Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
'Sulfur-containing amino acids' are a category of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, that include methionine and cysteine, which contain sulfur atoms as part of their side chains, playing crucial roles in protein structure, enzyme function, and antioxidant defense.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of URANIUM. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and atomic weight 98.91. All technetium isotopes are radioactive. Technetium 99m (m=metastable) which is the decay product of Molybdenum 99, has a half-life of about 6 hours and is used diagnostically as a radioactive imaging agent. Technetium 99 which is a decay product of technetium 99m, has a half-life of 210,000 years.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, liver, and spleen.
Unstable isotopes of mercury that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Hg atoms with atomic weights 185-195, 197, 203, 205, and 206 are radioactive mercury isotopes.
Stable cesium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cesium, but differ in atomic weight. Cs-133 is a naturally occurring isotope.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Unstable isotopes of cerium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ce atoms with atomic weights 132-135, 137, 139, and 141-148 are radioactive cerium isotopes.
Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.
Hafnium. A metal element of atomic number 72 and atomic weight 178.49, symbol Hf. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of lead that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Pb atoms with atomic weights 194-203, 205, and 209-214 are radioactive lead isotopes.
Any diagnostic evaluation using radioactive (unstable) isotopes. This diagnosis includes many nuclear medicine procedures as well as radioimmunoassay tests.
Stable zinc atoms that have the same atomic number as the element zinc, but differ in atomic weight. Zn-66-68, and 70 are stable zinc isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.
Astatine. A radioactive halogen with the atomic symbol At, atomic number 85, and atomic weight 210. Its isotopes range in mass number from 200 to 219 and all have an extremely short half-life. Astatine may be of use in the treatment of hyperthyroidism.
Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).
Lutetium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Lu, atomic number 71, and atomic weight 175.
Rhenium. A metal, atomic number 75, atomic weight 186.2, symbol Re. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Samarium. An element of the rare earth family of metals. It has the atomic symbol Sm, atomic number 62, and atomic weight 150.36. The oxide is used in the control rods of some nuclear reactors.
Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Unstable isotopes of bromine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Br atoms with atomic weights 74-78, 80, and 82-90 are radioactive bromine isotopes.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.
Leakage and accumulation of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID in the subdural space which may be associated with an infectious process; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; INTRACRANIAL HYPOTENSION; and other conditions.
Stable calcium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element calcium, but differ in atomic weight. Ca-42-44, 46, and 48 are stable calcium isotopes.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Tungsten. A metallic element with the atomic symbol W, atomic number 74, and atomic weight 183.85. It is used in many manufacturing applications, including increasing the hardness, toughness, and tensile strength of steel; manufacture of filaments for incandescent light bulbs; and in contact points for automotive and electrical apparatus.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Unstable isotopes of selenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Se atoms with atomic weights 70-73, 75, 79, 81, and 83-85 are radioactive selenium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of ruthenium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ru atoms with atomic weights 93-95, 97, 103, and 105-108 are radioactive ruthenium isotopes.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
Techniques used to determine the age of materials, based on the content and half-lives of the RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES they contain.
Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
A class of organic compounds containing a ring structure made up of more than one kind of atom, usually carbon plus another atom. The ring structure can be aromatic or nonaromatic.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
A type of high-energy radiotherapy using a beam of gamma-radiation produced by a radioisotope source encapsulated within a teletherapy unit.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
An iron chelating agent with properties like EDETIC ACID. DTPA has also been used as a chelator for other metals, such as plutonium.
Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Compounds that contain the triphenylmethane aniline structure found in rosaniline. Many of them have a characteristic magenta color and are used as COLORING AGENTS.
A specialty field of radiology concerned with diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative use of radioactive compounds in a pharmaceutical form.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A technetium imaging agent used in renal scintigraphy, computed tomography, lung ventilation imaging, gastrointestinal scintigraphy, and many other procedures which employ radionuclide imaging agents.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
Tritium is an isotope of hydrogen (specifically, hydrogen-3) that contains one proton and two neutrons in its nucleus, making it radioactive with a half-life of about 12.3 years, and is used in various applications including nuclear research, illumination, and dating techniques due to its low energy beta decay.
The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
A form species of spore-producing CYANOBACTERIA, in the family Nostocaceae, order Nostocales. It is an important source of fixed NITROGEN in nutrient-depleted soils. When wet, it appears as a jelly-like mass.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Measurement of radioactivity in the entire human body.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An iodine-containing compound used in pyelography as a radiopaque medium. If labeled with radioiodine, it can be used for studies of renal function.
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A class of compounds of the type R-M, where a C atom is joined directly to any other element except H, C, N, O, F, Cl, Br, I, or At. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
A diagnostic procedure used to determine whether LYMPHATIC METASTASIS has occurred. The sentinel lymph node is the first lymph node to receive drainage from a neoplasm.
A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used primarily in skeletal scintigraphy. Because of its absorption by a variety of tumors, it is useful for the detection of neoplasms.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Bi, atomic number 83 and atomic weight 208.98.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
Stable phosphorus atoms that have the same atomic number as the element phosphorus, but differ in atomic weight. P-31 is a stable phosphorus isotope.
A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.
A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
Unstable isotopes of iridium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ir atoms with atomic weights 182-190, 192, and 194-198 are radioactive iridium isotopes.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
A potent, long-acting synthetic SOMATOSTATIN octapeptide analog that inhibits secretion of GROWTH HORMONE and is used to treat hormone-secreting tumors; DIABETES MELLITUS; HYPOTENSION, ORTHOSTATIC; HYPERINSULINISM; hypergastrinemia; and small bowel fistula.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Cell surface proteins that bind somatostatin and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Somatostatin is a hypothalamic hormone, a pancreatic hormone, and a central and peripheral neurotransmitter. Activated somatostatin receptors on pituitary cells inhibit the release of growth hormone; those on endocrine and gastrointestinal cells regulate the absorption and utilization of nutrients; and those on neurons mediate somatostatin's role as a neurotransmitter.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/1461)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Sulphation and secretion of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin MUC2 in ulcerative colitis. (2/1461)

BACKGROUND: Decreased synthesis of the predominant secretory human colonic mucin (MUC2) occurs during active ulcerative colitis. AIMS: To study possible alterations in mucin sulphation and mucin secretion, which could be the cause of decreased mucosal protection in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic biopsy specimens from patients with active ulcerative colitis, ulcerative colitis in remission, and controls were metabolically labelled with [35S]-amino acids or [35S]-sulphate, chase incubated and analysed by SDS-PAGE, followed by quantitation of mature [35S]-labelled MUC2. For quantitation of total MUC2, which includes non-radiolabelled and radiolabelled MUC2, dot blotting was performed, using a MUC2 monoclonal antibody. RESULTS: Between patient groups, no significant differences were found in [35S]-sulphate content of secreted MUC2 or in the secreted percentage of either [35S]-amino acid labelled MUC2 or total MUC2. During active ulcerative colitis, secretion of [35S]-sulphate labelled MUC2 was significantly increased twofold, whereas [35S]-sulphate incorporation into MUC2 was significantly reduced to half. CONCLUSIONS: During active ulcerative colitis, less MUC2 is secreted, because MUC2 synthesis is decreased while the secreted percentage of MUC2 is unaltered. Furthermore, sulphate content of secreted MUC2 is unaltered by a specific compensatory mechanism, because sulphated MUC2 is preferentially secreted while sulphate incorporation into MUC2 is reduced.  (+info)

Insulin and TSH promote growth in size of PC Cl3 rat thyroid cells, possibly via a pathway different from DNA synthesis: comparison with FRTL-5 cells. (3/1461)

In the rat thyroid cell lines PC Cl3, FRTL- 5 and WRT, proliferation is mainly regulated by insulin or IGF, and TSH. However, the mechanism regulating cell mass doubling prior to division is still unknown. Our laboratory has shown that in dog thyroid cells insulin promotes growth in size while TSH in the presence of insulin triggers DNA replication. In the absence of insulin, TSH has no effect on cell growth. In this report we investigated insulin action on both cell mass and DNA synthesis and its modulation by TSH and insulin in PC Cl3 and FRTL-5 cells. In PC Cl3 cells, insulin activated not only DNA synthesis but also protein synthesis and accumulation. Although TSH potentiated the stimulation of DNA synthesis induced by insulin, enhancement of protein synthesis by both agents was additive. All TSH effects were reproduced by forskolin. Similar effects were also obtained in FRTL-5 cells. This suggests that insulin and TSH, via cAMP, modulate both growth in size and DNA replication in these cell lines. Lovastatin, which blocks 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, decreased the induction of DNA synthesis, but not of protein synthesis induced by insulin or TSH in PC Cl3 cells. In FRTL-5 cells, lovastatin reduced protein and DNA synthesis stimulated by insulin but not TSH-induced protein synthesis. Taking these data together, we propose that insulin and/or TSH both modulate cell mass doubling and DNA synthesis in these cell lines, presumably via different pathways, and that there are at least two pathways which regulate growth in size in FRTL-5 thyroid cells: one triggered by insulin, which is lovastatin sensitive, and the other activated by TSH, which is not sensitive to lovastatin.  (+info)

G protein activation by human dopamine D3 receptors in high-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells: A guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)- triphosphate binding and antibody study. (4/1461)

Despite extensive study, the G protein coupling of dopamine D3 receptors is poorly understood. In this study, we used guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)-triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding to investigate the activation of G proteins coupled to human (h) D3 receptors stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Although the receptor expression level was high (15 pmol/mg), dopamine only stimulated G protein activation by 1.6-fold. This was despite the presence of marked receptor reserve for dopamine, as revealed by Furchgott analysis after irreversible hD3 receptor inactivation with the alkylating agent, EEDQ (N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline). Thus, half-maximal stimulation of [35S]-GTPgammaS binding required only 11.8% receptor occupation of hD3 sites. In contrast, although the hD2(short) receptor expression level in another CHO cell line was 11-fold lower, stimulation by dopamine was higher (2.5-fold). G protein activation was increased at hD3 and, less potently, at hD2 receptors by the preferential D3 agonists, PD 128,907 [(+)-(4aR,10bR)-3,4,4a, 10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H- [1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1, 4-oxazin-9-ol] and (+)-7-OH-DPAT (7-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin). Furthermore, the selective D3 antagonists, S 14297 ((+)-[7-(N, N-dipropylamino)-5,6,7, 8-tetrahydro-naphtho(2,3b)dihydro-2,3-furane]) and GR 218,231 (2(R, S)-(dipropylamino)-6-(4-methoxyphenylsulfonylmethyl)-1,2,3,4- tetrahydronaphtalene), blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding more potently at hD3 than at hD2 sites. Antibodies against Galphai/alphao reduced dopamine-induced G protein activation at both CHO-hD3 and -hD2 membranes, whereas GalphaS antibodies had no effect at either site. In contrast, incubation with anti-Galphaq/alpha11 antibodies, which did not affect dopamine-induced G protein activation at hD2 receptors, attenuated hD3-induced G protein activation. These data suggest that hD3 receptors may couple to Galphaq/alpha11 and would be consistent with the observation that pertussis toxin pretreatment, which inactivates only Gi/o proteins, only submaximally (80%) blocked dopamine-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding in CHO-hD3 cells. Taken together, the present data indicate that 1) hD3 receptors functionally couple to G protein activation in CHO cells, 2) hD3 receptors activate G proteins less effectively than hD2 receptors, and 3) hD3 receptors may couple to different G protein subtypes than hD2 receptors, including nonpertussis sensitive Gq/11 proteins.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (5/1461)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Effects of gamma-tocotrienol on ApoB synthesis, degradation, and secretion in HepG2 cells. (6/1461)

gamma-Tocotrienol (gamma-T3), a naturally occurring analog of tocopherol (vitamin E), has been shown to have a hypocholesterolemic effect in animals and humans. Unlike tocopherol, it has also been shown to reduce plasma apoB levels in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The aim of this study was to define the mechanism of action of gamma-T3 on hepatic modulation of apoB production using cultured HepG2 cells as the model system. HepG2 cells preincubated with gamma-T3 were initially shown to inhibit the rate of incorporation of [14C]acetate into cholesterol in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, with a maximum 86+/-3% inhibition at 50 micromol/L observed within 6 hours. gamma-T3, on the other hand, had no significant effect on the uptake of [14C]glycerol into pools of cellular triacylglycerol and phospholipid relative to untreated control. The rate of apoB synthesis and secretion was then studied by an [35S]methionine pulse-labeling experiment and quantified by immunoprecipitating apoB on chasing up to 3 hours. An average reduction of 24+/-3% in labeled apoB in the media was apparent with gamma-T3 despite a 60+/-2% increase in apoB synthesis. Fractionation of secreted apoB revealed a relatively denser lipoprotein particle, suggesting a less stable particle. Using a digitonin-permeabilized HepG2 cell system, the effects of gamma-T3 on apoB translocation and degradation in the endoplasmic reticulum were further investigated. The generation of a specific N-terminal 70-kDa proteolytic fragment proved to be a sensitive measure of the rate of apoB translocation and degradation. The abundance of this fragment increased significantly in gamma-T3-treated cells relative to untreated control cells (50+/-21%) after 2 hours of chase. In addition, the presence of gamma-T3 resulted in an average decrease of 64+/-8% in intact apoB. Taken together, the data suggest that gamma-T3 stimulates apoB degradation possibly as the result of decreased apoB translocation into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen. It is speculated that the lack of cholesterol availability reduces the number of secreted apoB-containing lipoprotein particles by limiting translocation of apoB into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen.  (+info)

Absence of G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice. (7/1461)

1. The ability of mu-opioid receptor agonists to activate G-proteins in the spinal cord of mu-opioid receptor knockout mice was examined by monitoring the binding to membranes of the non-hydrolyzable analogue of GTP, guanosine-5'-O-(3-[35S]thio)triphosphate ([35S]GTPgammaS). 2. In the receptor binding study, Scatchard analysis of [3H][D-Ala2,NHPhe4,Gly-ol]enkephalin ([3H]DAMGO; mu-opioid receptor ligand) binding revealed that the heterozygous mu-knockout mice displayed approximately 40% reduction in the number of mu-receptors as compared to the wild-type mice. The homozygous mu-knockout mice showed no detectable mu-binding sites. 3. The newly isolated mu-opioid peptides endomorphin-1 and -2, the synthetic selective mu-opioid receptor agonist DAMGO and the prototype of mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine each produced concentration-dependent increases in [35S]GTPgammaS binding in wild-type mice. This stimulation was reduced by 55-70% of the wild-type level in heterozygous, and virtually eliminated in homozygous knockout mice. 4. No differences in the [35S]GTPgammaS binding stimulated by specific delta1- ([D-Pen2,5]enkephalin), delta2-([D-Ala2]deltorphin II) or kappa1-(U50,488H) opioid receptor agonists were noted in mice of any of the three genotypes. 5. The data clearly indicate that mu-opioid receptor gene products play a key role in G-protein activation by endomorphins, DAMGO and morphine in the mouse spinal cord. They support the idea that mu-opioid receptor densities could be rate-limiting steps in the G-protein activation by mu-opioid receptor agonists in the spinal cord. These thus indicate a limited physiological mu-receptor reserve. Furthermore, little change in delta1-, delta2- or kappa1-opioid receptor-G-protein complex appears to accompany mu-opioid receptor gene deletions in this region.  (+info)

