An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.2.99.8.
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC 2.8.1.1.
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC 2.7.7.4.
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC 4.4.1.1.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A genus of anoxygenic, photosynthetic, nonmotile, spherical to slightly ovoid bacterial cells occurring singly, or in aggregates of two or four, and usually surrounded with slime. It is found in stagnant water, mud of ponds, estuaries, and microbial mats of salt marshes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
A species of gram-negative, coccoid, mostly chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE. Some strains can grow anaerobically.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1/2084)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (2/2084)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (3/2084)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

The aconitase of yeast. IV. Studies on iron and sulfur in yeast aconitase. (4/2084)

Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the active components of the crystalline aconitase [EC 4.2.1.3] of Candida lipolytica. The enzyme contained 2 atoms of non-heme iron, 1 atom of labile sulfur, and 6 sulfhydryl groups per molecule. One atom of the non-heme iron was released by the addition of metal-chelating agents such as sodium citrate, sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) or sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) without loss of the enzyme activity. The non-heme iron and labile sulfur were released by the addition of sulfhydryl reagents such as rho-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), sodium mersalyl or urea with loss of the enzyme activity. o-Phenanthroline reacted with the iron atoms in the enzyme at pH 6.0 with loss of the activity. These results show that yeast aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein and that only one of the two non-heme iron atoms is essential for enzyme activity.  (+info)

Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments. (5/2084)

A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data, these bacteria are closely related to the marine filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca, abundant in the upwelling area off Chile and Peru. Similar to Thioploca, the giant bacteria oxidize sulfide with nitrate that is accumulated to +info)

Kinetics and inhibition of recombinant human cystathionine gamma-lyase. Toward the rational control of transsulfuration. (6/2084)

The gene encoding human cystathionine gamma-lyase was cloned from total cellular Hep G2 RNA. Fusion to a T7 promoter allowed expression in Escherichia coli, representing the first mammalian cystathionine gamma-lyase overproduced in a bacterial system. About 90% of the heterologous gene product was insoluble, and renaturation experiments from purified inclusion bodies met with limited success. About 5 mg/liter culture of human cystathionine gamma-lyase could also be extracted from the soluble lysis fraction, employing a three-step native procedure. While the enzyme showed high gamma-lyase activity toward L-cystathionine (Km = 0.5 mM, Vmax = 2.5 units/mg) with an optimum pH of 8.2, no residual cystathionine beta-lyase behavior and only marginal reactivity toward L-cystine and L-cysteine were detected. Inhibition studies were performed with the mechanism-based inactivators propargylglycine, trifluoroalanine, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Propargylglycine inactivated human cystathionine gamma-lyase much more strongly than trifluoroalanine, in agreement with the enzyme's preference for C-gamma-S bonds. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed slow and tight binding characteristics with a Ki of 10.5 microM, comparable with its effect on cystathionine beta-lyase. The results have important implications for the design of specific inhibitors for transsulfuration components.  (+info)

Role of XDHC in Molybdenum cofactor insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus. (7/2084)

Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is composed of two subunits, XDHA and XDHB. Immediately downstream of xdhB, a third gene was identified, designated xdhC, which is cotranscribed with xdhAB. Interposon mutagenesis revealed that the xdhC gene product is required for XDH activity. However, XDHC is not a subunit of active XDH, which forms an alpha2beta2 heterotetramer in R. capsulatus. It was shown that XDHC neither is a transcriptional regulator for xdh gene expression nor influences XDH stability. To analyze the function of XDHC for XDH in R. capsulatus, inactive XDH was purified from an xdhC mutant strain. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor content of this enzyme demonstrated that in the absence of XDHC, no molybdopterin cofactor MPT is present in the XDHAB tetramer. In contrast, absorption spectra of inactive XDH isolated from the xdhC mutant revealed the presence of iron-sulfur clusters and flavin adenine dinucleotide, demonstrating that XDHC is not required for the insertion of these cofactors. The absence of MPT from XDH isolated from an xdhC mutant indicates that XDHC either acts as a specific MPT insertase or might be a specific chaperone facilitating the insertion of MPT and/or folding of XDH during or after cofactor insertion.  (+info)

Thiomicrospira kuenenii sp. nov. and Thiomicrospira frisia sp. nov., two mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat. (8/2084)

Two new members of the genus Thiomicrospira were isolated from an intertidal mud flat sample with thiosulfate as the electron donor and CO2 as carbon source. On the basis of differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain JB-A1T (= DSM 12350T) and strain JB-A2T (= DSM 12351T) are members of two new species, Thiomicrospira kuenenii and Thiomicrospira frisia, respectively. The cells were Gram-negative vibrios or slightly bent rods. Strain JB-A1T was highly motile, whereas strain JB-A2T showed a much lower degree of motility combined with a strong tendency to form aggregates. Both organisms were obligately autotrophic and strictly aerobic. Nitrate was not used as electron acceptor. Chemolithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur and sulfide. Neither isolate was able to grow heterotrophically. For strain JB-A1T, growth was observed between pH values of 4.0 and 7.5 with an optimum at pH 6.0, whereas for strain JB-A2T, growth was observed between pH 4.2 and 8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. The temperature limits for growth were between 3.5 and 42 degrees C and 3.5 and 39 degrees C, respectively. The optimum growth temperature for strain JB-A1T was between 29 and 33.5 degrees C, whereas strain JB-A2T showed optimal growth between 32 and 35 degrees C. The mean maximum growth rate on thiosulfate was 0.35 h-1 for strain JB-A1T and 0.45 h-1 for strain JB-A2T.  (+info)

Scope This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sulfur content by oxidative microcoulometry of petroleum light and middle distillates with a final boiling point not higher than 400 °C. It is applicable to materials with sulfur contents in the range of 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Products with sulfur contents above 100 mg/kg can be analysed after dilution with a suitable sulfur-free solvent. Products with sulfur contents below 1 mg/kg can also be analysed by a modified technique described in Annex A. The precision quoted only applies to measurements in the 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg range. Nitrogen interferes with the analysis at concentrations above 0,1 % (m/m), and chlorine interferes at concentrations above 1,0 % (m/m), but these interferences are overcome by the addition of sodium azide to the cell electrolyte. Bromine and organometallic compounds also interfere with the analysis at concentrations above approximately 500 mg/kg. NOTE 1 The microcoulometric method is ...
Scope This International Standard specifies a method for the determination of the sulfur content by oxidative microcoulometry of petroleum light and middle distillates with a final boiling point not higher than 400 °C. It is applicable to materials with sulfur contents in the range of 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg. Products with sulfur contents above 100 mg/kg can be analysed after dilution with a suitable sulfur-free solvent. Products with sulfur contents below 1 mg/kg can also be analysed by a modified technique described in Annex A. The precision quoted only applies to measurements in the 1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg range. Nitrogen interferes with the analysis at concentrations above 0,1 % (m/m), and chlorine interferes at concentrations above 1,0 % (m/m), but these interferences are overcome by the addition of sodium azide to the cell electrolyte. Bromine and organometallic compounds also interfere with the analysis at concentrations above approximately 500 mg/kg. NOTE 1 The microcoulometric method is ...
This report attempts to show the sulfur content of the coal presently produced in the United States and to assess the remaining reserves of the various ranks of coal in each State, according to sulfur content. In most instances, the analyses used were those of cleaned coals. Coals were arbitrarily separated, according to sulfur content, as follows: Low sulfur--1.0 percent or less; medium sulfur--1.1 through 3.0 percent; and high sulfur--3.1 percent or more.. ...
0009]To attain this goal, the method in accordance with the invention for the determination of the sulfur content in fuels provides for the introduction of a sample of a fuel to be investigated in a combustion chamber, for the sulfur contained in the sample to be oxidized to SO2, for the gas mixture formed in the combustion chamber after the oxidation of the sulfur, or a part thereof, to be conducted to a gas sensor sensitive to SO2 in the gas mixture, for the SO2 fraction of the gas mixture to be ascertained by means of the gas sensor and for the sulfur content of the sample to be determined from the ascertained SO2 fraction of the gas mixture. Preferably, the combustion chamber is miniaturized and/or designed to be in a microstructured form. Thus, a method is described which can be implemented with simple components, wherein a simple management is possible when carrying out the method ...
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D7679 - 16 Standard Test Method for Sulfur Content in Carbon Black Feedstock Oils , carbon black, combustion, feedstock, hydrocarbon oil, sulfur content, x-ray fluorescence,,
101 PURPOSE: To limit the emission of compounds of sulfur from combustion of fuels.. 110 EXEMPTIONS: The provisions of this rule shall not apply to:. 110.1 The burning of sulfur, hydrogen sulfide, acid sludge or other sulfur compounds in the manufacturing of sulfur or other sulfur compounds;. 110.2 The incinerating of waste gases provided that the gross heating value of such gases is less than 2.14 kilogram- calories per cubic meter (300 British Thermal Units per cubic foot) at standard conditions and the fuel used to incinerate such waste gases does not contain sulfur or sulfur compounds in excess of the mount specified in this rule;. 110.3 The use of solid fuels in any metallurgical process;. 110.4 The use of fuels where the gaseous products of combustion are used as raw materials for other processes;. 110.5 The use of liquid, or solid fuel, to propel or test any vehicle, aircraft, missile, locomotive, boat or ship;. 110.6 The use of fuel with higher sulfur content where process conditions or ...
A process for reducing sulfur content in a gaseous stream with the production of elemental sulfur by first treating the gaseous steam with hydrogenation and hydrolysis to convert substantially all of the sulfur components therein to hydrogen sulfide. Then reducing the water content of the gaseous stream to optimize chemical equilibrium. Thereafter, the gaseous steam is contacted in an oxidation reactor with an acid catalyst at a temperature of about 150 C. to about 350 C. to convert hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur. The product gas leaving the oxidation reactor is cooled to separate elemental sulfur by condensation. The acid catalyst is a shape selective zeolite, a metal-exchanged or impregnated alumina, or a mixture thereof. The alumina is gamma phase alumina impregnated with from about 0.2 wt % to about 2.0 wt % metal.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sulfur starvation in rice. T2 - the effect on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and oxidative stress protective pathways. AU - Lunde, Christina. AU - Zygadlo, Agnieszka. AU - Simonsen, Henrik Toft. AU - Nielsen, Per Lassen. AU - Blennow, Andreas. AU - Haldrup, Anna. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. N2 - Sulfur-deficient plants generate a lower yield and have a reduced nutritional value. The process of sulfur acquisition and assimilation play an integral role in plant metabolism, and response to sulfur deficiency involves a large number of plant constituents. Rice (Oryza sativa) is the second most consumed cereal grain, and the effects of sulfur deprivation in rice were analyzed by measuring changes in photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and antioxidants. The photosynthetic apparatus was severely affected under sulfur deficiency. The Chl content was reduced by 49% because of a general reduction of PSII and PSI and the associated light-harvesting antenna. The PSII efficiency was ...
10. Eggs promote healthy hair plus nails on account of their high sulphur content plus wide array of vitamins plus minerals. ... 20 Health Benefits of Turmeric - posted in ... Jump to content. Signup Sign in; ... (as of plants) plus all the other sulfur containing plant foods like onions, garlic, kale ...
0042] In reference to FIG. 5, in one embodiment of the invention process 100E, biomass 102 is provided to digestion system 106 that may have one or more digester(s), whereby the biomass is contacted with a digestive solvent. The solvent liquor 110 containing the dissolved nitrogen compounds and dissolved sulfur compounds and at least a portion of the lignin are removed from the treated biomass pulp 120 that contains carbohydrates and having less than 35% of the sulfur content, preferably less than 10% of the sulfur content, and most preferably less than 3% of the sulfur content, and less than 35% of the nitrogen content, preferably less than 10% of the nitrogen content, and most preferably less than 3% of the nitrogen content, based on the nitrogen content or sulfur content, respectively, of the untreated biomass 102 on a dry mass basis. At least a portion of the treated biomass pulp 120 is fed to a first digestive zone of an aqueous reforming system 126A, whereby the treated biomass pulp is ...
This application note describes the analysis of sulfur contents larger than 0.10 wt% in crude oils, according to international standard ISO 8754, using the Epsilon 3X
Article Failure analysis showing the effect of sulphur content in stainless steel on the resistance to stress corrosion cracking in marine environments at ambient temperatures. The risk of environmentally assisted cracking in downhole components is h...
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Farmers, loggers, truckers and others may face fines of up to $32,500 per day per violation if they do not meet new national standards for the sulfur content of their off-road diesel fuel. The Environmental Protection Agency regulations will be enacted on October 1.
Keywords: Cereals, Grass, Oilseed rape, Sulphur responses, Sulphur fertilisers.. Sulphur (S) deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe since the 1980s. This is due to a massive decrease in the atmospheric deposition of sulphur, a change in the use of fertilisers that contain low sulphur and increased crop yields. This paper reviews crop responses to sulphur in Europe, focusing on oilseed rape, cereals and grass, on which most field trials have been carried out. Multicut grass for silage has been shown to be highly susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and yield responses to sulphur of between 5 and 30% are common in Ireland, the UK and other countries. Oilseed rape is also susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and sulphur fertilisation can produce a dramatic yield response under deficiency conditions. Sulphur deficiency in oilseed rape has been widely reported in France, Germany, Denmark and the UK. Although cereals have a lower requirement for sulphur, responses to sulphur ...
