An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S, atomic number 16, and atomic weight [32.059; 32.076]. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
'Sulfur-containing amino acids' are a category of amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, that include methionine and cysteine, which contain sulfur atoms as part of their side chains, playing crucial roles in protein structure, enzyme function, and antioxidant defense.
Severe irritant and vesicant of skin, eyes, and lungs. It may cause blindness and lethal lung edema and was formerly used as a war gas. The substance has been proposed as a cytostatic and for treatment of psoriasis. It has been listed as a known carcinogen in the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985) (Merck, 11th ed).
Chemical groups containing the covalent sulfur bonds -S-. The sulfur atom can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
Inorganic salts of thiosulfuric acid possessing the general formula R2S2O3.
Inorganic oxides of sulfur.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.
Oxidoreductases with specificity for oxidation or reduction of SULFUR COMPOUNDS.
Sulfur hexafluoride. An inert gas used mainly as a test gas in respiratory physiology. Other uses include its injection in vitreoretinal surgery to restore the vitreous chamber and as a tracer in monitoring the dispersion and deposition of air pollutants.
A family of phototrophic purple sulfur bacteria that deposit globules of elemental sulfur inside their cells. They are found in diverse aquatic environments.
Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE.
Enzymes which transfer sulfur atoms to various acceptor molecules. EC 2.8.1.
Inorganic or organic acids that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A genus of phototrophic, obligately anaerobic bacteria in the family Chlorobiaceae. They are found in hydrogen sulfide-containing mud and water environments.
A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A genus of gram-negative, ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that is phototrophic. All species use ammonia as a nitrogen source. Some strains are found only in sulfide-containing freshwater habitats exposed to light while others may occur in marine, estuarine, and freshwater environments.
Inorganic salts of sulfurous acid.
A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.
A genus of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria in the class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA. They are obligately acidophilic and aerobic, using reduced SULFUR COMPOUNDS to support AUTOTROPHIC GROWTH.
Sulfur compounds in which the sulfur atom is attached to three organic radicals and an electronegative element or radical.
An enzyme that catalyzes the biosynthesis of cysteine in microorganisms and plants from O-acetyl-L-serine and hydrogen sulfide. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A group of gram-negative, anaerobic bacteria that is able to oxidize acetate completely to carbon dioxide using elemental sulfur as the electron acceptor.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC
An enzyme found primarily in SULFUR-REDUCING BACTERIA where it plays an important role in the anaerobic carbon oxidation pathway.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of one or more reduced sulfur compounds. Many former species have been reclassified to other classes of PROTEOBACTERIA.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of sulfur atoms (2.8.1), sulfur groups (2.8.2) or coenzyme A (2.8.3). EC 2.8.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A family of colorless sulfur bacteria in the order Thiotrichales, class GAMMAPROTEOBACTERIA.
A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.
A group of proteobacteria consisting of chemoorganotrophs usually associated with the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM of humans and animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the activation of sulfate ions by ATP to form adenosine-5'-phosphosulfate and pyrophosphate. This reaction constitutes the first enzymatic step in sulfate utilization following the uptake of sulfate. EC
A multifunctional pyridoxal phosphate enzyme. In the final step in the biosynthesis of cysteine it catalyzes the cleavage of cystathionine to yield cysteine, ammonia, and 2-ketobutyrate. EC
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
A genus of facultatively anaerobic coccoid ARCHAEA, in the family SULFOLOBACEAE. Cells are highly irregular in shape and thermoacidophilic. Lithotrophic growth occurs aerobically via sulfur oxidation in some species. Distribution includes solfataric springs and fields, mudholes, and geothermically heated acidic marine environments.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Processes by which phototrophic organisms use sunlight as their primary energy source. Contrasts with chemotrophic processes which do not depend on light and function in deriving energy from exogenous chemical sources. Photoautotrophy (or photolithotrophy) is the ability to use sunlight as energy to fix inorganic nutrients to be used for other organic requirements. Photoautotrophs include all GREEN PLANTS; GREEN ALGAE; CYANOBACTERIA; and green and PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA. Photoheterotrophs or photoorganotrophs require a supply of organic nutrients for their organic requirements but use sunlight as their primary energy source; examples include certain PURPLE NONSULFUR BACTERIA. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (AUTOTROPHY; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or phototrophy) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrients and energy requirements.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
A metallic element with the atomic symbol Mo, atomic number 42, and atomic weight 95.94. It is an essential trace element, being a component of the enzymes xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and nitrate reductase. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
A photoactivable URIDINE analog that is used as an affinity label.
Cystathionine is an intermediate sulfur-containing amino acid in the transsulfuration pathway, formed from homocysteine and serine by the enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of cysteine and glutathione.
A strictly autotrophic species of bacteria that oxidizes sulfur and thiosulfate to sulfuric acid. It was formerly called Thiobacillus thiooxidans.
Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.
A sulfuric acid dimer, formed by disulfide linkage. This compound has been used to prolong coagulation time and as an antidote in cyanide poisoning.
Nitrogen oxide (NO2). A highly poisonous gas. Exposure produces inflammation of lungs that may only cause slight pain or pass unnoticed, but resulting edema several days later may cause death. (From Merck, 11th ed) It is a major atmospheric pollutant that is able to absorb UV light that does not reach the earth's surface.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An offensive, foul breath odor resulting from a variety of causes such as poor oral hygiene, dental or oral infections, or the ingestion of certain foods.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A vitamin found in green vegetables. It is used in the treatment of peptic ulcers, colitis, and gastritis and has an effect on secretory, acid-forming, and enzymatic functions of the intestinal tract.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Acidic water usually pH 2.5 to 4.5, which poisons the ecosystem and adversely affects plants, fishes, and mammals. It is caused by industrial pollutants, mainly sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides, emitted into the atmosphere and returning to earth in the form of acidic rain water.
The processes by which organisms use simple inorganic substances such as gaseous or dissolved carbon dioxide and inorganic nitrogen as nutrient sources. Contrasts with heterotrophic processes which make use of organic materials as the nutrient supply source. Autotrophs can be either chemoautotrophs (or chemolithotrophs), largely ARCHAEA and BACTERIA, which also use simple inorganic substances for their metabolic energy reguirements; or photoautotrophs (or photolithotrophs), such as PLANTS and CYANOBACTERIA, which derive their energy from light. Depending on environmental conditions some organisms can switch between different nutritional modes (autotrophy; HETEROTROPHY; chemotrophy; or PHOTOTROPHY) to utilize different sources to meet their nutrient and energy requirements.
A genus of anoxygenic, photosynthetic, nonmotile, spherical to slightly ovoid bacterial cells occurring singly, or in aggregates of two or four, and usually surrounded with slime. It is found in stagnant water, mud of ponds, estuaries, and microbial mats of salt marshes. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The gaseous envelope surrounding a planet or similar body. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Hot springs on the ocean floor. They are commonly found near volcanically active places such as mid-oceanic ridges.
A species of gram-negative, coccoid, mostly chemolithoautotrophic bacteria, in the family RHODOBACTERACEAE. Some strains can grow anaerobically.
The measurement of the amplitude of the components of a complex waveform throughout the frequency range of the waveform. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-oxygen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. EC 4.2.
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
Habitat of hot water naturally heated by underlying geologic processes. Surface hot springs have been used for BALNEOLOGY. Underwater hot springs are called HYDROTHERMAL VENTS.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A MOLYBDENUM requiring enzyme that catalyzes the terminal reaction in the oxidative degradation of SULFUR AMINO ACIDS with the formation of a sulfate. A deficiency of sulfite oxidase results in sulfocysteinuria.
5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with sulfuric acid. The initial compound formed by the action of ATP sulfurylase on sulfate ions after sulfate uptake. Synonyms: adenosine sulfatophosphate; APS.

A novel reduced flavin mononucleotide-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase encoded by the sulfur-regulated msu operon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (1/2084)

When Pseudomonas aeruginosa is grown with organosulfur compounds as sulfur sources, it synthesizes a set of proteins whose synthesis is repressed in the presence of sulfate, cysteine, or thiocyanate (so-called sulfate starvation-induced proteins). The gene encoding one of these proteins, PA13, was isolated from a cosmid library of P. aeruginosa PAO1 and sequenced. It encoded a 381-amino-acid protein that was related to several reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH2)-dependent monooxygenases, and it was the second in an operon of three genes, which we have named msuEDC. The MsuD protein catalyzed the desulfonation of alkanesulfonates, requiring oxygen and FMNH2 for the reaction, and showed highest activity with methanesulfonate. MsuE was an NADH-dependent flavin mononucleotide (FMN) reductase, which provided reduced FMN for the MsuD enzyme. Expression of the msu operon was analyzed with a transcriptional msuD::xylE fusion and was found to be repressed in the presence of sulfate, sulfite, sulfide, or cysteine and derepressed during growth with methionine or alkanesulfonates. Growth with methanesulfonate required an intact cysB gene, and the msu operon is therefore part of the cys regulon, since sulfite utilization was found to be CysB independent in this species. Measurements of msuD::xylE expression in cysN and cysI genetic backgrounds showed that sulfate, sulfite, and sulfide or cysteine play independent roles in negatively regulating msu expression, and sulfonate utilization therefore appears to be tightly regulated.  (+info)

Localization of two phylloquinones, QK and QK', in an improved electron density map of photosystem I at 4-A resolution. (2/2084)

An improved electron density map of photosystem I from Synechococcus elongatus calculated at 4-A resolution for the first time reveals a second phylloquinone molecule and thereby completes the set of cofactors constituting the electron transfer system of this iron-sulfur type photosynthetic reaction center: six chlorophyll a, two phylloquinones, and three Fe4S4 clusters. The location of the newly identified phylloquinone pair, the individual plane orientations of these molecules, and the resulting distances to other cofactors of the electron transfer system are discussed and compared with those determined by magnetic resonance techniques.  (+info)

Analysis of zinc binding sites in protein crystal structures. (3/2084)

The geometrical properties of zinc binding sites in a dataset of high quality protein crystal structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank have been examined to identify important differences between zinc sites that are directly involved in catalysis and those that play a structural role. Coordination angles in the zinc primary coordination sphere are compared with ideal values for each coordination geometry, and zinc coordination distances are compared with those in small zinc complexes from the Cambridge Structural Database as a guide of expected trends. We find that distances and angles in the primary coordination sphere are in general close to the expected (or ideal) values. Deviations occur primarily for oxygen coordinating atoms and are found to be mainly due to H-bonding of the oxygen coordinating ligand to protein residues, bidentate binding arrangements, and multi-zinc sites. We find that H-bonding of oxygen containing residues (or water) to zinc bound histidines is almost universal in our dataset and defines the elec-His-Zn motif. Analysis of the stereochemistry shows that carboxyl elec-His-Zn motifs are geometrically rigid, while water elec-His-Zn motifs show the most geometrical variation. As catalytic motifs have a higher proportion of carboxyl elec atoms than structural motifs, they provide a more rigid framework for zinc binding. This is understood biologically, as a small distortion in the zinc position in an enzyme can have serious consequences on the enzymatic reaction. We also analyze the sequence pattern of the zinc ligands and residues that provide elecs, and identify conserved hydrophobic residues in the endopeptidases that also appear to contribute to stabilizing the catalytic zinc site. A zinc binding template in protein crystal structures is derived from these observations.  (+info)

The aconitase of yeast. IV. Studies on iron and sulfur in yeast aconitase. (4/2084)

Chemical analyses were carried out to determine the active components of the crystalline aconitase [EC] of Candida lipolytica. The enzyme contained 2 atoms of non-heme iron, 1 atom of labile sulfur, and 6 sulfhydryl groups per molecule. One atom of the non-heme iron was released by the addition of metal-chelating agents such as sodium citrate, sodium nitrilotriacetate (NTA) or sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) without loss of the enzyme activity. The non-heme iron and labile sulfur were released by the addition of sulfhydryl reagents such as rho-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), sodium mersalyl or urea with loss of the enzyme activity. o-Phenanthroline reacted with the iron atoms in the enzyme at pH 6.0 with loss of the activity. These results show that yeast aconitase is an iron-sulfur protein and that only one of the two non-heme iron atoms is essential for enzyme activity.  (+info)

Dense populations of a giant sulfur bacterium in Namibian shelf sediments. (5/2084)

A previously unknown giant sulfur bacterium is abundant in sediments underlying the oxygen minimum zone of the Benguela Current upwelling system. The bacterium has a spherical cell that exceeds by up to 100-fold the biovolume of the largest known prokaryotes. On the basis of 16S ribosomal DNA sequence data, these bacteria are closely related to the marine filamentous sulfur bacteria Thioploca, abundant in the upwelling area off Chile and Peru. Similar to Thioploca, the giant bacteria oxidize sulfide with nitrate that is accumulated to +info)

Kinetics and inhibition of recombinant human cystathionine gamma-lyase. Toward the rational control of transsulfuration. (6/2084)

The gene encoding human cystathionine gamma-lyase was cloned from total cellular Hep G2 RNA. Fusion to a T7 promoter allowed expression in Escherichia coli, representing the first mammalian cystathionine gamma-lyase overproduced in a bacterial system. About 90% of the heterologous gene product was insoluble, and renaturation experiments from purified inclusion bodies met with limited success. About 5 mg/liter culture of human cystathionine gamma-lyase could also be extracted from the soluble lysis fraction, employing a three-step native procedure. While the enzyme showed high gamma-lyase activity toward L-cystathionine (Km = 0.5 mM, Vmax = 2.5 units/mg) with an optimum pH of 8.2, no residual cystathionine beta-lyase behavior and only marginal reactivity toward L-cystine and L-cysteine were detected. Inhibition studies were performed with the mechanism-based inactivators propargylglycine, trifluoroalanine, and aminoethoxyvinylglycine. Propargylglycine inactivated human cystathionine gamma-lyase much more strongly than trifluoroalanine, in agreement with the enzyme's preference for C-gamma-S bonds. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine showed slow and tight binding characteristics with a Ki of 10.5 microM, comparable with its effect on cystathionine beta-lyase. The results have important implications for the design of specific inhibitors for transsulfuration components.  (+info)

Role of XDHC in Molybdenum cofactor insertion into xanthine dehydrogenase of Rhodobacter capsulatus. (7/2084)

