Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.Sulfur Compounds: Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Sulfur Isotopes: Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.Amino Acids, SulfurMustard Gas: Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).Sulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Thiosulfates: Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.Sulfur Oxides: Inorganic oxides of sulfur.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Oxidoreductases Acting on Sulfur Group Donors: Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.Sulfur Hexafluoride: Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.Chromatiaceae: A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.Chemical Warfare Agents: Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.Sulfurtransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.Sulfur Acids: Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Chlorobium: A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.Hydrogen Sulfide: A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Chromatium: A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.Sulfites: Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Acidithiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.Sulfonium Compounds: Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.Cysteine Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC Bacteria: A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.Iron-Sulfur Proteins: A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC Reductase: An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.Thiobacillus: A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Sulfur Group Transferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thiotrichaceae: A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Epsilonproteobacteria: A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.Sulfate Adenylyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC gamma-Lyase: A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Acidianus: A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Phototrophic Processes: Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Molybdenum: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Sulfur Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.Thiouridine: A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.CystathionineAcidithiobacillus thiooxidans: A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Tetrathionic Acid: A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.Nitrogen Dioxide: Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.Volcanic Eruptions: The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Halitosis: An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Metalloproteins: Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Vitamin U: A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Acid Rain: Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.Autotrophic Processes: The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.Thiocapsa: A genus of anoxygenic, photosynthetic, nonmotile, spherical to slightly ovoid bacterial cells occurring singly, or in aggregates of two or four, and usually surrounded with slime. It is found in stagnant water, mud of ponds, estuaries, and microbial mats of salt marshes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Atmosphere: The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Hydrothermal Vents: Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.Paracoccus pantotrophus: A species of gram-negative, coccoid, mostly chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE. Some strains can grow anaerobically.Spectrum Analysis: The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Carbon-Oxygen Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Hot Springs: Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sulfite Oxidase: A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.Adenosine Phosphosulfate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1/2084)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (2/2084)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (3/2084)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

The aconitase of yeast. IV. Studies on iron and sulfur in yeast aconitase. (4/2084)

Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the active components of the crystalline aconitase [EC] of Candida lipolytica. The enzyme contained 2 atoms of non-heme iron, 1 atom of labile sulfur, and 6 sulfhydryl groups per molecule. One atom of the non-heme iron was released by the addition of metal-chelating agents such as sodium citrate, sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) or sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) without loss of the enzyme activity. The non-heme iron and labile sulfur were released by the addition of sulfhydryl reagents such as rho-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), sodium mersalyl or urea with loss of the enzyme activity. o-Phenanthroline reacted with the iron atoms in the enzyme at pH 6.0 with loss of the activity. These results show that yeast aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein and that only one of the two non-heme iron atoms is essential for enzyme activity.  (+info)

Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments. (5/2084)

A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data, these bacteria are closely related to the marine filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca, abundant in the upwelling area off Chile and Peru. Similar to Thioploca, the giant bacteria oxidize sulfide with nitrate that is accumulated to +info)

Kinetics and inhibition of recombinant human cystathionine gamma-lyase. Toward the rational control of transsulfuration. (6/2084)

The gene encoding human cystathionine gamma-lyase was cloned from total cellular Hep G2 RNA. Fusion to a T7 promoter allowed expression in Escherichia coli, representing the first mammalian cystathionine gamma-lyase overproduced in a bacterial system. About 90% of the heterologous gene product was insoluble, and renaturation experiments from purified inclusion bodies met with limited success. About 5 mg/liter culture of human cystathionine gamma-lyase could also be extracted from the soluble lysis fraction, employing a three-step native procedure. While the enzyme showed high gamma-lyase activity toward L-cystathionine (Km = 0.5 mM, Vmax = 2.5 units/mg) with an optimum pH of 8.2, no residual cystathionine beta-lyase behavior and only marginal reactivity toward L-cystine and L-cysteine were detected. Inhibition studies were performed with the mechanism-based inactivators propargylglycine, trifluoroalanine, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Propargylglycine inactivated human cystathionine gamma-lyase much more strongly than trifluoroalanine, in agreement with the enzyme's preference for C-gamma-S bonds. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed slow and tight binding characteristics with a Ki of 10.5 microM, comparable with its effect on cystathionine beta-lyase. The results have important implications for the design of specific inhibitors for transsulfuration components.  (+info)