Keywords: Cereals, Grass, Oilseed rape, Sulphur responses, Sulphur fertilisers.. Sulphur (S) deficiency has become widespread in many countries in Europe since the 1980s. This is due to a massive decrease in the atmospheric deposition of sulphur, a change in the use of fertilisers that contain low sulphur and increased crop yields. This paper reviews crop responses to sulphur in Europe, focusing on oilseed rape, cereals and grass, on which most field trials have been carried out. Multicut grass for silage has been shown to be highly susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and yield responses to sulphur of between 5 and 30% are common in Ireland, the UK and other countries. Oilseed rape is also susceptible to sulphur deficiency, and sulphur fertilisation can produce a dramatic yield response under deficiency conditions. Sulphur deficiency in oilseed rape has been widely reported in France, Germany, Denmark and the UK. Although cereals have a lower requirement for sulphur, responses to sulphur ...
The aim of this paper is to analyze the quantitative impact of fuel sulfur content on particulate oxidation catalyst (POC) functionality, focusing on soot emission reduction and the ability to regenerate. Studies were conducted on fuels containing three different levels of sulfur, covering the range of 6 to 340 parts per million, for a light-duty application. The data presented in this paper provide further insights into the specific issues associated with usage of a POC with fuels of higher sulfur content. A 48-hour loading phase was performed for each fuel, during which filter smoke number, temperature and back-pressure were all observed to vary depending on the fuel sulfur level. The Fuel Sulfur Content (FSC) affected also soot particle size distributions (particle number and size) so that with FSC 6 ppm the soot particle concentration was lower than with FSC 65 and 340, both upstream and downstream of the POC. Conversely, FSC did not have major effects on the soot particle number reduction ...
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As previously communicated, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) is implementing new regulations on January 1, 2020, which further reduce sulfur content requirements of marine fuel from 3.5% to 0.5% for vessels operating outside of designated Emission Control Areas (ECAs). Within the North American, Puerto Rico & USVI Emission Control Areas (ECAs), sulfur content will remain at 0.1% as was previous established on January 1, 2015. Additional information regarding these regulations can be found on the IMO website.. To ensure compliance with these new regulations, Crowley will begin sourcing low sulfur fuel in the applicable international theaters effective November 1, 2019. Therefore, with the upcoming review of mid-August to mid-September 2019, Crowley will transition to monitoring the price of low sulfur fuel against the current index. Until compliant 0.5% is available in sufficient quantities and compatibility testing has been confirmed, the low sulfur fuel type monitored and sourced ...
Nitrogen deficiency:. Classic symptom description is yellowing of lower (older) leaves, from the leaf tip to the base down the midrib.. Sulfur deficiency:. Classic symptom description is yellowing of new leaves (in the whorl, sometimes with interveinal striping), with lower (older) leaves remaining uniform green (Figure 1).. However, both N and S are tied together due to several common physiological process, therefore, early growth symptoms can be similar. Examples including overall leaf and plant yellowing, spindly plants, and interveinal striping. These similar symptoms most often occur when plants are small and there is severe deficiency (low soil supply and no fertilization). Also, plant response from fertilizer application can be quite similar for N and S, that is, good growth and green plants with uniform coloration (Figure 2). Sulfur does not move as readily in plants as N, so symptoms should differentiate on different plant parts. However, with young plants, early onset of symptoms, and ...
Sulphur deficiency resembles nitrogen deficiency, but at the top of the plant. Because sulphur is not mobile, the deficiency is first observed in the younger leaves. These turn pale green, while the petioles get a strong purple tint. The leaf tips can curl up. If several leaves start to fade, the colour changes from li
Combustion of sulfur components of fossil fuels such as oil causes the emission of SO2 in the atmosphere and lead to the formation of acidic rain in the environment. The conventional approach for desulfurization of fossil fuels is the chemical procedure of hydrodesulfurization (HDS). However, this method has low efficiency for desulfurization of ring components of sulfur such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) that include a significant percentage of the total sulfur content of fossil fuel. biodesulfurization (BDS), is a biological method proposed for desulfurization of ring components of sulfur which is a non-destructive pathway to remove sulfur from hydrocarbons of petroleum in the mild conditions which potentially used as complementary with HDS. For industrial application of BDS, the approach needs the new challenge to enhance desulfurization activity by genetic engineering methods and bioreactor development to achieve from a fantasy technique to an industrial and reality method for reduction of sulfur
Sulfur is an essential element for growth and physiological functioning of plants. However, its content strongly varies between plant species and it ranges from 0.1 to 6% of the plants dry weight. Sulfates taken up by the roots are the major sulfur source for growth, though it has to be reduced to sulfide before it is further metabolized. Root plastids contain all sulfate reduction enzymes, but the reduction of sulfate to sulfide and its subsequent incorporation into cysteine predominantly takes place in the shoot, in the chloroplasts. Cysteine is the precursor or reduced sulfur donor of most other organic sulfur compounds in plants. The predominant proportion of the organic sulfur is present in the protein fraction (up to 70% of total sulfur), as cysteine and methionine (two amino acids) residues. Cysteine and methionine are highly significant in the structure, conformation and function of proteins. Plants contain a large variety of other organic sulfur compounds, as thiols (glutathione), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen Bond Interactions with Sulfur Donors. AU - Sherry, A. D.. AU - Purcell, K. F.. PY - 1972/3/1. Y1 - 1972/3/1. N2 - Calorimetric enthalpy data are reported for the reactions of the acids, 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol and 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol, with six sulfur donors in CCl4 solution and four donors in hexane solution. Frequency shift data are also reported for the same two acids reacting with eight sulfur donors. Measurement of the heats of solution of each sulfur donor in both CCl4 and hexane allows us to estimate hexane enthalpies for the two donors whose enthalpies could not be measured directly in hexane. A comparison of oxygen and sulfur donor ΔH vs. ΔH and Δv vs. Δv equations reveals the greater importance of van der Waals repulsions in the sulfur donor reactions. The change in relative slopes of these equations may also be related to the greater importance of covalent contributions (CaCb term) to hydrogen bond formation with sulfur donors. The data adhere ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improved sulfur nutrition provides the basis for enhanced production of sulfur-containing defense compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana upon inoculation with Alternaria brassicicola. AU - Kruse, C.. AU - Haas, F.H.. AU - Jost, Ricarda. AU - Reiser, B.. AU - Reichelt, M.. AU - Wirtz, M.. AU - Gershenzon, J.. AU - Schnug, E.. AU - Hell, R.. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. U2 - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. DO - 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.12.017. M3 - Article. C2 - 22342657. VL - 169. SP - 740. EP - 743. JO - Journal of Plant Physiology. JF - Journal of Plant Physiology. SN - 0176-1617. ER - ...
Bitumen is a common associate of carbonate-hosted lead-zinc deposits. On the Pine Point lead-zinc property, Northwest Territories, Canada, there are two forms of bitumen. Unaltered bitumens have atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios of about 1.4, sulfur contents of about 7.8 percent, and sulfur isotope ratios (§34S) of approximately +4.6 per mil. Altered bitumens occur in proximity to sulfide ore bodies and white sparry dolomite. Their hydrogen/carbon ratios are about 1.02, the sulfur contents average 22 percent, and the §34S values are about +12.4 per mil. These data indicate that some bitumen has participated in the thermochemical reduction of sulfate to produce hydrogen sulfide required to precipitate the ores. Mass balance considerations show that the amount and degree of alteration of bitumen is more than adequate to account for the reduced sulfur species (lead, zinc, and iron sulfides) deposited at Pine Point. These reactions may provide an important means of generating the large volumes of ...
The 2018 results generally showed that irrigation in the early growing season had a negative effect on leaf color and plant growth, possibly due to lower soil temperatures caused by irrigated water. Delaying application to the pod development stage caused light leaf color during the early growing season, but increased the use efficiency of the applied sulfur fertilizer. Seed yields were lower under the fertigated sulfur treatments (treatments 5 and 6). All five test conditions resulted in increased seed sulfur concentration on fields with low sulfur fertility. Residual soil sulfur level was higher under higher sulfur application rates (20 and 30 lb./acre) relative to zero sulfur after harvest.. In terms of seed quality, 20 pounds sulfur/acre applied via fertigation at R3 (treatment 6) resulted in higher protein levels than other treatments at Milan, which suggests that only sulfur application in late growing season is beneficial for protein. At Jackson, protein levels did not change.. The ...
A major change in the iron industries during the era of the Industrial Revolution was the replacement of wood and other bio-fuels with coal. For a given amount of heat, coal required much less labour to mine than cutting wood and converting it to charcoal,[42] and coal was much more abundant than wood, supplies of which were becoming scarce before the enormous increase in iron production that took place in the late 18th century.[1][41]:122 By 1750 coke had generally replaced charcoal in smelting of copper and lead and was in widespread use in making glass. In the smelting and refining of iron, coal and coke produced inferior iron to that made with charcoal because of the coals sulfur content. Low sulfur coals were known, but they still contained harmful amounts. Conversion of coal to coke only slightly reduces the sulfur content.[41]:122-125 A minority of coals are coking.. Another factor limiting the iron industry before the Industrial Revolution was the scarcity of water power to power blast ...
D6122 Standard Practice for Validation of the Performance of Multivariate Online, At-Line, and Laboratory Infrared Spectrophotometer Based Analyzer Systems. D6299 Standard Practice for Applying Statistical Quality Assurance and Control Charting Techniques to Evaluate Analytical Measurement System Performance. D6621 Standard Practice for Performance Testing of Process Analyzers for Aromatic Hydrocarbon Materials. D6624 Standard Practice for Determining a Flow-Proportioned Average Property Value (FPAPV) for a Collected Batch of Process Stream Material Using Stream Analyzer Data. D7164 Standard Practice for On-line/At-line Heating Value Determination of Gaseous Fuels by Gas Chromatography. D7165 Standard Practice for Gas Chromatograph Based On-line/At-line Analysis for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels. D7166 Standard Practice for Total Sulfur Analyzer Based On-line/At-line for Sulfur Content of Gaseous Fuels. D7235 Standard Guide for Establishing a Linear Correlation Relationship Between Analyzer ...
The first component, and the one most closely related to the visible smoke often associated with diesel exhaust, is the carbonaceous material. This material is composed of sub-micron sized carbon particles which are formed during the diesel combustion process. It is especially prevalent under conditions when the fuel-air ratio is overly rich, such as full acceleration, maximum power or on start up. The second component is hydrocarbon material which is absorbed on the carbon particles, commonly referred to as the soluble fraction. A portion of this material results from incomplete combustion of the fuel and the remainder is derived from engine lube oil that passes by the piston oil rings. The third particulate component is comprised of sulphates and bound water, with the amount of material being directly related to the fuels sulphur content. The US has comparably high sulphur content in most of its petrochemical diesel fuels, so diesel engine use in America is more affected by this problem than ...
Putu iron ore project is part of a 425 square kilometre exploration tenement ... at a grade of 37.8% iron, 0.5% aluminium oxide, 40.8% sulphur dioxide and 0.18 ... it fully, samples at 2.0m intervals returned a nominal iron content of 42.7% iron. ... Mwana Africa said it plans to commence a share sale to raise $35m in a bid. ...
Todays Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel (ULSD) is not the same old diesel fuel anymore. It poses a greater static-ignition hazard than earlier diesel formation with higher sulfur content. The following tips will help you better understand the risks and ensure your fueling systems are properly functioning and maintained to handle ULSD.
Moyer Indoor | Outdoor now offers low sulfur heating oil and fuel. Contact us today at 215-799-2003 to learn more about our low sulfur heating oil.
Total sulfur data of various agricultural and food items from the lab of the author, have been compiled to develop an understanding of sulfur levels and ecological cycling in Austria. As sulfur level is not an included factor among the quality criteria of soil and fertilizer composition, the database is rather small. Problems in analytical determinations of total sulfur, in particular digestions, are outlined. As a protein component, sulfur is enriched in matrices of animal origin, in particular in egg white. There is substantial excretion from animals and man via urine. Organic fertilizers (manures, composts) might contribute significantly to the sulfur budget of soils, which is important for organic farming of crops with high sulfur needs. For soils, drainage is a main route of loss of soluble sulfate, thus pot experiments may yield unrealistic sulfur budgets.
Sulphur salesSulphur Sales Shell established a dedicated sulphur business over 50 years ago to manage the complete value chain of sulphur Shell Sulphur Solutions is committed to delivering world class marketing of elemental sulphur and the development of value added applications for sulphur.Malaysian Sulphur ManufacturersMalaysian manufacturers and suppliers of sulphur from around the world Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Malaysian sulphur.Sulfur Powder Suppliers & Exporters in PhilippinesTradeFord is a growing Manufacturer Directory and B2B Marketplace connecting Global Sulfur Powder Importers, Exporters, Suppliers, Traders and Manufacturers at a reliable, common platform.SulfurSulfur (in non scientific British use also sulphur) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16 It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S 8 Elemental ...
Notes: Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent rounding. See Definitions, Sources, and Notes link above for more information on this table ...
This paper addresses a problem common to many government agencies--trying to specify a regulatory policy that is in some sense best for a given situation. Such questions demand the consideration of multiple conflicting objectives, non-repeatable uncertainties, costs and benefits accruing to various individuals, businesses, and organizations, and effects which extend far into the future. Here a systematic approach--known as decision analysis--appropriate for analyzing such problems, is illustrated. The specific problem involves determining the maximum legal sulfur content of fuels burned in New York City. From the point of view of a city administrator, seven major objectives are identified for this problem. These include physical and psychological health effects on residents, economic consequences to both residents and the City, and political implications. Measures of effectiveness are specified for each objective, and the possible consequences of lowering the legal sulfur content of fuels from ...