Rhodobacter capsulatus xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) is composed of two subunits, XDHA and XDHB. Immediately downstream of xdhB, a third gene was identified, designated xdhC, which is cotranscribed with xdhAB. Interposon mutagenesis revealed that the xdhC gene product is required for XDH activity. However, XDHC is not a subunit of active XDH, which forms an alpha2beta2 heterotetramer in R. capsulatus. It was shown that XDHC neither is a transcriptional regulator for xdh gene expression nor influences XDH stability. To analyze the function of XDHC for XDH in R. capsulatus, inactive XDH was purified from an xdhC mutant strain. Analysis of the molybdenum cofactor content of this enzyme demonstrated that in the absence of XDHC, no molybdopterin cofactor MPT is present in the XDHAB tetramer. In contrast, absorption spectra of inactive XDH isolated from the xdhC mutant revealed the presence of iron-sulfur clusters and flavin adenine dinucleotide, demonstrating that XDHC is not required for the insertion of these cofactors. The absence of MPT from XDH isolated from an xdhC mutant indicates that XDHC either acts as a specific MPT insertase or might be a specific chaperone facilitating the insertion of MPT and/or folding of XDH during or after cofactor insertion.  (+info)

Thiomicrospira kuenenii sp. nov. and Thiomicrospira frisia sp. nov., two mesophilic obligately chemolithoautotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria isolated from an intertidal mud flat. (8/2084)

Two new members of the genus Thiomicrospira were isolated from an intertidal mud flat sample with thiosulfate as the electron donor and CO2 as carbon source. On the basis of differences in genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain JB-A1T (= DSM 12350T) and strain JB-A2T (= DSM 12351T) are members of two new species, Thiomicrospira kuenenii and Thiomicrospira frisia, respectively. The cells were Gram-negative vibrios or slightly bent rods. Strain JB-A1T was highly motile, whereas strain JB-A2T showed a much lower degree of motility combined with a strong tendency to form aggregates. Both organisms were obligately autotrophic and strictly aerobic. Nitrate was not used as electron acceptor. Chemolithoautotrophic growth was observed with thiosulfate, tetrathionate, sulfur and sulfide. Neither isolate was able to grow heterotrophically. For strain JB-A1T, growth was observed between pH values of 4.0 and 7.5 with an optimum at pH 6.0, whereas for strain JB-A2T, growth was observed between pH 4.2 and 8.5 with an optimum at pH 6.5. The temperature limits for growth were between 3.5 and 42 degrees C and 3.5 and 39 degrees C, respectively. The optimum growth temperature for strain JB-A1T was between 29 and 33.5 degrees C, whereas strain JB-A2T showed optimal growth between 32 and 35 degrees C. The mean maximum growth rate on thiosulfate was 0.35 h-1 for strain JB-A1T and 0.45 h-1 for strain JB-A2T.  (+info)

Sulfur is not typically referred to in the context of a medical definition, as it is an element found in nature and not a specific medical condition or concept. However, sulfur does have some relevance to certain medical topics:

* Sulfur is an essential element that is a component of several amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and is necessary for the proper functioning of enzymes and other biological processes in the body.
* Sulfur-containing compounds, such as glutathione, play important roles in antioxidant defense and detoxification in the body.
* Some medications and supplements contain sulfur or sulfur-containing compounds, such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), which is used topically for pain relief and inflammation.
* Sulfur baths and other forms of sulfur-based therapies have been used historically in alternative medicine to treat various conditions, although their effectiveness is not well-established by scientific research.

It's important to note that while sulfur itself is not a medical term, it can be relevant to certain medical topics and should be discussed with a healthcare professional if you have any questions or concerns about its use in medications, supplements, or therapies.

Sulfur compounds refer to chemical substances that contain sulfur atoms. Sulfur can form bonds with many other elements, including carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, among others. As a result, there is a wide variety of sulfur compounds with different structures and properties. Some common examples of sulfur compounds include hydrogen sulfide (H2S), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfonic acids (R-SO3H).

In the medical field, sulfur compounds have various applications. For instance, some are used as drugs or drug precursors, while others are used in the production of medical devices or as disinfectants. Sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, are essential components of proteins and play crucial roles in many biological processes.

However, some sulfur compounds can also be harmful to human health. For example, exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory problems, while certain organosulfur compounds found in crude oil and coal tar have been linked to an increased risk of cancer. Therefore, it is essential to handle and dispose of sulfur compounds properly to minimize potential health hazards.

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is not a medical term per se, but it's an important chemical compound with implications in human health and medicine. Here's a brief definition:

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is primarily released into the atmosphere as a result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (like coal and oil) and the smelting of metals. SO2 is also produced naturally during volcanic eruptions and some biological processes.

In medical terms, exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can have adverse health effects, particularly for people with respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). SO2 can irritate the eyes, nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and a tight feeling in the chest. Prolonged exposure to elevated levels of SO2 may exacerbate existing respiratory issues and lead to decreased lung function.

Regulations are in place to limit sulfur dioxide emissions from industrial sources to protect public health and reduce air pollution.

Sulfur isotopes are different forms of the chemical element sulfur, each with a distinct number of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common sulfur isotopes are sulfur-32 (with 16 neutrons) and sulfur-34 (with 18 neutrons). These isotopes have similar chemical properties but different atomic masses, which can be used to trace the movement and cycling of sulfur through various environmental processes, such as volcanic emissions, bacterial metabolism, and fossil fuel combustion. The relative abundances of sulfur isotopes can also provide information about the origins and history of sulfur-containing minerals and compounds.

Sulfur-containing amino acids are a type of amino acid that contain sulfur atoms in their side chains. There are three sulfur-containing amino acids that are considered essential for human health: methionine, cysteine, and homocysteine.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and plays important roles in various biological processes, including methylation reactions, protein synthesis, and detoxification.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be synthesized by the human body under normal conditions but may become essential during periods of growth or illness. It contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH) in its side chain, which allows it to form disulfide bonds with other cysteine residues and contribute to the stability and structure of proteins.

Homocysteine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that is derived from methionine metabolism. It contains a sulfur atom in its side chain and has been linked to various health problems, including cardiovascular disease, when present at elevated levels in the blood.

Other sulfur-containing amino acids include taurine, which is not incorporated into proteins but plays important roles in bile acid conjugation, antioxidant defense, and neuromodulation, and cystathionine, which is an intermediate in methionine metabolism.

Mustard gas, also known as sulfur mustard or HS, is a chemical warfare agent that has been used in military conflicts. It is a viscous, oily liquid at room temperature with a garlic-like odor. Its chemical formula is (ClCH2CH2)2S.

Mustard gas can cause severe burns and blistering of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract upon contact or inhalation. It can also damage the immune system and lead to serious, potentially fatal, systemic effects. The onset of symptoms may be delayed for several hours after exposure, making it difficult to recognize and treat the injury promptly.

Mustard gas is classified as a vesicant, which means it causes blistering or tissue damage upon contact with the skin or mucous membranes. It can also have long-term effects, including an increased risk of cancer and other health problems. The use of mustard gas in warfare is banned by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

In the context of medicine and toxicology, sulfides refer to inorganic or organic compounds containing the sulfide ion (S2-). Sulfides can be found in various forms such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), metal sulfides, and organic sulfides (also known as thioethers).

Hydrogen sulfide is a toxic gas with a characteristic rotten egg smell. It can cause various adverse health effects, including respiratory irritation, headaches, nausea, and, at high concentrations, loss of consciousness or even death. Metal sulfides, such as those found in some minerals, can also be toxic and may release hazardous sulfur dioxide (SO2) when heated or reacted with acidic substances.

Organic sulfides, on the other hand, are a class of organic compounds containing a sulfur atom bonded to two carbon atoms. They can occur naturally in some plants and animals or be synthesized in laboratories. Some organic sulfides have medicinal uses, while others may pose health risks depending on their concentration and route of exposure.

It is important to note that the term "sulfide" has different meanings in various scientific contexts, so it is essential to consider the specific context when interpreting this term.

Thiosulfates are salts or esters of thiosulfuric acid (H2S2O3). In medicine, sodium thiosulfate is used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning and as a topical treatment for wounds, skin irritations, and certain types of burns. It works by converting toxic substances into less harmful forms that can be eliminated from the body. Sodium thiosulfate is also used in some solutions for irrigation of the bladder or kidneys to help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate stones.

Sulfur oxides (SOx) are chemical compounds that contain sulfur and oxygen in various oxidation states. The term "sulfur oxides" is often used to refer specifically to sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), which are the most common and widely studied SOx compounds.

Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas with a sharp, pungent odor. It is produced naturally by volcanic eruptions and is also released into the air when fossil fuels such as coal and oil are burned for electricity generation, industrial processes, and transportation. Exposure to high levels of sulfur dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath.

Sulfur trioxide is a colorless liquid or solid with a pungent, choking odor. It is produced industrially for the manufacture of sulfuric acid and other chemicals. Sulfur trioxide is highly reactive and can cause severe burns and eye damage upon contact.

Both sulfur dioxide and sulfur trioxide contribute to air pollution and have been linked to a range of health and environmental effects, including respiratory problems, acid rain, and damage to crops and forests. As a result, there are regulations in place to limit emissions of these pollutants into the air.

In the context of medicine and biology, sulfates are ions or compounds that contain the sulfate group (SO4−2). Sulfate is a polyatomic anion with the structure of a sphere. It consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Sulfates can be found in various biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are important components of connective tissue and the extracellular matrix. Sulfate groups play a crucial role in these molecules by providing negative charges that help maintain the structural integrity and hydration of tissues.

In addition to their biological roles, sulfates can also be found in various medications and pharmaceutical compounds. For example, some laxatives contain sulfate salts, such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or sodium sulfate, which work by increasing the water content in the intestines and promoting bowel movements.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of sulfates can be harmful to human health, particularly in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a common air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels. Prolonged exposure to SO2 can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing lung conditions.

Chlorobi, also known as green sulfur bacteria, are a group of anaerobic, phototrophic bacteria that contain chlorophylls a and b, as well as bacteriochlorophyll c, d, or e. They obtain energy through photosynthesis, using light as an energy source and sulfide or other reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors. These bacteria are typically found in environments with limited sunlight and high sulfide concentrations, such as in sediments of stratified water bodies or in microbial mats. They play a significant role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles.

Oxidoreductases acting on sulfur group donors are a class of enzymes that catalyze redox reactions involving sulfur group donors. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds and the detoxification of xenobiotics.

The term "oxidoreductase" refers to any enzyme that catalyzes an oxidation-reduction reaction, where one molecule is oxidized (loses electrons) and another is reduced (gains electrons). In the case of oxidoreductases acting on sulfur group donors, the sulfur atom in the substrate serves as the electron donor.

The systematic name for this class of enzymes follows a specific format: "donor:acceptor oxidoreductase." The donor is the sulfur-containing compound that donates electrons, and the acceptor is the molecule that accepts the electrons. For example, the enzyme that catalyzes the reaction between glutathione (GSH) and a variety of electrophiles is called glutathione transferase, or GST (donor:acceptor oxidoreductase).

These enzymes are further classified into subclasses based on the type of acceptor involved in the reaction. Examples include:

* EC 1.8.1: Oxidoreductases acting on CH-NH2 group donors
* EC 1.8.3: Oxidoreductases acting on CH or CH2 groups
* EC 1.8.4: Oxidoreductases acting on the CH-CH group of donors
* EC 1.8.5: Oxidoreductases acting on a sulfur group of donors
* EC 1.8.6: Oxidoreductases acting on NADH or NADPH

The subclass EC 1.8.5, oxidoreductases acting on a sulfur group of donors, includes enzymes that catalyze redox reactions involving sulfur-containing compounds such as thiols (compounds containing -SH groups), disulfides (-S-S- bonds), and other sulfur-containing functional groups. These enzymes play crucial roles in various biological processes, including detoxification, antioxidant defense, and redox regulation.

Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is not typically a term used in medical definitions, but it is a colorless, odorless, non-flammable gas that is heavier than air. It is commonly used in the medical field for its magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties.

In MRI, SF6 is used as a contrast agent to improve the visualization of blood vessels and flow. When injected into a patient's bloodstream, the gas displaces oxygen in the blood, causing the blood vessels to appear darker on an MRI scan. This allows doctors to better see any abnormalities or blockages in the blood vessels.

It is important to note that sulfur hexafluoride should only be used under medical supervision and with appropriate precautions, as it can have adverse effects if not handled properly.

Chromatiaceae is a family of bacteria that are primarily characterized by their ability to photosynthesize and store energy in the form of sulfur granules. These bacteria are often found in aquatic environments, such as in salt marshes, freshwater sediments, and marine ecosystems. They are capable of using reduced sulfur compounds as an electron donor during photosynthesis, which distinguishes them from other photosynthetic bacteria that use water as an electron donor.

Chromatiaceae bacteria are gram-negative rods or curved rods, and they typically form distinct layers in the environment where they live. They are often found in stratified water columns, where they can form a layer of purple or brown-colored cells that are visible to the naked eye. The pigmentation comes from bacteriochlorophylls and carotenoids, which are used in light absorption during photosynthesis.

These bacteria play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and carbon in aquatic environments. They can help to remove excess nutrients from the water column, and they can also serve as a food source for other organisms in the ecosystem. However, some species of Chromatiaceae can also be associated with harmful algal blooms or other environmental disturbances that can have negative impacts on water quality and aquatic life.

Chemical warfare agents are defined as chemical substances that are intended or have the capability to cause death, injury, temporary incapacitation, or sensory irritation through their toxic properties when deployed in a military theater. These agents can be in gaseous, liquid, or solid form and are typically categorized based on their physiological effects. Common categories include nerve agents (e.g., sarin, VX), blister agents (e.g., mustard gas), choking agents (e.g., phosgene), blood agents (e.g., cyanide), and incapacitating agents (e.g., BZ). The use of chemical warfare agents is prohibited by international law under the Chemical Weapons Convention.

Sulfurtransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfur group from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including the detoxification of harmful compounds and the synthesis of important metabolites. They can be found in many organisms, from bacteria to humans.

In humans, there are several types of sulfurtransferases, including cysteine conjugate beta-lyase, rhodanese, and 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) reductase. These enzymes have different substrates and functions, but they all share the ability to transfer a sulfur group from one molecule to another.

For example, rhodanese is an enzyme that transfers a sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, converting it to less toxic thiocyanate. This reaction is important in the detoxification of cyanide in the body.

