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 180 pm. In nature, sulfur can be found in hot ... Sulfur has been known since ancient times but was not accepted as an element until 1777, when Antoine Lavoisier helped to ...
Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. It means upon decay they emit radiations ... Bekerman C, Gottschalk A (1971) Diagnostic significance of the relative uptake of liver compared to spleen in 99mTc-sulfur ... Radioisotopes are widely used for a number of purposes following are some major applications of radioisotope. ... This decaying property of radioisotopes is called half-life. Thus radioisotopes could be used for numerous biomedical purposes ...
"Productions of radioisotopes for application studies at RIKEN RI Beam Factory". J. Part. Accel. Soc. Jpn. 12, 206 (2015) (in ... We employ the conventional technology of isotopic measurements to examine sulfur and lead in geochemical and archeological ... Purified RIs such as Zn-65 and Cd-109 are delivered to universities and institutes through Japan Radioisotope Association. We ... We develop production technologies of radioisotopes (RIs) at RIKEN RI Beam Factory (RIBF) for application studies in the fields ...
In addition to that, the radioisotopes have either a too short (e.g., 20 minutes for 11C) or too long (e.g., 57.4 days for 125I ... The combinations of nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur appear to be stable chelators for 99mTc [10-12]. In fact, this chelator could ... Technetium-99 m (99mTc) is an ideal radioisotope for diagnostic imaging studies because of its favorable physical ... However, most existing radiolabeled tyrosine derivatives require an on-site cyclotron to produce the radioisotope, which is ...
"Sulphur is the bane of the mining industry. High concentrations in waste rock, cause acid mine drainage. The sulphur oxidises ... Dr Borsaru told the Industrial Radioisotopes and Radiation Measurement Applications conference in Bologna, Italy recently that ... Armed with data from the probe, companies will be able to leave high sulphur coals in the ground." Scientists expect that the ... "Acid rain is caused when high sulphur fossil fuels are burnt," says Dr Mihai Borsaru, a nuclear physicist at CSIRO Exploration ...
  • [ 19 ] The latter technique involves injecting radioisotope (technetium-99m sulfur colloid) alone or radioisotope plus a patent blue dye (Lymphazurin or methylene blue) into the tissues of the breast. (medscape.com)
  • Technetium sulphur colloid liver scan done 3/6/91 reveals a grossly abnormal configuration to the liver, appearing larger in the lateral projection of the liver in both the anterior and the lateral projection of the liver, appearing larger in the lateral projection than it does in the anterior. (cancer.gov)
  • The article compares the mucociliary clearance (MCC) in children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and normal pulmonary function after an acute inhalation of 0.12 percent saline (placebo), or HS, admixed with the radioisotope technetium sulfur colloid. (ebscohost.com)
  • Background: Preoperative injection of technetium-99 m sulfur colloid (Tc-99) in the Nuclear Medicine Department for localizing sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be extremely painful for the patient. (utmb.edu)
  • 188Re sulphur colloid is used for ablation of knee inflamed joints. (parsisotope.com)
  • The results of this study suggest that the Tc-99m sulfur colloid study for active lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is an effective screening procedure. (elsevier.com)
  • A moderately salt-tolerant and obligately alkaliphilic, chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, strain HL-EbGr7 T , was isolated from a full-scale bioreactor removing H 2 S from biogas under oxygen-limited conditions. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • nov., a mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium isolated from a Thioploca mat. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Radioisotopes of iodine have been incorporated into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals ranging from small, low molecular weight compounds to large molecules like antibodies. (springer.com)
  • Sulphur (S) is a key macronutrient for all organisms, with similar cellular requirements to that of phosphorus (P). Studies of S cycling have often focused on the inorganic fraction, however, there is strong evidence to suggest that freshwater microorganisms may also access dissolved organic S (DOS) compounds (e.g. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Phosphorus Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Thus radioisotopes could be used for numerous biomedical purposes such as cancer and tumour treatment, imaging, biochemical assays, biological labelling, sterilization, clinical diagnostics, radioactive dating etc. (omicsonline.org)
  • Radioactive forms of various elements, called radioisotopes, were produced in and isolated from the spent uranium fuel of the Graphite Reactor. (oakridger.com)
  • Researchers created other radioisotopes, such as radioactive phosphorus, by immersing a nonradioactive target material, such as melted sulfur in aluminum cans, in the sea of neutrons inside the reactor. (oakridger.com)