The Lunar Sulfur Capture System (LSCS) is an innovative method to recover sulfur compounds from lunar soil using sorbents derived primarily from in-situ resources. Most of the sulfur released from lunar soil during higher-temperature thermal treatment is trapped by the LSCS at lower temperatures on iron oxides present in lunar soil. As needed, small amounts of polishing sorbents are used to reduce equilibrium sulfur concentrations to the low ppm level. After sorbents become saturated, sulfur compounds are desorbed and converted to useful sulfur products. Sulfur is present in concentrations of about 0.1 percent in lunar soils and can be recovered by the LSCS as a useful product from in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSCS can capture and recover sulfur from lunar soil as a primary product during thermal desorption of volatile compounds or during thermal reduction ISRU processes used for oxygen production. Removal of sulfur compounds is required during ISRU to prevent electrolyzer damage, ...
18 January 2002 Rising risk of sulphur deficiencyANY grower who still believes the need for sulphur on modern crops is being over-hyped should think again,
Sulfur is an abundant, tasteless, odorless, multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid. In nature, it can be found as the pure element or as sulfide and sulfate minerals. It is an essential element for life and is found in two amino acids, cysteine and methionine. Sulfur is an essential component of all living cells. Sulfur may also serve as chemical food source for some primitive organisms: some forms of bacteria use hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the place of water as the electron donor in a primitive photosynthesis-like process. Sulfur is absorbed by plants via the roots from soil as the sulfate ion and reduced to sulfide before it is incorporated into cysteine and other organic sulfur compounds (sulfur assimilation). In plants and animals the amino acids cysteine and methionine contain sulfur, as do all polypeptides, proteins, and enzymes which contain these amino acids. Glutathione is an important sulfur-containing tripeptide which plays a role in cells as a ...
effect of sulphur on gold ore_Sulfur WikipediaSulfur or sulphur (see spelling and etymology) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16 It is abundant, multivalent, and nonmetallic 201778Sulphur (S) Chemica
This report presents as input data estimates of delivered coal prices to Ohio by sulfur content, expecially the estimated price premium for low sulfur over high sulfur coal. Described are recent coal price trends in terms of appropriateness for the regulatory compliance by Ohio coal users.. ...
Inorganic sulfate is taken up through plant roots and, via cysteine biosynthesis, incorporated as organic sulfur. Our investigations focus on fundamental questions about cysteine (cys) and methionine (met) biosynthesis and on the possibility of engineering crop plants enriched in these sulfur-containing amino acids. Methionine is essential for non-ruminant mammals (including man) and uptake of cysteine reduces the methionine requirement. We have used transgenic strategies to generate many plant lines affected in cysteine and methionine biosynthesis, and subjected them to detailed molecular and biochemical analyses. Recently, we embarked on a course to study sulfur metabolism in a holistic way, rather than focusing on single pathways as such. By applying functional genomic tools like transcript, metabolite, and protein profiling in our analysis of transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) and of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, we are heading for a better understanding of the sulfur metabolism ...
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
This paper reports the facile synthesis of a unique interleaved expanded graphite-embedded sulphur nanocomposite (S-EG) by melt-diffusion strategy. The SEM images of the S-EG materials indicate the nanocomposites consist of nanosheets with a layer-by-layer structure. Electrochemical tests reveal that the nanocomposite with a sulphur content of 60% (0.6S-EG) can deliver the highest discharge capacity of 1210.4 mAh g−1 at a charge-discharge rate of 280 mA g−1 in the first cycle, the discharge capacity of the 0.6S-EG remains as high as 957.9 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles of charge-discharge. Furthermore, at a much higher charge-discharge rate of 28 A g−1, the 0.6S-EG cathode can still deliver a high reversible capacity of 337.5 mAh g−1. The high sulphur utilization, excellent rate capability and reduced over-discharge phenomenon of the 0.6S-EG material are exclusively attributed to the particular microstructure and composition of the cathode.
Aviation emissions impact both air quality and climate. Using a coupled tropospheric chemistry-aerosol microphysics model we investigate the effects of varying aviation fuel sulfur content (FSC) on premature mortality from long-term exposure to aviation-sourced PM2.5 (particulate matter with a dry diameter of , 2.5 µm) and on the global radiation budget due to changes in aerosol and tropospheric ozone. We estimate that present-day non-CO2 aviation emissions with a typical FSC of 600 ppm result in ∼ 3600 [95 % CI: 1310-5890] annual premature mortalities globally due to increases in cases of cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer, resulting from increased surface PM2.5 concentrations. We quantify the global annual mean combined radiative effect (REcomb) of non-CO2 aviation emissions as −13.3 mW m−2; from increases in aerosols (direct radiative effect and cloud albedo effect) and tropospheric ozone. Ultra-low sulfur jet fuel (ULSJ; FSC = 15 ppm) has been proposed as an option to reduce the ...
This Organic Sulfur is 99.9% Pure MSM, each batch is tested for purity, and certified for quality. If you are considering supplementing with Sulfur, crystals are the only way to go!. ​Therapeutic Organic Sulfur Crystals can be excellent for:. 1. Improves skin health and complexion: Organic Sulfur is necessary for collagen production. Sagging skin and wrinkles, as well as dry, cracked skin are all developed through a loss of collagen.. Organic Sulfur works together with Vitamin C to build new, healthy tissues. Organic Sulfur can normalize collagen formation and radically improve skin health.. 2. Improves flexibility: Research has shown that Organic Sulfur is highly effective in improving joint flexibility. Additionally, it helps to produce flexible skin and muscle tissue.. This leads to an increase in overall flexibility due to a restoration of the juiciness in the tissues.. 3. Detoxifies the body: One of the most important features of Organic Sulfur is that it makes your cells more ...
Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation ...
Main conclusion: Aluminum toxicity and sulfate deprivation both regulate microRNA395 expression, repressing its low-affinity sulfate transporter (SULTR2;1) target. Sulfate deprivation also induces the high-affinity sulfate transporter gene (SULTR12), allowing enhanced sulfate uptake. Few studies about the relationships between sulfate, a plant nutrient, and aluminum, a toxic ion, are available; hence, the molecular and physiological processes underpinning this interaction are poorly understood. The Al-sulfate interaction occurs in acidic soils, whereby relatively high concentrations of trivalent toxic aluminum (Al3+) may hamper root growth, limiting uptake of nutrients, including sulfur (S). On the other side, Al3+ may be detoxified by complexation with sulfate in the acid soil solution as well as in the root-cell vacuoles. In this review, we focus on recent insights into the mechanisms governing plant responses to Al toxicity and its relationship with sulfur nutrition, emphasizing the role of ...
A method for generating energy from sulphur combustion without causing harmful emissions to the environment entails steps of evaporating liquid sulphur to generate sulphur dioxide gas and sulphur vapor, combusting the sulphur vapor with oxygen gas to generate heat, and reducing (either at high temperature or catalytically) the sulphur dioxide to carbon dioxide and sulphur vapor by reacting the sulphur dioxide with carbonyl sulfide. The carbonyl sulphide can be generated by reacting hydrogen sulfide with recycled carbon dioxide that is recycled by condensing sulphur vapor, carbon dioxide and water to yield liquid sulphur, elemental sulphur, steam and carbon dioxide. Energy in the hot reactor products (SO2 gas and sulphur vapor S2) and steam can be harnessed using this emission-free process. Likewise, this process can be used to produce elemental sulphur and/or carbon monoxide without polluting the atmosphere. Furthermore, this process can be used for the transshipment by pipeline of sulphur by
In previous evaluations, of GTA welding stainless steel plates the surfactant content in the workplace has been assumed to be in a state of equilibrium. However surfactant concentration usually had to be adjusted in order to achieve agreement between the weld pool shapes in experiments and those in simulations. In this study a physiochemical approach to the redistribution of surfactant at the surface and in the bulk is presented for the first time. Sulphur was considered as a represenative surfactant. The model allows surfactant molecular transport via convection, diffusion, and sorption. It is shown that sulphur atoms accumulate at the surface at stagnation points, affecting the coefficient of surface tension and thus the final weld pool shape. Thus, the sulphur content in the simulation approaches the nominal sulphur content in the steel plate. The theory is strenghtened by both electron probe microanalysis and Auger electron spectroscopy. At the time the work was carried out, Mr Winkler, Dr ...
The amounts and profile distribution of various sulfur forms in Louisiana coastal marshes were investigated to understand sulfur cycling as related to the origin and type of tidal wetland marshes. Sampling was conducted quarterly from a Panicum hemitomon freshwater marsh, a Spartina patens brackish marsh, and a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh in Barataria Basin, Louisiana. Soil samples were fractionated into acid-volatile sulfides (AVS), elemental sulfur, HCl-soluble sulfur, pyrite sulfur, ester-sulfate sulfur, carbon-bonded sulfur, and total sulfur. Seasonal changes showed a greater effect on the distribution of S fractions in brackish and salt marsh than in the freshwater marsh. Season appeared to have a pronounced effect on the distribution of acid-volatile sulfides, elemental sulfur, and pyrite sulfur. The profile distribution of acid-volatile sulfides and elemental sulfur in all marshes was similar. These sulfur forms showed the greatest abundance in the oxidized zone ($|$20 cm) during spring,
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Bacteria in well aerated soil, similar to nitrogen fixing bacteria, can convert elemental sulfur into sulfate through an oxidation process. Coal contains a significant amount of sulfur, and factories that burn coal for energy release sulfur dioxide into the air. Over time, sun exposure converts the sulfur dioxide to sulfate, a significant contributor to acid rain. Acid rain is a serious pollutant, in that hydrogen sulfate, a potent acid, penetrates lakes, making them too acidic for lifeforms to thrive. The Clean Air Act, enacted by congress in 1980, has led to substantial decreases in the amount of acid rain released into the atmosphere. Factories have introduced highly effective scrubbing technologies to comply with the law, and, as a consequence, less sulfate makes its way back into the soil. ...
A process and apparatus for reducing the sulfur content of naphtha. The process includes introducing at least a portion of a naphtha feed stream to a selective hydrodesulfurization zone under selective hydrodesulfurization conditions in the presence of a selective hydrodesulfurization catalyst to form a low sulfur stream which contains mercaptan and thiophene compounds. At least a portion of the low sulfur stream is separated into at least two streams, a mercaptan rich stream containing mercaptan and thiophene compounds and an overhead stream containing hydrogen sulfide and liquid petroleum gas. The mercaptan rich stream is treated in an adsorbent zone to remove at least a portion of the mercaptan and thiophene compounds to form a mercaptan lean stream.
Acrylamide formation in cooked food has become a significant problem for the food industry. This study concerned the accumulation of free asparagine, one of the precursors for acrylamide formation, in wheat and rye grain. Asparagine concentration was found to be greatly affected by environmental conditions (E), genetic factors (G) and the interaction between the two (G x E). One of the environmental conditions controlling free asparagine accumulation in wheat grain was sulphur deficiency, which caused an increase of up to thirty-fold in free asparagine concentration. Sulphur deficiency and free asparagine concentration were linearly related to the amount of acrylamide that formed when wheat flour was heated at 180°C. Asparagine concentration was also the main determinant of acrylamide formation in rye but, unlike in wheat, it was not affected by sulphur availability, at least under field conditions. Rye flour had lower acrylamide forming potential than wheat per unit of asparagine, possibly due ...
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced ...
01-10-1997· A middlings material of 6.13 wt% sulfur content crushed and re-treated gave a reduction in emission value from 2795 to 1783 g of sulfur per GJ: 36.2% at a CV loss of 17.7%. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd. (Keywords: coal fines; sulfur removal; wet cleaning) Increasing concern about the emissions of sulfur dioxide, causing acid rain, from fossil fuels has led to the introduction of ...
If you havent heard about what organic sulfur can do for your busy life yet, then youre missing out on all the fun. Im a married work at home managing 4 kids and 2 dogs. Im busy. Who isnt? Youre busy too. Every month I keep taking my organic sulfur, I find myself with more kick in my step. Organic sulfur is
19 EU member states have not yet drawn up laws to implement a directive setting limits on sulphur emissions from ships in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and English Channel that takes effect from next year. The European Commission will begin pilot investigations, the first stage of infringement proceedings, against member states that have not transposed the directive on the sulphur content of marine fuels. The Commission has confirmed that it will take appropriate and proportionate measures to address the fact that the so called scrubber technologies used to clean sulphur emissions from exhaust fumes cause sludge that is not easy to dispose of in some ports. The Commission has asked member states to provide detailed information on EU port acceptance of scrubbers, in particular the open loop systems which discharge water that has a chemical composition that may not be compatible with water regulations applied in protected areas like ports. Shipping companies will have to either use cleaner fuels, ...
Fossil fuel consumption is rapidly increasing in the world, and so is the amount of sulfur that is generated as by-product of the industrial refining process. Since sulfur is expected to increase continuously in the future, the huge cost of waste disposal will be required if there is no counterplan. As a result, using sulfur as construction materials such as asphalt and concrete was considered. However, sulfur concrete made with unmodified sulfur has limitation for practical use because it has inferior properties such as poor resistance to water and significantly more brittle than traditional concrete. In order to overcome these drawbacks, Modified sulfur was developed. Sulfur concrete using modified sulfur binders shows excellent durability in high acid or salt concentrations. This study investigated the mechanical and durability properties of sulfur concrete made with modified sulfur binder instead of Portland cement. Preliminary tests were performed to evaluate effects of the maximum size of ...