Effects of azole antifungal drugs on the transition from yeast cells to hyphae in susceptible and resistant isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. (8/1461)

Oral infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans are some of the most frequent and earliest opportunistic infections in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. The widespread use of azole antifungal drugs has led to the development of drug resistance, creating a major problem in the treatment of yeast infections in AIDS patients and other immunocompromised individuals. Several molecular mechanisms that contribute to drug resistance have been identified. In C. albicans, the ability to morphologically switch from yeast cells (blastospores) to filamentous forms (hyphae) is an important virulence factor which contributes to the dissemination of Candida in host tissues and which promotes infection and invasion. A positive correlation between the level of antifungal drug resistance and the ability to form hyphae in the presence of azole drugs has been identified. Under hypha-inducing conditions in the presence of an azole drug, resistant clinical isolates form hyphae, while susceptible yeast isolates do not. This correlation is observed in a random sample from a population of susceptible and resistant isolates and is independent of the mechanisms of resistance. 35S-methionine incorporation suggests that growth inhibition is not sufficient to explain the inhibition of hyphal formation, but it may contribute to this inhibition.  (+info)

Sulfur radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element sulfur that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as in the detection and treatment of certain cancers. Common sulfur radioisotopes used in medicine include sulfur-35 and sulfur-32. Sulfur-35 is used in research and diagnostic applications, while sulfur-32 is used in brachytherapy, a type of internal radiation therapy. It's important to note that handling and usage of radioisotopes should be done by trained professionals due to the potential radiation hazards they pose.

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Zinc radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element zinc that undergo radioactive decay, emitting radiation in the process. These isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the stable isotope of zinc (zinc-64), which contributes to their instability and tendency to decay.

Examples of zinc radioisotopes include zinc-65, zinc-70, and zinc-72. These isotopes are often used in medical research and diagnostic procedures due to their ability to emit gamma rays or positrons, which can be detected using specialized equipment.

Zinc radioisotopes may be used as tracers to study the metabolism and distribution of zinc in the body, or as therapeutic agents to deliver targeted radiation therapy to cancer cells. However, it is important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries potential risks, including exposure to ionizing radiation and the potential for damage to healthy tissues.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Strontium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is found in nature and has several isotopes, some of which are stable and some of which are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of strontium, also known as strontium radionuclides, decay and emit radiation in the form of beta particles.

Strontium-89 (^89Sr) and strontium-90 (^90Sr) are two common radioisotopes of strontium that are used in medical applications. Strontium-89 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 50.5 days, which makes it useful for the treatment of bone pain associated with metastatic cancer. When administered, strontium-89 is taken up by bones and irradiates the bone tissue, reducing pain and improving quality of life in some patients.

Strontium-90, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of 28.8 years and emits more powerful beta particles than strontium-89. It is used as a component in radioactive waste and in some nuclear weapons, but it is not used in medical applications due to its long half-life and high radiation dose.

It's important to note that exposure to strontium radioisotopes can be harmful to human health, especially if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, handling and disposal of strontium radioisotopes require special precautions and regulations.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Sulfur isotopes are different forms of the chemical element sulfur, each with a distinct number of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common sulfur isotopes are sulfur-32 (with 16 neutrons) and sulfur-34 (with 18 neutrons). These isotopes have similar chemical properties but different atomic masses, which can be used to trace the movement and cycling of sulfur through various environmental processes, such as volcanic emissions, bacterial metabolism, and fossil fuel combustion. The relative abundances of sulfur isotopes can also provide information about the origins and history of sulfur-containing minerals and compounds.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Sulfur-containing amino acids are a type of amino acid that contain sulfur atoms in their side chains. There are three sulfur-containing amino acids that are considered essential for human health: methionine, cysteine, and homocysteine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and plays important roles in various biological processes, including methylation reactions, protein synthesis, and detoxification.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body under normal conditions but may become essential during periods of growth or illness. It contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH) in its side chain, which allows it to form disulfide bonds with other cysteine residues and contribute to the stability and structure of proteins.

Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is derived from methionine metabolism. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and has been linked to various health problems, including cardiovascular disease, when present at elevated levels in the blood.

Other sulfur-containing amino acids include taurine, which is not incorporated into proteins but plays important roles in bile acid conjugation, antioxidant defense, and neuromodulation, and cystathionine, which is an intermediate in methionine metabolism.

Krypton is a noble gas with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It exists in various radioisotopes, which are unstable isotopes of krypton that undergo radioactive decay. A few examples include:

1. Krypton-81: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 2.1 x 10^5 years and decays via electron capture to rubidium-81. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
2. Krypton-83: With a half-life of approximately 85.7 days, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to bromine-83. It can be used in medical imaging for lung ventilation studies.
3. Krypton-85: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 10.7 years and decays via beta decay to rubidium-85. It is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission and can be found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
4. Krypton-87: With a half-life of approximately 76.3 minutes, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to rubidium-87. It is not found naturally on Earth but can be produced artificially.

It's important to note that while krypton radioisotopes have medical applications, they are also associated with potential health risks due to their radioactivity. Proper handling and safety precautions must be taken when working with these substances.

Indium radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive indium atoms, which are unstable and emit radiation as they decay. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Its radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and therapy due to their unique properties.

For instance, one commonly used indium radioisotope is Indium-111 (^111In), which has a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. It emits gamma rays, making it useful for diagnostic imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In clinical applications, indium-111 is often attached to specific molecules or antibodies that target particular cells or tissues in the body, allowing medical professionals to monitor biological processes and identify diseases like cancer.

Another example is Indium-113m (^113mIn), which has a half-life of about 99 minutes. It emits low-energy gamma rays and is used as a source for in vivo counting, typically in the form of indium chloride (InCl3) solution. This radioisotope can be used to measure blood flow, ventilation, and other physiological parameters.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Sodium radioisotopes are unstable forms of sodium, an element naturally occurring in the human body, that emit radiation as they decay over time. These isotopes can be used for medical purposes such as imaging and treatment of various diseases. Commonly used sodium radioisotopes include Sodium-22 (^22Na) and Sodium-24 (^24Na).

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine should be under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper handling or exposure can pose health risks.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Barium radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element barium, which are used in medical imaging procedures to help diagnose various conditions. The radioisotopes emit gamma rays that can be detected by external devices, allowing doctors to visualize the inside of the body. Barium sulfate is often used as a contrast agent in X-rays and CT scans, but when combined with a radioisotope such as barium-133, barium-198, or barium-207, it can provide more detailed images of specific organs or systems.

For example, barium sulfate mixed with barium-133 may be used in a lung scan to help diagnose pulmonary embolism or other respiratory conditions. Barium-207 is sometimes used in bone scans to detect fractures, tumors, or infections.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries some risks, including exposure to radiation and potential allergic reactions to the barium compound. However, these risks are generally considered low compared to the benefits of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Tin radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element tin that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators and can be used in a variety of medical applications, such as:

1. Medical Imaging: Tin-117m, for example, is used as a radiopharmaceutical in medical imaging studies to help diagnose various conditions, including bone disorders and liver diseases.
2. Radiation Therapy: Tin-125 can be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, through brachytherapy - a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source directly into or near the tumor.
3. Radioisotope Production: Tin-106 is used as a parent isotope in the production of other medical radioisotopes, such as iodine-125 and gallium-67.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

Mustard gas, also known as sulfur mustard or HS, is a chemical warfare agent that has been used in military conflicts. It is a viscous, oily liquid at room temperature with a garlic-like odor. Its chemical formula is (ClCH2CH2)2S.

Mustard gas can cause severe burns and blistering of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract upon contact or inhalation. It can also damage the immune system and lead to serious, potentially fatal, systemic effects. The onset of symptoms may be delayed for several hours after exposure, making it difficult to recognize and treat the injury promptly.

Mustard gas is classified as a vesicant, which means it causes blistering or tissue damage upon contact with the skin or mucous membranes. It can also have long-term effects, including an increased risk of cancer and other health problems. The use of mustard gas in warfare is banned by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

"Iron radioisotopes" refer to specific forms of the element iron that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures due to their ability to be detected by specialized equipment. Common iron radioisotopes include Iron-52, Iron-55, Iron-59, and Iron-60. They can be used as tracers to study the distribution, metabolism, or excretion of iron in the body, or for targeted radiation therapy in conditions such as cancer.

Technetium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. However, in the field of nuclear medicine, which is a branch of medicine that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose or treat diseases, Technetium-99m (a radioisotope of technetium) is commonly used for various diagnostic procedures.

Technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, and it emits gamma rays that can be detected outside the body to create images of internal organs or tissues. It has a short half-life of about 6 hours, which makes it ideal for diagnostic imaging since it decays quickly and reduces the patient's exposure to radiation.

Technetium-99m is used in a variety of medical procedures, such as bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, liver-spleen scans, brain scans, and kidney scans, among others. It can be attached to different pharmaceuticals or molecules that target specific organs or tissues, allowing healthcare professionals to assess their function or identify any abnormalities.

Copper radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element copper. These isotopes have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation as they decay over time. Copper has several radioisotopes, including copper-64, copper-67, and copper-60, among others. These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as diagnostic imaging, therapy, and research. For example, copper-64 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help diagnose diseases like cancer, while copper-67 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment. The use of radioisotopes in medicine requires careful handling and regulation due to their radiation hazards.

Phosphorus radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element phosphorus that emit radiation. Phosphorus has several radioisotopes, with the most common ones being phosphorus-32 (^32P) and phosphorus-33 (^33P). These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of approximately 14.3 days and emits beta particles, making it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. It can also be used in brachytherapy, a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source close to the tumor.

Phosphorus-33 has a shorter half-life of approximately 25.4 days and emits both beta particles and gamma rays. This makes it useful for diagnostic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where the gamma rays can be detected and used to create images of the body's internal structures.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Beta particles, also known as beta rays, are a type of ionizing radiation that consist of high-energy electrons or positrons emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes during their decay process. When a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton, it results in an excess energy state and one electron is ejected from the atom at high speed. This ejected electron is referred to as a beta particle.

Beta particles can have both positive and negative charges, depending on the type of decay process. Negative beta particles (β−) are equivalent to electrons, while positive beta particles (β+) are equivalent to positrons. They possess kinetic energy that varies in range, with higher energies associated with greater penetrating power.

Beta particles can cause ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules they encounter, leading to chemical reactions and potential damage to living tissues. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling materials that emit beta radiation.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

Thiosulfates are salts or esters of thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). In medicine, sodium thiosulfate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and as a topical treatment for wounds, skin irritations, and certain types of burns. It works by converting toxic substances into less harmful forms that can be eliminated from the body. Sodium thiosulfate is also used in some solutions for irrigation of the bladder or kidneys to help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

Mercury radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element mercury that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators for various medical, industrial, and research applications. In the medical field, mercury-203 (^203Hg) and mercury-207 (^207Hg) are used as gamma emitters in diagnostic procedures and therapeutic treatments. However, due to environmental and health concerns associated with mercury, its use in medical applications has significantly decreased over time.

Cesium is a chemical element with the atomic number 55 and the symbol Cs. There are several isotopes of cesium, which are variants of the element that have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei. The most stable and naturally occurring cesium isotope is cesium-133, which has 78 neutrons and a half-life of more than 3 x 10^20 years (effectively stable).

However, there are also radioactive isotopes of cesium, including cesium-134 and cesium-137. Cesium-134 has a half-life of about 2 years, while cesium-137 has a half-life of about 30 years. These isotopes are produced naturally in trace amounts by the decay of uranium and thorium in the Earth's crust, but they can also be produced artificially in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons tests.

Cesium isotopes are commonly used in medical research and industrial applications. For example, cesium-137 is used as a radiation source in cancer therapy and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radioactive cesium can be harmful to human health, causing symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and potentially more serious effects such as damage to the central nervous system and an increased risk of cancer.

Sulfur oxides (SOx) are chemical compounds that contain sulfur and oxygen in various oxidation states. The term "sulfur oxides" is often used to refer specifically to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), which are the most common and widely studied SOx compounds.

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic eruptions and is also released into the air when fossil fuels such as coal and oil are burned for electricity generation, industrial processes, and transportation. Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Sulfur trioxide is a colorless liquid or solid with a pungent, choking odor. It is produced industrially for the manufacture of sulfuric acid and other chemicals. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage upon contact.

Both sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide contribute to air pollution and have been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, including respiratory problems, acid rain, and damage to crops and forests. As a result, there are regulations in place to limit emissions of these pollutants into the air.

Cerium is a naturally occurring element found in the Earth's crust, and it has several radioisotopes, which are radioactive isotopes or forms of cerium. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. Here are some examples of cerium radioisotopes:

* Cerium-134: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 3.12 days, which means that half of its atoms will decay into other elements in this time period. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays.
* Cerium-137: This is a long-lived radioisotope with a half-life of about 2.5 years. It decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays, and it can be used in medical imaging and cancer treatment. However, if released into the environment, it can pose a radiation hazard to humans and other organisms.
* Cerium-141: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 32.5 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.
* Cerium-144: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 284 days, and it decays by emitting beta particles and gamma rays. It is produced in nuclear reactors and can be used for research purposes.

It's important to note that handling and working with radioisotopes requires proper training and protective measures to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Cobalt isotopes are variants of the chemical element Cobalt (Co) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. This results in the different isotopes having slightly different masses and varying levels of stability.

The most naturally occurring stable cobalt isotope is Co-59, which contains 27 neutrons in its nucleus. However, there are also several radioactive isotopes of cobalt, including Co-60, which is a commonly used medical and industrial radioisotope.

Co-60 has 30 neutrons in its nucleus and undergoes beta decay, emitting gamma rays and becoming Nickel-60. It has a half-life of approximately 5.27 years, making it useful for a variety of applications, including cancer treatment, industrial radiography, and sterilization of medical equipment.