  • Why was radioactive sulphur used? (getrevising.co.uk)
  • Used various US EPA and US DOE models to evaluate the implications of radioactive substance migration from a contaminated site and assessed the health impact of radioisotopes, including uptake of radioactivity into plants, and, hence, into food. (gradientcorp.com)
  • Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Influence of salts and pH on growth and activity of a novel facultatively alkaliphilic, extremely salt-tolerant, obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium Thioalkalibacter halophilus gen. nov., sp. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • nov., two mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Coal-fired plants, of course, spew out CO 2 and toxins like nitrous oxide and sulfur dioxide. (seedmagazine.com)
  • For instance, some organic phosphonates have an affinity for bone, and isotopes bound to sulfur colloids will localize in the liver and spleen. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Both ultrasonography and radioisotope scans (scintiscans) are useful in demonstrating space-occupying lesions of the liver, such as cysts, abscesses, and tumors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the third approach, the procedure was shortened significantly by performing the Edman degradation for 2 h at 60°C. Upon exposure of human blood to various concentrations of [14C]sulfur mustard, ca. 20% was covalently bound to albumin. (tudelft.nl)
  • 500 mg ml-1) to various concentrations of [14C]sulfur mustard we found 15-20% of the added radioactivity covalently bound to keratin. (tudelft.nl)
  • Paramount Ductless Enclosures are self-contained work stations, also known as ductless fume hoods, that use carbon filters to rid the laboratory of annoying or unsafe concentrations of organic solvents, formaldehyde, acid gases, ammonia, or radioisotopes. (labconco.com)
  • These plots, or spectra, show that a rock dubbed "McKittrick" near the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars, has higher concentrations of sulfur and bromine than a nearby patch of soil nicknamed "Tarmac. (nasa.gov)
  • Yielding gold (Au) and aluminum (Al) byproducts, for instance, requires the use of a sulfur (S), astatine (At), and nitrogen (N) molecule of particular proportions to be revealed during public disclosure. (rfcafe.com)
  • nov., a new large alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacterium. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • A moderately psychrophilic, aerobic, hydrogen- and sulfur-oxidizing bacterium, designated strain MAS2 T , was isolated from a tank containing coastal seawater from Tokyo Bay and a block of beef tallow added as organic material. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Here we show that cable bacteria can be abundant in the sediments of intertidal bivalve reefs, where they strongly influence the pore water geochemistry, resulting in a potentially beneficial interaction between the sulfur oxidizing microbes and biodepositing fauna. (frontiersin.org)
  • This field study provides substantive evidence that cable bacteria exert a decisive control on the cycling of sulfur and carbonate minerals in cohesive coastal sediments, and identifies that the distribution and influence of cable bacteria covers a greater range of natural habitats than previously believed. (frontiersin.org)
  • 14 C is a common radioisotope of carbon and useful to trace the photosynthetic products as well as a low energy beta emitter. (springer.com)
  • Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are cheapest by mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DH2 ductless hoods use stackable carbon filters to remove certain gases, solvents or radioisotopes. (labconco.com)
  • The first radioisotope produced and shipped from a reactor - the Graphite Reactor - was carbon-14. (oakridger.com)
  • Growth occurred under aerobic chemolithoautotrophic conditions in the presence of molecular hydrogen, thiosulfate, tetrathionate, elemental sulfur or sulfide as the sole energy source and bicarbonate as a carbon source. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Rigaku's NEX XT is the next generation process gauge for high-level total sulfur measurement (0.02% to 6% S) of crude, bunker fuel, fuel oils, and other highly viscous hydrocarbons, including residuums. (rigaku.com)
  • X-ray Transmission (XRT) gauging has long been an accepted technique for the measurement of total sulfur (S) in heavy hydrocarbon process streams. (rigaku.com)
  • Dr Borsaru told the Industrial Radioisotopes and Radiation Measurement Applications conference in Bologna, Italy recently that the probe would optimise the management of waste rock. (innovations-report.com)
  • A practical procedure is described for the measurement of sulfur in all forms (SO 2 , SO 3 , S 2 O 3 , RSH, R 2 S, RSSR, etc.) by using an uncalibrated source of iron-55, a sample holder, a suitable absorption cell, and an appropriate detecting instrument. (astm.org)
  • It uses a single radioisotope x-ray source, ensuring that the measurement is unaffected by interference from background radiation. (highbeam.com)
  • A new real-time radioisotope imaging system (RRIS) to study the kinetics of nutrient uptake and transfer of photosynthetic products in a living plant was developed and evaluated through a test run. (springer.com)