Sulfur Crusher Copper. Sulfur dioxide rock crushing greenrevolution sulfur dioxide rock crushing sulfur and copper after grinding iron ore crusher gold ore The sulfur dioxide content of flue gases Sulfur Crusher Copper. Sulfur dioxide rock crushing greenrevolution sulfur dioxide rock crushing sulfur and copper after grinding iron ore crusher gold ore The sulfur dioxide content of flue gases is bound to the limestone mobile is the Stone Crusher or rock crusher used for crushing copper ore materials Get Price ...
Source: DDSA: The Aryabhusan school dictionary, Marathi-English. Bangla Meaning of Sulfur Thanks for using this online dictionary, we have been helping millions of people improve their use of the bangla language with its free online services. Found 39 sentences matching phrase sulfur.Found in 5 ms. liver of sulphur, Marathi translation of liver of sulphur, Marathi meaning of liver of sulphur, what is liver of sulphur in Marathi dictionary, liver of sulphur related Marathi , मराठी words The condiment is composed largely of sodium chloride with several other components lending the salt its colour and smell. Bangla meaning of sulfur … brimstone, sulphur Find more words! gandhaka (गंधक).-m (S) Sulphur. Another word for Opposite of Meaning of Rhymes with Sentences with Find word forms Translate from English Translate to English Words With Friends Scrabble Crossword / Codeword Words starting with Words ending with Words containing exactly Words containing letters Pronounce Find ...
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BACKGROUND: SoxAX enzymes initiate microbial oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Their catalytic mechanism is unknown. RESULTS: Cyanide displaces the CysS(-) ligand to the active site heme following reduction by S(2)O(4)(2-) but not Eu(II). CONCLUSION: An active site heme ligand becomes labile on exposure to substrate analogs. SIGNIFICANCE: Elucidation of SoxAX mechanism is necessary to understand a widespread pathway for sulfur compound oxidation. SoxAX enzymes couple disulfide bond formation to the reduction of cytochrome c in the first step of the phylogenetically widespread Sox microbial sulfur oxidation pathway. Rhodovulum sulfidophilum SoxAX contains three hemes. An electrochemical cell compatible with magnetic circular dichroism at near infrared wavelengths has been developed to resolve redox and chemical properties of the SoxAX hemes. In combination with potentiometric titrations monitored by electronic absorbance and EPR, this method defines midpoint potentials (E(m)) at pH 7.0 of
New standards to reduce sulfur levels in gasoline, which will produce significant benefits in terms of public health and local air pollution, are also part of President Obamas strategy to mitigate climate change, according to U.S. EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy.
Spatial distribution of nutrients in the soil can be a problem with high analysis fertilizer applied at a low application rate. Consider the product Tiger 90, which is 90 percent sulfur, compared to ammonium sulfate, which contains 24 percent sulfur. To get the same rate of sulfur, roughly four times the material is required when using ammonium sulfate compared to elemental sulfur. The higher application rate of ammonium sulfate ensures better distribution of sulfur across the landscape. Thus, a better spatial distribution of sulfur across the landscape may require higher application rates of elemental sulfur, which may offset the cost difference of elemental sulfur versus ammonium sulfate ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - MODIFICATION OF BENZENE AND CARBON MONOXIDE ADSORPTION ON Pt(111) BY THE COADSORPTION OF POTASSIUM OR SULFUR.. AU - Garfunkel, Eric. AU - Farias, M. H.. AU - Somorjai, G. A.. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. Sulfur, on the other hand, causes a decrease in the desorption peak temperatures for both benzene and CO. The authors interpret the effects of potassium on CO and benzene adsorption as electronic, while for sulfur, structural effects may dominate.. AB - The effects of potassium and sulfur on the chemisorption of CO and benzene on the Pt(111) surface have been studied by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). Potassium causes an increase in the desorption peak temperature of CO and a decrease in that of benzene. ...
At S & D Non-Ferrous, we stock Sulphur Copper in Grade CW114C, a free machining copper with an approximately 80% machinability rating. Adding sulphur to copper produces a free machining copper as the sulphur acts as a chip breaker, making it far easier to machine than pure copper and only having a minor effect on the conductivity of the metal.. Machining speeds can reach up to 4 times faster than those of pure copper and greater tooling life span is also seen when using sulphur copper over pure copper. Sulphur Copper is a versatile metal as it combines the high thermal and electrical conductivity values that are usually only seen in pure copper, however the ease of machining from the sulphur, allowing it to be used in a greater number of circumstances. Other qualities of CW114C are easy solder ability and decent levels of corrosion resistance. Our CW114C sulphur copper is readily available in a number of formations, including sulphur copper plate or sulphur copper bar in a range of shapes. Our ...
Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is a gamma-proteobacterium that lives at pH2 and obtains energy by the oxidation of sulfur and iron. It is used in the biomining industry for the recovery of metals and is one of the causative agents of acid mine drainage. Effective tools for the study of its genetics and physiology are not in widespread use and, despite considerable effort, an understanding of its unusual physiology remains at a rudimentary level. Nearly complete genome sequences of A. ferrooxidans are available from two public sources and we have exploited this information to reconstruct aspects of its sulfur metabolism. Two candidate mechanisms for sulfate uptake from the environment were detected but both belong to large paralogous families of membrane transporters and their identification remains tentative. Prospective genes, pathways and regulatory mechanisms were identified that are likely to be involved in the assimilation of sulfate into cysteine and in the formation of Fe-S centers. Genes and
Coal-fired power stations include devices called scrubbers to remove sulphur from their exhaust emissions. The sulphur is ... Volatile sulphur compounds, including hydrogen sulphide, have been detected as emissions from the imported drywall and may be ... High sulfur drywall illness and corrosion issues[edit]. Main article: Chinese drywall ... The issue was resolved in 2011 and now all drywall must be tested for volatile sulfur and any containing more than 10 ppm is ...
Precursor to iron-sulfur clusters[edit]. Cysteine is an important source of sulfide in human metabolism. The sulfide in iron- ... The sulfur is derived from methionine, which is converted to homocysteine through the intermediate S-adenosylmethionine. ... Cysteine has the same structure as serine, but with one of its oxygen atoms replaced by sulfur; replacing it with selenium ... Beyond the iron-sulfur proteins, many other metal cofactors in enzymes are bound to the thiolate substituent of cysteinyl ...
In this model, fully occupied p orbitals on oxygen overlap with empty sulfur d orbitals (principally the dz2 and dx2-y2).[5] ... In fact, sulfur donates two electrons to the oxygen atoms. *^ The prefix "bi" in "bisulfate" comes from an outdated naming ... The sulfur atom is in the +6 oxidation state while the four oxygen atoms are each in the −2 state. The sulfate ion carries an ... Lewis assigned to sulfur a negative charge of two, starting from six own valence electrons and ending up with eight electrons ...
Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment[edit]. The Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE) characterized the performance of four 40 ... representing the first test of sodium-sulfur battery technology in space. Each cell is composed of a sodium anode, sulfur ... The cells must be heated to 350 degrees Celsius to liquefy the sodium and sulfur. Once the anode and cathode were liquefied, ... the Sodium Sulfur Battery Experiment (NaSBE), the Turbulent GAS Jet Diffusion (G-744) experiment and the Autonomous EVA Robotic ...
Sulfur can be removed from ores by roasting and washing. Roasting oxidizes sulfur to form sulfur dioxide which either escapes ... Sulfur[edit]. Sulfur (S) is a frequent contaminant in coal. It is also present in small quantities in many ores, but can be ... 200), good foundry iron should have less than 0.15% sulfur. In the rest of the world a high sulfur cast iron can be used for ... The degree of hot shortness is in direct proportion to the amount of sulfur present. Today iron with over 0.03% sulfur is ...
Lithium sulfur batteries Carbon nanotube/Sulfur 2014 Tsinghua University [36] 15.1 mA·h⋅cm−2 at a sulfur loading of 17.3 mgS⋅cm ... "OXIS Energy's Lithium-Sulfur Battery Technology". Retrieved 2017-05-20.. *^ "New lithium/sulfur battery doubles energy density ... One problem with the lithium-sulfur design is that when the sulfur in the cathode absorbs lithium, volume expansion of the LixS ... Choi, Y.J.; Kim, K.W. (2008). "Improvement of cycle property of sulfur electrode for lithium/sulfur battery". Journal of Alloys ...
Sulfur[edit]. Of sulfur nucleophiles, hydrogen sulfide and its salts, thiols (RSH), thiolate anions (RS−), anions of ... In general, sulfur is very nucleophilic because of its large size, which makes it readily polarizable, and its lone pairs of ... Sulfur is in general a better nucleophile than oxygen. Nucleophilicity[edit]. Many schemes attempting to quantify relative ...
Sulfur[edit]. Sulfur-35 is used to label proteins and nucleic acids. Cysteine is an amino acid containing a thiol group which ... For nucleotides that do not contain a sulfur group, the oxygen on one of the phosphate groups can be substituted with a sulfur ... sulfur-35 and phosphorus-33 are in the window of 361-660; and phosphorus-32 is in the window of 661-1024.[citation needed] ...
In the first step, sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide. S (s) + O. 2 (g) → SO. 2 (g). This is then oxidized to sulfur ... In the first step, sulfur is burned to produce sulfur dioxide: S(s) + O. 2(g) → SO. 2(g). or, alternatively, hydrogen sulfide ( ... Sulfur-iodine cycle[edit]. The sulfur-iodine cycle is a series of thermo-chemical processes used to obtain hydrogen. It ... This combustion process produces gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO. 2) and sulfur trioxide (SO. 3) which are then used to manufacture ...
Sulfurs[modifica]. 02 Sulfurs 02.A - Aliatges 02.AA - Aliatges de metal·loides amb Cu, Ag, Au. 02.AB - Aliatges de Ni-metal· ... 02.D - Sulfurs metàl·lics, M:S = 3:4 i 2:3 02.DA - M:S = 3:4. 02.DB - M:S = 2:3. 02.DC - Variable M:S. 02.E - Sulfurs metàl· ... 02.F - Sulfurs d'arsènic, àlcalis, sulfurs amb halurs, òxids, hidròxid, H₂O 02.FA - Amb As, (Sb), S. 02.FB - Amb alcalins ( ... 02.B - Sulfurs metàl·lics, M:S , 1:1 (principalment 2:1) 02.BB - Amb Ni. 02.BC - Amb Rh, Pd, Pt, etc.. 02.BD - Amb Hg, Tl. 02. ...
Sulfur. 1.8 Chlorine. 1.75 Copper. 1.4 Van der Waals radii taken from. Bondi's compilation (1964).[2]. Values from other ...
... and sulfur to allow the bacteria to synthesize protein and nucleic acids ...
Sulfur Before 2000 BC Before AD 815 Middle East Middle East First used at least 4,000 years ago.[19] According to the Ebers ... "Sulfur History". Georgiagulfsulfur.com. Archived from the original on 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-09-12.. ... Papyrus, a sulfur ointment was used in ancient Egypt to treat granular eyelids.[20] Recognized as an element by Jabir ibn ...
Five percent sheep blood and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide may also be added when susceptibility testing is done on Streptococcus species. This type is also commonly used for susceptibility testing of Campylobacter.. It has a few properties that make it excellent for antibiotic use. First of all, it is a non-selective, non-differential medium. This means that almost all organisms plated on here will grow. Additionally, it contains starch. Starch is known to absorb toxins released from bacteria, so that they cannot interfere with the antibiotics. Second, it is a loose agar. This allows for better diffusion of the antibiotics than most other plates. A better diffusion leads to a truer zone of inhibition.. Mueller-Hinton agar was co-developed by John Howard Mueller and Jane Hinton at Harvard as a culture for gonococcus and meningococcus, who published the method in 1941.[2]. ...
Sulfur. 2.067. 388.36. 717.87 Chlorine. 0.003214. 171.6. 239.11 Potassium. 0.862. 336.53. 1032 ...
Sulfur. 1015. 10−16. ?. [23] Fused quartz. 7.5×1017. 1.3×10−18. ?. [23] ...
Sulfur. impurity Compromises integrity of nickel alloys. Can enter the joints from residues of lubricants, grease or paint. ... Embrittled with sulfur and some lower-melting point metals, e.g. zinc. Boron, phosphorus, silicon and carbon lower melting ... Embrittled by zinc, many other low melting point metals, and sulfur.[23] ... Avoid in environments with presence of sulfur dioxide (e.g. paper mills) and hydrogen sulfide (e.g. sewers, or close to ...
sulfur 16 S chlorine 17 Cl argon 18 Ar potassium 19 K ...
Other notable sulfur allotropes include rhombic sulfur and monoclinic sulfur. Rhombic sulfur is the more stable of the two ... One difference is that sulfur-sulfur double bonds are far weaker than oxygen-oxygen double bonds, but sulfur-sulfur single ... the resulting sulfur is amorphous or "plastic" sulfur. Gaseous sulfur is a mixture of diatomic sulfur (S2) and 8-atom rings.[19 ... For instance, sulfur forms the toxic sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide.[25] Tellurium also forms oxides. There are some ...
sulfur: hydrogen sulfide ('sulfane' when substituted) synonym: sulfur hydride. *selenium: hydrogen selenide ('selane' when ... hydrogen sulfide: component of natural gas, important source of sulfur. *Chemically, even water and hydrocarbons could be ...