Other radioactive isotopes of cobalt include Co-57, which has a half-life of 271.8 days and is used in medical imaging, and Co-56, which has a half-life of just 77.2 seconds and is used in research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Hafnium is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol Hf and atomic number 72. Hafnium is a lustrous, silvery, tetravalent transition metal that chemically resembles zirconium and is found in zirconium minerals.

It has no relevance to medical terminology or healthcare. If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help with those instead!

Isotope labeling is a scientific technique used in the field of medicine, particularly in molecular biology, chemistry, and pharmacology. It involves replacing one or more atoms in a molecule with a radioactive or stable isotope of the same element. This modified molecule can then be traced and analyzed to study its structure, function, metabolism, or interaction with other molecules within biological systems.

Radioisotope labeling uses unstable radioactive isotopes that emit radiation, allowing for detection and quantification of the labeled molecule using various imaging techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This approach is particularly useful in tracking the distribution and metabolism of drugs, hormones, or other biomolecules in living organisms.

Stable isotope labeling, on the other hand, employs non-radioactive isotopes that do not emit radiation. These isotopes have different atomic masses compared to their natural counterparts and can be detected using mass spectrometry. Stable isotope labeling is often used in metabolic studies, protein turnover analysis, or for identifying the origin of specific molecules within complex biological samples.

In summary, isotope labeling is a versatile tool in medical research that enables researchers to investigate various aspects of molecular behavior and interactions within biological systems.

Gold radioisotopes are unstable forms of gold that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. They are not typically used for medical purposes, but there have been some experimental uses in the treatment of cancer. For example, Gold-198 is a radioisotope that has been used in the brachytherapy (internal radiation therapy) of certain types of tumors. It releases high-energy gamma rays and is often used as a sealed source for the treatment of cancer.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine, including gold radioisotopes, should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals and radiation safety experts due to the potential risks associated with radiation exposure.

Lead radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive isotopes (or radionuclides) of the element lead. These isotopes have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay over time, changing into different elements in the process. Examples of lead radioisotopes include lead-210, lead-212, and lead-214. These isotopes are often found in the decay chains of heavier radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, and they have various applications in fields like nuclear medicine, research, and industrial radiography. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from lead radioisotopes can pose significant health risks, including damage to DNA and increased risk of cancer.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes, also known as nuclear medicine, are medical diagnostic procedures that use small amounts of radioactive material, called radioisotopes or radionuclides, to diagnose and monitor various diseases and conditions. The radioisotopes are introduced into the body through different routes (such as injection, inhalation, or ingestion) and accumulate in specific organs or tissues.

The gamma rays or photons emitted by these radioisotopes are then detected by specialized imaging devices, such as gamma cameras or PET scanners, which generate images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being examined. This information helps healthcare professionals to make accurate diagnoses, monitor disease progression, assess treatment response, and plan appropriate therapies.

Common diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes include:

1. Radionuclide imaging (also known as scintigraphy): A gamma camera is used to produce images of specific organs or tissues after the administration of a radioisotope. Examples include bone scans, lung scans, heart scans, and brain scans.
2. Positron emission tomography (PET) scans: A PET scanner detects pairs of gamma rays emitted indirectly by a positron-emitting radionuclide, such as fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is often used in oncology to assess metabolic activity and identify cancerous lesions.
3. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT): A specialized gamma camera rotates around the patient, acquiring multiple images from different angles that are then reconstructed into a 3D image, providing detailed information about organ function and structure.

Diagnostic techniques using radioisotopes offer several advantages, including high sensitivity, non-invasiveness, and the ability to assess both anatomical and functional aspects of organs and tissues. However, they also involve exposure to ionizing radiation, so their use should be balanced against potential risks and benefits, and alternative diagnostic methods should be considered when appropriate.

Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc, each with a different number of neutrons in their atomic nucleus. Zinc has five stable isotopes: zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70. These isotopes have naturally occurring abundances that vary, with zinc-64 being the most abundant at approximately 48.6%.

Additionally, there are also several radioactive isotopes of zinc, including zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72, among others. These isotopes have unstable nuclei that decay over time, emitting radiation in the process. They are not found naturally on Earth and must be produced artificially through nuclear reactions.

Medical Definition: Zinc isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element zinc with different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nucleus, including stable isotopes such as zinc-64, zinc-66, zinc-67, zinc-68, and zinc-70, and radioactive isotopes such as zinc-65, zinc-71, and zinc-72.

Cadmium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the heavy metal cadmium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable elements. These isotopes can be created through various nuclear reactions, such as bombarding a cadmium atom with a high-energy particle. Some common cadmium radioisotopes include cadmium-109, cadmium-113, and cadmium-115.

These radioisotopes have a wide range of applications in medicine, particularly in diagnostic imaging and radiation therapy. For example, cadmium-109 is used as a gamma ray source for medical imaging, while cadmium-115 has been studied as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

However, exposure to cadmium radioisotopes can also be hazardous to human health, as they can cause damage to tissues and organs through ionizing radiation. Therefore, handling and disposal of these materials must be done with care and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Astatine is a naturally occurring, radioactive, semi-metallic chemical element with the symbol At and atomic number 85. It is the rarest naturally occurring element in the Earth's crust, and the heaviest of the halogens. Astatine is not found free in nature, but is always found in combination with other elements, such as uranium and thorium.

Astatine is a highly reactive element that exists in several allotropic forms and is characterized by its metallic appearance and chemical properties similar to those of iodine. It has a short half-life, ranging from a few hours to a few days, depending on the isotope, and emits alpha, beta, and gamma radiation.

Due to its rarity, radioactivity, and short half-life, astatine has limited practical applications. However, it has been studied for potential use in medical imaging and cancer therapy due to its ability to selectively accumulate in tumors.

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) is a medical treatment that combines the specificity of antibodies and the therapeutic effects of radiation to target and destroy cancer cells. It involves the use of radioactive isotopes, which are attached to monoclonal antibodies, that recognize and bind to antigens expressed on the surface of cancer cells. Once bound, the radioactivity emitted from the isotope irradiates the cancer cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death. This targeted approach helps minimize radiation exposure to healthy tissues and reduces side effects compared to conventional radiotherapy techniques. RIT has been used in the treatment of various hematological malignancies, such as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and is being investigated for solid tumors as well.

Lutetium is a chemical element with the symbol Lu and atomic number 71. It is a rare earth metal that belongs to the lanthanide series. In its pure form, lutetium is a silvery-white metal that is solid at room temperature.

Medically, lutetium is used in the form of radioactive isotopes for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. For example, lutetium-177 (^177Lu) is a radiopharmaceutical agent that can be used to treat certain types of cancer, such as neuroendocrine tumors. The radioactivity of ^177Lu can be harnessed to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

It's important to note that the use of lutetium in medical treatments should only be performed under the supervision of trained medical professionals, and with appropriate safety measures in place to protect patients and healthcare workers from radiation exposure.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rhenium" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol "Re" and atomic number 75. Rhenium is a heavy, silvery-white, metallic element that is highly resistant to corrosion and is used in high-temperature alloys and electronics.

It does not have any direct medical relevance or application as a drug, treatment, or diagnostic tool in human medicine. However, like many other elements, rhenium compounds are being studied for their potential medicinal uses, such as in cancer therapy. But it's important to note that these are still in the research phase and have not yet been approved for use in humans.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Samarium is not a medical term itself, but it is a chemical element with the symbol Sm and atomic number 62. It is a silvery-white metallic element that belongs to the lanthanide series in the periodic table.

However, samarium-153 (Sm-153) is a radioactive isotope of samarium that has medical applications. It is used as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of painful bone metastases, particularly in patients with prostate or breast cancer. Sm-153 is combined with a chelating agent to form a complex that can be injected into the patient's bloodstream. The chelating agent helps to ensure that the samarium is distributed throughout the body and is not taken up by healthy tissues. Once inside the body, Sm-153 emits beta particles, which can destroy cancer cells in the bones and relieve pain.

Therefore, while samarium is not a medical term itself, it does have medical applications as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of bone metastases.

Radioactive soil pollutants refer to radioactive substances that contaminate and negatively impact the chemical, physical, and biological properties of soil. These pollutants can arise from various sources such as nuclear accidents, industrial activities, agricultural practices, and military testing. They include radionuclides such as uranium, plutonium, cesium-137, and strontium-90, among others.

Exposure to radioactive soil pollutants can have serious health consequences for humans and other living organisms. Direct contact with contaminated soil can result in radiation exposure, while ingestion or inhalation of contaminated soil particles can lead to internal radiation exposure. This can increase the risk of cancer, genetic mutations, and other health problems.

Radioactive soil pollutants can also have negative impacts on the environment, such as reducing soil fertility, disrupting ecosystems, and contaminating water sources. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and regulate radioactive soil pollution to protect human health and the environment.

In the context of medicine and biology, sulfates are ions or compounds that contain the sulfate group (SO4−2). Sulfate is a polyatomic anion with the structure of a sphere. It consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Sulfates can be found in various biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are important components of connective tissue and the extracellular matrix. Sulfate groups play a crucial role in these molecules by providing negative charges that help maintain the structural integrity and hydration of tissues.

In addition to their biological roles, sulfates can also be found in various medications and pharmaceutical compounds. For example, some laxatives contain sulfate salts, such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or sodium sulfate, which work by increasing the water content in the intestines and promoting bowel movements.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of sulfates can be harmful to human health, particularly in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a common air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels. Prolonged exposure to SO2 can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing lung conditions.

Bromine radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element bromine that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in various medical applications, such as diagnostic imaging and cancer treatment. Some commonly used bromine radioisotopes include Bromine-75, Bromine-76, and Bromine-77.

Bromine-75 is a positron-emitting radionuclide that can be used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to image and diagnose various diseases, including cancer. It has a half-life of about 97 minutes.

Bromine-76 is also a positron-emitting radionuclide with a longer half-life of approximately 16.2 hours. It can be used in PET imaging to study the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs, as well as for tumor imaging.

Bromine-77 is a gamma-emitting radionuclide with a half-life of about 57 hours. It can be used in various medical applications, such as in the labeling of antibodies and other biomolecules for diagnostic purposes.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Chlorobi, also known as green sulfur bacteria, are a group of anaerobic, phototrophic bacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b, as well as bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e. They obtain energy through photosynthesis, using light as an energy source and sulfide or other reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors. These bacteria are typically found in environments with limited sunlight and high sulfide concentrations, such as in sediments of stratified water bodies or in microbial mats. They play a significant role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles.

Scintillation counting is a method used in medical physics and nuclear medicine to detect and quantify radioactivity. It relies on the principle that certain materials, known as scintillators, emit light flashes (scintillations) when they absorb ionizing radiation. This light can then be detected and measured to determine the amount of radiation present.

In a scintillation counting system, the sample containing radioisotopes is placed in close proximity to the scintillator. When radiation is emitted from the sample, it interacts with the scintillator material, causing it to emit light. This light is then detected by a photomultiplier tube (PMT), which converts the light into an electrical signal that can be processed and counted by electronic circuits.

The number of counts recorded over a specific period of time is proportional to the amount of radiation emitted by the sample, allowing for the quantification of radioactivity. Scintillation counting is widely used in various applications such as measuring radioactive decay rates, monitoring environmental radiation levels, and analyzing radioisotopes in biological samples.

A subdural effusion is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the potential space between the dura mater (the outermost layer of the meninges that covers the brain and spinal cord) and the arachnoid membrane (one of the three layers of the meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord) in the subdural space.

Subdural effusions can occur due to various reasons, including head trauma, infection, or complications from neurosurgical procedures. The fluid accumulation may result from bleeding (subdural hematoma), inflammation, or increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Depending on the underlying cause and the amount of fluid accumulated, subdural effusions can cause various symptoms, such as headaches, altered mental status, or neurological deficits.

Subdural effusions are often asymptomatic and may resolve independently; however, in some cases, medical intervention might be necessary to alleviate the pressure on the brain or address the underlying condition. Imaging techniques like computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans are typically used to diagnose and monitor subdural effusions.

Calcium isotopes refer to variants of the chemical element calcium (ca) that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, and therefore differ in their atomic masses while having the same number of protons. The most common and stable calcium isotope is Calcium-40, which contains 20 protons and 20 neutrons. However, calcium has several other isotopes, including Calcium-42, Calcium-43, Calcium-44, and Calcium-46 to -52, each with different numbers of neutrons. Some of these isotopes are radioactive and decay over time. The relative abundances of calcium isotopes can vary in different environments and can provide information about geological and biological processes.

Radioactive waste is defined in the medical context as any material that contains radioactive nuclides in sufficient concentrations or for such durations that it is considered a threat to human health and the environment. It includes materials ranging from used hospital supplies, equipment, and substances contaminated with radionuclides, to liquids and gases released during the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel.

Radioactive waste can be classified into two main categories:

1. Exempt waste: Waste that does not require long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its low activity and short half-life.
2. Radioactive waste: Waste that requires long-term management as a radioactive waste due to its higher activity or longer half-life, which can pose a threat to human health and the environment for many years.

Radioactive waste management is a critical aspect of nuclear medicine and radiation safety, with regulations in place to ensure proper handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of such materials.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'Tungsten' is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol W and atomic number 74. Tungsten is a rare metal found naturally on Earth, and it has many industrial uses due to its hardness, high density, and high melting point.

In the context of medicine or healthcare, tungsten may be encountered in certain medical devices, such as X-ray tubes and electrodes, where its properties are utilized for their durability and heat resistance. However, it is not a term that would typically have a formal medical definition.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Oxidoreductases acting on sulfur group donors are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions involving sulfur group donors. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

The term "oxidoreductase" refers to any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction, where one molecule is oxidized (loses electrons) and another is reduced (gains electrons). In the case of oxidoreductases acting on sulfur group donors, the sulfur atom in the substrate serves as the electron donor.

The systematic name for this class of enzymes follows a specific format: "donor:acceptor oxidoreductase." The donor is the sulfur-containing compound that donates electrons, and the acceptor is the molecule that accepts the electrons. For example, the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between glutathione (GSH) and a variety of electrophiles is called glutathione transferase, or GST (donor:acceptor oxidoreductase).

These enzymes are further classified into subclasses based on the type of acceptor involved in the reaction. Examples include:

* EC 1.8.1: Oxidoreductases acting on CH-NH2 group donors
* EC 1.8.3: Oxidoreductases acting on CH or CH2 groups
* EC 1.8.4: Oxidoreductases acting on the CH-CH group of donors
* EC 1.8.5: Oxidoreductases acting on a sulfur group of donors
* EC 1.8.6: Oxidoreductases acting on NADH or NADPH

The subclass EC 1.8.5, oxidoreductases acting on a sulfur group of donors, includes enzymes that catalyze redox reactions involving sulfur-containing compounds such as thiols (compounds containing -SH groups), disulfides (-S-S- bonds), and other sulfur-containing functional groups. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including detoxification, antioxidant defense, and redox regulation.