  • Incorporation of radioisotopes to biologically active substances is introduced into body in order to observe the functioning of an organ functioning or a metabolic path way etc. (omicsonline.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Phosphorus Radioisotopes" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Probably the most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. (blogolize.com)
  • 1992). The use of radioisotopes is unique in that it provides a method for measuring biochemical processes in vivo, especially in cases in which the process is easily saturated, since radiation makes it possible to detect and localize quantities as small as only a few thousand radiolabeled molecules. (nap.edu)
  • These uses rely on the chemical and biological properties of the radioisotope itself, to localize it within the organism or biological system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radioactivity is generally used in life sciences for highly sensitive and direct measurements of biological phenomena, and for visualizing the location of biomolecules radiolabelled with a radioisotope . (wikipedia.org)
  • Radionuclides also termed as radioisotopes are elements that possess radioactivity. (omicsonline.org)
  • The method for analytical determination of sulfur in hydrocarbons is very fast compared to the standard lamp or bomb used in present ASTM methods. (astm.org)
  • Dye is radioisotope labelled albumin and patent blue dye. (mcqsurgery.com)
  • Recently, rhenium radioisotopes have been paid attention more. (parsisotope.com)
  • The biomedical research is directed to the development of new imaging and therapeutic agents based on complexes of technetium, rhenium and copper radioisotopes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SPECTRO Analytical Instruments introduced the 682T-HP fluorescence analyzer for online sulfur analysis. (highbeam.com)
  • Other reactor-produced radioisotopes continue to play a major role in research, and recent advances in many fields (such as molecular biology, including the Human Genome Project) could not have been accomplished without the use of 32 P. In addition, many of the isotopes useful for therapeutic applications, such as strontium-89 for the palliation of metastatic bone pain, are produced in reactors. (nap.edu)
  • In the first approach, gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization/mass spectrometry (GC-NCI/MS) of the thiohydantoin sample subsequent to the modified Edman degradation was performed using a thermodesorption/cold trap (TCT) injection technique (detection limit for in vitro exposure of human blood to sulfur mustard: 30 nM). (tudelft.nl)
  • This result opens the way for sensitive mass spectrometric detection of sulfur mustard exposure of skin by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of (derivatized) thiodiglycol. (tudelft.nl)
  • Applications for the NEX XT include bunker fuel blending to meet MARPOL Annex VI sulfur restrictions, interface detection of different grade fuels delivered via pipelines, refinery feedstock blending and monitoring, and the quality monitoring of crude at remote collection and storage facilities. (rigaku.com)
  • Because of the routine availability of radioisotopes of iodine with different nuclear decay properties, radioiodination is an attractive strategy because the same chemistry can be utilized for both radionuclide imaging and targeted radiotherapy. (springer.com)
  • This therapy makes use of radioisotopes that emits radiations upon their decay. (omicsonline.org)
  • Sulfur-35 Radionuclide Sodium sulfate in 1ml water Shipped ambient. (perkinelmer.com)
  • Filters used in the Paramount are sold separately and come in seven types Ammonia-Amine, Acid-Sulfur, Organic Vapor, Formaldehyde-Formalin, Radioisotope, Mixed Bed and HEPA. (labconco.com)
  • Australian coal is low in sulphur but some coal extracted from Europe and North America is not. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scientists expect that the portable borehole logging instrument, one of CSIRO s SIROLOG suite of products, will be used to measure sulphur in mine waste rock and in coal. (innovations-report.com)
  • The questions when it comes to coal and nuclear are: Which process's byproducts-CO 2 or radioisotopes-are the least frightening? (seedmagazine.com)
  • Radiolabeling is a technique used to track the passage of a molecule that incorporates a radioisotope through a reaction, metabolic pathway, cell, tissue, organism, or biological system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacing an atom with its own radioisotope is an intrinsic label that does not alter the structure of the molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • The radioisotope is usually part of a larger molecule that has a specific affinity for the tissue or organ of interest. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Dimethylsulfoxide is an antioxidant sulphur compound. (wordpress.com)
  • The routine application of metabolite quantification in drug discovery and early development is hindered by the absence of reference standards and/or radioisotope labeled compound, both of which are typically available much later in the development lifecycle. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the early 1940s, phosphorus-32 and then sulfur-35 and iodine-131, were used to label antigens and antibodies. (nap.edu)