Sulfurtransferases are also involved in the synthesis of various metabolites, such as iron-sulfur clusters and molybdenum cofactor, which are essential for the function of many enzymes.

Deficiencies or mutations in sulfurtransferase genes can lead to various diseases and disorders, highlighting their importance in human health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sulfur Acids" is not a recognized medical term. Sulfuric acid, however, is a strong mineral acid with the chemical formula H2SO4. It's not typically used in a medical context, but it can come into contact with biological tissue through industrial accidents or improper use of household chemicals. If sulfuric acid comes into contact with skin or eyes, it can cause severe burns and damage. If ingested, it can be life-threatening.

If you're looking for medical definitions related to a specific topic, please provide more context so I can give you a more accurate and helpful response.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Chlorobium is a genus of photosynthetic bacteria that are primarily found in anaerobic environments, such as freshwater and marine sediments, and in the upper layers of microbial mats. These bacteria contain bacteriochlorophylls and use light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds through a process called chemosynthesis. Chlorobium species are important contributors to the global carbon cycle and play a significant role in the ecology of anaerobic environments.

The medical relevance of Chlorobium is limited, as these bacteria do not typically interact with humans or animals in a way that causes disease. However, they may be of interest to researchers studying photosynthesis, carbon cycling, and microbial ecology.

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a colorless, flammable, and extremely toxic gas with a strong odor of rotten eggs. It is a naturally occurring compound that is produced in various industrial processes and is also found in some natural sources like volcanoes, hot springs, and swamps.

In the medical context, hydrogen sulfide is known to have both toxic and therapeutic effects on the human body. At high concentrations, it can cause respiratory failure, unconsciousness, and even death. However, recent studies have shown that at low levels, hydrogen sulfide may act as a signaling molecule in the human body, playing a role in various physiological processes such as regulating blood flow, reducing inflammation, and protecting against oxidative stress.

It's worth noting that exposure to high levels of hydrogen sulfide can be life-threatening, and immediate medical attention is required in case of exposure.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

"Chromatium" is a genus of bacteria that are commonly found in aquatic environments, particularly in anaerobic or low-oxygen conditions. These bacteria are known for their ability to perform anaerobic respiration using sulfur as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain. This process is often referred to as "sulfur reduction" or "sulfur respiration."

The name "Chromatium" comes from the Greek word "chroma," which means "color," and refers to the distinctive purple color of these bacteria, which is due to the presence of bacteriochlorophyll and carotenoid pigments. These pigments allow Chromatium species to perform photosynthesis, using light energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds.

It's worth noting that "Chromatium" is a specific taxonomic name for a genus of bacteria, and should not be confused with the more general term "chromatin," which refers to the complex of DNA, histone proteins, and other molecules that make up the chromosomes in eukaryotic cells.

Sulfites are a group of chemical compounds that contain the sulfite ion (SO3−2), which consists of one sulfur atom and three oxygen atoms. In medical terms, sulfites are often used as food additives or preservatives, serving to prevent bacterial growth and preserve the color of certain foods and drinks.

Sulfites can be found naturally in some foods, such as wine, dried fruits, and vegetables, but they are also added to a variety of processed products like potato chips, beer, and soft drinks. While sulfites are generally considered safe for most people, they can cause adverse reactions in some individuals, particularly those with asthma or a sensitivity to sulfites.

In the medical field, sulfites may also be used as medications to treat certain conditions. For example, they may be used as a vasodilator to widen blood vessels and improve blood flow during heart surgery or as an antimicrobial agent in some eye drops. However, their use as a medication is relatively limited due to the potential for adverse reactions.

Methionine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. It plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including:

1. Protein synthesis: Methionine is one of the building blocks of proteins, helping to create new proteins and maintain the structure and function of cells.
2. Methylation: Methionine serves as a methyl group donor in various biochemical reactions, which are essential for DNA synthesis, gene regulation, and neurotransmitter production.
3. Antioxidant defense: Methionine can be converted to cysteine, which is involved in the formation of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that helps protect cells from oxidative damage.
4. Homocysteine metabolism: Methionine is involved in the conversion of homocysteine back to methionine through a process called remethylation, which is essential for maintaining normal homocysteine levels and preventing cardiovascular disease.
5. Fat metabolism: Methionine helps facilitate the breakdown and metabolism of fats in the body.

Foods rich in methionine include meat, fish, dairy products, eggs, and some nuts and seeds.

"Acidithiobacillus" is a genus of bacteria that are capable of oxidizing sulfur compounds and obtaining energy from them. These bacteria are acidophilic, meaning they thrive in highly acidic environments, with optimum growth occurring at a pH between 2 and 4. They are widely distributed in nature, including in soil, water, and mining environments that have been impacted by acid mine drainage.

The genus "Acidithiobacillus" includes several species, such as "A. ferrooxidans," "A. thiooxidans," and "A. caldus." These bacteria play important roles in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and iron, contributing to the weathering of minerals and the formation of acidic environments. They have also been used in industrial applications, such as the bioleaching of metals from ores and the treatment of wastewaters containing high concentrations of heavy metals.

Sulfonium compounds are organosulfur molecules that contain a central sulfur atom bonded to three alkyl or aryl groups and have the general formula (R-S-R'-R'')+X-, where R, R', and R'' are organic groups and X is an anion. These compounds are widely used in chemical synthesis as phase-transfer catalysts, alkylating agents, and in the production of detergents, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. Sulfonium compounds can also be found in some natural sources, such as certain antibiotics and marine toxins.

Cysteine synthase is an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the amino acid cysteine. It catalyzes the reaction that combines O-acetylserine and hydrogen sulfide to produce cysteine and acetic acid. This enzyme plays a crucial role in maintaining the sulfur balance in cells, as cysteine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is an important component of proteins and many other molecules in the body. There are two forms of cysteine synthase: one that is found in bacteria and plants, and another that is found in animals. The animal form of the enzyme is also known as cystathionine beta-synthase, and it has a broader specificity than the bacterial and plant forms, as it can also catalyze the reaction that produces cystathionine from serine and homocysteine.

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are a group of bacteria that chemically reduce sulfates to produce hydrogen sulfide, elemental sulfur, and other sulfur compounds. They are anaerobic, meaning they do not require oxygen to live and grow. These bacteria are commonly found in environments like soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals, including humans.

In the medical context, SRB can be associated with certain health conditions. For example, they can contribute to dental cavities by producing acid as a byproduct of their metabolism. They can also cause infections in people with compromised immune systems or implanted medical devices, such as heart valves or joint replacements. These infections can lead to the production of harmful sulfur compounds that can damage tissues and cause symptoms like pain, swelling, and discharge.

SRB are also known to play a role in some types of anaerobic digestion, where they help break down organic matter in wastewater treatment plants and other industrial settings. However, their ability to produce corrosive sulfur compounds can cause problems in these environments, such as damage to pipes and equipment.

Iron-sulfur proteins are a group of metalloproteins that contain iron and sulfur atoms in their active centers. These clusters of iron and sulfur atoms, also known as iron-sulfur clusters, can exist in various forms, including Fe-S, 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, and 4Fe-4S structures. The iron atoms are coordinated to the protein through cysteine residues, while the sulfur atoms can be in the form of sulfide (S2-) or sulfane (-S-).

These proteins play crucial roles in many biological processes, such as electron transfer, redox reactions, and enzyme catalysis. They are found in various organisms, from bacteria to humans, and are involved in a wide range of cellular functions, including energy metabolism, photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation, and DNA repair.

Iron-sulfur proteins can be classified into several categories based on their structure and function, such as ferredoxins, Rieske proteins, high-potential iron-sulfur proteins (HiPIPs), and radical SAM enzymes. Dysregulation or mutations in iron-sulfur protein genes have been linked to various human diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and mitochondrial disorders.

Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase (TST) is an enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur group from thiosulfate to a range of acceptor molecules. It plays a crucial role in the detoxification of harmful substances and the maintenance of cellular redox balance. TST is also known as Rhodanese, which comes from the Greek word "rhodanos," meaning rose-red, due to the pinkish-red color of the enzyme when it was first isolated.

The systematic medical definition of Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase is:

A mitochondrial matrix enzyme (EC that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide, forming thiocyanate and sulfite. This reaction serves as a detoxification pathway for cyanide in the body. TST also plays a role in maintaining cellular redox balance by participating in the reduction of oxidized proteins and other molecules.

Hydrogensulfite reductase is an enzyme found in certain bacteria and archaea that catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite (bisulfite) to sulfide, using NADPH or NADH as an electron donor. This reaction is a part of the microbial dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway, where sulfate is reduced to sulfide and ultimately used as an electron sink for energy conservation.

The overall reaction catalyzed by hydrogensulfite reductase can be represented as follows:

HSiO3- (hydrogen sulfite) + 2H+ + 2e- → H2S (sulfide) + H2O

There are two main types of hydrogensulfite reductases, which differ in their cofactor requirements and subunit composition:

1. NADPH-dependent membrane-bound (type I) hydrogensulfite reductase: This enzyme is composed of multiple subunits and contains FAD, iron-sulfur clusters, and siroheme as cofactors. It catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite to sulfide using NADPH as an electron donor, and it is typically found in bacteria that grow under chemolithotrophic conditions (e.g., utilizing sulfur compounds or hydrogen as energy sources).
2. NADH-dependent cytoplasmic (type II) hydrogensulfite reductase: This enzyme consists of a single subunit and contains siroheme and iron-sulfur clusters as cofactors. It catalyzes the reduction of hydrogen sulfite to sulfide using NADH as an electron donor, and it is commonly found in bacteria that grow under heterotrophic conditions (e.g., utilizing organic compounds as energy sources).

In both cases, hydrogensulfite reductase plays a crucial role in the microbial sulfur cycle, contributing to the transformation of various sulfur species and their incorporation into or release from biomolecules.

Thiobacillus is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are capable of oxidizing inorganic sulfur compounds and sulfides to produce sulfuric acid. These bacteria play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur and carbon, particularly in environments like soil, water, and sediments. They are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various habitats such as acid mine drainage, sewage treatment plants, and even in the human respiratory system. Some species of Thiobacillus have been used in industrial applications for the bioremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils and wastewater treatment. However, they can also contribute to the corrosion of metals and concrete structures due to their acid production.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

Sulfur Group Transferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a sulfur group from one molecule to another. These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including the metabolism of certain amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine, and the detoxification of xenobiotics (foreign substances) through the addition of sulfur groups.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is sulfurtransferases, and they are classified under EC 2.8.1 in the Enzyme Commission numbering system. They can be further divided into subgroups based on their specific functions and the types of substrates they act upon. Examples of Sulfur Group Transferases include cysteine synthase, cysteine desulfurase, and rhodanese.

Air pollutants are substances or mixtures of substances present in the air that can have negative effects on human health, the environment, and climate. These pollutants can come from a variety of sources, including industrial processes, transportation, residential heating and cooking, agricultural activities, and natural events. Some common examples of air pollutants include particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs).

Air pollutants can cause a range of health effects, from respiratory irritation and coughing to more serious conditions such as bronchitis, asthma, and cancer. They can also contribute to climate change by reacting with other chemicals in the atmosphere to form harmful ground-level ozone and by directly absorbing or scattering sunlight, which can affect temperature and precipitation patterns.

Air quality standards and regulations have been established to limit the amount of air pollutants that can be released into the environment, and efforts are ongoing to reduce emissions and improve air quality worldwide.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Thiotrichaceae is a family of proteobacteria characterized by the ability to oxidize inorganic sulfur compounds. The name Thiotrichaceae comes from the Greek words "thio," meaning sulfur, and "tricha," meaning hair, which refers to the filamentous or hair-like appearance of many members of this family. These bacteria are often found in environments with high sulfur content, such as sulfur springs, hot vents, and sewage treatment plants. They play an important role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur in the environment.

Cystine is a naturally occurring amino acid in the body, which is formed from the oxidation of two cysteine molecules. It is a non-essential amino acid, meaning that it can be produced by the body and does not need to be obtained through diet. Cystine plays important roles in various biological processes, including protein structure and antioxidant defense. However, when cystine accumulates in large amounts, it can form crystals or stones, leading to conditions such as cystinuria, a genetic disorder characterized by the formation of cystine kidney stones.

Epsilonproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, which are a group of gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several genera of bacteria that are commonly found in various environments, including the human body. Epsilonproteobacteria are known to be microaerophilic or anaerobic, meaning they can grow in low oxygen conditions. Some members of this class are associated with gastrointestinal diseases and have been found in the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and genitourinary tract. They have also been isolated from environments such as volcanic vents and sediments. Epsilonproteobacteria are characterized by their unique morphology and metabolic properties, which distinguish them from other classes of proteobacteria.

Sulfate adenylyltransferase is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of sulfur-containing compounds. It catalyzes the first step in the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway, which is the conversion of sulfate (SO4^2-) to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) by transferring an adenylyl group from ATP to sulfate.

The reaction catalyzed by sulfate adenylyltransferase is as follows:

ATP + SO4^2- -> APS + PPi (pyrophosphate)

APS is then further reduced in subsequent steps of the sulfate reduction pathway to form cysteine, which is a building block for proteins and other important biological molecules. Sulfate adenylyltransferase plays a crucial role in the assimilation of sulfur into organic compounds and is widely distributed in nature, being found in bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes.

Cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE or CGL) is an enzyme that plays a role in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, specifically methionine and cysteine. It catalyzes the conversion of cystathionine to cysteine, releasing α-ketobutyrate and ammonia as byproducts. This reaction also results in the formation of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule that has been implicated in various physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Cystathionine gamma-lyase is primarily expressed in the liver, kidney, and brain, and its activity is regulated by several factors, including the availability of its substrates and allosteric modulators like S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and homocysteine. Dysregulation of CSE has been associated with various diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of cystathionine gamma-lyase is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies targeting these diseases.

Gammaproteobacteria is a class of proteobacteria, a group of Gram-negative bacteria. This class includes several important pathogens that can cause various diseases in humans, animals, and plants. Some examples of Gammaproteobacteria include Escherichia coli (a common cause of food poisoning), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections), Vibrio cholerae (the causative agent of cholera), and Yersinia pestis (the bacterium that causes plague).