Selenium radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element selenium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be produced through various nuclear reactions, such as irradiating a stable selenium target with protons or alpha particles. Some examples of selenium radioisotopes include selenium-75, selenium-79, and selenium-81.

Selenium-75 is commonly used in medical imaging to study the function of the thyroid gland, as it accumulates in this gland and can be detected using a gamma camera. Selenium-79 and selenium-81 have potential uses in cancer treatment, as they can be incorporated into compounds that selectively target and destroy cancer cells. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using these radioisotopes in medical treatments.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires special training and precautions, as they can be dangerous if not handled properly. Exposure to radiation from radioisotopes can increase the risk of cancer and other health problems, so it's essential to use them only under controlled conditions and with appropriate safety measures in place.

Ruthenium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes of the element ruthenium, which decays or disintegrates spontaneously emitting radiation. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal with the atomic number 44 and has several radioisotopes, including ruthenium-97, ruthenium-103, ruthenium-105, and ruthenium-106. These radioisotopes have medical applications in diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and brachytherapy (a type of internal radiation therapy).

For instance, ruthenium-106 is used as a radiation source in ophthalmic treatments for conditions such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy. Ruthenium-103 is also used in brachytherapy seeds for the treatment of prostate cancer.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require specialized training, equipment, and safety measures due to their radiation hazards.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is not typically a term used in medical definitions, but it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that is heavier than air. It is commonly used in the medical field for its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties.

In MRI, SF6 is used as a contrast agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels and flow. When injected into a patient's bloodstream, the gas displaces oxygen in the blood, causing the blood vessels to appear darker on an MRI scan. This allows doctors to better see any abnormalities or blockages in the blood vessels.

It is important to note that sulfur hexafluoride should only be used under medical supervision and with appropriate precautions, as it can have adverse effects if not handled properly.

Radiometric dating is a method used to determine the age of objects, including rocks and other fossilized materials, based on the decay rates of radioactive isotopes. This technique relies on the fact that certain elements, such as carbon-14, potassium-40, and uranium-238, are unstable and gradually decay into different elements over time.

By measuring the ratio of the remaining radioactive isotope to the stable end product, scientists can calculate the age of a sample using the following formula:

age = (ln(Nf/N0)) / λ

where Nf is the number of atoms of the decayed isotope, N0 is the initial number of atoms of the radioactive isotope, and λ is the decay constant.

Radiometric dating has been used to date objects ranging from a few thousand years old to billions of years old, making it an essential tool for archaeologists, geologists, and other scientists who study the history of our planet.

Isotopes are variants of a chemical element that have the same number of protons in their atomic nucleus, but a different number of neutrons. This means they have different atomic masses, but share similar chemical properties. Some isotopes are stable and do not decay naturally, while others are unstable and radioactive, undergoing radioactive decay and emitting radiation in the process. These radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures.

Alpha particles are a type of radiation that consist of two protons and two neutrons. They are essentially the nuclei of helium atoms and are produced during the decay of radioactive isotopes, such as uranium or radon. When an alpha particle is emitted from a radioactive atom, it carries away energy and causes the atom to transform into a different element with a lower atomic number and mass number.

Alpha particles have a positive charge and are relatively massive compared to other types of radiation, such as beta particles (which are high-energy electrons) or gamma rays (which are high-energy photons). Because of their charge and mass, alpha particles can cause significant ionization and damage to biological tissue. However, they have a limited range in air and cannot penetrate the outer layers of human skin, making them generally less hazardous than other forms of radiation if exposure is external.

Internal exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides, however, can be much more dangerous because alpha particles can cause significant damage to cells and DNA when they are emitted inside the body. This is why inhaling or ingesting radioactive materials that emit alpha particles can pose a serious health risk.

Chromatiaceae is a family of bacteria that are primarily characterized by their ability to photosynthesize and store energy in the form of sulfur granules. These bacteria are often found in aquatic environments, such as in salt marshes, freshwater sediments, and marine ecosystems. They are capable of using reduced sulfur compounds as an electron donor during photosynthesis, which distinguishes them from other photosynthetic bacteria that use water as an electron donor.

Chromatiaceae bacteria are gram-negative rods or curved rods, and they typically form distinct layers in the environment where they live. They are often found in stratified water columns, where they can form a layer of purple or brown-colored cells that are visible to the naked eye. The pigmentation comes from bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids, which are used in light absorption during photosynthesis.

These bacteria play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and carbon in aquatic environments. They can help to remove excess nutrients from the water column, and they can also serve as a food source for other organisms in the ecosystem. However, some species of Chromatiaceae can also be associated with harmful algal blooms or other environmental disturbances that can have negative impacts on water quality and aquatic life.

Heterocyclic compounds are organic molecules that contain a ring structure made up of at least one atom that is not carbon, known as a heteroatom. These heteroatoms can include nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur, or other elements. In the case of "1-ring" heterocyclic compounds, the molecule contains a single ring structure composed of these heteroatoms and carbon atoms. Examples of 1-ring heterocyclic compounds include pyridine (contains one nitrogen atom in the ring), furan (contains one oxygen atom in the ring), and thiophene (contains one sulfur atom in the ring). These compounds play important roles in various biological processes and are also found in many drugs, dyes, and materials.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used in medical diagnostic imaging. It is a technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical, where technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is used as a contrast agent in various diagnostic procedures, such as imaging of the thyroid, salivary glands, or the brain, to evaluate conditions like inflammation, tumors, or abnormalities in blood flow. It is typically administered intravenously, and its short half-life ensures that the radiation exposure is limited.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Radioisotope teletherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high-energy radiation from a radioisotope to destroy cancer cells. In this procedure, the radioisotope is placed outside the body and aimed at the tumor site, rather than being inserted into the body like in brachytherapy. The radiation travels through space and penetrates the tissue to reach the tumor, where it damages the DNA of cancer cells and inhibits their ability to divide and grow. This type of radiotherapy is often used for larger or more difficult-to-reach tumors, as well as for palliative care in advanced stages of cancer. Examples of radioisotopes commonly used in teletherapy include cobalt-60 and cesium-137.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Pentetic Acid, also known as DTPA (Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid), is not a medication itself but a chelating agent used in the preparation of pharmaceutical products. A chelating agent is a compound that can form multiple bonds with metal ions, allowing them to be excreted from the body.

Pentetic Acid is used in medical treatments to remove or decrease the levels of certain toxic metals, such as lead, plutonium, americium, and curium, from the body. It can be given intravenously or orally, depending on the specific situation and the formulation of the medication.

It is important to note that the use of Pentetic Acid should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can also bind to essential metals like zinc, calcium, and iron, which can lead to deficiencies if not properly managed.

Gamma spectrometry is a type of spectrometry used to identify and measure the energy and intensity of gamma rays emitted by radioactive materials. It utilizes a device called a gamma spectrometer, which typically consists of a scintillation detector or semiconductor detector, coupled with electronic circuitry that records and analyzes the energy of each detected gamma ray.

Gamma rays are a form of ionizing radiation, characterized by their high energy and short wavelength. When they interact with matter, such as the detector in a gamma spectrometer, they can cause the ejection of electrons from atoms or molecules, leading to the creation of charged particles that can be detected and measured.

In gamma spectrometry, the energy of each detected gamma ray is used to identify the radioactive isotope that emitted it, based on the characteristic energy levels associated with different isotopes. The intensity of the gamma rays can also be measured, providing information about the quantity or activity of the radioactive material present.

Gamma spectrometry has a wide range of applications in fields such as nuclear medicine, radiation protection, environmental monitoring, and nuclear non-proliferation.

Sulfurtransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfur group from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the synthesis of important metabolites. They can be found in many organisms, from bacteria to humans.

In humans, there are several types of sulfurtransferases, including cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, rhodanese, and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase. These enzymes have different substrates and functions, but they all share the ability to transfer a sulfur group from one molecule to another.

For example, rhodanese is an enzyme that transfers a sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, converting it to less toxic thiocyanate. This reaction is important in the detoxification of cyanide in the body.

Sulfurtransferases are also involved in the synthesis of various metabolites, such as iron-sulfur clusters and molybdenum cofactor, which are essential for the function of many enzymes.

Deficiencies or mutations in sulfurtransferase genes can lead to various diseases and disorders, highlighting their importance in human health.

Rosaniline dyes are a type of basic dye that were first synthesized in the late 19th century. They are named after rosaniline, which is a primary chemical used in their production. Rosaniline dyes are characterized by their ability to form complexes with metal ions, which can then bind to proteins and other biological molecules. This property makes them useful as histological stains, which are used to highlight specific structures or features within tissues and cells.

Rosaniline dyes include a range of different chemicals, such as methyl violet, crystal violet, and basic fuchsin. These dyes are often used in combination with other staining techniques to provide contrast and enhance the visibility of specific cellular components. For example, they may be used to stain nuclei, cytoplasm, or other structures within cells, allowing researchers and clinicians to visualize and analyze tissue samples more effectively.

It's worth noting that some rosaniline dyes have been found to have potential health hazards, particularly when used in certain forms or concentrations. Therefore, it's important to follow proper safety protocols when handling these chemicals and to use them only under the guidance of trained professionals.

Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases. The radiopharmaceuticals are taken internally, usually through injection or oral administration, and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the radiation emitted by these substances, which helps create detailed images of the body's internal structures and functions.

The images produced in nuclear medicine can help doctors identify abnormalities such as tumors, fractures, infection, or inflammation. Additionally, some radiopharmaceuticals can be used to treat certain conditions, like hyperthyroidism or cancer, by delivering targeted doses of radiation directly to the affected area. Overall, nuclear medicine provides valuable information for the diagnosis, treatment planning, and monitoring of many medical conditions.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used as a radiopharmaceutical agent in medical imaging. It is a salt of technetium-99m, a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours.

Technetium Tc 99m Pentetate is used in various diagnostic procedures, including renal imaging, brain scans, lung perfusion studies, and bone scans. It is distributed throughout the body after intravenous injection and is excreted primarily by the kidneys, making it useful for evaluating renal function and detecting abnormalities in the urinary tract.

The compound itself is a colorless, sterile, pyrogen-free solution that is typically supplied in a lead shielded container to protect against radiation exposure. It should be used promptly after preparation and handled with care to minimize radiation exposure to healthcare workers and patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sulfur Acids" is not a recognized medical term. Sulfuric acid, however, is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula H2SO4. It's not typically used in a medical context, but it can come into contact with biological tissue through industrial accidents or improper use of household chemicals. If sulfuric acid comes into contact with skin or eyes, it can cause severe burns and damage. If ingested, it can be life-threatening.

If you're looking for medical definitions related to a specific topic, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate and helpful response.

Tritium is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of nuclear physics and chemistry. Tritium (symbol: T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen with two neutrons and one proton in its nucleus. It is also known as heavy hydrogen or superheavy hydrogen.

Tritium has a half-life of about 12.3 years, which means that it decays by emitting a low-energy beta particle (an electron) to become helium-3. Due to its radioactive nature and relatively short half-life, tritium is used in various applications, including nuclear weapons, fusion reactors, luminous paints, and medical research.

In the context of medicine, tritium may be used as a radioactive tracer in some scientific studies or medical research, but it is not a term commonly used to describe a medical condition or treatment.

Radiometry is the measurement of electromagnetic radiation, including visible light. It quantifies the amount and characteristics of radiant energy in terms of power or intensity, wavelength, direction, and polarization. In medical physics, radiometry is often used to measure therapeutic and diagnostic radiation beams used in various imaging techniques and cancer treatments such as X-rays, gamma rays, and ultraviolet or infrared light. Radiometric measurements are essential for ensuring the safe and effective use of these medical technologies.

Carbon isotopes are variants of the chemical element carbon that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^{12}C), which contains six protons and six neutrons. However, carbon can also come in other forms, known as isotopes, which contain different numbers of neutrons.

Carbon-13 (^{13}C) is a stable isotope of carbon that contains seven neutrons in its nucleus. It makes up about 1.1% of all carbon found on Earth and is used in various scientific applications, such as in tracing the metabolic pathways of organisms or in studying the age of fossilized materials.

Carbon-14 (^{14}C), also known as radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon that contains eight neutrons in its nucleus. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere through the interaction of cosmic rays with nitrogen gas. Carbon-14 has a half-life of about 5,730 years, which makes it useful for dating organic materials, such as archaeological artifacts or fossils, up to around 60,000 years old.

Carbon isotopes are important in many scientific fields, including geology, biology, and medicine, and are used in a variety of applications, from studying the Earth's climate history to diagnosing medical conditions.

"Nostoc commune" is not a medical term, but a scientific name for a type of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). It's commonly found in various environments such as freshwater, soil, and on rocks. This organism can form colonies that appear as slimy, dark green or black mats.

While not a direct medical term, certain species of cyanobacteria, including Nostoc commune, can produce toxins that may pose health risks to humans and animals if ingested, inhaled, or contact skin. These toxins can cause various symptoms, such as rashes, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and liver damage. However, not all strains of Nostoc commune produce toxins, and the health risks associated with this specific species are relatively low compared to other cyanobacteria.

Nonetheless, it is essential to be aware of potential health hazards when encountering cyanobacterial blooms in recreational water bodies or drinking water sources and follow local guidelines for reporting and managing such incidents.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Whole-body counting is a non-invasive nuclear medicine technique used for the detection and measurement of radioactivity in the human body. It involves the use of sensitive radiation detectors that can measure the gamma rays emitted by radionuclides present within the body tissues.

The individual lies on a table or sits in a chair with their entire body inside a large detector, which is typically a scintillation camera or a NaI(Tl) crystal. The detector measures the number and energy of gamma rays emitted from the body, allowing for the identification and quantification of specific radionuclides present within the body.

Whole-body counting has several clinical applications, including monitoring patients who have received therapeutic radioisotopes, evaluating the effectiveness of radiation therapy, detecting and measuring internal contamination due to accidental exposure or intentional intake, and assessing the distribution and retention of radionuclides in research studies.

It is important to note that whole-body counting does not provide anatomical information like other imaging techniques (e.g., CT, MRI), but rather offers functional data on the presence and quantity of radioactivity within the body.