  • Examples of permanently implantable sources include iodine-125 or palladium-103 as the radioisotope. (google.co.uk)
  • Experiments were carried out to develop a standard operating procedure for analysis of sulfur mustard adducts to the N-terminal valine in haemoglobin and to explore adduct formation with albumin and keratin. (tudelft.nl)
  • High-grade transvaal chalcopyrite was neutron-irradiated to produce radioisotopes copper- 64, iron-59, and sulfur-35. (cdc.gov)
  • Nuclear plants produce radioisotopes with half-lives ranging from a few days to a few million years. (seedmagazine.com)
  • Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) played a pioneering role in the development of the first full-scale operating reactor prototype and the initial production of radioisotopes for applications in medical and biological research (Mirzadeh et al. (nap.edu)
  • If at some time a heavenly angel should ask what the Laboratory in the hills of East Tennessee did to enlarge man's life and make it better, I daresay the production of radioisotopes for scientific research and medical treatment will surely rate as a candidate for first place. (oakridger.com)
  • This versatile, compact and robust X-ray Transmission / Absorption (XRT / XRA) process gauge is specifically optimized for the total sulfur analysis needs of refineries, pipelines, blending operations, bunkering terminals and other storage facilities. (rigaku.com)
  • The use of radioisotopes as a basis for radiophysical instrumental methods of analysis can be exemplified by the following: Iron-55 emits a K-capture electron from the nucleus whose radiation can be absorbed by a sulfur atom regardless of its chemical combination. (astm.org)
  • For many kinds of research, the utility of radioisotopes stems from their chemical identity with their nonradioactive counterparts. (nationaldiagnostics.com)
  • We employ the conventional technology of isotopic measurements to examine sulfur and lead in geochemical and archeological samples. (riken.jp)
  • SPECTRO Atlas makes use of a single radioisotope x-ray source, allowing measurements to remain unaffected by background radiation interference. (highbeam.com)
  • Diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging involves dosing the patient with a very small amount of a gamma ray-emitting radioisotope. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Acid rain is caused when high sulphur fossil fuels are burnt," says Dr Mihai Borsaru, a nuclear physicist at CSIRO Exploration and Mining. (innovations-report.com)
  • Under Eisenhower's educational "Atoms for Peace" programme, a schoolchild in the 1950s could order small quantities of radio isotopes to their home, so Hull wrote to the US nuclear facilities for free samples of caesium-137, sulphur-42 and cobalt-60. (newstatesman.com)
  • The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has published specific policies and procedures applicable to all aspects of radioisotope usage in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR Parts 0 to 199. (vims.edu)
  • The Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) Program is a technology development effort, managed by NASA, that is strategically investing in nuclear power technologies that would maintain NASA's current space science capabilities and could enable future space exploration missions. (nasa.gov)
  • DOE owns and produces the nuclear fuel and the nuclear power systems, and directly manages the design and development of all radioisotope power systems used by NASA. (nasa.gov)
  • ORNL's High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and associated nuclear facilities for post-irradiation testing of materials and processing of radioisotopes provide unique capabilities only available through DOE. (energy.gov)
  • Fluorometric deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization in microdilution wells as an alternative to membrane filter hybridization in which radioisotopes are used to determine genetic relatedness among bacterial strains. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In order to comply with the policies and procedures contained therein, as applicable to VIMS/SMS, this Radiation Safety Plan has been established for all personnel, students, or visitors using radioisotopes on the VIMS/SMS campus or aboard VIMS/SMS research vessels. (vims.edu)
  • The radioisotopes of gold and silver possess half-lives of approximately 1.6 x 10^10 seconds (500 years), so their application in industrial products with expected service lives of less than twenty-five years (cell phones, computers, toys, non-collectible jewelry) could potentially supplant the supply of ground-mined gold being used in today's processes. (rfcafe.com)
  • Permanent implants for prostate treatment comprise radioisotopes with relatively short half lives and lower energies relative to temporary sources. (google.co.uk)
  • Alternatively, an element which can be substituted for another in the system may be used: for example, sulfur isotopes can be used in place of oxygen. (nationaldiagnostics.com)