Gammaproteobacteria are characterized by their single flagellum, which is used for motility, and their outer membrane, which contains lipopolysaccharides that can elicit an immune response in host organisms. They are found in a wide range of environments, including soil, water, and the guts of animals. Some species are capable of fixing nitrogen, making them important contributors to nutrient cycling in ecosystems.

It's worth noting that while Gammaproteobacteria includes many pathogenic species, the majority of proteobacteria are not harmful and play important roles in various ecological systems.

'Acidianus' is a genus of thermoacidophilic archaea, which are extremophiles that thrive in extremely acidic and hot environments. These microorganisms are commonly found in volcanic areas, such as sulfur-rich hot springs and deep-sea hydrothermal vents, where the pH levels can be as low as 0 and the temperature can reach up to 90°C (194°F).

The name 'Acidianus' is derived from the Latin word "acidus," meaning sour or acidic, and the Greek word "ianos," meaning belonging to. Therefore, the medical definition of 'Acidianus' refers to a genus of archaea that are adapted to survive in highly acidic environments.

These microorganisms have developed unique metabolic pathways to generate energy from sulfur compounds and other reduced substances present in their environment. They play an essential role in the global carbon and sulfur cycles, contributing to the breakdown of organic matter and the formation of elemental sulfur and sulfate.

Understanding the biology and ecology of 'Acidianus' and other thermoacidophilic archaea can provide insights into the limits of life on Earth and help us explore the potential for extraterrestrial life in extreme environments, such as those found on Mars or other planets.

Seawater is not a medical term, but it is a type of water that covers more than 70% of the Earth's surface. Medically, seawater can be relevant in certain contexts, such as in discussions of marine biology, environmental health, or water safety. Seawater has a high salt content, with an average salinity of around 3.5%, which is much higher than that of freshwater. This makes it unsuitable for drinking or irrigation without desalination.

Exposure to seawater can also have medical implications, such as in cases of immersion injuries, marine envenomations, or waterborne illnesses. However, there is no single medical definition of seawater.

Air pollution is defined as the contamination of air due to the presence of substances or harmful elements that exceed the acceptable limits. These pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, gases, or a combination of these. They can be released from various sources, including industrial processes, vehicle emissions, burning of fossil fuels, and natural events like volcanic eruptions.

Exposure to air pollution can have significant impacts on human health, contributing to respiratory diseases, cardiovascular issues, and even premature death. It can also harm the environment, damaging crops, forests, and wildlife populations. Stringent regulations and measures are necessary to control and reduce air pollution levels, thereby protecting public health and the environment.

Phototrophic processes refer to the metabolic pathways used by certain organisms, such as plants, algae, and some bacteria, to convert light energy into chemical energy. This is primarily achieved through a process called photosynthesis, where these organisms use light, usually from the sun, to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. The glucose serves as an energy source for the organism, while the oxygen is released as a byproduct. This process is fundamental to life on Earth as it provides the majority of the oxygen in our atmosphere and forms the base of many food chains.

Nitrogen is not typically referred to as a medical term, but it is an element that is crucial to medicine and human life.

In a medical context, nitrogen is often mentioned in relation to gas analysis, respiratory therapy, or medical gases. Nitrogen (N) is a colorless, odorless, and nonreactive gas that makes up about 78% of the Earth's atmosphere. It is an essential element for various biological processes, such as the growth and maintenance of organisms, because it is a key component of amino acids, nucleic acids, and other organic compounds.

In some medical applications, nitrogen is used to displace oxygen in a mixture to create a controlled environment with reduced oxygen levels (hypoxic conditions) for therapeutic purposes, such as in certain types of hyperbaric chambers. Additionally, nitrogen gas is sometimes used in cryotherapy, where extremely low temperatures are applied to tissues to reduce pain, swelling, and inflammation.

However, it's important to note that breathing pure nitrogen can be dangerous, as it can lead to unconsciousness and even death due to lack of oxygen (asphyxiation) within minutes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Molybdenum" is not a medical term. It is an element with the symbol Mo and atomic number 42 on the periodic table. Molybdenum is used in various industries, including medicine, for example in the production of surgical instruments and some prosthetics due to its strength and resistance to corrosion. However, it is not a term used to describe a medical condition or bodily process. If you have any questions related to elements and their uses in medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geologic sediments" is not a term used in medical definitions. Geological sediments are deposits of material that accumulate over time, usually in layers, as a result of natural geological processes such as weathering, erosion, and deposition. These sediments can eventually become rock formations and provide important clues about the Earth's history, including information about past climates, environments, and life on Earth.

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is a type of RNA that combines with proteins to form ribosomes, which are complex structures inside cells where protein synthesis occurs. The "16S" refers to the sedimentation coefficient of the rRNA molecule, which is a measure of its size and shape. In particular, 16S rRNA is a component of the smaller subunit of the prokaryotic ribosome (found in bacteria and archaea), and is often used as a molecular marker for identifying and classifying these organisms due to its relative stability and conservation among species. The sequence of 16S rRNA can be compared across different species to determine their evolutionary relationships and taxonomic positions.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

A lyase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the breaking of various chemical bonds in a molecule, often resulting in the formation of two new molecules. Lyases differ from other types of enzymes, such as hydrolases and oxidoreductases, because they create double bonds or rings as part of their reaction mechanism.

In the context of medical terminology, lyases are not typically discussed on their own, but rather as a type of enzyme that can be involved in various biochemical reactions within the body. For example, certain lyases play a role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids, among other molecules.

One specific medical application of lyase enzymes is in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders. For instance, individuals with hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) lack the enzyme aldolase B, which is a type of lyase that helps break down fructose in the liver. By measuring the activity of aldolase B in a patient's blood or tissue sample, doctors can diagnose HFI and recommend appropriate dietary restrictions to manage the condition.

Overall, while lyases are not a medical diagnosis or condition themselves, they play important roles in various biochemical processes within the body and can be useful in the diagnosis of certain genetic disorders.

Arylsulfatases are a group of enzymes that play a role in the breakdown and recycling of complex molecules in the body. Specifically, they catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate ester bonds in certain types of large sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (GAGs).

There are several different types of arylsulfatases, each of which targets a specific type of sulfate ester bond. For example, arylsulfatase A is responsible for breaking down sulfate esters in a GAG called cerebroside sulfate, while arylsulfatase B targets a different GAG called dermatan sulfate.

Deficiencies in certain arylsulfatases can lead to genetic disorders. For example, a deficiency in arylsulfatase A can cause metachromatic leukodystrophy, a progressive neurological disorder that affects the nervous system and causes a range of symptoms including muscle weakness, developmental delays, and cognitive decline. Similarly, a deficiency in arylsulfatase B can lead to Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, a rare genetic disorder that affects the skeleton, eyes, ears, heart, and other organs.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

Anaerobiosis is a state in which an organism or a portion of an organism is able to live and grow in the absence of molecular oxygen (O2). In biological contexts, "anaerobe" refers to any organism that does not require oxygen for growth, and "aerobe" refers to an organism that does require oxygen for growth.

There are two types of anaerobes: obligate anaerobes, which cannot tolerate the presence of oxygen and will die if exposed to it; and facultative anaerobes, which can grow with or without oxygen but prefer to grow in its absence. Some organisms are able to switch between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism depending on the availability of oxygen, a process known as "facultative anaerobiosis."

Anaerobic respiration is a type of metabolic process that occurs in the absence of molecular oxygen. In this process, organisms use alternative electron acceptors other than oxygen to generate energy through the transfer of electrons during cellular respiration. Examples of alternative electron acceptors include nitrate, sulfate, and carbon dioxide.

Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient than aerobic metabolism in terms of energy production, but it allows organisms to survive in environments where oxygen is not available or is toxic. Anaerobic bacteria are important decomposers in many ecosystems, breaking down organic matter and releasing nutrients back into the environment. In the human body, anaerobic bacteria can cause infections and other health problems if they proliferate in areas with low oxygen levels, such as the mouth, intestines, or deep tissue wounds.

In the context of medicine, iron is an essential micromineral and key component of various proteins and enzymes. It plays a crucial role in oxygen transport, DNA synthesis, and energy production within the body. Iron exists in two main forms: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is derived from hemoglobin and myoglobin in animal products, while non-heme iron comes from plant sources and supplements.

The recommended daily allowance (RDA) for iron varies depending on age, sex, and life stage:

* For men aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 8 mg/day
* For women aged 19-50 years, the RDA is 18 mg/day
* During pregnancy, the RDA increases to 27 mg/day
* During lactation, the RDA for breastfeeding mothers is 9 mg/day

Iron deficiency can lead to anemia, characterized by fatigue, weakness, and shortness of breath. Excessive iron intake may result in iron overload, causing damage to organs such as the liver and heart. Balanced iron levels are essential for maintaining optimal health.

I believe there might be a slight confusion in your question. Sulfuric acid is not a medical term, but instead a chemical compound with the formula H2SO4. It's one of the most important industrial chemicals, being a strong mineral acid with numerous applications.

If you are asking for a definition related to human health or medicine, I can tell you that sulfuric acid has no physiological role in humans. Exposure to sulfuric acid can cause irritation and burns to the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract. Prolonged exposure may lead to more severe health issues. However, it is not a term typically used in medical diagnoses or treatments.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Sulfur radioisotopes are unstable forms of the element sulfur that emit radiation as they decay into more stable forms. These isotopes can be used in medical imaging and treatment, such as in the detection and treatment of certain cancers. Common sulfur radioisotopes used in medicine include sulfur-35 and sulfur-32. Sulfur-35 is used in research and diagnostic applications, while sulfur-32 is used in brachytherapy, a type of internal radiation therapy. It's important to note that handling and usage of radioisotopes should be done by trained professionals due to the potential radiation hazards they pose.

Thiouridine is not a medical term per se, but it is a term used in biochemistry and genetics. Thiouridine is a modified nucleoside that contains a sulfur atom, and it is found in the RNA (ribonucleic acid) of certain organisms, including yeast and mammals.

Thiouridine can be formed through the modification of uridine, one of the four basic building blocks of RNA, by the addition of a sulfur atom from a donor molecule such as cysteine or a derivative thereof. This modification can affect the stability, structure, and function of RNA molecules, including transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs).

In medicine, thiouridine is not used as a therapeutic agent or diagnostic tool, but it may be studied in the context of genetic research or molecular biology.

Cystathionine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid, which means that it is not used in the synthesis of proteins. It is an intermediate in the biosynthetic pathway that converts the amino acid methionine to cysteine in the body. This process involves the removal of a sulfur atom from methionine, resulting in the formation of cystathionine. Further breakdown of cystathionine leads to the production of cysteine and another amino acid called alpha-ketobutyrate.

Cystathionine plays a crucial role in the metabolism of certain sulfur-containing amino acids, and its levels are regulated by an enzyme called cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS). Genetic defects or deficiencies in this enzyme can result in a disorder known as homocystinuria, which is characterized by the accumulation of homocysteine and methionine in the body and an increased risk of various health complications.

In summary, cystathionine is a biologically important amino acid that functions as an intermediate in the conversion of methionine to cysteine, and its levels are tightly regulated by enzymatic processes in the body.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' is a species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that derives energy from the oxidation of sulfur compounds. It is commonly found in acidic environments such as mines, caves, and soils with low pH levels. This bacterium plays a significant role in the biogeochemical cycling of sulfur and contributes to the natural attenuation of metal/sulfide-containing mine wastes. It can survive in extremely acidic conditions, with some strains able to tolerate pH levels as low as 0.5.

The primary metabolic process of 'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' involves the oxidation of elemental sulfur or reduced sulfur compounds (such as sulfide, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate) to produce sulfuric acid. This results in a decrease in pH and an increase in the acidity of its environment. The bacterium can also use ferrous iron as an electron donor for growth, further contributing to the acidification process.

'Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans' has potential applications in various industrial processes, including bioleaching (the extraction of metals from ores using microorganisms), bioremediation (the use of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments), and wastewater treatment. However, its ability to acidify environments can also have negative consequences, such as accelerating corrosion in industrial settings or contributing to the formation of acid mine drainage.

Bacteriochlorophylls are a type of pigment that are found in certain bacteria and are used in photosynthesis. They are similar to chlorophylls, which are found in plants and algae, but have some differences in their structure and absorption spectrum. Bacteriochlorophylls absorb light at longer wavelengths than chlorophylls, with absorption peaks in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. This allows bacteria that contain bacteriochlorophylls to carry out photosynthesis in environments with low levels of light or at great depths in the ocean where sunlight is scarce.

There are several different types of bacteriochlorophylls, including bacteriochlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll b, and bacteriochlorophyll c. These pigments play a role in the capture of light energy during photosynthesis and are involved in the electron transfer processes that occur during this process. Bacteriochlorophylls are also used as a taxonomic marker to help classify certain groups of bacteria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but Tetrathionic Acid is not a medical term. It is a chemical compound with the formula S4O62-. It's an acidic oxyanion of sulfur with the sulfur in the +5 oxidation state. It is not related to human health or medicine directly. If you have any questions about a medical topic, I'd be happy to help with that instead!

Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a gaseous air pollutant and respiratory irritant. It is a reddish-brown toxic gas with a pungent, choking odor. NO2 is a major component of smog and is produced from the combustion of fossil fuels in vehicles, power plants, and industrial processes.

Exposure to nitrogen dioxide can cause respiratory symptoms such as coughing, wheezing, and difficulty breathing, especially in people with asthma or other respiratory conditions. Long-term exposure has been linked to the development of chronic lung diseases, including bronchitis and emphysema. NO2 also contributes to the formation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), which can penetrate deep into the lungs and cause additional health problems.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Volcanic Eruptions" are not a medical term or concept. Volcanic eruptions refer to the release of molten rock, ash, and gases from a volcano's opening, or vent, onto the Earth's surface. This is a geological event that occurs due to the movement of tectonic plates and the build-up of pressure within the Earth's crust.

If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, please feel free to ask!

Halitosis is a medical term that refers to noticeably unpleasant breath. It's also commonly known as bad breath. This condition can result from several factors, including poor oral hygiene, certain foods, smoking, alcohol use, dry mouth, and various medical conditions (such as gastrointestinal issues, respiratory infections, or liver and kidney problems). Regular dental check-ups and good oral hygiene practices, like brushing twice a day and flossing daily, can help prevent halitosis. In some cases, mouthwashes, sugar-free gums, or mints may provide temporary relief. However, if bad breath persists, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare professional or dentist for further evaluation and appropriate treatment.