Chlorobium is a genus of photosynthetic bacteria that are primarily found in anaerobic environments, such as freshwater and marine sediments, and in the upper layers of microbial mats. These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophylls and use light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds through a process called chemosynthesis. Chlorobium species are important contributors to the global carbon cycle and play a significant role in the ecology of anaerobic environments.

The medical relevance of Chlorobium is limited, as these bacteria do not typically interact with humans or animals in a way that causes disease. However, they may be of interest to researchers studying photosynthesis, carbon cycling, and microbial ecology.

Potassium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes or variants of the element potassium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable form. A common example is Potassium-40 (40K), which occurs naturally in small amounts in potassium-containing substances. It decays through beta decay and positron emission, as well as electron capture, with a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

Radioisotopes like 40K have medical applications such as in dating archaeological artifacts or studying certain biological processes. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from potassium radioisotopes can be harmful and potentially lead to health issues like radiation sickness or cancer.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, and extremely toxic gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. It is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various industrial processes and is also found in some natural sources like volcanoes, hot springs, and swamps.

In the medical context, hydrogen sulfide is known to have both toxic and therapeutic effects on the human body. At high concentrations, it can cause respiratory failure, unconsciousness, and even death. However, recent studies have shown that at low levels, hydrogen sulfide may act as a signaling molecule in the human body, playing a role in various physiological processes such as regulating blood flow, reducing inflammation, and protecting against oxidative stress.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide can be life-threatening, and immediate medical attention is required in case of exposure.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Iodohippuric acid is not typically defined in medical textbooks, but it is a radiocontrast agent used in imaging studies. Here's the definition from a chemistry perspective:

Iodohippuric acid, also known as iodine-131 hippuran or Hippuran, is an organic compound with the formula C6H5IO2 + . It is a derivative of hippuric acid, where one hydrogen atom has been replaced by radioactive iodine-131.

In medical imaging, it is used as a radiocontrast agent for renal function studies, such as renography, to assess the functioning and anatomy of the kidneys. The compound is excreted primarily by the kidneys, so its clearance rate can be used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a measure of kidney function.

Therefore, while not a medical definition per se, iodohippuric acid is an essential compound in nuclear medicine for evaluating renal function.

"Chromatium" is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments, particularly in anaerobic or low-oxygen conditions. These bacteria are known for their ability to perform anaerobic respiration using sulfur as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. This process is often referred to as "sulfur reduction" or "sulfur respiration."

The name "Chromatium" comes from the Greek word "chroma," which means "color," and refers to the distinctive purple color of these bacteria, which is due to the presence of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. These pigments allow Chromatium species to perform photosynthesis, using light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds.

It's worth noting that "Chromatium" is a specific taxonomic name for a genus of bacteria, and should not be confused with the more general term "chromatin," which refers to the complex of DNA, histone proteins, and other molecules that make up the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

Sulfites are a group of chemical compounds that contain the sulfite ion (SO3−2), which consists of one sulfur atom and three oxygen atoms. In medical terms, sulfites are often used as food additives or preservatives, serving to prevent bacterial growth and preserve the color of certain foods and drinks.

Sulfites can be found naturally in some foods, such as wine, dried fruits, and vegetables, but they are also added to a variety of processed products like potato chips, beer, and soft drinks. While sulfites are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with asthma or a sensitivity to sulfites.

In the medical field, sulfites may also be used as medications to treat certain conditions. For example, they may be used as a vasodilator to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow during heart surgery or as an antimicrobial agent in some eye drops. However, their use as a medication is relatively limited due to the potential for adverse reactions.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: Methionine is one of the building blocks of proteins, helping to create new proteins and maintain the structure and function of cells.
2. Methylation: Methionine serves as a methyl group donor in various biochemical reactions, which are essential for DNA synthesis, gene regulation, and neurotransmitter production.
3. Antioxidant defense: Methionine can be converted to cysteine, which is involved in the formation of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage.
4. Homocysteine metabolism: Methionine is involved in the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine through a process called remethylation, which is essential for maintaining normal homocysteine levels and preventing cardiovascular disease.
5. Fat metabolism: Methionine helps facilitate the breakdown and metabolism of fats in the body.

Foods rich in methionine include meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and some nuts and seeds.

Organometallic compounds are a type of chemical compound that contain at least one metal-carbon bond. This means that the metal is directly attached to carbon atom(s) from an organic molecule. These compounds can be synthesized through various methods, and they have found widespread use in industrial and medicinal applications, including catalysis, polymerization, and pharmaceuticals.

It's worth noting that while organometallic compounds contain metal-carbon bonds, not all compounds with metal-carbon bonds are considered organometallic. For example, in classical inorganic chemistry, simple salts of metal carbonyls (M(CO)n) are not typically classified as organometallic, but rather as metal carbonyl complexes. The distinction between these classes of compounds can sometimes be subtle and is a matter of ongoing debate among chemists.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

Radiation dosage, in the context of medical physics, refers to the amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by a material or tissue, usually measured in units of Gray (Gy), where 1 Gy equals an absorption of 1 Joule of radiation energy per kilogram of matter. In the clinical setting, radiation dosage is used to plan and assess the amount of radiation delivered to a patient during treatments such as radiotherapy. It's important to note that the biological impact of radiation also depends on other factors, including the type and energy level of the radiation, as well as the sensitivity of the irradiated tissues or organs.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

"Acidithiobacillus" is a genus of bacteria that are capable of oxidizing sulfur compounds and obtaining energy from them. These bacteria are acidophilic, meaning they thrive in highly acidic environments, with optimum growth occurring at a pH between 2 and 4. They are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and mining environments that have been impacted by acid mine drainage.

The genus "Acidithiobacillus" includes several species, such as "A. ferrooxidans," "A. thiooxidans," and "A. caldus." These bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and iron, contributing to the weathering of minerals and the formation of acidic environments. They have also been used in industrial applications, such as the bioleaching of metals from ores and the treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of heavy metals.

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

Vitamin B12, also known as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of DNA, formation of red blood cells, and maintenance of the nervous system. It is involved in the metabolism of every cell in the body, particularly affecting DNA regulation and neurological function.

Vitamin B12 is unique among vitamins because it contains a metal ion, cobalt, from which its name is derived. This vitamin can be synthesized only by certain types of bacteria and is not produced by plants or animals. The major sources of vitamin B12 in the human diet include animal-derived foods such as meat, fish, poultry, eggs, and dairy products, as well as fortified plant-based milk alternatives and breakfast cereals.

Deficiency in vitamin B12 can lead to various health issues, including megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, neurological symptoms such as numbness and tingling in the extremities, memory loss, and depression. Since vitamin B12 is not readily available from plant-based sources, vegetarians and vegans are at a higher risk of deficiency and may require supplementation or fortified foods to meet their daily requirements.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Sulfonium compounds are organosulfur molecules that contain a central sulfur atom bonded to three alkyl or aryl groups and have the general formula (R-S-R'-R'')+X-, where R, R', and R'' are organic groups and X is an anion. These compounds are widely used in chemical synthesis as phase-transfer catalysts, alkylating agents, and in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Sulfonium compounds can also be found in some natural sources, such as certain antibiotics and marine toxins.

In medicine, "absorption" refers to the process by which substances, including nutrients, medications, or toxins, are taken up and assimilated into the body's tissues or bloodstream after they have been introduced into the body via various routes (such as oral, intravenous, or transdermal).

The absorption of a substance depends on several factors, including its chemical properties, the route of administration, and the presence of other substances that may affect its uptake. For example, some medications may be better absorbed when taken with food, while others may require an empty stomach for optimal absorption.

Once a substance is absorbed into the bloodstream, it can then be distributed to various tissues throughout the body, where it may exert its effects or be metabolized and eliminated by the body's detoxification systems. Understanding the process of absorption is crucial in developing effective medical treatments and determining appropriate dosages for medications.

Cysteine synthase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid cysteine. It catalyzes the reaction that combines O-acetylserine and hydrogen sulfide to produce cysteine and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the sulfur balance in cells, as cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is an important component of proteins and many other molecules in the body. There are two forms of cysteine synthase: one that is found in bacteria and plants, and another that is found in animals. The animal form of the enzyme is also known as cystathionine beta-synthase, and it has a broader specificity than the bacterial and plant forms, as it can also catalyze the reaction that produces cystathionine from serine and homocysteine.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is a radiopharmaceutical agent used in nuclear medicine for bone scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled bisphosphonate compound, which accumulates in areas of increased bone turnover and metabolism. This makes it useful for detecting and evaluating various bone diseases and conditions, such as fractures, tumors, infections, and arthritis.

The "Tc 99m" refers to the radioisotope technetium-99m, which has a half-life of approximately 6 hours and emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera. The medronate component is a bisphosphonate molecule that binds to hydroxyapatite crystals in bone tissue, allowing the radiolabeled compound to accumulate in areas of active bone remodeling.

Overall, Technetium Tc 99m Medronate is an important tool in nuclear medicine for diagnosing and managing various musculoskeletal disorders.

Bismuth is a heavy, brittle, white metallic element (symbol: Bi; atomic number: 83) that is found in various minerals and is used in several industrial, medical, and household products. In medicine, bismuth compounds are commonly used as antidiarrheal and anti-ulcer agents due to their antibacterial properties. They can be found in medications like Pepto-Bismol and Kaopectate. It's important to note that bismuth itself is not used medically, but its compounds have medical applications.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a group of bacteria that chemically reduce sulfates to produce hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, and other sulfur compounds. They are anaerobic, meaning they do not require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria are commonly found in environments like soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals, including humans.

In the medical context, SRB can be associated with certain health conditions. For example, they can contribute to dental cavities by producing acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. They can also cause infections in people with compromised immune systems or implanted medical devices, such as heart valves or joint replacements. These infections can lead to the production of harmful sulfur compounds that can damage tissues and cause symptoms like pain, swelling, and discharge.

SRB are also known to play a role in some types of anaerobic digestion, where they help break down organic matter in wastewater treatment plants and other industrial settings. However, their ability to produce corrosive sulfur compounds can cause problems in these environments, such as damage to pipes and equipment.

Phosphorus isotopes are different forms of the element phosphorus that have different numbers of neutrons in their atomic nuclei, while the number of protons remains the same. The most common and stable isotope of phosphorus is 31P, which contains 15 protons and 16 neutrons. However, there are also several other isotopes of phosphorus that exist, including 32P and 33P, which are radioactive and have 15 protons and 17 or 18 neutrons, respectively. These radioactive isotopes are often used in medical research and treatment, such as in the form of radiopharmaceuticals to diagnose and treat various diseases.

Avidin is a protein found in the white of eggs (egg whites) and some other animal tissues. It has a high binding affinity for biotin, also known as vitamin B7 or vitamin H, which is an essential nutrient for humans and other organisms. This property makes avidin useful in various biochemical and medical applications, such as immunohistochemistry, blotting techniques, and drug delivery systems.

Biotin-avidin interactions are among the strongest non-covalent interactions known in nature, with a dissociation constant (Kd) of approximately 10^-15 M. This means that once biotin is bound to avidin, it is very difficult to separate them. In some cases, this property can be exploited to create stable and specific complexes for various applications.

However, it's worth noting that the high affinity of avidin for biotin can also have negative effects in certain contexts. For example, raw egg whites contain large amounts of avidin, which can bind to biotin in the gut and prevent its absorption if consumed in sufficient quantities. This can lead to biotin deficiency, which can cause various health problems. Cooking egg whites denatures avidin and reduces its ability to bind to biotin, making cooked eggs a safe source of biotin.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Iron-sulfur proteins are a group of metalloproteins that contain iron and sulfur atoms in their active centers. These clusters of iron and sulfur atoms, also known as iron-sulfur clusters, can exist in various forms, including Fe-S, 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, and 4Fe-4S structures. The iron atoms are coordinated to the protein through cysteine residues, while the sulfur atoms can be in the form of sulfide (S2-) or sulfane (-S-).

These proteins play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as electron transfer, redox reactions, and enzyme catalysis. They are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and DNA repair.

Iron-sulfur proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as ferredoxins, Rieske proteins, high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs), and radical SAM enzymes. Dysregulation or mutations in iron-sulfur protein genes have been linked to various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and mitochondrial disorders.

Cesium radioisotopes are different forms of the element cesium that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. Some commonly used medical cesium radioisotopes include Cs-134 and Cs-137, which are produced from nuclear reactions in nuclear reactors or during nuclear weapons testing.

In medicine, cesium radioisotopes have been used in cancer treatment for the brachytherapy of certain types of tumors. Brachytherapy involves placing a small amount of radioactive material directly into or near the tumor to deliver a high dose of radiation to the cancer cells while minimizing exposure to healthy tissues.

Cesium-137, for example, has been used in the treatment of cervical, endometrial, and prostate cancers. However, due to concerns about potential long-term risks associated with the use of cesium radioisotopes, their use in cancer therapy is becoming less common.

It's important to note that handling and using radioactive materials requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Brachytherapy is a type of cancer treatment that involves placing radioactive material directly into or near the tumor site. The term "brachy" comes from the Greek word for "short," which refers to the short distance that the radiation travels. This allows for a high dose of radiation to be delivered directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy surrounding tissue.

There are two main types of brachytherapy:

1. Intracavitary brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed inside a body cavity, such as the uterus or windpipe.
2. Interstitial brachytherapy: The radioactive material is placed directly into the tumor or surrounding tissue using needles, seeds, or catheters.

Brachytherapy can be used alone or in combination with other cancer treatments such as surgery, external beam radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. It may be recommended for a variety of cancers, including prostate, cervical, vaginal, vulvar, head and neck, and skin cancers. The specific type of brachytherapy used will depend on the size, location, and stage of the tumor.

The advantages of brachytherapy include its ability to deliver a high dose of radiation directly to the tumor while minimizing exposure to healthy tissue, which can result in fewer side effects compared to other forms of radiation therapy. Additionally, brachytherapy is often a shorter treatment course than external beam radiation therapy, with some treatments lasting only a few minutes or hours.

However, there are also potential risks and side effects associated with brachytherapy, including damage to nearby organs and tissues, bleeding, infection, and pain. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of brachytherapy with their healthcare provider to determine if it is an appropriate treatment option for them.

Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase (TST) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur group from thiosulfate to a range of acceptor molecules. It plays a crucial role in the detoxification of harmful substances and the maintenance of cellular redox balance. TST is also known as Rhodanese, which comes from the Greek word "rhodanos," meaning rose-red, due to the pinkish-red color of the enzyme when it was first isolated.

The systematic medical definition of Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase is:

A mitochondrial matrix enzyme (EC 2.8.1.1) that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, forming thiocyanate and sulfite. This reaction serves as a detoxification pathway for cyanide in the body. TST also plays a role in maintaining cellular redox balance by participating in the reduction of oxidized proteins and other molecules.