Sulfur16S​32.06 Chlor-ine17Cl​35.45 Argon18Ar​39.95 ... sulfur [32.059, 32.076] [32.059, 32.076] 32.06 32.06 2009 17 Cl ... The thirteen elements are: hydrogen, lithium, boron, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, chlorine, argon, ...
Sulfur. 6997250000000000000♠2.5×10−3. 0.14. 0.038. Yes[17] (e.g. Cysteine, Methionine, Biotin, Thiamine). 16 ... Only about 0.85% is composed of another five elements: potassium, sulfur, sodium, chlorine, and magnesium. All 11 are necessary ... sulfur (essential to all cells) and cobalt (a necessary component of vitamin B12). Elements listed as "Possibly" or "Probably" ...
... "sulfur" (also xofre, from late classical Latin sulfur; the prefix nasalizes before x).[61] Spanish has a similar inventory, ... "sulfur". Oxford English Dictionary (Online ed.). Oxford University Press.. (Subscription or participating institution ...
Sulfur Chlorine Argon Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium ... Using a cascade method, Swiss chemist and physicist Raoul Pierre Pictet evaporated liquid sulfur dioxide in order to liquefy ... 2 is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the ...
The chemical elements of which plants are constructed-principally carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, etc.- ...
Sulfur. 0.08-0.15. Free-machining properties Titanium. -. Fixes carbon in inert particles; reduces martensitic hardness in ... Combines with sulfur and with phosphorus to reduce the brittleness. Also helps to remove excess oxygen from molten steel. ... Sulfur (in the form of manganese sulfide), lead, bismuth, selenium, and tellurium increase machinability.[5] The alloying ... sulfur and phosphorus from the melt. Manganese, silicon, nickel, and copper are added to increase strength by forming solid ...
Sulfur dioxide Gas SO2 −296.84 Sulfur trioxide Gas SO3 −395.7 ...
Sulfur Sulfur is a component of black powder, and as such, it is found in a firework's propellant/fuel. ... Fireworks produce smoke and dust that may contain residues of heavy metals, sulfur-coal compounds and some low concentration ...
Sulphur[edit]. From a slow start in 1952, sulphur production from gas processing snowballed as plant construction boomed in the ... It was the first sulphur plant in the world, its sulphur unit going into production in 1952. For this distinction it narrowly ... Beginning in 1978, a strong sulphur marketing effort made Canada the largest supplier to international trade. Sales of sulphur ... The H2S content of the gas was 28 per cent, and the well also produced 20 thousand barrels per day (3,200 m3/d) of sulphur- ...
Upon being mixed with shale or marl, and roasted, the sulfate liberates sulfur trioxide gas, a precursor in sulfuric acid ... are scrubbed to reduce their sulfur oxide content, by injecting finely ground limestone or lime. This produces an impure ...
Sulfur dioxide is the product of the burning of sulfur or of burning materials that contain sulfur: S + O2 → SO2, ΔH = −297 kJ/ ... Most sulfur dioxide is produced by the combustion of elemental sulfur. Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite ... Sulfur dioxide for this purpose is made when sulfur combines with oxygen. The method of converting sulfur dioxide to sulfuric ... National Trends in Sulfur Dioxide Levels, United States Environmental Protection Agency. *^ a b Sulfur Dioxide. United States ...
Sulfur difluoride. Sulfur tetrafluoride. Sulfur hexafluoride. Disulfur dibromide Except where otherwise noted, data are given ... Chlorination of sulfur[edit]. SCl2 is produced by the chlorination of either elemental sulfur or disulfur dichloride.[2] The ... Sulfur dichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SCl2. This cherry-red liquid is the simplest sulfur chloride and ... Reaction with ammonia affords sulfur nitrides related to S4N4. Treatment of SCl2 with primary amines gives sulfur diimides. One ...
Exposure to sulfur dioxide may cause irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. Symptoms include: nasal mucus, choking, cough, ... and reflex bronchi constriction, and when liquid: frostbite Workers may be harmed from exposure to sulfur dioxide. The level of ... Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a colorless gas with a characteristic, irritating, pungent odor. ... Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a colorless gas with a characteristic, irritating, pungent odor. Exposure to sulfur dioxide may cause ...
Current: Sulfur Mustard. Facts about Sulfur Mustard. What is sulfur mustard?. Sulfur mustard, also known as mustard gas or ... How does sulfur mustard enter the environment?. Sulfur mustard is not found naturally in the environment. Sulfur mustard would ... Exposure to a large amount of sulfur mustard can cause death. How do you know if youve been exposed to sulfur mustard?. Sulfur ... Sulfur mustard makes your eyes burn, your eyelids swell, and causes you to blink a lot. Breathing sulfur mustard can cause ...
... are sulfur compounds known as sulfur donors-e.g., tetramethylthiuram disulfide-which introduce monosulfide interlinks between ... Other articles where Sulfur donor is discussed: rubber: The cure package: … ... are sulfur compounds known as sulfur donors-e.g., tetramethylthiuram disulfide-which introduce monosulfide interlinks between ...
Organic compounds of bivalent sulfur: Thiols, or sulfur analogs of alcohols, are sometimes referred to as mercaptans. In naming ... Other articles where Bivalent sulfur is discussed: organosulfur compound: ... In organosulfur compound: Organic compounds of bivalent sulfur. Thiols, or sulfur analogs of alcohols, are sometimes referred ... Bivalent sulfur. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ...
Formation of volatile sulfur compounds plays an important role in sensory properties... ... Sulfur, in its various forms, is important to the yeast in protein biosynthesis as well as vitamins and coenzymes. ... Sulfur, in its various forms, is important to the yeast in protein biosynthesis as well as vitamins and coenzymes. Formation of ... Zoecklein B.W., Fugelsang K.C., Gump B.H., Nury F.S. (1995) Sulfur-Containing Compounds. In: Wine Analysis and Production. ...
Sulfur mustard can cause irritation and burns of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, reproductive effects, and may cause ... The general population is not exposed to sulfur mustard. ... How likely is sulfur mustard to cause cancer?. *How can sulfur ... What is sulfur mustard?. Sulfur mustard (HD) is a thick liquid at ambient temperature, but becomes a solid at 58 °F. It is ... Sulfur mustard makes your eyes burn, your eyelids swell, and causes you to blink a lot. If you breathe sulfur mustard, it can ...
Exposure to sulfur dioxide occurs from breathing it in the air. It affects the lungs and at high levels may result in burning ... What is sulfur dioxide?. Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a pungent odor. It is a liquid when under pressure, and it ... How can sulfur dioxide affect my health?. Exposure to very high levels of sulfur dioxide can be life threatening. Exposure to ... How likely is sulfur dioxide to cause cancer?. There are no studies that clearly show carcinogenic effects of sulfur dioxide in ...
... has role refrigerant (CHEBI:78433) sulfur dioxide (CHEBI:18422) is a sulfur oxide (CHEBI:48154) ... sulfur dioxide (CHEBI:18422) has role Escherichia coli metabolite (CHEBI:76971) sulfur dioxide (CHEBI:18422) has role food ... CHEBI:18422 - sulfur dioxide. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Sulfur is an interesting nonmetallic element that is found mainly as part of larger compounds. It is not discussed much in ... Sulfur is also available as various sulfates or sulfides. But overall, sulfur is most important as part of protein. Sulfur has ... The sulfur-sulfur bond in keratin gives it greater strength. Sulfur is present in four amino acids: methionine, an essential ... Sulfur is also present in the fur and feathers of other animals. The cystine in hair gives off the sulfur smell when it is ...
A fire at a sulfur mine and processing facility near Mosul has raised a noxious cloud of sulfur dioxide over much of northern ... Sulfur Dioxide Emissions, Bulgaria. This image shows measurements of sulfur dioxide in the air over one of the largest power ... Already, sulfur dioxide emissions from the fire have been significant. If the sulfur dioxide were coming from a volcano rather ... Editors Note: The sulfur dioxide map was updated after publication due to underestimated values. More sulfur dioxide was ...
Besides emissions visible to human eyes, Okmok also released sulfur dioxide, a gas our eyes cannot see, but which can affect ... Sarychev Eruption Generates Large Cloud of Sulfur Dioxide. A large cloud of sulfur dioxide stretched across the Northern ... The sulfur dioxide measured by AIRS, however, occurred above 16 kilometers. At higher altitudes, sulfur dioxide can affect ... Sulfur Dioxide Plume from Kilauea. Kilauea is one of the worlds most active volcanoes, but it is of the sort that tends to ...
In this experiment you can observe the effect of heating sulfur slowly from room temperature. Changes in colour and consistency ... Sulfur, S8(s) - see CLEAPSS Hazcard. The sulfur used must be roll sulfur, crushed to a powder. To crush the rolls of sulfur, ... The sulfur liquefies again to a very dark red-brown liquid. Note that during this heating the sulfur may catch fire and sulfur ... Allotropes of sulfur. Demonstration. Sulfur is heated slowly and steadily from room temperature, so that all the changes in ...
... proceedings volume contains the invited and a selection of the contributed papers of the 8th International Workshop on Sulfur ... Partitioning of Sulfur Between Primary and Secondary Metabolism Sarah G. Mugford, Colette Matthewman, Bok-Rye Lee, Ruslan ... Sulfur Metabolism in Plants. Mechanisms and Applications to Food Security and Responses to Climate Change. ... The content of the volume shows that the understanding of sulfur metabolism in plants and the interaction of the environment ...
... sulfur dioxide) 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (sulfur trioxide) Multiple sulfur oxides are known; the sulfur-rich oxides include sulfur ... Sulfur mustard, a potent vesicant, was used in World War I as a disabling agent. Sulfur-sulfur bonds are a structural component ... Standard-formulation dusting sulfur is applied to crops with a sulfur duster or from a dusting plane. Wettable sulfur is the ... Sulfur burns with a blue flame with formation of sulfur dioxide, which has a suffocating and irritating odor. Sulfur is ...
Synonym(s): COLLOIDAL SULFUR; FLOWERS OF SULFUR; SULFUR FLOWERS; SULFUR, COLLOIDAL; SULFUR; SULPHUR; SULPHUR ... About SULFUR: Sulfur is a naturally occurring element. In the United States, Sulfur may be used as an activeingredient in OTC ... When used as an active drug ingredient, the established name is Sulfur.. Function(s): Antiacne Agent; Antidandruff Agent; Hair ...
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Find out here more about what causes sulfur burps, including foods and drinks, and when it might be wise to talk to a doctor. ... learn about sulfur burps, which are when the gas produced out of the mouth smells of rotten eggs. They are usually harmless and ... Treating sulfur burps typically involves treating the underlying cause.. *Many home remedies can reduce or eliminate sulfur ... Sulfur burps are burps that are followed by a foul rotten egg smell caused by hydrogen sulfide gas.. A burp is a way for the ...
Twinkle, Twinkle, Giant Sulfur Streetlight, Consuming Energy, At My Expense. By Mark R. Crovelli ... Nevermind the fact that I prefer star-studded, black night skies to dingy, sulfur light. Nevermind the fact that this horrible ... stands a colossal steel pole capped with a massive sulfur light bulb encased in a dingy plastic cage. This giant streetlight ...
Sulfuric acid production is the major end use for sulfur, and consumption of sulfuric acid has been regarded as one of the best ... sulfur ranks as one of the more-important elements used as an industrial raw material. It is of prime importance to every ... Sulfur. PDF Format:. 2021: , Jan , Feb , Mar ,. 2020: , Mar , Apr , May , Jun , Jul , Aug , Sep , Oct , Nov , Dec , XLSX Format ... Sulfuric acid production is the major end use for sulfur, and consumption of sulfuric acid has been regarded as one of the best ...
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Sony is planning to commercialize lithium-sulfur batteries by 2020, and promising increases of up to 40% over conventional ...
Directed by Julian Jarrold. With Mark Stanley, Anna Friel, Hugo Stone, Dee Rasedile. City trader and mountaineer David Tait is a man whose professional success masks a series of traumatic secrets.
Other names: Sulfur fluoride; OC-6-11; Elegas; SF6; Hexafluorure de soufre; UN 1080; Esaflon; sulphur hexafluoride ... Frost, D.C.; McDowell, C.A.; Sandhu, J.S.; Vroom, D.A., Photoelectron spectrum of sulfur hexafluoride at 584 A, J. Chem. Phys. ... Drzaic, P.S.; Brauman, J.I., Electron photodetachment of sulfur hexafluoride anion. Comments on the structure of SF6-, J. Am. ... Pepi, F.; Ricci, A.; Di Stefano, M.; Rosi, M., Gas phase protonation of trifluoromethyl sulfur pentafluoride, Phys. Chem. Chem ...
Protein which binds at least one iron-sulfur cluster, e.g. 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, 4Fe-4S. ...
Other names: Sulfur fluoride; OC-6-11; Elegas; SF6; Hexafluorure de soufre; UN 1080; Esaflon; sulphur hexafluoride ...
Sulfur dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.18, sulfur oxygenase, sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name S- ... Rohwerder T, Sand W (July 2003). "The sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes ... In humans, sulfur dioxygenase is needed to detoxify sulfide. Suzuki I, Silver M (July 1966). "The initial product and ... Sulfur+dioxygenase at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Biology portal. ...
How sulfur mustard exposure is treated The most important factor is removing sulfur mustard from the body. Exposure to sulfur ... If avoiding sulfur mustard exposure is not possible, rapidly remove the sulfur mustard from the body. Getting the sulfur ... Immediate signs and symptoms of sulfur mustard exposure *Exposure to sulfur mustard usually is not fatal. When sulfur mustard ... What sulfur mustard is *Sulfur mustard is a type of chemical warfare agent. These kinds of agents cause blistering of the skin ...