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a vital antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular health and function. Glutathione helps protect cells from oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. It also supports the immune system, detoxifies harmful substances, and regulates various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and repair.

Glutathione is found in every cell of the body, with particularly high concentrations in the liver, lungs, and eyes. The body can produce its own glutathione, but levels may decline with age, illness, or exposure to toxins. As such, maintaining optimal glutathione levels through diet, supplementation, or other means is essential for overall health and well-being.

Metalloproteins are proteins that contain one or more metal ions as a cofactor, which is required for their biological activity. These metal ions play crucial roles in the catalytic function, structural stability, and electron transfer processes of metalloproteins. The types of metals involved can include iron, zinc, copper, magnesium, calcium, or manganese, among others. Examples of metalloproteins are hemoglobin (contains heme-bound iron), cytochrome c (contains heme-bound iron and functions in electron transfer), and carbonic anhydrase (contains zinc and catalyzes the conversion between carbon dioxide and bicarbonate).

In the context of medical definitions, 'carbon' is not typically used as a standalone term. Carbon is an element with the symbol C and atomic number 6, which is naturally abundant in the human body and the environment. It is a crucial component of all living organisms, forming the basis of organic compounds, such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Carbon forms strong covalent bonds with various elements, allowing for the creation of complex molecules that are essential to life. In this sense, carbon is a fundamental building block of life on Earth. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as an isolated term.

Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) refers to the specific regions of DNA in a cell that contain the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Ribosomes are complex structures composed of proteins and rRNA, which play a crucial role in protein synthesis by translating messenger RNA (mRNA) into proteins.

In humans, there are four types of rRNA molecules: 18S, 5.8S, 28S, and 5S. These rRNAs are encoded by multiple copies of rDNA genes that are organized in clusters on specific chromosomes. In humans, the majority of rDNA genes are located on the short arms of acrocentric chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22.

Each cluster of rDNA genes contains both transcribed and non-transcribed spacer regions. The transcribed regions contain the genes for the four types of rRNA, while the non-transcribed spacers contain regulatory elements that control the transcription of the rRNA genes.

The number of rDNA copies varies between species and even within individuals of the same species. The copy number can also change during development and in response to environmental factors. Variations in rDNA copy number have been associated with various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Bacterial proteins are a type of protein that are produced by bacteria as part of their structural or functional components. These proteins can be involved in various cellular processes, such as metabolism, DNA replication, transcription, and translation. They can also play a role in bacterial pathogenesis, helping the bacteria to evade the host's immune system, acquire nutrients, and multiply within the host.

Bacterial proteins can be classified into different categories based on their function, such as:

1. Enzymes: Proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in the bacterial cell.
2. Structural proteins: Proteins that provide structural support and maintain the shape of the bacterial cell.
3. Signaling proteins: Proteins that help bacteria to communicate with each other and coordinate their behavior.
4. Transport proteins: Proteins that facilitate the movement of molecules across the bacterial cell membrane.
5. Toxins: Proteins that are produced by pathogenic bacteria to damage host cells and promote infection.
6. Surface proteins: Proteins that are located on the surface of the bacterial cell and interact with the environment or host cells.

Understanding the structure and function of bacterial proteins is important for developing new antibiotics, vaccines, and other therapeutic strategies to combat bacterial infections.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there is no established medical or scientific definition for "Vitamin U." The term was used in the past to refer to a substance found in cabbage juice that seemed to help ulcers, but it's not recognized as a vitamin by modern nutrition standards. It's often referred to as methylmethionine or S-methylmethionine, which is a compound derived from the amino acid methionine. Please consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body under normal circumstances, but there may be increased requirements during certain periods such as infancy, infection, or illness. Taurine plays important roles in various physiological functions, including bile salt formation, membrane stabilization, neuromodulation, and antioxidation. It is particularly abundant in the brain, heart, retina, and skeletal muscles. In the human body, taurine is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine and methionine with the aid of vitamin B6.

Taurine can also be found in certain foods like meat, fish, and dairy products, as well as in energy drinks, where it is often added as a supplement for its potential performance-enhancing effects. However, there is ongoing debate about the safety and efficacy of taurine supplementation in healthy individuals.

Selenium compounds refer to chemical substances that contain the metalloid element selenium (Se) in its various oxidation states, combined with other elements. These compounds can be organic or inorganic and can exist in different forms, such as selenides, selenites, and selenates. Selenium is an essential trace element for human health, playing a crucial role in several biological processes, including antioxidant defense, immune function, and thyroid hormone metabolism. However, excessive exposure to certain selenium compounds can be toxic and cause serious health effects.

Water microbiology is not a formal medical term, but rather a branch of microbiology that deals with the study of microorganisms found in water. It involves the identification, enumeration, and characterization of bacteria, viruses, parasites, and other microscopic organisms present in water sources such as lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater, drinking water, and wastewater.

In a medical context, water microbiology is relevant to public health because it helps to assess the safety of water supplies for human consumption and recreational activities. It also plays a critical role in understanding and preventing waterborne diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms that can lead to illnesses such as diarrhea, skin infections, and respiratory problems.

Water microbiologists use various techniques to study water microorganisms, including culturing, microscopy, genetic analysis, and biochemical tests. They also investigate the ecology of these organisms, their interactions with other species, and their response to environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and nutrient availability.

Overall, water microbiology is a vital field that helps ensure the safety of our water resources and protects public health.

Acid rain is a form of precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog, that has a pH level less than 5.6 and contains high levels of sulfuric and nitric acids. These acidic compounds are formed primarily when sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) are emitted into the atmosphere from human sources such as coal-fired power plants, industrial processes, and transportation vehicles. When these pollutants mix with water, oxygen, and other chemicals in the atmosphere, they form acidic compounds that can fall to the earth as acid rain, harming both natural ecosystems and man-made structures.

The term "acid rain" was first coined in the 1960s by scientists studying the effects of air pollution on the environment. Acid rain can have a number of negative impacts on the environment, including damaging forests, lakes, and streams; harming aquatic life; eroding buildings, monuments, and sculptures; and contributing to respiratory problems in humans and animals.

To mitigate the effects of acid rain, many countries have implemented regulations aimed at reducing emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from industrial sources and power plants. These efforts have helped to reduce the severity of acid rain in some areas, but the problem remains a significant concern in many parts of the world.

Autotrophic processes refer to the ability of certain organisms, known as autotrophs, to synthesize their own organic nutrients from inorganic substances using light or chemical energy. This process is essential for the production of organic matter and the formation of the basis of food chains in ecosystems.

In autotrophic processes, organisms use energy to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds, such as glucose, through a series of metabolic reactions known as carbon fixation. There are two main types of autotrophic processes: photosynthesis and chemosynthesis.

Photosynthesis is the process used by plants, algae, and some bacteria to convert light energy from the sun into chemical energy in the form of organic compounds. This process involves the use of chlorophyll and other pigments to capture light energy, which is then converted into ATP and NADPH through a series of reactions known as the light-dependent reactions. These energy carriers are then used to power the Calvin cycle, where carbon dioxide is fixed into organic compounds.

Chemosynthesis, on the other hand, is the process used by some bacteria to convert chemical energy from inorganic substances, such as hydrogen sulfide or methane, into organic compounds. This process does not require light energy and typically occurs in environments with limited access to sunlight, such as deep-sea vents or soil.

Overall, autotrophic processes are critical for the functioning of ecosystems and the production of food for both plants and animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Thiocapsa" is not a medical term, but rather a genus name in the field of microbiology. Thiocapsa is a genus of purple sulfur bacteria, which are capable of photosynthesis and use hydrogen sulfide as an electron donor, forming sulfur as a byproduct. These bacteria typically inhabit environments with limited oxygen and high sulfide concentrations, such as sediments or microbial mats in freshwater and marine systems.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

In medical terms, the term "atmosphere" is not typically used as a standalone definition or diagnosis. However, in some contexts, it may refer to the physical environment or surroundings in which medical care is provided. For example, some hospitals and healthcare facilities may have different atmospheres depending on their specialties, design, or overall ambiance.

Additionally, "atmosphere" may also be used more broadly to describe the social or emotional climate of a particular healthcare setting. For instance, a healthcare provider might describe a patient's home atmosphere as warm and welcoming, or a hospital ward's atmosphere as tense or chaotic.

It is important to note that "atmosphere" is not a medical term with a specific definition, so its meaning may vary depending on the context in which it is used.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hydrogen" is not a medical term. It is a chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1. It is the lightest and most abundant chemical element in the universe, making up about 75% of its elemental mass.

In a medical context, hydrogen can be discussed in terms of molecular hydrogen (H2) which has been studied for potential therapeutic benefits. Some research explores its use as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, but more studies are needed to confirm these effects and understand the mechanisms behind them.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "hydrothermal vents" is not typically used in medical definitions. Hydrothermal vents are a geological phenomenon found on the ocean floor, where heated water rich in minerals from the Earth's crust escapes into the ocean. They are of interest in various scientific fields, including geology, marine biology, and astrobiology, but they do not have a direct relevance to medical definitions.

"Paracoccus pantotrophus" is not a medical condition or disease. It is a species of bacteria that can be found in various environments, including water and soil. This bacterium is known for its ability to metabolize a wide range of organic and inorganic compounds, making it a "panotroph," or a generalist when it comes to nutrition.

While this bacterium is not typically associated with human disease, there have been some reports of infections caused by P. pantotrophus in people with weakened immune systems. However, such cases are rare and not well-studied. Therefore, it is not commonly included in medical definitions or textbooks.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "spectrum analysis" is not a commonly used medical term. Spectrum analysis is a term that is more frequently used in the fields of physics, mathematics, and engineering to describe the process of breaking down a signal or a wave into its different frequencies and amplitudes, creating a visual representation called a spectrum.

If you have any concerns about a medical issue, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional for accurate information and guidance.

Carbon-oxygen lyases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the breaking of a carbon-oxygen bond using a molecule of water (H2O), resulting in the formation of an alcohol and a carbonyl group. These enzymes play important roles in various metabolic pathways, including the breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and amino acids.

The term "carbon-oxygen lyase" is used to describe enzymes that use a lytic cleavage mechanism to break a carbon-oxygen bond, as opposed to other types of enzymes that use oxidative or reductive mechanisms. These enzymes typically require the presence of cofactors such as metal ions or organic molecules to facilitate the reaction.

Carbon-oxygen lyases can be further classified based on the type of substrate they act upon and the specific reaction they catalyze. For example, some carbon-oxygen lyases are involved in the conversion of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to dihydroxyacetone phosphate during glycolysis, while others are involved in the breakdown of lignin, a complex polymer found in plant cell walls.

It's worth noting that carbon-oxygen lyases can also be classified as EC 4.2.1 under the Enzyme Commission (EC) numbering system, which provides a standardized nomenclature for enzymes based on the type of reaction they catalyze.

Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA) is a technique used in materials science and geology to analyze the chemical composition of materials at very small scales, typically on the order of microns or less. In this technique, a focused beam of electrons is directed at a sample, causing the emission of X-rays that are characteristic of the elements present in the sample. By analyzing the energy and intensity of these X-rays, researchers can determine the concentration of different elements in the sample with high precision and accuracy.

EPMA is typically performed using a specialized instrument called an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), which consists of an electron column for generating and focusing the electron beam, an X-ray spectrometer for analyzing the emitted X-rays, and a stage for positioning and manipulating the sample. The technique is widely used in fields such as mineralogy, geochemistry, metallurgy, and materials science to study the composition and structure of minerals, alloys, semiconductors, and other materials.

One of the key advantages of EPMA is its ability to analyze the chemical composition of small regions within a sample, even in cases where there are spatial variations in composition or where the sample is heterogeneous. This makes it an ideal technique for studying the distribution and behavior of trace elements in minerals, the microstructure of alloys and other materials, and the composition of individual grains or phases within a polyphase material. Additionally, EPMA can be used to analyze both conductive and non-conductive samples, making it a versatile tool for a wide range of applications.

'Hot Springs' are a type of geothermal feature where water is heated by the Earth's internal heat and emerges from the ground at temperatures greater than the surrounding air temperature. The water in hot springs can range in temperature from warm to extremely hot, and it is often rich in minerals such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and sodium.

People have been using hot springs for thousands of years for various purposes, including relaxation, recreation, and therapeutic benefits. The heat and mineral content of the water can help to soothe sore muscles, improve circulation, and promote healing in some cases. However, it is important to note that not all hot springs are safe for bathing, as some may contain harmful bacteria or pollutants. It is always recommended to check with local authorities before using a hot spring for therapeutic purposes.

Culture media is a substance that is used to support the growth of microorganisms or cells in an artificial environment, such as a petri dish or test tube. It typically contains nutrients and other factors that are necessary for the growth and survival of the organisms being cultured. There are many different types of culture media, each with its own specific formulation and intended use. Some common examples include blood agar, which is used to culture bacteria; Sabouraud dextrose agar, which is used to culture fungi; and Eagle's minimum essential medium, which is used to culture animal cells.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Sulfite oxidase is a medical term that refers to an enzyme found in the human body, primarily in the liver and brain. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, such as methionine and cysteine.

Sulfite oxidase catalyzes the conversion of sulfites to sulfates, which is an essential step in the detoxification of sulfur-containing compounds. The enzyme requires molybdenum and heme cofactors for its activity. A deficiency in this enzyme can lead to a rare genetic disorder known as sulfite oxidase deficiency, which is characterized by developmental delay, seizures, and severe neurological symptoms.

Adenosine phosphosulfate (APS) is a biological compound that plays a crucial role in the sulfur metabolism of many organisms. It is an activated form of sulfate, which means it is ready to be used in various biochemical reactions. APS consists of adenosine monophosphate (AMP), a molecule related to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), linked to a sulfate group through a phosphate bridge.

In the human body, APS is primarily produced in the liver and is involved in the synthesis of the amino acids cysteine and methionine, which contain sulfur atoms. These amino acids are essential for various biological processes, including protein synthesis, antioxidant defense, and detoxification.

APS is also a key intermediate in the bacterial process of dissimilatory sulfate reduction, where sulfate is reduced to hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as a terminal electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. This process is important for the global sulfur cycle and the ecology of anaerobic environments.