Role of XDHC in Molybdenum cofactor insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus. (7/2084)

Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is composed of two subunits, XDHA and XDHB. Immediately downstream of xdhB, a third gene was identified, designated xdhC, which is cotranscribed with xdhAB. Interposon mutagenesis revealed that the xdhC gene product is required for XDH activity. However, XDHC is not a subunit of active XDH, which forms an alpha2beta2 heterotetramer in R. capsulatus. It was shown that XDHC neither is a transcriptional regulator for xdh gene expression nor influences XDH stability. To analyze the function of XDHC for XDH in R. capsulatus, inactive XDH was purified from an xdhC mutant strain. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor content of this enzyme demonstrated that in the absence of XDHC, no molybdopterin cofactor MPT is present in the XDHAB tetramer. In contrast, absorption spectra of inactive XDH isolated from the xdhC mutant revealed the presence of iron-sulfur clusters and flavin adenine dinucleotide, demonstrating that XDHC is not required for the insertion of these cofactors. The absence of MPT from XDH isolated from an xdhC mutant indicates that XDHC either acts as a specific MPT insertase or might be a specific chaperone facilitating the insertion of MPT and/or folding of XDH during or after cofactor insertion.  (+info)

Thiomicrospira kuenenii sp. nov. and Thiomicrospira frisia sp. nov., two mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat. (8/2084)

Two new members of the genus Thiomicrospira were isolated from an intertidal mud flat sample with thiosulfate as the electron donor and CO2 as carbon source. On the basis of differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain JB-A1T (= DSM 12350T) and strain JB-A2T (= DSM 12351T) are members of two new species, Thiomicrospira kuenenii and Thiomicrospira frisia, respectively. The cells were Gram-negative vibrios or slightly bent rods. Strain JB-A1T was highly motile, whereas strain JB-A2T showed a much lower degree of motility combined with a strong tendency to form aggregates. Both organisms were obligately autotrophic and strictly aerobic. Nitrate was not used as electron acceptor. Chemolithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur and sulfide. Neither isolate was able to grow heterotrophically. For strain JB-A1T, growth was observed between pH values of 4.0 and 7.5 with an optimum at pH 6.0, whereas for strain JB-A2T, growth was observed between pH 4.2 and 8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. The temperature limits for growth were between 3.5 and 42 degrees C and 3.5 and 39 degrees C, respectively. The optimum growth temperature for strain JB-A1T was between 29 and 33.5 degrees C, whereas strain JB-A2T showed optimal growth between 32 and 35 degrees C. The mean maximum growth rate on thiosulfate was 0.35 h-1 for strain JB-A1T and 0.45 h-1 for strain JB-A2T.  (+info)