Iridium radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element iridium that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in various medical applications, such as brachytherapy, a type of cancer treatment where a small amount of radioactive material is placed inside the body near the tumor site to deliver targeted radiation therapy.

Iridium-192 is one commonly used iridium radioisotope for this purpose. It has a half-life of 74.2 days and emits gamma rays, making it useful for treating various types of cancer, including breast, gynecological, prostate, and head and neck cancers.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to the potential radiation hazards associated with them.

Autoradiography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and localize the distribution of radioactively labeled compounds within tissues or organisms. In this process, the subject is first exposed to a radioactive tracer that binds to specific molecules or structures of interest. The tissue is then placed in close contact with a radiation-sensitive film or detector, such as X-ray film or an imaging plate.

As the radioactive atoms decay, they emit particles (such as beta particles) that interact with the film or detector, causing chemical changes and leaving behind a visible image of the distribution of the labeled compound. The resulting autoradiogram provides information about the location, quantity, and sometimes even the identity of the molecules or structures that have taken up the radioactive tracer.

Autoradiography has been widely used in various fields of biology and medical research, including pharmacology, neuroscience, genetics, and cell biology, to study processes such as protein-DNA interactions, gene expression, drug metabolism, and neuronal connectivity. However, due to the use of radioactive materials and potential hazards associated with them, this technique has been gradually replaced by non-radioactive alternatives like fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) or immunofluorescence techniques.

Hydrogensulfite reductase is an enzyme found in certain bacteria and archaea that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite) to sulfide, using NADPH or NADH as an electron donor. This reaction is a part of the microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway, where sulfate is reduced to sulfide and ultimately used as an electron sink for energy conservation.

The overall reaction catalyzed by hydrogensulfite reductase can be represented as follows:

HSiO3- (hydrogen sulfite) + 2H+ + 2e- → H2S (sulfide) + H2O

There are two main types of hydrogensulfite reductases, which differ in their cofactor requirements and subunit composition:

1. NADPH-dependent membrane-bound (type I) hydrogensulfite reductase: This enzyme is composed of multiple subunits and contains FAD, iron-sulfur clusters, and siroheme as cofactors. It catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite to sulfide using NADPH as an electron donor, and it is typically found in bacteria that grow under chemolithotrophic conditions (e.g., utilizing sulfur compounds or hydrogen as energy sources).
2. NADH-dependent cytoplasmic (type II) hydrogensulfite reductase: This enzyme consists of a single subunit and contains siroheme and iron-sulfur clusters as cofactors. It catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite to sulfide using NADH as an electron donor, and it is commonly found in bacteria that grow under heterotrophic conditions (e.g., utilizing organic compounds as energy sources).

In both cases, hydrogensulfite reductase plays a crucial role in the microbial sulfur cycle, contributing to the transformation of various sulfur species and their incorporation into or release from biomolecules.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Thiobacillus is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of oxidizing inorganic sulfur compounds and sulfides to produce sulfuric acid. These bacteria play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon, particularly in environments like soil, water, and sediments. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various habitats such as acid mine drainage, sewage treatment plants, and even in the human respiratory system. Some species of Thiobacillus have been used in industrial applications for the bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils and wastewater treatment. However, they can also contribute to the corrosion of metals and concrete structures due to their acid production.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

Sulfur Group Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfur group from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, and the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) through the addition of sulfur groups.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is sulfurtransferases, and they are classified under EC 2.8.1 in the Enzyme Commission numbering system. They can be further divided into subgroups based on their specific functions and the types of substrates they act upon. Examples of Sulfur Group Transferases include cysteine synthase, cysteine desulfurase, and rhodanese.

Zinc is an essential mineral that is vital for the functioning of over 300 enzymes and involved in various biological processes in the human body, including protein synthesis, DNA synthesis, immune function, wound healing, and cell division. It is a component of many proteins and participates in the maintenance of structural integrity and functionality of proteins. Zinc also plays a crucial role in maintaining the sense of taste and smell.

The recommended daily intake of zinc varies depending on age, sex, and life stage. Good dietary sources of zinc include red meat, poultry, seafood, beans, nuts, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Zinc deficiency can lead to various health problems, including impaired immune function, growth retardation, and developmental delays in children. On the other hand, excessive intake of zinc can also have adverse effects on health, such as nausea, vomiting, and impaired immune function.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Thiotrichaceae is a family of proteobacteria characterized by the ability to oxidize inorganic sulfur compounds. The name Thiotrichaceae comes from the Greek words "thio," meaning sulfur, and "tricha," meaning hair, which refers to the filamentous or hair-like appearance of many members of this family. These bacteria are often found in environments with high sulfur content, such as sulfur springs, hot vents, and sewage treatment plants. They play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur in the environment.

Cystine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body, which is formed from the oxidation of two cysteine molecules. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by the body and does not need to be obtained through diet. Cystine plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and antioxidant defense. However, when cystine accumulates in large amounts, it can form crystals or stones, leading to conditions such as cystinuria, a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of cystine kidney stones.

Epsilonproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, which are a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several genera of bacteria that are commonly found in various environments, including the human body. Epsilonproteobacteria are known to be microaerophilic or anaerobic, meaning they can grow in low oxygen conditions. Some members of this class are associated with gastrointestinal diseases and have been found in the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract. They have also been isolated from environments such as volcanic vents and sediments. Epsilonproteobacteria are characterized by their unique morphology and metabolic properties, which distinguish them from other classes of proteobacteria.

Sulfate adenylyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway, which is the conversion of sulfate (SO4^2-) to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) by transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to sulfate.

The reaction catalyzed by sulfate adenylyltransferase is as follows:

ATP + SO4^2- -> APS + PPi (pyrophosphate)

APS is then further reduced in subsequent steps of the sulfate reduction pathway to form cysteine, which is a building block for proteins and other important biological molecules. Sulfate adenylyltransferase plays a crucial role in the assimilation of sulfur into organic compounds and is widely distributed in nature, being found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE or CGL) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, specifically methionine and cysteine. It catalyzes the conversion of cystathionine to cysteine, releasing α-ketobutyrate and ammonia as byproducts. This reaction also results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule that has been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Cystathionine gamma-lyase is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and brain, and its activity is regulated by several factors, including the availability of its substrates and allosteric modulators like S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and homocysteine. Dysregulation of CSE has been associated with various diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of cystathionine gamma-lyase is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Octreotide is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone somatostatin, which is used in medical treatment. It is a octapeptide with similar effects to somatostatin, but with a longer duration of action. Octreotide is primarily used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome.

It works by inhibiting the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin. This results in a decrease in symptoms caused by excessive hormone secretion, such as reduced growth hormone levels in acromegaly, decreased tumor size in some GEP-NETs, and improved diarrhea and flushing in carcinoid syndrome.

Octreotide is available in several forms, including short-acting subcutaneous injections (Sandostatin®), long-acting depot intramuscular injections (Sandostatin LAR®), and a slow-release formulation for the treatment of diarrhea associated with AIDS (Mycapssa™).

The medical definition of Octreotide is:

A synthetic octapeptide analogue of somatostatin, used in the management of acromegaly, gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs), and diarrhea and flushing associated with carcinoid syndrome. Octreotide inhibits the release of several hormones, including growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin, leading to symptomatic improvement in these conditions. It is available as short-acting subcutaneous injections, long-acting depot intramuscular injections, and a slow-release formulation for diarrhea associated with AIDS.

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several important pathogens that can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Some examples of Gammaproteobacteria include Escherichia coli (a common cause of food poisoning), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections), Vibrio cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague).

Gammaproteobacteria are characterized by their single flagellum, which is used for motility, and their outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides that can elicit an immune response in host organisms. They are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the guts of animals. Some species are capable of fixing nitrogen, making them important contributors to nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

It's worth noting that while Gammaproteobacteria includes many pathogenic species, the majority of proteobacteria are not harmful and play important roles in various ecological systems.

'Acidianus' is a genus of thermoacidophilic archaea, which are extremophiles that thrive in extremely acidic and hot environments. These microorganisms are commonly found in volcanic areas, such as sulfur-rich hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where the pH levels can be as low as 0 and the temperature can reach up to 90°C (194°F).

The name 'Acidianus' is derived from the Latin word "acidus," meaning sour or acidic, and the Greek word "ianos," meaning belonging to. Therefore, the medical definition of 'Acidianus' refers to a genus of archaea that are adapted to survive in highly acidic environments.

These microorganisms have developed unique metabolic pathways to generate energy from sulfur compounds and other reduced substances present in their environment. They play an essential role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles, contributing to the breakdown of organic matter and the formation of elemental sulfur and sulfate.

Understanding the biology and ecology of 'Acidianus' and other thermoacidophilic archaea can provide insights into the limits of life on Earth and help us explore the potential for extraterrestrial life in extreme environments, such as those found on Mars or other planets.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Cobalt radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element cobalt, which are used in various medical applications. The most commonly used cobalt radioisotope is Cobalt-60 (Co-60), which has a half-life of 5.27 years.

Co-60 emits gamma rays and beta particles, making it useful for radiation therapy to treat cancer, as well as for sterilizing medical equipment and food irradiation. In radiation therapy, Co-60 is used in teletherapy machines to deliver a focused beam of radiation to tumors, helping to destroy cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissue.

It's important to note that handling and disposal of cobalt radioisotopes require strict safety measures due to their radioactive nature, as they can pose risks to human health and the environment if not managed properly.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Emission computed tomography (ECT) is a type of tomographic imaging technique in which an emission signal from within the body is detected to create cross-sectional images of that signal's distribution. In Emission-Computed Tomography (ECT), a radionuclide is introduced into the body, usually through injection, inhalation or ingestion. The radionuclide emits gamma rays that are then detected by external gamma cameras.

The data collected from these cameras is then used to create cross-sectional images of the distribution of the radiopharmaceutical within the body. This allows for the identification and quantification of functional information about specific organs or systems within the body, such as blood flow, metabolic activity, or receptor density.

One common type of Emission-Computed Tomography is Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), which uses a single gamma camera that rotates around the patient to collect data from multiple angles. Another type is Positron Emission Tomography (PET), which uses positron-emitting radionuclides and detects the coincident gamma rays emitted by the annihilation of positrons and electrons.

Overall, ECT is a valuable tool in medical imaging for diagnosing and monitoring various diseases, including cancer, heart disease, and neurological disorders.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Phototrophic processes refer to the metabolic pathways used by certain organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, to convert light energy into chemical energy. This is primarily achieved through a process called photosynthesis, where these organisms use light, usually from the sun, to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose serves as an energy source for the organism, while the oxygen is released as a byproduct. This process is fundamental to life on Earth as it provides the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere and forms the base of many food chains.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) are a group of G protein-coupled receptors that bind to the neuropeptide hormone somatostatin. There are five subtypes of SSTRs, named SSTR1 through SSTR5, each with distinct physiological roles and tissue distributions.

Somatostatin is a small peptide that is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and other endocrine organs. It has multiple functions, including inhibition of hormone release, regulation of cell proliferation, and modulation of neurotransmission.

SSTRs are expressed on the surface of many different types of cells, including neurons, endocrine cells, and immune cells. They play important roles in regulating various physiological processes, such as inhibiting the release of hormones like insulin, glucagon, and growth hormone. SSTRs have also been implicated in a number of pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and inflammatory disorders.

In recent years, SSTRs have become an important target for the development of new therapeutic strategies, particularly in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Several radiolabeled somatostatin analogues have been developed that can selectively bind to SSTRs on NET cells and deliver targeted radiation therapy. These agents have shown promising results in clinical trials and are now being used as standard of care for patients with advanced NETs.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A lyase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two new molecules. Lyases differ from other types of enzymes, such as hydrolases and oxidoreductases, because they create double bonds or rings as part of their reaction mechanism.

In the context of medical terminology, lyases are not typically discussed on their own, but rather as a type of enzyme that can be involved in various biochemical reactions within the body. For example, certain lyases play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, among other molecules.

One specific medical application of lyase enzymes is in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders. For instance, individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) lack the enzyme aldolase B, which is a type of lyase that helps break down fructose in the liver. By measuring the activity of aldolase B in a patient's blood or tissue sample, doctors can diagnose HFI and recommend appropriate dietary restrictions to manage the condition.

Overall, while lyases are not a medical diagnosis or condition themselves, they play important roles in various biochemical processes within the body and can be useful in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders.

Bone neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the bone. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign bone neoplasms do not spread to other parts of the body and are rarely a threat to life, although they may cause problems if they grow large enough to press on surrounding tissues or cause fractures. Malignant bone neoplasms, on the other hand, can invade and destroy nearby tissue and may spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body.

There are many different types of bone neoplasms, including:

1. Osteochondroma - a benign tumor that develops from cartilage and bone
2. Enchondroma - a benign tumor that forms in the cartilage that lines the inside of the bones
3. Chondrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from cartilage
4. Osteosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from bone cells
5. Ewing sarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops in the bones or soft tissues around the bones
6. Giant cell tumor of bone - a benign or occasionally malignant tumor that develops from bone tissue
7. Fibrosarcoma - a malignant tumor that develops from fibrous tissue in the bone

The symptoms of bone neoplasms vary depending on the type, size, and location of the tumor. They may include pain, swelling, stiffness, fractures, or limited mobility. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the tumor but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex molecules in the body. Specifically, they catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in certain types of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

There are several different types of arylsulfatases, each of which targets a specific type of sulfate ester bond. For example, arylsulfatase A is responsible for breaking down sulfate esters in a GAG called cerebroside sulfate, while arylsulfatase B targets a different GAG called dermatan sulfate.

Deficiencies in certain arylsulfatases can lead to genetic disorders. For example, a deficiency in arylsulfatase A can cause metachromatic leukodystrophy, a progressive neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and causes a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and cognitive decline. Similarly, a deficiency in arylsulfatase B can lead to Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, ears, heart, and other organs.