The two principal sulfur oxides are obtained by burning sulfur: S + O2 → SO2 (sulfur dioxide) 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (sulfur ... Sulfur mustard, a potent vesicant, was used in World War I as a disabling agent. Sulfur-sulfur bonds are a structural component ... Standard-formulation dusting sulfur is applied to crops with a sulfur duster or from a dusting plane. Wettable sulfur is the ... Elemental sulfur is one of the oldest fungicides and pesticides. "Dusting sulfur", elemental sulfur in powdered form, is a ...
... (EC, sulfur oxygenase, sulfur:oxygen oxidoreductase) is an enzyme with systematic name S- ... Rohwerder T, Sand W (July 2003). "The sulfane sulfur of persulfides is the actual substrate of the sulfur-oxidizing enzymes ... Sulfur+dioxygenase at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: Biology (EC 1.13.11). ... In humans, sulfur dioxygenase is needed to detoxify sulfide. Suzuki I, Silver M (July 1966). "The initial product and ...
... may refer to: Disulfur dichloride, S2Cl2 Sulfur dichloride, SCl2 Sulfur tetrachloride, SCl4 This set index ...
Purified sulfur (sulfur depuratum) is prepared by washing sublimed sulfur with ammonia. It is a fine yellow powder. It was ... Precipitated sulfur (sulfur praecipitatum) is prepared by boiling sulfur and calcium oxide in water and then precipitating with ... Colloidal sulfur (sulfur colloidale) is an extremely fine sulfur powder prepared by repeated precipitation, first from ... Chemically, it is the naturally occurring octasulfur (S8). Flower of sulfur or sublimed sulfur (Latin: sulfur sublimatum) is ...
Look up sulfur bacteria in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Sulfur bacteria may refer to: Green sulfur bacteria Purple sulfur ... bacteria Sulfate-reducing bacteria Sulfur-reducing bacteria This article includes a list of related items that share the same ...
Cysteine is sulfur donor for the synthesis of methionine, the major other sulfur-containing amino acid present in plants. This ... Sulfur gases are potentially phytotoxic, however, they may also be metabolized and used as sulfur source and even be beneficial ... Furthermore, the reduced sulfur is incorporated into cysteine, an amino acid that is a precursor to many other sulfur- ... Sulfur assimilation is the process by which living organisms incorporate sulfur into their biological molecules. In plants, ...
... is an inorganic compound with the formula S(CN)2. A white solid, the compound is mainly of theoretical and ... Emerson, K. (1966). "The Crystal and Molecular Structure of Sulfur Dicyanide". Acta Crystallographica. 21 (6): 970-974. doi: ... 2 is attributed to Söderbäck through his investigation of the reactions of metal cyanides and sulfur halides. Steudel, Ralf; ... Inorganic sulfur compounds, Inorganic nitrogen compounds, Thiocyanates). ...
The name Sulfur references sulphur, a butterfly with orange and yellow wings, bordered in black, as well as the element sulfur ... for his English translations of Cesar Vallejo Sulfur 24 (Spring 1989): 4. Sulfur 45/46 (Spring 2000): 8-10. "Sulfur and After: ... In a note on the term published in Sulfur 24, Eshleman evoked "imagination as an instrument of change." Sulfur appeared three ... and Maxine Chernoff on editing Sulfur and New American Writing.Jacket 36 Wesleyan University Press published A Sulfur Anthology ...
Sulfur monoxide (SO) and its dimer, Disulfur dioxide (S2O2) Sulfur dioxide (SO2) Sulfur trioxide (SO3) Higher sulfur oxides ( ... Sulfur oxide refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc. Sulfur ... oxide (SOx) refers to one or more of the following: Lower sulfur oxides (SnO, S7O2 and S6O2) ...
"Sulfur" (Chris Lord-Alge mix) - 4:37 "Sulfur" (music video) - 5:03 US Promo CD "Sulfur" (edit) - 3:59 "Sulfur" - 4:37 EU Promo ... "Video Premiere: Slipknot's 'Sulfur'". MTV. 2009-04-17. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Sulfur iTunes "Slipknot Chart History". Billboard ... "Sulfur" is the fourth single from American heavy metal band Slipknot's fourth album All Hope Is Gone. The single was released ... "Sulfur", "Duality" and "Psychosocial" became downloadable content in Rock Band on December 8, 2009. "This is the first song Jim ...
The sulfur lamp consists of a golf ball-sized (30 mm) fused-quartz bulb containing several milligrams of sulfur powder and ... The sulfur lamp (also sulphur lamp) is a highly efficient full-spectrum electrodeless lighting system whose light is generated ... It would be impossible to excite the sulfur using traditional electrodes since the sulfur would quickly react with and destroy ... Unlike fluorescent and high-intensity discharge lamps, sulfur lamps contain no mercury. Therefore, sulfur lamps do not pose a ...
... is the inorganic chemical compound with the formula SF3. It is a radical. Sulfur trifluoride is predicted to ... Irikura, Karl K. (1995). "Structure and thermochemistry of sulfur fluorides SFn (n = 1-5) and their ions SF+ n (n = 1-5)". The ... Cockman, Russell W.; Ebsworth, E. A. V.; Holloway, John H. (1987). "Complexes of iridium(III) containing the novel sulfur ... 2 obtained by oxidative addition of sulfur tetrafluoride to Ir(Cl)(CO)(PEt3)2 (Et = C2H5). Morton, J. R.; Preston, K. F.; ...
... may refer to: Sulfur dioxygenase, an enzyme Sulfur oxygenase/reductase, an enzyme This set index page lists ...
Sulfur oxidizers use enzymes such as Sulfide:quinone reductase, sulfur dioxygenase and sulfite oxidase to oxidize sulfur ... Sulfur is metabolized by all organisms, from bacteria and archaea to plants and animals. Sulfur can have an oxidation state ... Animals obtain sulfur from cysteine and methionine in the protein that they consume. Sulfur is the third most abundant mineral ... Microbial metabolism Sulfur cycle Loka Bharathi, P. A. (2008-01-01), "Sulfur Cycle", in Fath, Brian (ed.), Encyclopedia of ...
The sulfur atom has an oxidation state of +6 and may be assigned a formal charge value as low as 0 (if all three sulfur-oxygen ... Sulfur trioxide is generated in situ from sulfuric acid or is used as a solution in the acid. B2O3 stabilized sulfur trioxide ... Sulfur dioxide is produced by the burning of sulfur or iron pyrite (a sulfide ore of iron). After being purified by ... The majority of sulfur trioxide made in this way is converted into sulfuric acid. Sulfur trioxide can be prepared in the ...
... may refer to a number of sulfur nitrogen compounds: pentasulfur hexanitride, S5N6 tetrasulfur tetranitride, S4N4 ... monosulfur dinitride, SN2, analogous to nitrous oxide, N2O Nitrogen oxides, which are valence isoelectronic with sulfur ... sulfur mononitride, SN, analogous to nitric oxide, NO disulfur mononitride, S2N, analogous to nitrogen dioxide, NO2. ...
Several taxa of butterflies are collectively called the Sulphurs or Sulfurs: Coliadinae, a subfamily of butterflies commonly ... but that contains a number of species which are This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Sulfur ...
Sulfur in SF4 is in the formal +4 oxidation state. Of sulfur's total of six valence electrons, two form a lone pair. The ... Moreover, sulfur dichloride may be replaced by elemental sulfur (S) and chlorine (Cl2). A low-temperature (e.g. 20-86 °C) ... In contrast to SF4, the related molecule SF6 has sulfur in the 6+ state, no valence electrons remain nonbonding on sulfur, ... Fawcett, F. S.; Tullock, C. W. (1963). Sulfur (IV) Fluoride: (Sulfur Tetrafluoride). Inorganic Syntheses. Vol. 7. pp. 119-124. ...
Members of the sulfur bake dyes class are Sulfur Orange 1, Sulfur Brown 21, and Sulfur Green 12. Sulfur dyes are water- ... Red sulfur dyes are unknown, although a pink or lighter scarlet color is available. Sulfur linkages are the integral part of ... Sulfur dyes are the most commonly used dyes manufactured for cotton in terms of volume. They are inexpensive, generally have ... Like many sulfur dyes, details on the chemical reactions are poorly understood. It is accepted that the sulfide reduces the ...
In the laboratory, sulfur monoxide can be produced by treating sulfur dioxide with sulfur vapor in a glow discharge. It has ... Benner and Stedman developed a chemiluminescence detector for sulfur via the reaction between sulfur monoxide and ozone: SO + ... via sulfur), as in Fe3(μ3-S)(μ3-SO)(CO)9 η2 sideways-on (d-π interaction) with vanadium, niobium, and tantalum. Sulfur monoxide ... carbonyl sulfide and sulfur dioxide. Because of sulfur monoxide's rare occurrence in our atmosphere and poor stability, it is ...
Yukon Sulphur, Indiana Sulphur, Kentucky Sulphur, Louisiana Sulphur, Nevada Sulphur, Oklahoma Sulphur, South Dakota Sulphur, ... Sulfur (or sulphur) is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16. Sulfur or sulphur may also refer to: Coliadinae, ... Bowie County, Texas Sulphur, Trinity County, Texas Sulphur Peak (Utah) Sulphur River, in Texas and Arkansas Sulphur Spring, a ... Sulfur (band), a 1990s American rock band Sulfur (EP), by Gnaw Their Tongues, 2013 "Sulfur" (song), by Slipknot, 2009 "Sulfur ...
Undiluted lime sulfur is corrosive to skin and eyes and can cause serious injury like blindness. Lime sulfur reacts with strong ... In horticulture, lime sulphur (American spelling lime sulfur) is mainly a mixture of calcium polysulfides and thiosulfate (plus ... Lime sulfur is not extremely flammable but combustion produces highly irritating sulfur dioxide gas. Safety goggles and ... The corrosive nature of lime sulfur is due to the reduced species of sulfur it contains, in particular the sulfides responsible ...
... may refer to any of the following sulfur fluorides: Sulfur hexafluoride, SF6 Disulfur decafluoride, S2F10 ... Sulfur tetrafluoride, SF4 Disulfur tetrafluoride, S2F4 Sulfur difluoride, SF2 Disulfur difluoride, S2F2 Thiothionyl fluoride, ... some of which are valence isoelectronic with sulfur fluorides This set index article lists chemical compounds articles ...
... or sulphur hexafluoride (British spelling) is an inorganic compound with the formula SF6. It is a colorless ... Sulfur hexafluoride is a nontoxic gas, but by displacing oxygen in the lungs, it also carries the risk of asphyxia if too much ... Sulfur hexafluoride is also routinely used as a tracer gas in laboratory fume hood containment testing. The gas is used in the ... Sulfur hexafluoride on Earth exists primarily as a man-made industrial gas, but has also been found to occur naturally. SF 6 ...
... is the product of the burning of sulfur or of burning materials that contain sulfur: 1⁄8 S8 + O2 → SO2, ΔH = − ... Most sulfur dioxide is produced by the combustion of elemental sulfur. Some sulfur dioxide is also produced by roasting pyrite ... Sulfur dioxide for this purpose is made when sulfur combines with oxygen. The method of converting sulfur dioxide to sulfuric ... Bunker fuel National Ambient Air Quality Standards Sulfur trioxide Sulfur-iodine cycle Sulfur dioxide Archived 2019-12-30 at ...
On cooling, sulfur also expands slightly, locking it into place. The colour of the sulfur inlay is a pale yellow or off-white. ... Sulfur is used as it has a low melting point, easily achieved on a hotplate. This also reduces the risk of charring the wood ... Sulfur has also been used as a historical hot-melt glue for setting ironwork into stone, or for bonding stone together. Niello ... Overheating the sulfur causes it to darken to brown, and also produces noxious fumes and a risk of fire. Antiquarians ...
... is an inorganic compound with the molecular formula SN. It is the sulfur analogue of and isoelectronic to ... By adding excess sulfur, SSNS is also produced. Methane was premixed with fuel in the form of either O2, N2O, or air and burned ... The source of nitrogen was introduced by addition of 1-5 mole% NH3 gas and sulfur by 0.01-0.5 mol% H2S or SF6 gas. A steady ... Sulfur mononitride can be described as some average of a set of resonance structures. The singly bonded structure (first ...
It hydrolyzes readily: Sulfur tetrachloride reacts with water, producing hydrogen chloride and sulfur dioxide through the ... Sulfur tetrachloride is an inorganic compound with chemical formula SCl4. It has only been obtained as an unstable pale yellow ... It is obtained by treating sulfur dichloride with chlorine at 193 K: It melts with simultaneous decomposition above −20 °C. Its ... It decomposes above −30 °C (242 K) to sulfur dichloride and chlorine. ...
Oxidation in elemental sulfur by sulfur oxidizers produces sulfate. Dissimilative sulfur reduction in which elemental sulfur ... Although the sulfur curve shows shifts between net sulfur oxidation and net sulfur reduction in the geologic past, the ... nearly 1019 kg of sulfur) represents the total outgassing of sulfur through geologic time. Rocks analyzed for sulfur content ... the deficit in the sulfur input is likely to increase unless sulfur fertilizers are used. Sulfur metabolism Microbial ...
"Sulfur: Delirium Tremens > Overview". Allmusic. Retrieved July 6, 2015. Sulfur at AllMusic Sulfur discography at Discogs Sulfur ... "Sulfur: Delirium Tremens". babysue. June 1998. Retrieved July 30, 2020. "Sulfur: Delirium Tremens". Perte & Fraca. November 12 ... Sulfur was an American rock ensemble formed by Michele Amar in New York City in 1991. It was originally an outlet for Amar's ... Sulfur's beginnings can be traced to a musical project began in 1991 by French musician Michele Amar, who had started composing ...
The two principal sulfur oxides are obtained by burning sulfur: S + O2 → SO2 (sulfur dioxide) 2 SO2 + O2 → 2 SO3 (sulfur ... Sulfur mustard, a potent vesicant, was used in World War I as a disabling agent. Sulfur-sulfur bonds are a structural component ... Standard-formulation dusting sulfur is applied to crops with a sulfur duster or from a dusting plane. Wettable sulfur is the ... Elemental sulfur is one of the oldest fungicides and pesticides. "Dusting sulfur", elemental sulfur in powdered form, is a ...
Sulfur mustard can cause irritation and burns of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, reproductive effects, and may cause ... The general population is not exposed to sulfur mustard. ... How likely is sulfur mustard to cause cancer?. *How can sulfur ... What is sulfur mustard?. Sulfur mustard (HD) is a thick liquid at ambient temperature, but becomes a solid at 58 °F. It is ... Sulfur mustard makes your eyes burn, your eyelids swell, and causes you to blink a lot. If you breathe sulfur mustard, it can ...
Sulfur mustard damages cells within minutes of contact; however, the onset of pain and other health effects is delayed until ... Sulfur mustard (military designation HD or H) is a blister agent (vesicant) that causes severe, delayed burns to the eyes, skin ... Food: Sulfur mustard liquid can contaminate food.. *Outdoor Air: Sulfur mustard can be released into outdoor air as a liquid ... Large exposures to sulfur mustard may be fatal. Sulfur mustard is also an alkylating agent that damages the cells within the ...
This publication discusses the microbial aspects of pollution with regards to algae and bacteria, especially sulfur bacteria. ...
Rosmus, P.; Stafast, H.; Bock, H., Sulphur dicyanide: Ionisation potentials Hartree-Fock calculations, Chem. Phys. Lett., 1975 ...
Sarychev Eruption Generates Large Cloud of Sulfur Dioxide. A large cloud of sulfur dioxide stretched across the Northern ... Sarychev Eruption Generates Large Cloud of Sulfur Dioxide. A large cloud of sulfur dioxide stretched across the Northern ... All other sulfur dioxide emissions remain at low altitudes and have low concentrations, making them hard to see from space. On ... Since less sunlight reaches the Earth, the sulfur dioxide haze has a cooling effect on the climate. (See "Every Cloud Has a ...