Coal naturally contains sulfur, and when coal is burned, the sulfur combines with oxygen to form sulfur oxides. Although ... Sulfur dioxide, Tennessee Valley Authority, accessed April 2008.. *↑ Sulfur dioxide - What is it? Where does it come from?, EPA ... Very low sulphur coal. External articles. *Public Health Statement: Sulfur Dioxide, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease ... Low-sulfur coal. An alternative to scrubber technology is using lower sulfur coal to fuel power plants. The Department of ...
  • It is released naturally by volcanic activity and is produced as a by-product of copper extraction and the burning of fossil fuels contaminated with sulfur compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • SCl 2 is also a precursor to several inorganic sulfur compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • are sulfur compounds known as sulfur donors-e.g., tetramethylthiuram disulfide-which introduce monosulfide interlinks between polymer molecules, and peroxides, notably dicumyl peroxide. (britannica.com)
  • Formation of volatile sulfur compounds plays an important role in sensory properties of wines. (springer.com)
  • The somewhat undefined, but objectionable character arising from interaction of sulfur-containing compounds and wine components is sometimes described as "reductive tone. (springer.com)
  • Zoecklein B.W., Fugelsang K.C., Gump B.H., Nury F.S. (1995) Sulfur-Containing Compounds. (springer.com)
  • Sulfur mustard reacts with chemicals in the air to form other compounds. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur is an interesting nonmetallic element that is found mainly as part of larger compounds. (healthy.net)
  • Other problems of the skin or hair have been treated with additional sulfur-containing compounds. (healthy.net)
  • A substrate or method for the sorption of sulfur compounds with a high capacity includes providing a substrate that defines at least one layer of ultra-short-channel-length mesh, coating at least a portion of the substrate with a desired sorbent for sulfur sorption, and passing a flowstream through the substrate and in contact with the sorbent during sorption. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention is generally directed to a substrate or method for a more efficient removal of sulfur compounds from the outlet of a fuel processor. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The digestion of these foods often creates sulfur-like compounds that exit the body in the urine. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drinking more water may help to dilute the sulfur compounds in the body and reduce the smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thioureas are organosulfur compounds structurally similar to ureas, except the oxygen atom is replaced by a sulfur atom to constitute the S=C(NH 2 ) 2 moiety. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This important gas is the main product from the combustion of sulfur compounds and is of significant environmental concern. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Since coal and petroleum contain various amounts of sulfur compounds, their combustion generates sulfur dioxide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sulphur is found in many different compounds throughout the world - not only in the atmosphere, but also in the oceans and on land. (eurekalert.org)
  • ULSD removes sulfur and other compounds so diesel engines can burn cleaner with fewer emissions. (deere.com)
  • Burning of the nose and throat, breathing difficulties, and severe airway obstructions occurred in miners who breathed sulfur dioxide released as a result of an explosion in a copper mine. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term studies surveying large numbers of children indicate that children who have breathed sulfur dioxide pollution may develop more breathing problems as they get older, may make more emergency room visits for treatment of wheezing fits, and may get more respiratory illnesses than other children. (cdc.gov)
  • The product is sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) with some traces of sulfur trioxide (SO 3 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the air, it can be converted to sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, and sulfates. (cdc.gov)
  • In the air, sulfur dioxide can be important because exposure to this substance may converted to sulfuric acid, sulfur trioxide, and harm you and because these sites may be sources of sulfates. (cdc.gov)
  • The chemical name for SO3 is sulfur trioxide. (reference.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide is also used to make sulfuric acid, being converted to sulfur trioxide, and then to oleum, which is made into sulfuric acid . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • A few heavy gases are Sulfur Hexafluoride, Xenon (similar to SHF in weight), and Radon (radioactive). (halfbakery.com)
  • Already, sulfur dioxide emissions from the fire have been significant. (nasa.gov)
  • Besides emissions visible to human eyes, Okmok also released sulfur dioxide, a gas our eyes cannot see, but which can affect both human health and climate. (nasa.gov)
  • The move preempts expected European Community legislation to lower acceptable levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. (newscientist.com)
  • In the Netherlands, the subsidised fuel is expected to cut sulphur dioxide emissions from lorries by up to a quarter. (newscientist.com)
  • If all diesel users switched fuels, sulphur dioxide emissions would fall by about 4 per cent. (newscientist.com)
  • Although natural processes like volcanic eruptions, biological decomposition, and forest fires also produce sulfur dioxide, emissions caused by human activity far exceed natural production in developed countries. (sourcewatch.org)
  • After consulting experts, the growers believe the plant's sulfur dioxide emissions are to blame. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Congress passed more amendments to the Clean Air Act in 1990, including Title IV, which addressed the problem of acid rain by curbing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Moder- nagriculture based on high crop yields, intensive cropping, improved crop varieties, and greater use of sulfur-free fertilizers and environmental regula- tions restricting sulfur emissions are creating large gaps between sulfur sup- ply and sulfur requirements. (springer.com)
  • The main sources of sulfur dioxide emissions are from fossil fuel combustion and natural volcanic activity. (nps.gov)
  • With the increase in production of coal-fired power plants in China from 2002 to 2006, sulfur pollution has also increased to the point where the cooling effect appears to have offset the impact the increase in greenhouse gas emissions would have on surface temperature, researchers believe. (lexology.com)
  • Researchers warn that as China installs scrubbers on the coal fired power stations, the sulfur pollution will be reduced and the real impacts of the greenhouse gas emissions will be seen. (lexology.com)
  • Kaufman said, "If anything, the paper suggests that reductions in carbon emissions will be more important as China installs scrubbers [on its coal-fired power stations], which reduce sulfur emissions. (lexology.com)
  • In the graph you see a comparison of the development of both incomes and sulfur emissions of India, Malaysia and United Kingdom between 1860 and 2000. (gapminder.org)
  • Sulfur (S) deficiency in soils is becoming increasingly common in many areas of the world as a result of agronomic practices, high biomass exportation and reduced S emissions to the atmosphere. (scielo.br)
  • In this paper we use a new cross-section/time-series data base of sulfur emissions for a wide range of developed and developing countries. (repec.org)
  • Sony is planning to commercialize lithium-sulfur batteries by 2020, and promising increases of up to 40% over conventional lithium-ion architectures. (extremetech.com)
  • Towards online tracking of the shuttle effect in lithium sulfur batteries using differential thermal voltammetry. (imperial.ac.uk)
  • For example, hair and nails consist of a tough protein called keratin, which is high in sulfur, whereas connective tissue and cartilage contain proteins with flexible sulfur bonds, giving the structure its flexibility. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Sulphur is necessary for construction of collagen, a protein that gives the skin its structural integrity and which is found in our connective tissue. (ehow.co.uk)
  • [7] In terms of electron-counting formalism, the sulfur atom has an oxidation state of +4 and a formal charge of +1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catabolism of the methyl group and sulfur atom of Met ultimately appears to be dependent upon the transmethylation-transsulfuration pathway because the MTA formed as the co-product of polyamine synthesis is efficiently recycled to Met. (nih.gov)
  • The Lewis structure of CS2 consists of a single carbon atom with one sulfur atom on each side. (reference.com)
  • The compound contains one atom of sulfur, as indicated by the S, and three atoms of oxygen, as indicated by t. (reference.com)
  • I'm fairly confident there is enough space surrounding a sulfur atom for 6 BiCarbonate groups. (halfbakery.com)
  • the second one is connected to that first oxygen atom described above (when there is no Sulfur attached to that oxygen). (halfbakery.com)
  • So, this means we need to replace the chemical bond between that hydrogen and that oxygen with a new chemical bond between that oxygen and the Sulfur atom. (halfbakery.com)
  • Now consider an ordinary sulfur atom in its 'ground state', with all its electrons orbiting as close-in as they can get. (halfbakery.com)
  • The Electronegativity value of Sulfur is based on THAT atom. (halfbakery.com)
  • If we boosted an electron to a higher orbit (by giving it an appropriate photon to absorb), it would be less-tightly-bound to the sulfur atom, and could participate more easily in a chemical reaction. (halfbakery.com)
  • In effect, the electronegativity of that sulfur atom would be temporarily reduced (it is temporary because after some time passes the electron falls back down to its original lower orbit, releasing the previously-absorbed photon). (halfbakery.com)
  • However, a research team at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, has found that a sulfur atom, if carefully inserted into a molecule, can not only become an extremely effective catalyst but can also operate with greater precision. (innovations-report.com)
  • In terms of electron-counting formalisms, the sulfur atom has an oxidation state of +4, a formal charge of zero, and is surrounded by five electron pairs. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One conventional covalent bond is present between each oxygen and the central sulfur atom, with two further electrons delocalised between the oxygens and the sulfur atom. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The use of radioisotopes as a basis for radiophysical instrumental methods of analysis can be exemplified by the following: Iron-55 emits a K-capture electron from the nucleus whose radiation can be absorbed by a sulfur atom regardless of its chemical combination. (astm.org)
  • Asthmatics have also been shown to be sensitive to the respiratory effects of low concentrations of sulfur dioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Animals exposed to high concentrations of sulfur dioxide showed decreased respiration, inflammation of the airways, and destruction of areas of the lung. (cdc.gov)
  • Children with asthma may be especially sensitive even to low concentrations of sulfur dioxide, but it is not known whether asthmatic children are more sensitive than asthmatic adults. (cdc.gov)
  • In high concentrations, sulfur dioxide can impair breathing and even be life threatening. (nasa.gov)
  • The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory warned on March 28 that sulfur dioxide concentrations in the air downwind from the volcano were likely to be hazardous. (nasa.gov)
  • High concentrations of sulfur dioxide can affect breathing, cause respiratory illnesses, and aggravate existing heart and lung diseases. (sourcewatch.org)
  • Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park (NP) is unique in the national park system because it sometimes has extremely high concentrations of sulfur dioxide - far higher than any other national park, or even most urban areas. (nps.gov)
  • Due to the low concentrations of sulfur in natural gas, the vessel size is governed by pressure loss rather than capacity. (bechtel.com)
  • Exposure to very high levels of sulfur dioxide can be life threatening. (cdc.gov)
  • Long-term exposure to persistent levels of sulfur dioxide can affect your health. (cdc.gov)
  • Lung function changes were seen in some workers exposed to low levels of sulfur dioxide for 20 years or more. (cdc.gov)
  • Short-term exposures to high levels of sulfur dioxide that are higher than typical outdoor air dioxide can be life-threatening. (cdc.gov)
  • The Halema'uma'u plume in Kilauea Crater at Hawai'i Volcanoes NP contains extremely high levels of sulfur dioxide, about 500-1,000 tones/day. (nps.gov)
  • For recommended ways to protect yourself at high levels of sulfur dioxide, consult the Health Advisory Table . (nps.gov)
  • Saturn Sulfur Acne Treatment Mask contains maximum levels of sulfur to penetrate pores to dry and clear up existing acne while preventing new blemishes from forming. (sephora.com)
  • citation needed] Sulfur reacts with nearly all other elements with the exception of the noble gases, even with the notoriously unreactive metal iridium (yielding iridium disulfide). (wikipedia.org)
  • Separation of SCl 2 from S 2 Cl 2 is possible via distillation with PCl 3 to form an azeotrope of 99% purity, however sulfur dichloride loses chlorine slowly at room temperature and reverts to disulfur dichloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neutrons emitted by the fuel rods struck chlorine atoms in the water, forming sulfur-35 that escaped from the plant in the form of steam. (forbes.com)
  • Flowers of sulfur' is not suitable because it contains a lot of insoluble amorphous sulfur. (rsc.org)
  • Herein, we present a quite different chemical approach to polysulfide retention in the sulfur cathode, which relies on mediating polysulfide redox through insoluble thiosulfate species in a two-step process. (nature.com)
  • Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and, to a lesser extent, in other nonpolar organic solvents, such as benzene and toluene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sulfur-oxygen bond has a bond order of 1.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experiment showing burning of sulfur in oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur is important to cellular respiration, as it is needed in the oxidation-reduction reactions that help the cells utilize oxygen, which aids brain function and all cell activity. (healthy.net)
  • In the presence of sunlight, sulfur dioxide can also mix with oxygen and water vapor to produce volcanic smog, or vog. (nasa.gov)
  • Coal naturally contains sulfur, and when coal is burned, the sulfur combines with oxygen to form sulfur oxides. (sourcewatch.org)
  • The chemical compound aluminum sulfate consists of two aluminum atoms, three sulfur atoms and 12 oxygen atoms. (reference.com)
  • Biochemical and structural characterization of oxygen-sensitive 2-thiouridine synthesis catalyzed by an iron-sulfur protein TtuA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Sulphur helps cells utilise oxygen, which is important to brain function and cell activity. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Sulfur dioxide for this purpose is made when sulfur combines with oxygen. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sulfur dioxygenase (EC 1.13.11.18, sulfur oxygenase, sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name S-sulfanylglutathione:oxygen oxidoreductase. (wikipedia.org)
  • For added punch against acne, some sulphur soaps also contain salicylic acid, a beta hydroxyl acid with additional anti-acne properties. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Sulfur, used alone or in combination with agents such as sodium sulfacetamide or salicylic acid, has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of many dermatological conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Radioactive sulfur is produced naturally in the stratosphere when gamma rays strike argon atoms, but very little of that radioactive sulfur reaches the lower atmosphere. (forbes.com)
  • On a normal day, (Antra) Priyadarshi sees between 180 and 475 sulfur-35 atoms as sulfates per cubic meter of air, but on the 28th, her team recorded about 1500. (forbes.com)
  • A liter equals 0.001 cubic meters, meaning Californians may have inhaled only about 360 radioactive sulfur atoms on that day-or more. (forbes.com)
  • Under normal conditions , sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S 8 . (wikipedia.org)