The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur; that of isotopes heavier than ... The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. ... It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur, ... and with the sulfur oxides SO2 and SO3 to produce ClSO2F and ClOSO2F respectively. It will also react exothermically with ... sulfur, selenium, tellurium, bromine, iodine, and powdered molybdenum, tungsten, rhodium, iridium, and iron. It will also ...
The radioisotope iridium-192 is one of the two most important sources of energy for use in industrial γ-radiography for non- ... Iridium also reacts directly with sulfur at atmospheric pressure to yield iridium disulfide. Iridium has two naturally ... At least 37 radioisotopes have also been synthesized, ranging in mass number from 164 to 202. 192Ir, which falls between the ... A radioisotope of iridium, 192 Ir, is dangerous, like other radioactive isotopes. The only reported injuries related to iridium ...
The classical method of detecting this is the Chromium-51 [51Cr] release assay; the Sulfur-35 [35S] release assay is a little ... used radioisotope-based alternative. Target cell lysis is determined by measuring the amount of radiolabel released into the ...
By some estimates, Norilsk's nickel mines produce 1 percent of global sulfur dioxide (SO 2) emissions. Norilsk is a city with ... The list cites air pollution by particulates, including radioisotopes strontium-90, and caesium-137; the metals nickel, copper ... In 2017, Norilsk Nickel announced that it had invested $14 billion in a major development program aimed at reducing sulfur ... Norilsk's Arena sports and entertainment complex has a showroom where you can see information about the Sulfur Program and ...
The next longest-lived radioisotope is sulfur-38, with a half-life of 170 minutes. The shortest-lived is 49S, with a half-life ... Sulfur with a distinctive isotopic composition has been used to identify pollution sources, and enriched sulfur has been added ... Sulfur isotope biogeochemistry "Standard Atomic Weights: Sulfur". CIAAW. 2009. Prohaska, Thomas; Irrgeher, Johanna; Benefield, ... Isotopes of sulfur, Sulfur, Lists of isotopes by element). ... Sulfur (16S) has 23 known isotopes with mass numbers ranging ...
Radioisotopes of hydrogen, carbon, phosphorus, sulfur, and iodine have been used extensively to trace the path of biochemical ... It is used to label the sulfur-containing amino-acids methionine and cysteine. When a sulfur atom replaces an oxygen atom in a ... 99mTc is a very versatile radioisotope, and is the most commonly used radioisotope tracer in medicine. It is easy to produce in ... In biological contexts, use of radioisotope tracers are sometimes called radioisotope feeding experiments. ...
Nickel-63 is a radioisotope of nickel that can be used as an energy source in Radioisotope Piezoelectric Generators. It has a ... Phosphorus-32 can be made by the neutron irradiation (np reaction) of sulfur-32 or from phosphorus-31 by neutron capture. ... It is also used as a thermal power source in radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) power packs. These use heat produced ... Khajepour, Abolhasan; Rahmani, Faezeh (1 January 2017). "An approach to design a 90Sr radioisotope thermoelectric generator ...
The X-10 reactor at Oak Ridge was used to produce radioisotopes such as cobalt-60, phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and carbon-14. As ... A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine (University of Chicago Press, 2013) on the use of radioisotopes in science ... Natural radioisotopes were used as tracers to track atoms and illuminate biological processes in living creatures and ... Bud, Robert (August 2015). "Angela N. H. Creager, Life Atomic: A History of Radioisotopes in Science and Medicine". Social ...
A 'thiosemicarbazone' contains a sulfur atom in lieu of the ketonic oxygen in semicarbazone. Bisthiosemicarbazones are known to ... They have also been identified as potential ligands for radioisotope delivery, with selectivity towards hypoxic tissues, ...
Chlorine, sulfur and carbon (as coal) are cheapest by mass. Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and chlorine are cheapest by volume at ... The price listing for radioisotopes is not exhaustive. 2000s commodities boom Density for 0 °C, 101.325 kPa. For individual ... Per-kilogram prices of some synthetic radioisotopes range to trillions of dollars. While the difficulty of obtaining ...
Twenty-two radioisotopes have been characterized: the most stable, 60Co, has a half-life of 5.2714 years; 57Co has a half-life ... This is to clean it of its sulfur content, which is very polluting when burned and causes acid rain. Cobalt is the active ... It is attacked by halogens and sulfur. Heating in oxygen produces Co3O4 which loses oxygen at 900 °C (1,650 °F) to give the ... Cobalt-57 (Co-57 or 57Co) is a cobalt radioisotope most often used in medical tests, as a radiolabel for vitamin B12 uptake, ...
Beryllium-10 Carbon-14 Fluorine-18 Sodium-22 Sodium-24 Magnesium-28 Silicon-31 Silicon-32 Phosphorus-32 Sulfur-35 Sulfur-38 ... A trace radioisotope is a radioisotope that occurs naturally in trace amounts (i.e. extremely small). Generally speaking, trace ... Trace radioisotopes are therefore present only because they are continually produced on Earth by natural processes. Natural ... radioisotopes have half-lives that are short in comparison with the age of the Earth, since primordial nuclides tend to occur ...
The activation of a number of test target elements such as sulfur, copper, tantalum, and gold have been used to determine the ... Salted bomb Table of nuclides Manual for reactor produced radioisotopes from the International Atomic Energy Agency Neeb, Karl ... as a result of the production of neutron-rich radioisotopes.[citation needed] Some atoms require more than one neutron to ... Induced radioactivity Neutron activation analysis Phosphorus-32 produced when sulfur captures a neutron. ...
Staurolite Steatite Stereochemistry Stoichiometry Strontianite Strontium structural formula Sublimation sulfate sulfur Sulfur ... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon difluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
The non-primordial radioisotope 79Se also occurs in minute quantities in uranium ores as a product of nuclear fission. Selenium ... The sulfoxide in sulfur chemistry is represented in selenium chemistry by the selenoxides (formula RSe(O)R), which are ... Selenium is most commonly found as an impurity, replacing a small part of the sulfur in sulfide ores of many metals. In living ... Like lead and sulfur, selenium improves the machinability of steel at concentrations around 0.15%. Selenium produces the same ...
For nucleotides that do not contain a sulfur group, the oxygen on one of the phosphate groups can be substituted with a sulfur ... The decay of radioisotopes may limit the shelf life of a reagent, requiring its replacement and thus increasing expenses. ... Sulfur-35 is used to label proteins and nucleic acids. Cysteine is an amino acid containing a thiol group which can be labeled ... It has the highest emission energy (1.7 MeV) of all common research radioisotopes. This is a major advantage in experiments for ...
Sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath. The sulfur may be present as ... The Viking 2 lander was powered by radioisotope generators and operated on the surface until April 12, 1980, when its batteries ... Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water. ... The tested soil contained abundant silicon and iron, along with significant amounts of magnesium, aluminum, sulfur, calcium, ...
It is also used in the catalytic conversion of sulfur dioxide into sulfur trioxide in the production of sulfuric acid. Caesium ... Caesium-137 is a radioisotope commonly used as a gamma-emitter in industrial applications. Its advantages include a half-life ... Binary compounds with sulfur, selenium, and tellurium also exist. Caesium has 40 known isotopes, ranging in mass number (i.e. ... and the radioisotopes present a significant health and environmental hazard. Of all elements that are solid at room temperature ...
... includes the study of both natural and man-made radioisotopes. All radioisotopes are unstable isotopes of ... For the sulfur work, the isotope 35S was used, while for polonium 207Po was used. In some related work by the addition of 57Co ... Another example is the work that was done on the methylation of elements such as sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and polonium by ... Radiochemistry also includes the study of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the environment; for instance, a forest or grass ...
... like phosphorus and sulfur, fairly abundant for minor minerals. The major metals such as iron, lead and tin are commonplace.[ ... TV screens and in radio isotopes. Demand for these metals appeared to be increasing as computers and mobile phones became more ... Phosphate prices went up because of an increase in price of sulfur which is and input to phosphate fertilizer. Prices rose ...
Another key advantage of these LST is that it shows a resistance to sulfur poisoning, which is an issue with the currently used ... health and safety consequences of decommissioning radioisotope thermal generators (RTGs) in Northwest Russia (PDF), Østerås: ... doi:10.1016/S0167-2738(02)00140-6. Gong, Mingyang; Liu, Xingbo; Trembly, Jason; Johnson, Christopher (2007). "Sulfur-tolerant ...
Radioisotope thermoelectric generators form a very small component of energy generation, mostly in specialized applications ... Other emissions from fossil fuel power station include sulphur dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons, volatile organic ...
Sulfur must be removed because of its corrosive attack on nickel-based alloys at operational temperature. Structural metal such ... Online fuel processing can introduce risks of fuel processing accidents,: 15 which can trigger release of radio isotopes. In ... A water content reduction purification stage using HF and helium sweep gas was specified to run at 400 °C. Oxide and sulfur ... The purpose of salt purification is to eliminate oxides, sulfur and metal impurities. Oxides could result in the deposition of ...
The radioisotope iodine-131, which has a high fission product yield, concentrates in the thyroid, and is one of the most ... Tellurium has no biological role, although fungi can incorporate it in place of sulfur and selenium into amino acids such as ... A number of iodine radioisotopes are also used in medical applications. Iodine is found on Earth mainly as the highly water- ... Because of this function, radioisotopes of iodine are concentrated in the thyroid gland along with nonradioactive iodine. ...
Modern elemental analyzers are also capable of simultaneous determination of sulfur along with CHN in the same measurement run ... emitting gamma rays of specific energies that identify the radioisotopes present in the sample. The concentration of each ... sulfur) of a sample.[citation needed] This information is important to help determine the structure of an unknown compound, as ... into C5/C6 sugars and sulfur-free lignins" (PDF). Green Chemistry. RSCPublishing. 16 (5): 2454-2462. doi:10.1039/C4GC00168K. ...
It is a parent radioisotope to the short-lived gamma-emitting daughter radioisotope technetium-99m, a nuclear isomer used in ... The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum(VI) oxide (MoO3), whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide ... Of the synthetic radioisotopes, the most stable is 93Mo, with a half-life of 4,000 years. The most common isotopic molybdenum ... In the presence of hydrogen, this catalyst facilitates the removal of nitrogen and especiallly sulfur from the feedstock, which ...
The longest-lived radioisotope is 15 O with a half-life of 122.266(43) s, while the shortest-lived isotope is the unbound 11 O ... About 109 kelvin is needed to fuse oxygen into sulfur. An atomic mass of 16 was assigned to oxygen prior to the definition of ... Thirteen radioisotopes have been characterized; the most stable are 15 O with half-life 122.266(43) s and 14 O with half-life ... Oxygen-15 is a radioisotope, often used in positron emission tomography (PET). It can be used in, among other things, water for ...
The sulfur-32 nucleus produced is in the ground state so there is no additional gamma ray emission. Phosphorus-32 has important ... Singh, B., Singh, J., & Kaur, A. (2013). Applications of Radioisotopes in Agriculture. International Journal of Biotechnology ... Phosphorus-32 has a short half-life of 14.268 days and decays into sulfur-32 by beta decay as shown in this nuclear equation: ... Phosphorus-32 can be generated synthetically by irradiation of sulfur-32 with moderately fast neutrons as shown in this nuclear ...
K and U move together during geochemical processes and have long-lived radioisotopes that emit gamma rays. It is calculated as ... Very low boiling temperature examples include nitrogen, water, carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen, methane and sulfur dioxide. ...
... sodium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.815 - strontium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.858 - sulfur radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... sodium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.840.685 - strontium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.868.690 - sulfur radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes * Glutathione ...
It also neutralizes exposure from radio-isotopes. Studies show that the X-irradiation that can damage the body s Kupffer and ... Dimethylsulfoxide is an antioxidant sulphur compound. Studies show that DMSO actively detoxifies and protects the body from the ...
The primary decay mode of isotopes lighter than 35Cl is electron capture to isotopes of sulfur; that of isotopes heavier than ... The most stable chlorine radioisotope is 36Cl. ... It is a strong oxidising agent, reacting with sulfur, ... and with the sulfur oxides SO2 and SO3 to produce ClSO2F and ClOSO2F respectively. It will also react exothermically with ... sulfur, selenium, tellurium, bromine, iodine, and powdered molybdenum, tungsten, rhodium, iridium, and iron. It will also ...
Sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon hybrid coupling with graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles ... Co-60, a commercially important radioisotope, is useful as a radioactive tracer and gamma ray source. The origin of the word ... Sulfur. 16 S 32.065000000 Sulfur See more Sulfur products. Sulfur (or Sulphur) (atomic symbol: S, atomic number: 16) is a Block ... The sulfur atom has a covalent radius of 105 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 180 pm. In nature, sulfur can be found in hot ...
indium In 113m sulfur colloid 0 *Indium *Sulfur Colloids Indium Radioisotopes. Nucl Med Commun 1992 Nov;13(11):817-23 SDZ 215- ... Octreotide/*analogs & derivatives Indium Radioisotopes Yttrium Radioisotopes. Pharma Action Radiopharmaceuticals Eur J Nucl Med ... Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring *Peptides, Cyclic Indium Radioisotopes Yttrium Radioisotopes. Endocrinology 1999 Nov;140(11): ... Deuteroporphyrins Indium Radioisotopes. Nucl Med Biol 1993 Feb;20(2):231-7 (111)In-. Fab-. DTPA antimyosine 0 *Immunoglobulin ...
38] ] 99mTc RBC scanning is felt to be superior to 99mTc sulfur colloid for the following reasons [] [47] : ... tagged with radioisotopes (eg, technetium-99m) and acquiring images for usually between 60 and 90 minutes. If the findings are ... 99mTc sulfur colloid scans may potentially mask bleeding in the upper abdomen because of activity in the liver and spleen ... Examples of scintigraphic agents include technetium-99m-labeled RBCs and, less commonly, 99mTc sulfur colloid. [42, 43, 44, 45 ...
... manuscript of the Récits dun ChemoStrat Introduction Chemostratigraphy Oxygen Isotopes Carbon Isotopes Radioisotopes Sulfur ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes. Transfection. Note générale:. Journal Article. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt. ...
Sulfur PubMed MeSh Term narrower concept * Sulfur - Sulfur Radioisotopes PubMed MeSh Term ... Sulfur - Sulfur Isotopes PubMed MeSh Term *Overview. Overview. subject area of * Diversity decoupled from sulfur isotope ... Stable Sulfur Isotopes Revealed a Major Role of Transition-Metal Ion-Catalyzed SO2 Oxidation in Haze Episodes Journal Article ... Sulfur Isotope Fractionation by Sulfate-Reducing Microbes Can Reflect Past Physiology. Journal Article ...