The University of Calgary, located in the heart of Southern Alberta, both acknowledges and pays tribute to the traditional territories of the peoples of Treaty 7, which include the Blackfoot Confederacy (comprised of the Siksika, the Piikani, and the Kainai First Nations), the Tsuutina First Nation, and the Stoney Nakoda (including Chiniki, Bearspaw, and Goodstoney First Nations). The City of Calgary is also home to the Métis Nation of Alberta Region 3.. The University of Calgary is situated on land Northwest of where the Bow River meets the Elbow River, a site traditionally known as Mohkinstsis to the Blackfoot, Wîchîspa to the Stoney Nakoda, and Gutsistsi to the Tsuutina. On this land and in this place we strive to learn together, walk together, and grow together "in a good way.". ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Free shipping on all Sulfur Facial Cleanser & Face Wash purchases! ... Shop Sulfur Facial Cleanser & Face Wash and find what works best for your skin. ...
Rubber - Determination of free sulfur
Advice and warnings for the use of Sulfur hexafluoride (Lumason) during pregnancy. FDA Pregnancy Category B - No proven risk in ... Sulfur hexafluoride Pregnancy Warnings. This drug should be used only if clearly needed.. US FDA pregnancy category: B ... Sulfur hexafluoride Breastfeeding Warnings. Use of this drug is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding since drug absorption ... Sulfur hexafluoride Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings. Medically reviewed by Last updated on Dec 26, 2022. ...
Information on sulfur mustard (mustard gas), a potential agent for chemical terrorism. Provided by the Centers for Disease ... Mustard gas (H) (sulfur mustard)plus icon *Facts About Sulfur Mustard. *Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, ... Sulfur mustard (H) (mustard gas)plus icon *Facts About Sulfur Mustard. *Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, ... Facts About Sulfur Mustard. Overview of sulfur mustard, including signs, symptoms, & treatment ...
... lithium-sulphur, nanomaterial, sulfur, sulphur, technology, University of Waterloo, vehcile ... Home / Posts tagged lithium-sulfur Focus Issue on Lithium-Sulfur Batteries Now Available Open Access. Posted on February 7, ... Tagged battery, energy storage, li-ion, Li-sulfur, Lithium ion, lithium-sulfur ... weve seen novel innovations such as the all solid state lithium-sulfur battery. Now, the li-sulfur battery is getting a glass ...
... resistors had an approximately 20 times greater operating lifetime than the standard device. With the use of ... Bourns® sulfur-resistant film resistors and arrays, this corrosion related type of hard failure can be substantially reduced or ...
... resistors had an approximately 20 times greater operating lifetime than the standard device. With the use of ... Bourns® sulfur-resistant film resistors and arrays, this corrosion related type of hard failure can be substantially reduced or ...
Myopathy with deficiency of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme is an inherited disorder that primarily affects muscles used ... Myopathy with deficiency of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme is caused by mutations in the ISCU gene. This gene provides ... Mutations in the ISCU gene severely limit the amount of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme that is made in cells. A shortage ... Iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis and human disease. Trends Genet. 2008 Aug;24(8):398-407. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2008.05.008. Epub ...
Fe2S2 iron-sulfur cluster (CHEBI:49601) is a iron-sulfur cluster (CHEBI:30408) ... An iron-sulfur cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms.. ... CHEBI:49601 - Fe2S2 iron-sulfur cluster. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... bis-L-cysteinyl bis-L-histidino diiron disulfide (CHEBI:22897) is a Fe2S2 iron-sulfur cluster (CHEBI:49601). di-μ-sulfido- ...
Everything related to Tides of Sulfur on MetalSucks, your source for heavy metal news, music reviews and events. ... Listen: Tides Of Sulfurs Hideous Sludge Extinction July 18th, 2016 at 3:30pm. Anso DF ... The years best STCOT? Heavy new releases from Tides of Sulfur, Primitive Weapons, Disemballerina, Family, GlerAkur, Orbs, ...
Receive our iconic cookie at check-in when you stay at Doubletree by Hilton Sulphur Lake Charles hotel. We offer unmatched ... Quick access to I-10 in Sulphur, LA. Our hotel is off I-10, half a mile from the West Cal Arena and Events Center. Downtown ...
Natasha Berry is your local Aflac agent in Sulphur for questions about our supplemental insurance policies. ... NATASHA BERRY - SULPHUR, LA. Add an extra layer of protection for lifes speed bumps. We offer a wide range of insurance ...
Learn why our Sulfur Absorbent Technology system is located downstream of any pipeline pig collection system, slug catcher & ... Sulfur Absorbent Technology. More and more reports from industry reflect the presence of elemental sulfur deposition in ... This lowers the solubility of elemental sulfur and causes additional elemental sulfur to leave the vapor phase and deposit on ... The Bechtel Sulfur Adsorbent Technology (BSAT) solves the root cause of this problem.. The BSAT system is located downstream of ...
The most common compound between sodium and sulfur that does not contain other elements has the formula Na2S. ... Sodium and sulfur together in a compound represents a ionic bonds, because sodium is a metal and sulfur is a non-metal. The ... In this case Sodium Oxide + Sulfur Dioxide = ? The products are therefor Sodium Sulfite Sodium Oxide + Sulfur Dioxide -> ... What formula for sulfur hexafluoride?. F6S is the formula for Sulfur Hexafluoride. ...
It does really often smell like sulfur and if bad enough will make you throw up. Now, violent throwing up? If you eat a fair ... amount of meat and eggs, that has been associated with this sulfur smell as well when throwing up or burping. My understanding ...
Detailed drug Information for Resorcinol and sulfur. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side effects and ... Resorcinol and sulfur (Topical). Generic name: resorcinol and sulfur [ re-SOR-si-nol, SUL-fur ]. Drug class: Topical acne ... Detailed Resorcinol / sulfur topical dosage information Precautions while using resorcinol and sulfur. When using resorcinol ... Uses for resorcinol and sulfur. Resorcinol and sulfur combination is used to treat acne and similar skin conditions. ...
... offer potent anti-carcinogenic compounds unique to sulfur-containing vegetables. Heres why we need them. ... Sulfur-rich foods, like onions, cabbage, and broccoli, ... Why You Should Eat Sulfur-Rich Vegetables. By Mark Sisson • 183 ... Nope: sulfur is involved in hundreds of physiological processes. Lets explore some of the big ones:. Sulfur is required for ... Sulfur binds the two chains of amino acids that form insulin. It may seem like we bag on insulin a lot, but its absolutely ...
Sulphur Creek is named that way for a reason. You will find plenty of yellow walls and sulphurbearing rocks along the way. This ... Sulphur Creek - 3rd Falls. Confronting the falls directly, I found the higher ledges on the left (looking downstream) to be a ... The 5 mile Sulphur Creek route begins conveniently across Utah Route 24 from the Chimney Rock trailhead (about 5 miles east of ... You will cross and re-cross Sulphur Creek continuously as the stream twists and flows within the bounds of the canyon walls. ...
... Fossilised moulted exoskeletons of euryptids, also known as sea scorpions. They ... The wave patterns caused periodic changes in the waters sulfur levels, causing the ocean to fluctuate between euxinic (oxygen- ... The pyrite, they found, contained a combination of "light" and "heavy" sulfur isotopes, indicating turbulent oceanic activity " ... Originally published by Cosmos as Sulfur choked sea life during mass extinction ...
The Torah tells us that the sulfur and fire came down at the same time; we know from the scientific properties of sulfur that ... Sulfur is one of a vast array of simple and complicated chemicals in nature. In small quantities and in low concentrations, ... Rashi (on Genesis 19:24) teaches that what came down on Sodom and Gemorrah was at first rain, and only then sulfur and fire. In ... One of the most famous biblical passages regarding sulfur is the story of Sodom and Gemorrah found in the Book of Genesis and ...
Tag Archives: sulfur Camping, Hot Springs, Mountain Biking, Primitive Hot Springs, Trailheads ... mountainsnaturaloaksoff the beaten pathprimitiverecreationrelaxremingtonriverRVside-tripSierra Nevadasoaksouthernspotsulfurtent ... forestfreehighway 395hooverHot Springshut tubsmineralmountainsNational Forestsnaturaloutsideprimitiveroad tripspringssulfur ...
  • For references , please go to or scan the QR code. (
  • Under normal conditions, sulfur hydrolyzes very slowly to mainly form hydrogen sulfide and sulfuric acid: 1⁄2 S 8 + 4 H 2O → 3 H 2S + H 2SO 4 The reaction involves adsorption of protons onto S 8 clusters, followed by disproportionation into the reaction products. (
  • Single gas detectors provide an efficient way to monitor specific gases such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and oxygen without the need for extensive maintenance or calibration. (
  • Reactive sulfur species ( RSS ), including hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), persulfides, and polysulfides, are synthetized in all living organisms, mainly from cysteine , and have been recognized in the last two decades as very important molecules in redox regulation . (
  • He and coworkers established that oral malodor (bad breath) is associated with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds, primarily hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan. (
  • Elemental sulfur is a bright yellow, crystalline solid at room temperature. (
  • Today, almost all elemental sulfur is produced as a byproduct of removing sulfur-containing contaminants from natural gas and petroleum. (
  • Sulfur is one of the core chemical elements needed for biochemical functioning and is an elemental macronutrient for all living organisms. (
  • HPLC analysis of "elemental sulfur" reveals an equilibrium mixture of mainly S8, but with S7 and small amounts of S6. (
  • More and more reports from industry reflect the presence of elemental sulfur deposition in pipelines, regulators, flow meters, and downstream process equipment. (
  • The problem cannot be filtered out because the elemental sulfur is dissolved in the vapor phase. (
  • This lowers the solubility of elemental sulfur and causes additional elemental sulfur to leave the vapor phase and deposit on downstream equipment. (
  • soil-applied ammonium sulfate, elemental sulfur, calcium sulfate (gypsum), and magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) and foliar ammonium sulfate (Sulfur PlusTM) were evaluated on cotton. (
  • The 6 pollutants that account for the large majority of air pollution worldwide and for which standards are usually specified include carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), sulfur dioxide (SO2), lead (Pb) and suspended particulate matter (SPM). (
  • Capitol Reef National Park recommends hikers do not fully submerge themselves or ingest water directly from Sulphur Creek because E. coli bacteria can be present in the water. (
  • Many sulfur compounds are odoriferous, and the smells of odorized natural gas, skunk scent, bad breath, grapefruit, and garlic are due to organosulfur compounds. (
  • Sulfur is an essential element for all life, but almost always in the form of organosulfur compounds or metal sulfides. (
  • Sulfur mustard reacts with chemicals in the air to form other compounds. (
  • Second, and most importantly, sulfur-rich vegetation tends to come with extremely potent organosulfur compounds that offer a lot of benefit to those who eat them. (
  • The role of volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in producing bacteria that colonize the dorsal surface of the tongue was recently understood as a primary cause of halitosis (bad breath). (
  • Blood-borne causes often are consequences of metabolic processes that emit odorous volatile sulfur compounds, which are taken by the bloodstream, transported to the lungs, and emitted during exhalation. (
  • Many of these compounds have weak links that enzymes and stomach acid can take apart, such as sulfur-to-sulfur (disulfide) bonds. (
  • While reaction between sulfur and oxygen at normal conditions gives sulfur dioxide (oxidation state +4), formation of sulfur trioxide (oxidation state +6) requires temperature 400 - 600 °C and presence of a catalyst. (
  • Title : Toxicological profile for sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid Personal Author(s) : Liccione, John J.;Little, Joseph D. (
  • Under normal conditions, sulfur atoms form cyclic octatomic molecules with a chemical formula S8. (
  • An iron-sulfur cluster containing two iron atoms and two sulfur atoms. (
  • As its name suggests, this enzyme is involved in the formation of clusters of iron and sulfur atoms (Fe-S clusters). (
  • ExxonMobil solutions help ensure compliance with the IMO's global 0.50% fuel sulphur cap. (
  • Ambrym Volcano is not erupting in the traditional sense with thick ash plumes and explosive bursts of lava, rather it is leaking sulfur dioxide gas from active lava lakes in what scientists call "passive" or "non-eruptive" emissions. (
  • To comply with Environmental Protection Agency standards for sulfur dioxide gas emissions, many power facilities in the United States have switched to burning low-sulfur western United States subbituminous coal. (
  • Melioidosis in sulphur-crested cockatoo ( Cacatua galenta ). (
  • Trailhead parking for Sulphur Creek is 0.3 miles (0.5 km) west of the Chimney Rock Trailhead on State Route 24. (
  • The upper end of the Sulphur Creek route can be accessed from the designated parking lot, 3.3 miles (5.3 km) west of the visitor center, which is 0.3 miles (0.5 km) west of the Chimney Rock trailhead, on Highway 24. (
  • This publication discusses the microbial aspects of pollution with regards to algae and bacteria, especially sulfur bacteria. (
  • It has been 115 years since sulfur-producing bacteria were first reported, and this mode of metabolism has gripped microbiologists ever since. (
  • The project focuses on exploring the light-harvesting and electron transfer in intact photosynthetic organisms, mainly green non-sulfur bacteria Chloroflexus aurantiacus, at low (77 K) and room (300 K) temperatures. (
  • Sulfur is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulfide and, to a lesser extent, in other nonpolar organic solvents, such as benzene and toluene. (
  • Sulfur reacts with nearly all other elements with the exception of the noble gases, even with the notoriously unreactive metal iridium (yielding iridium disulfide). (
  • Sulfur, in the form of disulfide bonds, provides strength and resiliency to hair, feathers, and feathered hair . (
  • The reduction in emissions since 1990 has been achieved as a result of a combination of measures, including fuel-switching in energy-related sectors away from high sulphur-containing solid and liquid fuels to low sulphur fuels such as natural gas, the fitting of flue gas desulphurisation abatement technology in industrial facilities and the impact of European Union directives relating to the sulphur content of certain liquid fuels. (