  • In order to use the correct Floating Price quotations, the nearby month quotation for ICE Low Sulphur Gasoil Futures specified in the Floating Price terms above will be used except for the expiration date of the commodity's underlying delivery month's futures contract. (
  • Research scientists at the Saudi Aramco EXPEC Advanced Research Center may be on the cusp of mitigating future elemental sulfur and even removing its deposition tenfold by using a cheaper solid-liquid mixture - simple garlic and low-grade heavy diesel oil. (
  • Elemental sulfur deposition problems affect pipeline production operations in many oil industries across the globe, and it is extremely costly to mitigate. (
  • The heightened cost of this deposition issue can be attributed to the scant knowledge available on elemental sulfur formation in sour gas. (
  • Unlike pricey batch solvents from service companies around the world, the sulfur removal solvent technology uses a special "ionic base" chemical together with garlic and heavy diesel oil to rapidly dissolve sulfur powder and crystals in the laboratory, providing "unique catenation and solubility functions that promote the dissolution of elemental sulfur deposition in our sour gas wells. (
  • Most of the sulfur released from lunar soil during higher-temperature thermal treatment is trapped by the LSCS at lower temperatures on iron oxides present in lunar soil. (
  • It is a great challenge for scientists all around the world to make proper use of aliphatic organosulfur components in garlic to maximize its beneficial effect," said Oduro, noting that this is the first time garlic extracts have been applied to petroleum research activities to curb large-scale sulfur deposition challenges. (
  • This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sulfur content by oxidative microcoulometry of petroleum light and middle distillates with a final boiling point not higher than 400 °C. It is applicable to materials with sulfur contents in the range of 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. (
  • biodesulfurization (BDS), is a biological method proposed for desulfurization of ring components of sulfur which is a non-destructive pathway to remove sulfur from hydrocarbons of petroleum in the mild conditions which potentially used as complementary with HDS. (
  • Abstract The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources. (
  • The State of New York and other Northeastern states are implementing more stringent fuel standards that require replacement of high sulfur (2,000 parts per million) heating oil to ultra low sulfur fuel (15 parts per million). (
  • The LSCS is applicable to thermal ISRU reduction processes in which sulfur is released in forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbonyl sulfide (COS), or carbon disulfide (CS2). (
  • The stoichiometric amount of manganese needed to simply combine with the sulfur is 1.7 (%S). This means the ratio of manganese to sulfur in a manganese sulfide particle is 1.7. (
  • Further, equation 4 defines a relationship ensuring all sulfur is present as manganese sulfide, but it does not describe the conditions under which manganese sulfide forms in gray iron. (
  • In an analysis of past investigations, tensile strength was plotted as a function of the difference between the actual sulfur and the equilibrium amount of sulfur needed for MnS precipitation before solidification. (
  • Until our study, we didn't really know how sulfur atoms are incorporated into a natural product-now we have discovered a new family of enzymes and have a workable mechanism to account for sulfur incorporation into a larger class of natural products, known as polyketides, that include many drugs such as erythromycin (antibacterial) and lovastatin (cholesterol lowering). (
  • The study links a family of enzymes-molecules that act as biological catalysts-known as polyketide synthases (PKS) directly to a complex series of chemical reactions that ultimately add sulfur to leinamycin, a member of the polyketide family of natural products. (
  • Since polyketide synthases are a large family of enzymes that have been proven amenable for polyketide structural diversity and drug discovery, it is particularly exciting that this new discovery now provides the possibilities of adding sulfur atoms to compounds similar to leinamycin or other polyketide natural products. (
  • The present book discusses the aspects of sustainable crop production with sulfur, the importance of sulfur metabolites and sulfur metabolizing enzymes in abiotic stress management in plants. (
  • Oduro explains that organic garlic extracts and its sulfur amino acid components have been widely recognized as agents for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases. (
  • Detailed is an analysis of how the concentration of sulfur and manganese in gray iron at solidification relates to gray iron microstructure and mechanical properties. (
  • Sulfur is critical not only to human life, but to plants and bacteria as well, and is one of the most abundant elements in the human body by weight. (
  • Its assimilation in higher plants and its reduction in metabolically important sulfur compounds are crucial factors determining plant growth and vigor and resistance to stresses. (
  • The information on sulfur assimilation can be exploited in tailoring for efficient sulfur utilization, and in the applied approaches for the sustenance of agricultural productivity through nutritional improvement and increased stress tolerance. (
  • One of the most difficult problems facing operators and engineers in the hydrocarbon industry is how to economically control and prevent the occurrence of sulfur. (
  • Experimenting creatively for far-reaching solutions, our geochemists have been working on a new kind of solvent extract from simple garlic that could dissolve large amounts of pipeline sulfur deposits at reservoir conditions in a shorter time period. (
  • Products with sulfur contents above 100 mg/kg can be analysed after dilution with a suitable sulfur-free solvent. (
  • A monthly cash settled future based on the difference between the Platts daily assessment price for Singapore Gasoil 0.05% sulfur and the ICE settlement price for Low Sulphur Gasoil 1st Line Future. (
  • Thus, investigations were performed using a solubility product approach to evaluate how the effects of sulfur and manganese on gray iron properties are related to the dissolved amounts of both elements remaining in the molten iron when solidification begins. (
  • This paper reviews crop responses to sulphur in Europe, focusing on oilseed rape, cereals and grass, on which most field trials have been carried out. (
  • Sulfur occurs in various forms in oil and gas production activities, and its management has brought a new set of challenges to the forefront of oil and gas production. (
  • As needed, small amounts of polishing sorbents are used to reduce equilibrium sulfur concentrations to the low ppm level. (
  • A negative value indicated the equilibrium sulfur (determined by a particular level of manganese) was greater than the actual sulfur level. (