  • Highly electron-deficient, dark blue holes appear on the surface of sulfur atoms in the SF2 molecule, and on one of the best of the 'sulfurous' catalysts created by Professor Matile's group. (innovations-report.com)
  • Decomposition of dead organic matter and faeces by anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria returns sulphur to the abiotic environment in the form of hydrogen sulphide (H 2 S). Hydrogen sulphide can be converted back to sulphate or to elemental sulphur by the action of different groups of photosynthetic and sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (see sulphur bacteria ). (encyclopedia.com)
  • Elemental sulphur becomes incorporated into rocks. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Shell Thiogro phosphate fertiliser technologies incorporate micronised elemental sulphur and sulphate sulphur into the most widely used phosphate fertilisers, including MAP, DAP, TSP and some NPKs, enabling the production of premium sulphur-enhanced fertilisers. (shell.com)
  • In mid-2015, Shell Thiogro launched a new technology that incorporates micronised elemental sulphur into urea fertiliser, enabling fertiliser manufacturers to produce a differentiated sulphur-enhanced urea fertiliser that provides more of the nutrients crops need. (shell.com)
  • Intro: Dear Don, I thought that I'd like to put into computer print the original speech notes of Walter C. Harris in memory of former schoolmates and read at Sulphur Springs Homecoming the 4th Sunday in June, 1940. (ancestry.com)
  • Two years later, School District No.11, one of the first was formed, embracing the Sulphur Springs locality. (ancestry.com)
  • The district has been swallowed up by consolidation, but the school house, renamed the Sulphur Springs School House, because of a large spring nearby that furnishes an everlasting water supply, remains as a community gathering place. (ancestry.com)
  • I like to brag about the talent of this bunch of natives who came from Sulphur Springs, in old District No.11. (ancestry.com)
  • There was a long line of splendid teachers at Sulphur Springs, down through the years (of which he was one) and they instilled in the students a desire for honorable achievement. (ancestry.com)
  • Note: For those of you following information about old churches, The Sulphur Springs School was less than a 5 minute walk from the present Enon Primitive Baptist Church building. (ancestry.com)
  • Do you have a better or more recent aerial photo of Sulphur Springs Municipal Airport that you would like to share? (airnav.com)
  • Flying to Sulphur Springs Municipal Airport? (airnav.com)
  • White Sulphur Springs, climate waters baths and other curative resources. (upenn.edu)
  • Sulfur is also found in natural gas, crude oil, meteorites and around hot springs and volcanoes. (reference.com)
  • Illustrative applications are its addition to 1,5-cyclooctadiene to give a bicyclic thioether [3] and ethylene to give sulfur mustard S(CH 2 CH 2 Cl) 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • What is sulfur mustard? (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard, also known as mustard gas or mustard agent, is a chemical warfare agent and was used as such in World Wars I and II. (in.gov)
  • It is not presently used in the United States, except for research purposes and the U.S. Department of Defense must destroy all remaining stocks of sulfur mustard. (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard sometimes smells like garlic, onions, or mustard and sometimes has no odor. (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard can be clear to yellow or brown when it is in liquid or solid. (in.gov)
  • How does sulfur mustard enter the environment? (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is not found naturally in the environment. (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard would only be found in the environment if there were an accidental release from military storage facilities. (in.gov)
  • How can people be exposed to sulfur mustard? (in.gov)
  • Since sulfur mustard is no longer made in the United States and is only found at a few military storage sites, the general public is not exposed to sulfur mustard. (in.gov)
  • Individuals working at or living near these military storage sites would only be exposed to sulfur mustard if there was an accidental spill or unplanned release. (in.gov)
  • What are the effects of sulfur mustard? (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard can cause skin burns and blisters, especially around sweaty parts of the body. (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard makes your eyes burn, your eyelids swell, and causes you to blink a lot. (in.gov)
  • Breathing sulfur mustard can cause coughing, bronchitis, and long-term respiratory disease. (in.gov)
  • Exposure to a large amount of sulfur mustard can cause death. (in.gov)
  • How do you know if you've been exposed to sulfur mustard? (in.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard or its breakdown products can be detected in your blood and urine within a few weeks after your last exposure. (in.gov)
  • This fact sheet answers the most frequently asked health questions (FAQs) about sulfur mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • The general population is not exposed to sulfur mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard can cause irritation and burns of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, reproductive effects, and may cause cancer of the respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard (HD) is a thick liquid at ambient temperature, but becomes a solid at 58 °F. It is heavier than water as a liquid and heavier than air as a vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • It does not occur naturally in the environment It is often called mustard gas, but sulfur mustard is not likely to change into a gas immediately if it is released at ordinary temperatures. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard has been used in chemical warfare and was made in large amounts during World Wars I and II. (cdc.gov)
  • What happens to sulfur mustard when it enters the environment? (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard would primarily enter the environment through an accidental release from Army bases where it is stored. (cdc.gov)
  • In soil and water, some sulfur mustard evaporates into the air and the rest breaks down in minutes to days depending on environmental conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard does not move from soil to groundwater, and it does not build up in the tissues of animals because it breaks down quickly. (cdc.gov)
  • How might I be exposed to sulfur mustard? (cdc.gov)
  • However, the Army has taken many precautions to protect the public from exposure to sulfur mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • How can sulfur mustard affect my health? (cdc.gov)
  • If you breathe sulfur mustard, it can cause coughing, bronchitis, and long-term respiratory disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Some men exposed to sulfur mustard during war have experienced lower sperm counts. (cdc.gov)
  • How likely is sulfur mustard to cause cancer? (cdc.gov)
  • Studies of people exposed during the production process or during war, as well as animal studies, have shown that sulfur mustard may cause respiratory cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have determined that sulfur mustard is carcinogenic to humans. (cdc.gov)
  • How can sulfur mustard affect children? (cdc.gov)
  • Limited human and animal data indicate that sulfur mustard may cause birth defects or otherwise affect development. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not known if sulfur mustard can cross the placenta or be passed to infants in breast milk. (cdc.gov)
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to sulfur mustard? (cdc.gov)
  • The risk of exposure to sulfur mustard is generally low, but may be greater for those who live or work near Army bases and facilities that store it. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is a type of chemical warfare agent. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is also known as "mustard gas or mustard agent," or by the military designations H, HD, and HT. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard was introduced in World War I as a chemical warfare agent. (cdc.gov)
  • If sulfur mustard is released into the air as a vapor, people can be exposed through skin contact, eye contact, or breathing. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard vapor can be carried long distances by wind. (cdc.gov)
  • If sulfur mustard is released into water, people can be exposed by drinking the contaminated water or getting it on their skin. (cdc.gov)
  • People can be exposed to liquid sulfur mustard by eating it or getting it on their skin. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard can last from 1 to 2 days in the environment under average weather conditions and from weeks to months under very cold conditions. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard breaks down slowly in the body, so repeated exposure may have a cumulative effect (that is, it can build up in the body). (cdc.gov)
  • Adverse health effects caused by sulfur mustard depend on how much people are exposed to, how they were exposed (the route of exposure), and the length of time that people are exposed. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is a powerful irritant and blistering agent that damages the skin, eyes, and respiratory (breathing) tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard damages DNA, a vital component of cells in the body, especially in the bone marrow. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard vapor is heavier than air, so it will settle in low-lying areas. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to sulfur mustard usually is not fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • When sulfur mustard was used during World War I, it killed fewer than 5% of the people who were exposed and got medical care. (cdc.gov)
  • People may not know right away that they have been exposed, because sulfur mustard may not have a smell or have a smell that might not cause alarm. (cdc.gov)
  • Some people are more sensitive to sulfur mustard than are other people, and may have signs and symptoms sooner. (cdc.gov)
  • Showing these signs and symptoms does not necessarily mean that a person has been exposed to sulfur mustard. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to sulfur mustard liquid is more likely to produce second- and third- degree burns and later scarring than is exposure to sulfur mustard vapor. (cdc.gov)
  • Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person's risk for lung and respiratory cancer. (cdc.gov)
  • Because no antidote exists for sulfur mustard exposure, the best thing to do is avoid it. (cdc.gov)
  • Immediately leave the area where the sulfur mustard was released. (cdc.gov)
  • If you are exposed to sulfur mustard, many factors chapter from the Toxicological Profile for Sulfur determine whether you'll be harmed. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is a thick liquid, which was made for the ATSDR Information Center at 1-888-422-8737. (cdc.gov)
  • This public health statement tells you about sulfur often called by its common name, 'mustard gas. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard slight garlic smell when mixed with other has been found in at least 3 of the 1,636 current or chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard dissolves slowly in NPL sites evaluated for this substance is not known. (cdc.gov)
  • More information on the When a substance is released from a large area, physical and chemical properties of sulfur mustard such as an industrial plant, or from a container, such can be found in Chapters 4 and 5. (cdc.gov)
  • This mustard agents other than sulfur mustard, such as release does not always lead to exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is not found naturally in the concentrate in plants or animals. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur mustard is not currently being produced in neutralization. (cdc.gov)
  • Department of Defense destroy all sulfur mustard exposed through accidental release from the Army by 2004. (cdc.gov)
  • The cystine in hair gives off the sulfur smell when it is burned. (healthy.net)
  • Sulfur burps are burps that are followed by a foul rotten egg smell caused by hydrogen sulfide gas. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A sulfur burp is simply a burp accompanied by a foul rotten egg smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A sulfur burp will be accompanied by a foul rotten egg smell. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Why does my urine smell like sulfur? (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Getting rid of the sulfur smell in the urine involves treating the underlying cause, and there are times when a visit to the doctor may be necessary. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here are 11 different reasons why urine can smell like sulfur. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • People are likely to experience a sulfur smell in their urine along with other symptoms such as excessive thirst, tiredness , and mood swings. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • There is a sulfur like smell coming from both sink drains. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • Have you found out from where the sulfur smell was coming? (thisoldhouse.com)
  • SO 2 is often described as the "smell of burning sulfur" but is not responsible for the smell of rotten eggs . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a colorless gas with a characteristic, irritating, pungent odor. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur has a characteristic odor that can be smelled when hair or sheep's wool is burned. (healthy.net)
  • Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is a colorless, reactive air pollutant with a strong odor. (nps.gov)
  • Sulfur burns with a blue flame with formation of sulfur dioxide, which has a suffocating and irritating odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fire at a sulfur mine and processing facility near Mosul has raised a noxious cloud of sulfur dioxide over much of northern Iraq. (nasa.gov)
  • A large cloud of sulfur dioxide stretched across the Northern Pacific Ocean following the eruption of Sarychev Peak Volcano in mid-June 2009. (nasa.gov)
  • You may be exposed by breathing, You may be exposed to sulfur dioxide mainly by eating, or drinking the substance or by skin contact. (cdc.gov)
  • exposed to sulfur dioxide by skin contact with it. (cdc.gov)
  • The people most often exposed to sulfur dioxide are would lose a basic method to get information workers in plants where sulfur dioxide occurs as a needed to make wise decisions to protect public by-product, such as in the copper smelting industry health. (cdc.gov)
  • exposed to sulfur dioxide is through the air. (cdc.gov)
  • Previously healthy nonsmoking miners who be exposed to sulfur dioxide by breathing it. (cdc.gov)
  • It is not discussed much in nutrition books, mainly because it has not been thought to be essential-that is, sulfur deficiency does not cause any visible problems. (healthy.net)
  • the resulting sulfur deficiency is difficult to differentiate clinically from protein deficiency, which is of much greater concern. (healthy.net)
  • In the past fertilizer sulfur received little attention from researchers and policymakers since sulfur deficiency was not considered a serious problem. (springer.com)
  • While sulfur is found in many foods, sulfur deficiency may still be quite common 5 - in part due to sulfur deficiency in crops, 6 and in part due to low consumption of sulfur-rich foods 7 such as leafy greens, cruciferous veggies, alliums 8 such as garlic and onions, seafood, grass fed meats and organic pastured eggs. (lewrockwell.com)
  • 9 A vegan diet can also put you at increased risk for sulfur deficiency, because plant-based foods contain fewer sulfur-containing amino acids than animal-based foods. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Required in the creation of connective tissues such as cartilage, tendons and ligaments, sulfur is also essential for healthy joints, and deficiency has been linked to joint pain and joint-related diseases. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Could You Have A Sulfur Deficiency? (care2.com)
  • Animal studies also show respiratory effects from breathing sulfur dioxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Near the Earth's surface, sulfur dioxide poses hazards, including aggravation of respiratory ailments, impaired visibility, and acid rain. (nasa.gov)
  • Elemental sulfur, the most heavily-used pesticide in California, may harm the respiratory health of children living near farms that use the pesticide, according to new research led by UC Berkeley. (news-medical.net)