  • Environmental context: Sulphur dioxide is emitted when fuels containing sulphur are combusted. (
  • There is a variety of emerging fuels that could also be considered as compliance options for the global sulphur cap. (
  • BP Marine reports that it will begin to retail low sulfur fuel that meets new IMO regulations limiting the sulfur content of marine fuels. (
  • Sulphur Lumps product price in India ranges from 130 to 22,000 INR and minimum order requirements from 1 to 10,000. (
  • Whether you're looking for Sulphur lump, Ferro Sulphur Lumps, Alizarin Red B Lumps etc, you can explore and find the best products from Tradeindia. (
  • We offer a wide range of Sulphur Lumps selections in various locations including Mumbai, Bengaluru, Delhi, Kolkata, Ahmedabad and many more. (
  • Many cofactors also contain sulfur, including glutathione, and iron-sulfur proteins. (
  • Sulfur is required for the synthesis of glutathione, one of our premier endogenous antioxidants. (
  • In plants , sulfur plays a critical role in the formation of important biomolecules such as cysteine , methionine , and tripeptide glutathione . (
  • Satellites have only been able to monitor sulfur dioxide emissions from large eruptions or the most powerful passive degassing in the past. (
  • All other sulfur dioxide emissions remain at low altitudes and have low concentrations, making them hard to see from space. (
  • This new view of passive volcanic emissions could lead to significant advances in understanding both volcanic eruptions and the impact of sulfur dioxide on climate. (
  • Since most volcanic sulfur dioxide emissions come from passive degassing, OMI will allow scientists to assess the volcanic contribution to atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentrations with unprecedented accuracy. (
  • EEA-32 emissions of sulphur dioxide (SO 2 ) have decreased by 76% between 1990 and 2009. (
  • The reported change in sulphur dioxide emissions (SO2) for each country, 1990-2009, in comparison with the 2010 NECD and Gothenburg protocol targets. (
  • Sulfur binds the two chains of amino acids that form insulin . (
  • Sulfur is needed by cotton plants to produce amino acids, which are required to make proteins and enzymes. (
  • A subcategory called sulfur amino acids includes methionine (Met) and cysteine (Cys), which not only make up proteins but also play many roles in metabolism and health. (
  • Sulfur amino acids are important for growth. (
  • Studies involving people have associated sulfur amino acids with increased body weight, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and cancer, suggesting that restricting Met and Cys could protect against these conditions. (
  • The literature still offers uncertainty about whether the benefits of diets that restrict sulfur amino acids can be translated to humans," Dong said. (
  • Dietary sulfur amino acids are found in protein-containing foods, so restricting them isn't easy. (
  • Beans and other legumes are a good source of protein that are low in sulfur amino acids. (
  • and workers involved in plastics manufacturing resulting from process contamination with sulfur or nitrogen impurities. (
  • It is not in plastics manufacturing resulting from process presently used in the United States, except for research contamination with sulfur or nitrogen impurities. (
  • Symptoms of sulfur deficiency are similar to those of nitrogen deficiency. (
  • Sulfur fertilizer decreased the nitrogen-to-sulfur (N/S) ratio in petioles collected at full bloom on the Malden fine sand soil. (
  • 2. Genome-wide H3K4me3, H3K27ac, H3K9me3, H3K27me3, H3K36me3 and Pol II profiling were performed at 0 hr, 1 hr after nitrogen starvation and 1 hr after sulfur starvation to determine chromatin signatures. (
  • 3. Transcriptome time series profiling (at 0 hr, 10 min, 30 min, 1 hr, 2hr, 6 hr, 8 hr, 24 hr and 48 hr after nitrogen and sulfur starvation separately) for chromatin signature characterization and integrative analysis. (
  • At 30 min and 1 hr after nitrogen starvation, and 1 hr, 2 hr and 6 hr after sulfur starvation. (
  • Collectively, the studies explored the potential link between the risk for having a stroke after exposure to any of several key pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide. (
  • Pyrite sulfur isotopes (δ 34 S pyr ), iron speciation and trace metal concentrations (V, U, and Mo) all indicate pervasive locally reducing conditions, and thallium (ε 205 Tl) isotopic compositions indicate significant changes in global Mn-oxide burial. (
  • The important technical challenges of Li-S batteries are dealt with in the papers of this focus issue, including development of new sulfur cathodes, protected Li anodes, new electrolyte systems including solid state electrolytes, study of degradation mechanisms, in-situ spectroscopic efforts, surface and structural aspects," Aurbach continues. (
  • Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. (
  • In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. (
  • Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. (
  • Myopathy with deficiency of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme is an inherited disorder that primarily affects muscles used for movement ( skeletal muscles ). (
  • Myopathy with deficiency of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme is caused by mutations in the ISCU gene. (
  • This gene provides instructions for making a protein called the iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme. (
  • Mutations in the ISCU gene severely limit the amount of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme that is made in cells. (
  • A reduction in the amount of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme is particularly damaging to skeletal muscle cells. (
  • These defects lead to exercise intolerance and the other features of myopathy with deficiency of iron-sulfur cluster assembly enzyme. (
  • Ambrym Volcano, on the island of the same name, has been steadily emitting sulfur dioxide for at least six months, and this image, produced using data collected by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite during the first ten days of March 2005, shows high concentrations of sulfur dioxide drifting northwest from the volcano. (
  • Due to the low concentrations of sulfur in natural gas, the vessel size is governed by pressure loss rather than capacity. (
  • In small quantities and in low concentrations, sulfur is used in homeopathic healing. (
  • However, in vast quantities and high concentrations, sulfur is very destructive. (
  • Below are the main rubriks (i.e strongest indications or symptoms) of Sulphur in traditional homeopathic usage , not approved by the FDA. (
  • It does not occur naturally in the environment It is often called mustard gas, but sulfur mustard is not likely to change into a gas immediately if it is released at ordinary temperatures. (
  • Individuals working at or living near these military gas, but sulfur mustard is not likely to change into a gas storage sites may be exposed to sulfur mustard if there immediately if it is released at ordinary temperatures. (
  • The 5.8-mile (9.3 km) one-way hike through Sulphur Creek Canyon involves leaving a shuttle vehicle at each end. (
  • With greater spatial resolution (the ability to "zoom-in" to see greater detail) and higher sensitivity to sulfur dioxide than any previous space-borne sensor, OMI is allowing scientists to study passive volcanic degassing on a daily basis for the first time. (
  • Namely, the discharge products of sulfur electrodes and cycling intermediates produced. (
  • In the past, the conventional wisdom has been that enough sulfur becomes available to crops by rainfall deposition or organic matter decomposition. (
  • Sulfur deposition in Missouri has been reduced about 30 percent in the last decade. (
  • This Thematic Issue covers sulfur oxidation, reduction and assimilation, across all three domains of life, with physiological and biochemical studies sitting alongside ecological and genomic investigations. (
  • Few people even know much about sulfur besides the whole rotten egg, fire and brimstone thing. (
  • Large exposures to sulfur mustard may be fatal. (
  • Bonide Sulfur Fungicide is a micronized dust that can be applied dry or mixed with water for a wet application. (
  • Sulfur mustard (military designation HD or H) is a blister agent (vesicant) that causes severe, delayed burns to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract. (
  • Warm, moist areas with thin skin, the moist linings of body passages and cavities (mucous membranes), and perspiration-covered skin are more sensitive to the blistering (vesicant) effects of sulfur mustard. (
  • Bonide Sulfur Fungicide prevents fungal spores from germinating, so it is most effective before the disease develops. (
  • Sulfur Plant Fungicide covers approximately 500 sq. ft at the general mix and application rate. (
  • However, the Army has taken many precautions to protect the public from exposure to sulfur mustard. (
  • Exposure to a large amount of sulfur mustard can cause death. (
  • How can families reduce the risk of exposure to sulfur mustard? (
  • The risk of exposure to sulfur mustard is generally low, but may be greater for those who live or work near Army bases and facilities that store it. (
  • However, odor is not a reliable indicator of sulfur mustard and should not be depended on to warn of sulfur mustard exposure. (
  • However, pure liquid, it is colorless and odorless, but when mixed the Army has taken many precautions to protect the with other chemicals, it looks brown and has a garlic-like public from exposure to sulfur mustard. (
  • Exposure to a large amount of sulfur mustard can the air and the rest breaks down in minutes to days cause death. (
  • The overall fine particle size provides a more concentrated surface area of sulfur, resulting in more and closer fungal and mite contact, more exposure to air for greater vapor action, and overall more intensive field area covered by a given application of sulfur. (
  • Exposure to carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and high ozone levels was linked to a stroke risk increase of 26%, 15% and 5%, respectively. (
  • The short-term risk of dying from a stroke after exposure to sulfur dioxide was particularly high, amounting to a 60% increase. (
  • Nope: sulfur is involved in hundreds of physiological processes . (
  • Thiol groups, composed of sulfur , are essential to numerous metabolic processes . (
  • (accessed 10 October 2016). (
  • To hike to the last waterfall 0.7 miles (1.1 km) from the visitor center, park on the north side of State Route 24 across from the visitor center, in the gravel parking area adjacent to the highway bridge over Sulphur Creek. (
  • For those wishing to hike a short section of the canyon to a small waterfall, begin your hike at the visitor center and follow Sulphur Creek upstream 0.7 mile (1.2 km). (
  • Parking for this section of the Sulphur Creek route is by the bridge on State Route 24, just west of the visitor center in a gravel parking area. (
  • The wave patterns caused periodic changes in the water's sulfur levels, causing the ocean to fluctuate between euxinic (oxygen-poor) and oxic (oxygen-rich) states. (
  • Xyloside analogues with substitution of the endocyclic oxygen atom by sulfur or carbon were investigated as substrates for β-1,4-galactosyltransferase 7 (β4GalT7), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycan chains. (
  • The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) have determined that sulfur mustard is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • Has the federal government made determined that sulfur mustard is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • Though sometimes found in pure, native form, sulfur on Earth usually occurs as sulfide and sulfate minerals. (
  • Our new thallium isotope and pyrite sulfur isotope trends from black shale are combined with previously published carbonate-based redox proxy data (δ 238 U and δ 34 S CAS -carbonate-associated sulfate) from time equivalent successions in Baltica, Laurentia and Argentine Precordillera, indicating a global shift towards enhanced Mn-oxide burial, decreased anoxic seafloor area, and decreased pyrite burial, respectively. (
  • Sulfur mustard (HD) is a thick liquid at ambient temperature, but becomes a solid at 58 °F. It is heavier than water as a liquid and heavier than air as a vapor. (
  • In soil and water, some sulfur mustard evaporates into the air and the rest breaks down in minutes to days depending on environmental conditions. (
  • Water: Sulfur mustard liquid can contaminate water. (
  • In soil and water, some sulfur mustard evaporates into disease. (
  • Higher in the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide combines with water to create rain laced with sulfuric acid. (
  • By looking at changes to the chemistry of pyrite (better known as "fool's gold"), Guijie Zhang from the University of Science and Technology of China and colleagues suggest sulfur-saturated water from deep in the ocean mixed with shallower fresh water, and essentially poisoned most of what lived in it. (
  • Indoor Air: Sulfur mustard can be released into indoor air as a liquid spray (aerosol) or as a vapor. (
  • If sulfur mustard is released as a vapor, it is highly unlikely to contaminate agricultural products. (
  • Before the confluence with Sulphur Creek, the wash narrows and there are two 6-foot (2 m) pour-offs to downclimb. (
  • Sulphur is available in all the potencies, formats and brands specified below. (
  • Sulphur acts in all potencies from the lowest to the highest. (
  • Sandwiched between Fiji and Australia in the South Pacific, the island nation of Vanuatu hosted the strongest point source of sulfur dioxide on the planet for the first months of 2005. (
  • Sulfur mustard can cause irritation and burns of the skin, eyes, and respiratory tract, reproductive effects, and may cause cancer of the respiratory tract. (
  • If you breathe sulfur mustard, it can cause coughing, bronchitis, and long-term respiratory disease. (
  • Studies of people exposed during the production process or during war, as well as animal studies, have shown that sulfur mustard may cause respiratory cancer. (
  • sulfur mustard may cause respiratory cancer. (
  • To celebrate the diversity and the current knowledge of sulfur metabolism, FEMS Microbiology Letters has a new Thematic Issue on this topic for you to explore. (
  • The Journal of The Electrochemical Society Focus Issue on Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Materials, Mechanisms, Modeling, and Applications is now complete, with 18 open access papers published in the ECS Digital Library. (
  • Read the full JES Focus Issues on Lithium-Sulfur Batteries: Materials, Mechanisms, Modeling, and Applications . (
  • ECS is sponsoring the Lithium Sulfur Batteries: Mechanisms, Modelling and Materials (Li-SM 3 ) 2017 Conference , taking place April 26-27 in London. (
  • It does really often smell like sulfur and if bad enough will make you throw up. (
  • If you eat a fair amount of meat and eggs, that has been associated with this sulfur smell as well when throwing up or burping. (
  • Sulfur mustard can cause skin burns and blisters, especially around sweaty parts of the body. (
  • we know from the scientific properties of sulfur that it in fact burns due to its acidity. (