99mTc-sulfur colloid also requires an acidic pH to remain stable; such a pH often causes the patient to experience burning at ... Clinical usefulness on accumulation of 99mTc-rhenium colloid in lymph nodes [in Japanese]. Radioisotopes. 1980;29:549-551. ... 99mTc-antimony sulfide colloid, 99mTc-sulfur colloid, 99mTc-albumin colloid, and 99mTc-labeled human serum albumin (HSA) have ... 99mTc-Filtered sulfur colloid (particle size , 100 nm), one of the most commonly used radiotracers for lymphoscintigraphy, is ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes. * Viral Fusion Proteins. authors with profiles * Trudy G Morrison PhD ...
Quarterly progress report 8 8 Hybrid Sulfur Recovery Process for Natural Gas Upgrading Quarterly Report 8 8 Impermeable Thin ... Description: This report addresses the use of radioisotopes for scanning, which has added significantly to the clinicians ... Sonic enhanced ash agglomeration and sulfur capture Description: The major objective of the Phase 1 test program is to confirm ... Radioisotope Distribution Program Progress Report 6 6 Raton Basin Project 6 6 Rockies/Laramie Range Project 6 6 Synthesis and ...
Sulfur. Show source. 35. S. ^{35}S. 35S. Show source. β. \beta. β. 87.32 days. marked atom, mainly in the study of organic ... Table shows example usage of selected radioisotopes.. Beta version#. BETA TEST VERSION OF THIS ITEM. This online calculator is ... Unstable nuclei are sometimes called radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes.. *Large doses of radiation emitted during nuclear ... Table shows example usage of selected radioisotopes. ... application_of_radioisotopes · radioisotopes_usage. Tags to ...
Reduced sulfur / Glacial-Interglacial / Climate change / 炭酸カルシウム / 氷期一間氷期 / 氷期 間氷期 / オパール / 無酸素事件 / 酸化還元環境 / 還元態硫黄 / 氷期-間氷期 / ... Bio Mass Production / Climate Change / Radioisotope /
Furthermore, the mysterious compounds on Europas fractures are likely to contain salts and sulfur compounds that have mixed ... a national competition for elementary through high school students featuring the power of radioisotopes for space exploration. ...
99] m Tc sulfur colloid for the following reasons [] [25] :. * 99m Tc-labeled RBCs persist longer in the intravascular ... tagged with radioisotopes (eg, technetium-99m) and acquiring images for usually between 60 and 90 minutes. If the findings are ... 99m Tc sulfur colloid scans may potentially mask bleeding in the upper abdomen due to activity in the liver and spleen ... Examples of scintigraphic agents include technetium-99m-labeled RBCs and, less commonly,99m Tc sulfur colloid. [20, 21, 22, 23 ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes, Sulfuric Acids, Swine, Thin Layer, Time Factors, Tritium. @article{koolman_sulphage_1973,. title = { ... Sulfur Radioisotopes, Sulfuric Acids, Swine, Thin Layer, Time Factors, Tritium},. pubstate = {published},. tppubtype = {article ... Radioisotopes, Reagents, Regions/chemistry, Ribonucleotides/*analysis, RNA/*genetics/isolation, Support, Thin, Untranslated ... Radioisotopes, Reagents, Regions/chemistry, Ribonucleotides/*analysis, RNA/*genetics/isolation, Support, Thin, Untranslated},. ...
Sulfur Radioisotopes, Sulfuric Acids, Swine, Thin Layer, Time Factors, Tritium. @article{koolman_sulphage_1973,. title = { ... Sulfur Radioisotopes, Sulfuric Acids, Swine, Thin Layer, Time Factors, Tritium},. pubstate = {published},. tppubtype = {article ... The technology relies on electro-switchable DNA nanolevers tethered at one end on a gold surface via a sulfur linker and ... The technology relies on electro-switchable DNA nanolevers tethered at one end on a gold surface via a sulfur linker and ...
The truth is that when radioisotopes are involved there is NO THRESHOLD FOR EFFECTS. Excerpt of interview with Dr Caldicott ... Sulfur-35 (35S) in sulfate aerosol in southern California from March 20-28 2011.[iii] The researchers concluded that neutron ... published in PNAS concluded that the use of salt water to cool the reactors may have contributed to the dispersion of radio-isotopes ...
Tyrosine/*analogs & derivatives Sulfur Radioisotopes. Biochem J 2007 Jan 15;401(2):497-503 3-. (4-. (2-. (5-. methyl-. 2- ... Tyrosine/*analogs & derivatives Bromine Radioisotopes. Nucl Med Biol. 2011 Aug;38(6):857-65. OSU-. DY7 compound 0 Tyrosine/* ... Carbamates Tyrosine/*analogs & derivatives Iodine Radioisotopes. Neurosci Lett. 2005 Oct 28;387(3):141-4 philanthotoxin-. 56 0 ... Coordination Complexes Tyrosine/*analogs & derivatives Gallium Radioisotopes. Contrast Media Mol Imaging. 2011 Nov-Dec;6(6):492 ...
The dataset contains sediment core analyses (extraction for total phosphorus, aluminum, iron, manganese, sodium, sulfur, and ... potassium, sequential chemical extractions of phosphorus species, and pigment concentrations) along with radioisotope-derived ...
A variation of this method is measurement of the uptake rate of the above radioisotope, which is a dynamic (non static) image ... Liver-Spleen scintigraphy with the use of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid was the imaging modality more often used in past for ... The above radioisotope methods, however, have the disadvantage of being more invasive and time-consuming for the patient. ... Lower than expected spleen uptake of Technetium-99m sulfur colloid is suggestive of FH. ...
This lab is specialized on radioisotope tracer studies involving direct measurements of the turnover or incorporation of ... The laboratory equipment includes a distillation setup for reduced sulfur species, a high-pressure thermal gradient incubation ...
Radioisotope Radioisotope: An unstable isotope of an element that decays or disintegrates spontaneously, emitting energy ( ... The term mustard gas typically refers to sulfur mustard (HD), despite HD being neither a mustard nor a gas. Sulfur mustard ... The United Kingdom combined chlorine and sulfur chloride during World War I and the United States combined sulfur mustard and ... radiation). Approximately 5,000 natural and artificial radioisotopes have been identified. Some radioisotopes, such as ...
Presentation of Nuclear Battery ppt and radioisotope generator or tritium battery ppt, ... Radioisotopes used Atomic batteries use radioisotopes that produce low energy beta particles or sometimes alpha particles of ... is an electrochemical system which is based on the electrolyte used in the sodium-sulfur battery, sodium beta-alumina.  ... Stirling Radioisotope Generator  A Stirling engine driven by the temperature difference produced by a radioisotope.  New ...
This objective is addressed using (i) thorium radioisotopes… ... Scavenging and Transport of Thorium Radioisotopes in the North ... Understanding the Ocean Carbon and Sulfur Cycles in the Context of a Variable Ocean: A Study of Anthropogenic Carbon Storage ... Scavenging and Transport of Thorium Radioisotopes in the North Atlantic Ocean. *Radium Isotopes as Tracers of Boundary Inputs ... Scavenging and Transport of Thorium Radioisotopes in the North Atlantic Ocean. Paul Lerner, Ph.D., 2018. Olivier Marchal, Co- ...
The health care provider will inject a radioactive material called a radioisotope into one of your veins. After the liver has ... Technetium scan; Liver technetium sulfur colloid scan; Liver-spleen radionuclide scan; Nuclear scan - technetium; Nuclear scan ...
  • Various imaging modalities may be employed to diagnose and define a source of bleeding, including colonoscopy, nuclear scintigraphy with technetium‐99m‐labeled red blood cell or 99m Tc sulfur colloid, computed tomography, and transcatheter digital subtraction angiography. (medscape.com)
  • Bone scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labelled methylene diphosphonate ( 99m Tc-MDP), technetium-99m sulphur colloid ( 99m Tc-SC), and technetium-99m-labelled white blood cells ( 99m Tc-WBC). (cadth.ca)
  • Sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon hybrid coupling with graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles: Rational synthesis and advanced multifunctional electrochemical properties. (americanelements.com)
  • Herein, graphite coated cobalt and cobalt sulfide nanoparticles decorating on sulphur and nitrogen dual-doped mesoporous carbon (Co@Co9S8/S-N-C) was fabricated by a combined hydrothermal reaction with pyrolysis method. (americanelements.com)
  • System is designed as an advanced analytical platform for Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen, Sulfur and Oxygen (CHNSO). (csulb.edu)
  • Nitrogen trifluoride: A new reactant gas in CRIMS (Chemical Reaction Interface Mass Spectrometry) for detection of phosphorus, deuterium, chlorine, and sulfur. (sisweb.com)
  • Co-60, a commercially important radioisotope, is useful as a radioactive tracer and gamma ray source. (americanelements.com)
  • Unstable nuclei are sometimes called radioactive isotopes or radioisotopes . (calculla.com)
  • The terms atomic battery, nuclear battery, tritium battery, and radioisotope generator are used to describe a device that uses energy from the decay of a radioactive isotope to generate electricity. (topicsforseminar.com)
  • Scans like this one, produced using a radioactive isotope of technetium labeled with a sulfur compound, assist doctors in assessments of organ function and in diagnoses. (sciencenews.org)
  • Instrument used to detect and measure gamma radiation emitted by a radioisotope (radioactive isotope), samples are. (csulb.edu)
  • The health care provider will inject a radioactive material called a radioisotope into one of your veins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sulfur Isotope Fractionation by Sulfate-Reducing Microbes Can Reflect Past Physiology. (colorado.edu)
  • Dimethylsulfoxide is an antioxidant sulphur compound. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Sulfur has been known since ancient times but was not accepted as an element until 1777, when Antoine Lavoisier helped to convince the scientific community that it was an element and not a compound. (americanelements.com)
  • In chemistry, a Sulfur Compound is a chalcogen compound , that may be organic compounds ( such as organosulfur compounds ) or inorganic compounds, that contain as an integral part of the molecule a sulfur atom (S) . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • Furthermore, the mysterious compounds on Europa's fractures are likely to contain salts and sulfur compounds that have mixed with the ice water and have been possibly modified by radiation. (nasa.gov)
  • This lab is specialized on radioisotope tracer studies involving direct measurements of the turnover or incorporation of radioactively labelled compounds. (geo-x.net)
  • The dataset contains sediment core analyses (extraction for total phosphorus, aluminum, iron, manganese, sodium, sulfur, and potassium, sequential chemical extractions of phosphorus species, and pigment concentrations) along with radioisotope-derived sediment core dating results (sediment age and sediment accumulate rates). (frdr-dfdr.ca)
  • 10. Alkali-metal Thermal To Electric Converter  The alkali-metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC) is an electrochemical system which is based on the electrolyte used in the sodium-sulfur battery, sodium beta-alumina. (topicsforseminar.com)
  • In its elemental form, sulfur has a light yellow appearance. (americanelements.com)
  • In elemental science, Sulfur (S) , is a p-block element , located at the group 16 also known as the chalcogen group, period 3 of the periodic table of elements . (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • It is a nonmetal more rarely considered a metalloid with properties that are intermediate between the elements above and below in the periodic table, sulfur and tellurium, and also has similarities to arsenic. (w3we.com)
  • Not only are radioisotopes expensive and difficult to use, but they cannot be employed in some applications, such as the analysis of drug metabolism in children. (sisweb.com)
  • The sulfur atom has a covalent radius of 105 pm and a Van der Waals radius of 180 pm. (americanelements.com)
  • Sulfur (or Sulphur) (atomic symbol: S, atomic number: 16) is a Block P, Group 16, Period 3 element with an atomic radius of 32.066. (americanelements.com)
  • In chemistry, Sulfur (S) , a chalcogen group member, is a reactive nonmetal element with the atomic weight of 32.066. (wellnessadvocate.com)
  • The non-primordial radioisotope 79Se also occurs in minute quantities in uranium ores as a product of nuclear fission. (w3we.com)
  • Selenium is found in , where it partially replaces the sulfur. (w3we.com)
  • The EDXRF Service Center offers full service and support functions for Rigaku EDXRF products as well as other EDXRF lines, such as the ASOMA and SPECTRO Benchtop XRF as well as ASOMA and SPECTRO On-Line XRF and XRT (X-ray Transimmission sulfur gauge) product lines. (edxrfservice.com)
  • The technology relies on electro-switchable DNA nanolevers tethered at one end on a gold surface via a sulfur linker and labeled with a Cy3 dye on the other end. (cnrs.fr)
  • NASA selected three winners out of nine finalists in the second annual Power to Explore Challenge, a national competition for elementary through high school students featuring the power of radioisotopes for space exploration. (nasa.gov)
  • en] Copper concentration and speciation were determined in influent and effluent waters collected from eight power stations that used copper alloys in their cooling systems. (iaea.org)
  • Most molybdenum-99, feedstock for the most-used radioisotope in medical imaging, comes from just five aging reactors. (sciencenews.org)
  • Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sulfur Isotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes. (wakehealth.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Sulfur Isotopes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Sulfur Isotopes" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Sulfur Isotopes" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • The first medical applications of radioisotopes paralleled the development of the nuclear physics instruments which all these isotopes produced: the (charged) particle accelerators. (wiseinternational.org)
  • The first commercial medical cyclotron was installed in 1941 at Washington University, St. Louis, where radioactive isotopes of phosphorus, iron, arsenic and sulfur were produced. (wiseinternational.org)
  • Further data for radioisotopes (radioactive isotopes) of helium are listed (including any which occur naturally) below. (webelements.com)
  • Nevertheless, the half-life of the technetium-99m ( 99 mTc) is up to 6 h, while molybdenum-99 ( 99 Mo) decays rapidly, which may restrict the scheduling of radioisotopes production and delivering. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Radioisotopes including cobalt-60, phosphorus-32, sulfur-35, and carbon-14 were created at Oak Ridge's X-10 reactor. (nuclearmuseum.org)
  • Enrico Fermi produced a whole range of radioisotopes, including phosphorus-32 (32P). (wiseinternational.org)
  • However, cobalt is usually found in the environment combined with other elements such as oxygen, sulfur, and arsenic. (cdc.gov)
  • In 1924, the tracer concept paved the way for the use of radioisotopes as diagnostic tools. (wiseinternational.org)
  • Coupled with the Geiger counter's detection capabilities, their discovery markedly expanded the range of possible radioisotopes for clinical tracer studies. (wiseinternational.org)
  • Radioisotopes can also be used, typically in higher doses than as a tracer, as treatment. (openstax.org)
  • Tin Radioisotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (childrensmercy.org)
  • Like the production of acid rain/NOx/Sulphur junk in the atmosphere! (boredofstudies.org)
  • Only La-139 is used for the production of the medical radioisotope Ce-139. (webelements.com)
  • Radioisotopes used in medicine typically have short half-lives-for example, the ubiquitous Tc-99m has a half-life of 6.01 hours. (openstax.org)
  • High-grade transvaal chalcopyrite was neutron-irradiated to produce radioisotopes copper- 64, iron-59, and sulfur-35. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the other radioisotopes of these elements do not have half-lives of more than a minute. (periodic-table.com)