  • Sulfur is available as sulfate (50 4 2− ), sulfite (50 3 2− ), amino acids (methionine, cysteine, and cystine), the tripeptide glutathione, as well as the vitamins biotin and thiamine (B 1 ), and acetyl-CoA and lipoic acid. (springer.com)
  • Sulfur is absorbed from the small intestine primarily as the four sulfur-containing amino acids or from sulfates in water or fruits and vegetables. (healthy.net)
  • As part of four amino acids, sulfur performs a number of functions in enzyme reactions and protein synthesis. (healthy.net)
  • The sulfur-containing amino acids help form other substances as well, such as biotin, coenzyme A, lipoic acid, and glutathione. (healthy.net)
  • Metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. (nih.gov)
  • You get most of your sulfur from certain proteins in your diet, specifically the amino acids methionine, cysteine, cystine, homocysteine, homocystine and taurine. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Neither of these primary sulfur-containing amino acids is stored in your body per se, although glutathione is a key storage form for sulfur. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), a volatile component in the sulfur cycle, is another source of sulfur found in the human diet … Organic sulfur, as SAAs [sulfur-containing amino acids], can be used to increase synthesis of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), glutathione (GSH), taurine, and N-acetylcysteine (NAC). (lewrockwell.com)
  • Sulphur is a nonmetallic element found in four amino acids and the B vitamins thiamine and biotin. (ehow.co.uk)
  • For centuries, arthritis sufferers have been helped by bathing in waters that contain high amounts of sulfur. (healthy.net)
  • If you don't have sufficient amounts of sulfur in your body, enzymes cannot function properly. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Sulfur dichloride is the chemical compound with the formula SCl 2 . (wikipedia.org)
  • If you work in an industry that uses sulfur dioxide, please read chemical labels and the accompanying Safety Data Sheets for hazard information. (cdc.gov)
  • Although named after the chemical element of sulfur-which is a byproduct of the hydrothermal system-the area bears the British English spelling of the word assigned by a pioneer that once laid claim to what was then known as Supan's Sulphur Works. (nps.gov)
  • Sulfur ( in British English, sulphur ) is a chemical element with the symbol S and atomic number 16. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chemical structure of sulfur. (drugs.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide ) is the chemical compound with the formula SO 2 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Sulfur, a non-metallic chemical element with the molecular formula S8, is naturally present in three forms (alpha, beta and gamma). (scielo.br)
  • What is a chemical property of sulfur? (reference.com)
  • A chemical property of sulfur is that it does not react with water, and it burns in the air to produce sulfur dioxide. (reference.com)
  • This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction sulfur + O2 + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } sulfite + 2 H+ (overall reaction) (1a) glutathione + sulfur ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } S-sulfanylglutathione (spontaneous reaction) (1b) S-sulfanylglutathione + O2 + H2O ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } glutathione + sulfite + 2 H+ This enzyme contains iron. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was not a problem because of low crop yields, extensive cropping, and the incidental supply of sulfur through rain, irrigation water, manures, and sulfurcontaining fertilizers. (springer.com)
  • Why Sulphur Fertilizers? (shell.com)
  • Lack of sulphur in soils threatens crop quality and yield, and there is a need for high performance sulphur enhanced fertilizers to meet the challenge. (shell.com)
  • Sulfur has many applications, including the production of sulfuric acid, vulcanization of natural rubber, formulation of phosphate fertilizers and production of fumigants and fungicides. (reference.com)
  • Many cofactors also contain sulfur, including glutathione , thioredoxin , and iron-sulfur proteins . (wikipedia.org)
  • The body contains approximately 140 grams of sulfur-mainly in the proteins, although it is distributed in small amounts in all cells and tissues. (healthy.net)
  • Having a full glass of water a few minutes before a heavy meal may help the digestive system deal with heavy proteins and sulfur-rich foods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Sulphate (SO 4 2- ), derived from the weathering and oxidation of rocks, is taken up by plants and incorporated into sulphur-containing proteins. (encyclopedia.com)
  • ThiS/MoaD proteins serve as sulfur carriers in thiamine and tungsten/molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • 20 Sulfur bonds are required for proteins to maintain their shape, and these bonds determine the biological activity of the proteins. (lewrockwell.com)
  • In addition to bonding proteins, sulfur is also required for the proper structure and biological activity of enzymes. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Useful search terms for sulfur dioxide include "sulfur oxide," "sulfurous acid", "anhydride," and "sulfurous oxide. (cdc.gov)
  • Once dissolved in water, sulfur dioxide can form sulfurous acid. (cdc.gov)
  • Sulfur dioxide is the anhydride of sulfurous acid, H 2 SO 3 . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This produces toxic and corrosive fumes including hydrogen chloride and sulfur oxides. (ilo.org)
  • NIOSHTIC-2 search results on sulfur dioxide -NIOSHTIC-2 is a searchable database of worker safety and health publications, documents, grant reports, and journal articles supported in whole or in part by NIOSH. (cdc.gov)
  • Treating sulfur burps typically involves treating the underlying cause. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Many home remedies can reduce or eliminate sulfur burps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Foods that may cause sulfur burps include high-protein foods and beer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A typical cause of sulfur burps is a digestive issue. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A few different bacteria that can lead to sulfur burps may also affect the digestive system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Infection in the upper gastrointestinal tract caused by the H. pylori bacterium can cause problems, including bloating, heartburn , and sulfur burps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Other issues can cause or be associated with sulfur burps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As well as having any underlying digestive issues diagnosed, there are many dietary changes a person can make to help reduce or eliminate the unwanted gas that causes sulfur burps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It may help some people reduce sulfur burps and benefit the immune system over time. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Drinking enough water can make a real difference to overall health and can go a long way toward controlling sulfur burps. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Chronic rotten egg/sulfur burps. (medhelp.org)
  • I am a 25 year old female and my only illness asides from these rotten egg/sulfur burps is Asthma -- since an infant. (medhelp.org)
  • I had a baby in 2006 a year prior to them starting and I went from 185 after delivery to 145, mainly because of these sulfur burps. (medhelp.org)
  • Experience with sulphur burps while on methadone? (medhelp.org)
  • For the last several months I have been having the sulphur/egg burps along with v. (medhelp.org)
  • Sulfur burps followed by vomiting, sometimes diarrhea. (medhelp.org)
  • Whenever I get the stomach bug or am going to throw up, it always starts out with sulfur burps. (medhelp.org)
  • anyone know about the sulphur burps or a diagnosis for it? (medhelp.org)
  • Sulphur burps are often associated with H. pylori, and stomach or gallbladder issues. (medhelp.org)
  • I have had the sulfur burps since I was really little like 4 or 5 I am now 21 we have asked the doctor about it and he doesnt know whats going on. (medhelp.org)
  • Reaction with ammonia affords sulfur nitrides related to S 4 N 4 . (wikipedia.org)
  • This demonstration or class experiment shows the exothermic reaction of two elements, iron and sulfur, to form the compound, iron sulfide. (rsc.org)
  • Sulphur is transferred from ThiI to ThiS in a reaction catalysed by IscS [ PMID: 10781607 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • TtuB functions as the sulfur donor in the sulfurtransferase reaction catalyzed by TtuA [ PMID: 28439027 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • If the sulfur dioxide were coming from a volcano rather than a fire, it would already be among the largest eruptions of 2016, Carn noted in a tweet on October 25, 2016. (nasa.gov)
  • The blue auroral glows of Io's upper atmosphere are caused by volcanic sulfur dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • In nature, sulfur dioxide can be released to the air from volcanic eruptions. (cdc.gov)
  • After a month of burning, the 2003 fire had released roughly 600 kilotons of sulfur dioxide-so much that it was the largest non-volcanic release of sulfur dioxide we had ever observed with satellites," said Nikolay Krotkov , an atmospheric scientist at Goddard Space Flight Center. (nasa.gov)
  • Later, Supan's descendants filed a land claim for the area around the time Lassen Volcanic National Park was being created, and went on to develop Sulphur Works into a roadside attraction. (nps.gov)
  • Lassen Volcanic National Park acquired the Sulphur Works parcel from the Supan family in 1952. (nps.gov)
  • Sulphur Works hydrothermal area sits at the center of a wide basin surrounded by towering volcanic peaks. (nps.gov)
  • Since it is not possible to control volcanic activity, the National Park Service created a sulfur dioxide advisory program , which gives out warnings to let people know when unhealthy levels of this pollutant are present. (nps.gov)
  • Exposure to sulfur dioxide may cause irritation to the eyes, nose, and throat. (cdc.gov)
  • Moisturisers such as olive oil or aloe vera may be used in conjunction with the sulphur to prevent drying and irritation. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Sulfur dioxide is primarily produced for sulfuric acid manufacture (see contact process ). (wikipedia.org)
  • The plume from the Al-Mishraq sulfur plant appears white-gray because it is rich with sulfate aerosols and droplets of sulfuric acid, which reflect light. (nasa.gov)
  • Through its major derivative, sulfuric acid, sulfur ranks as one of the more-important elements used as an industrial raw material. (usgs.gov)
  • Sulfuric acid production is the major end use for sulfur, and consumption of sulfuric acid has been regarded as one of the best indexes of a nation's industrial development. (usgs.gov)
  • In this review, the incidence and commercial exploitation of S pools in nature are discussed, as well as the importance of S for plants and the organic and inorganic S forms in soil and their transformations, especially the process of microbiological oxidation of elemental sulfur (S 0 ) as an alternative to the replenishment of S levels in the soil. (scielo.br)
  • What is the oxidation number of sulfur in SO2? (reference.com)
  • So, compare the electronegativities of Hydrogen and Sulfur. (halfbakery.com)
  • Sulfur actually has a higher electronegativity than Hydrogen. (halfbakery.com)
  • Unpleasant sulfur smells coming from your sink drain may be either sulfates or hydrogen sulfide gas in your water. (thisoldhouse.com)
  • Sulfur, in its various forms, is important to the yeast in protein biosynthesis as well as vitamins and coenzymes. (springer.com)
  • But overall, sulfur is most important as part of protein. (healthy.net)
  • Sulfur is also present in keratin, which is necessary for the maintenance of the skin, hair, and nails, helping to give strength, shape, and hardness to these protein tissues. (healthy.net)
  • Protein which binds at least one iron-sulfur cluster, e.g. 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, 4Fe-4S. (uniprot.org)
  • ThiS (thiaminS) is a 66 aa protein involved in sulphur transfer. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • MoaD, a protein involved in sulphur transfer during molybdopterin synthesis, is about the same length and shows limited sequence similarity to ThiS. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • In June 2003, atmospheric scientists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, used satellites to track how much sulfur dioxide streamed into the atmosphere from a fire at a sulfur mine and processing facility near Mosul, Iraq. (nasa.gov)
  • In the first few days, the fire did not appear to be particularly energetic and our preliminary observations suggest that much of the sulfur dioxide remained in the boundary layer and the lower troposphere, which accentuates the impact on air quality and health," said Simon Carn , an atmospheric scientist at Michigan Tech. "More recently, sulfur dioxide has been lofted to higher altitudes where it may undergo long-range transport. (nasa.gov)
  • The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite measured the sulfur dioxide from Okmok Volcano from July 12-20, 2008. (nasa.gov)
  • However, soils are increasingly sulphur-deficient as a result of intensive agricultural production and reduced atmospheric sulphur deposition. (shell.com)
  • The findings made by Jena's chemists give us a better understanding of the earth's sulphur cycle, which offers important knowledge for atmospheric and climatic models. (eurekalert.org)
  • Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite and other sulfide ores in air. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper and sulfur make copper sulfide when they are combined. (reference.com)
  • Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur dioxide is also produced during the roasting of sulfide ores, such as iron pyrites, sphalerite (zinc blende), and cinnabar (mercury sulfide). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Current methods toward incorporating lithium in sulfur-silicon full cells involves prelithiating silicon or using lithium sulfide. (nature.com)
  • In humans, sulfur dioxygenase is needed to detoxify sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Siebert, W. "Sulphur" Comprehensive Inorganic Chemistry Vol. 2, ed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cysteine is conditionally essential, because it can be synthesized from methionine but not from inorganic forms of sulfur. (lewrockwell.com)
  • OptiMSM ® ​ is a proven source of bio-available sulfur, the third most abundant mineral in the human body. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • As explained by the featured study above, sulfur is the third most abundant mineral in your body, based on percentage of total body weight. (lewrockwell.com)
  • Being abundant in native form, sulfur was known in ancient times, being mentioned for its uses in ancient India , ancient Greece , China , and Egypt . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfur is an abundant natural resource that has been used by humans for hundreds of years, according to How Stuff Works. (reference.com)
  • Sulfur and silicon are environmentally benign and abundant. (nature.com)
  • weathering of ore minerals and evaporites contribute some sulfur. (wikipedia.org)
  • In its elemental form, sulfur was used for many disorders during the nineteenth century. (healthy.net)
  • According to Claude Ribbe in The Crime of Napoleon, sulfur dioxide gas was used as an execution poison by the French emperor to suppress a slave revolt in Haiti early in the nineteenth century. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • She's affiliated with the Weston A. Price Foundation and will be speaking at their November Dallas conference, and so will I. Dr. Seneff has a wealth of information in an area that many are not very knowledgeable about, and that is the importance of sulfur . (care2.com)
  • Most of the sulphur in the abiotic environment is found in rocks, although a small amount is present in the atmosphere as sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ), produced by combustion of fossil fuels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • One of the problems with using fossil fuels is the sulfur that gets sent out the tail pipe. (autoblog.com)
  • On some occasions, people may notice that their urine smells like sulfur or rotten eggs. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • See first link about a synchrotron projection TV, because we need something like that light-source here, and see the second link about carbon bicarbonate, because it provides the background chemistry that this Idea is about (and sulfur is mentioned in an annotation, too! (halfbakery.com)
  • Sulfur dioxide dissolves in water. (cdc.gov)