Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
A reagent that is used to neutralize peptide terminal amino groups.
A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.
A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.
Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Aminobenzenesulfonic acids. Organic acids that are used in the manufacture of dyes and organic chemicals and as reagents.
A chelating agent used as an antidote to heavy metal poisoning.
The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
A copper-containing oxidoreductase enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of 4-benzenediol to 4-benzosemiquinone. It also has activity towards a variety of O-quinols and P-quinols. It primarily found in FUNGI and is involved in LIGNIN degradation, pigment biosynthesis and detoxification of lignin-derived products.
Picrates are salts of picric acid, an explosive organic compound previously used as a yellow dye and antiseptic, which are now primarily used in chemical research and industrial applications. Please note that picrates should be handled with care due to their potential explosiveness when heated or subjected to friction.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE, order Asterales, subclass Asteridae. It is a source of costus root oil and should not be confused with the genus COSTUS.
Irritants and reagents for labeling terminal amino acid groups.
Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
Oxy acids of sulfur with the general formula RSOH, where R is an alkyl or aryl group such as CH3. They are often encountered as esters and halides. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain SESQUITERPENES. The common name of sweet coltsfoot is similar to the common name for TUSSILAGO.
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Chemical agents that react with SH groups. This is a chemically diverse group that is used for a variety of purposes. Among these are enzyme inhibition, enzyme reactivation or protection, and labelling.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A bicyclic monoterpene ketone found widely in plants, especially CINNAMOMUM CAMPHORA. It is used topically as a skin antipruritic and as an anti-infective agent.
Organic salts and esters of benzenesulfonic acid.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Beta-Sulfoalanine. An amino acid with a C-terminal sulfonic acid group which has been isolated from human hair oxidized with permanganate. It occurs normally in the outer part of the sheep's fleece, where the wool is exposed to light and weather.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Stable sulfur atoms that have the same atomic number as the element sulfur, but differ in atomic weight. S-33, 34, and 36 are stable sulfur isotopes.
A genus of gram-negative gliding bacteria found in SOIL; HUMUS; and FRESHWATER and marine habitats.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining cyclohexane rings but with a different configuration from the ARTEMISININS.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
An antiseptic with mild fungistatic, bacteriostatic, anthelmintic, and amebicidal action. It is also used as a reagent and metal chelator, as a carrier for radio-indium for diagnostic purposes, and its halogenated derivatives are used in addition as topical anti-infective agents and oral antiamebics.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Biphenyl compounds are organic substances consisting of two phenyl rings connected by a single covalent bond, and can exhibit various properties and uses, including as intermediates in chemical synthesis, components in plastics and dyes, and as additives in fuels.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The sensory fibers innervating the viscera.
Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.
The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Peroxidases are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of hydrogen peroxide to water, while oxidizing various organic and inorganic compounds, playing crucial roles in diverse biological processes including stress response, immune defense, and biosynthetic reactions.
Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
**Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is an organosulfur compound with the formula HOCH2CH2SH, functionally serving as a reducing agent and a sulfhydryl group protector in biochemical and molecular biology applications.**
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.
A polyanionic compound with an unknown mechanism of action. It is used parenterally in the treatment of African trypanosomiasis and it has been used clinically with diethylcarbamazine to kill the adult Onchocerca. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1643) It has also been shown to have potent antineoplastic properties.
One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex of skeletal muscle. It is a calcium-binding protein.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Inflammation of the COLON that is predominantly confined to the MUCOSA. Its major symptoms include DIARRHEA, rectal BLEEDING, the passage of MUCUS, and ABDOMINAL PAIN.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.
A phylum of fungi that produce their sexual spores (basidiospores) on the outside of the basidium. It includes forms commonly known as mushrooms, boletes, puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, bird's-nest fungi, jelly fungi, bracket or shelf fungi, and rust and smut fungi.
The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An order of fungi in the phylum BASIDIOMYCOTA having macroscopic basidiocarps. The members are characterized by their saprophytic activities as decomposers, particularly in the degradation of CELLULOSE and LIGNIN. A large number of species in the order have been used medicinally. (From Alexopoulos, Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp504-68)
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.

Respiratory chain strongly oxidizes the CXXC motif of DsbB in the Escherichia coli disulfide bond formation pathway. (1/630)

Escherichia coli DsbB has four essential cysteine residues, among which Cys41 and Cys44 form a CXXC redox active site motif and the Cys104-Cys130 disulfide bond oxidizes the active site cysteines of DsbA, the disulfide bond formation factor in the periplasm. Functional respiratory chain is required for the cell to keep DsbA oxidized. In this study, we characterized the roles of essential cysteines of DsbB in the coupling with the respiratory chain. Cys104 was found to form the inactive complex with DsbA under respiration-defective conditions. While DsbB, under normal aerobic conditions, is in the oxidized state, having two intramolecular disulfide bonds, oxidation of Cys104 and Cys130 requires the presence of Cys41-Cys44. Remarkably, the Cys41-Cys44 disulfide bond is refractory to reduction by a high concentration of dithiothreitol, unless the membrane is solubilized with a detergent. This reductant resistance requires both the respiratory function and oxygen, since Cys41-Cys44 became sensitive to the reducing agent when membrane was prepared from quinone- or heme-depleted cells or when a membrane sample was deaerated. Thus, the Cys41-Val-Leu-Cys44 motif of DsbB is kept both strongly oxidized and strongly oxidizing when DsbB is integrated into the membrane with the normal set of respiratory components.  (+info)

ApoB100 secretion from HepG2 cells is decreased by the ACAT inhibitor CI-1011: an effect associated with enhanced intracellular degradation of ApoB. (2/630)

The concept that hepatic cholesteryl ester (CE) mass and the rate of cholesterol esterification regulate hepatocyte assembly and secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins remains controversial. The present study was carried out in HepG2 cells to correlate the rate of cholesterol esterification and CE mass with apoB secretion by CI-1011, an acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor that is known to decrease apoB secretion, in vivo, in miniature pigs. HepG2 cells were incubated with CI-1011 (10 nmol/L, 1 micromol/L, and 10 micromol/L) for 24 hours. ApoB secretion into media was decreased by 25%, 27%, and 43%, respectively (P<0.0012). CI-1011 (10 micromol/L) inhibited HepG2 cell ACAT activity by 79% (P<0.002) and cellular CE mass by 32% (P<0.05). In contrast, another ACAT inhibitor, DuP 128 (10 micromol/L), decreased cellular ACAT activity and CE mass by 85% (P<0.002) and 42% (P=0.01), respectively, but had no effect on apoB secretion into media. To characterize the reduction in apoB secretion by CI-1011, pulse-chase experiments were performed and analyzed by multicompartmental modelling using SAAM II. CI-1011 did not affect the synthesis of apoB or albumin. However, apoB secretion into the media was decreased by 42% (P=0.019). Intracellular apoB degradation increased proportionately (P=0.019). The secretion of albumin and cellular reuptake of labeled lipoproteins were unchanged. CI-1011 and DuP 128 did not affect apoB mRNA concentrations. These results show that CI-1011 decreases apoB secretion by a mechanism that involves an enhanced intracellular degradation of apoB. This study demonstrates that ACAT inhibitors can exert differential effects on apoB secretion from HepG2 cells that do not reflect their efficacy in inhibiting cholesterol esterification.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidations of cysteate: degradation via L-cysteate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase in Paracoccus pantotrophus. (3/630)

Anoxic, fresh-water enrichment cultures to oxidize different organosulfonates were set up with nitrate, ferric iron or sulfate as electron acceptors. Pure cultures were easily obtained with two naturally occurring sulfonates, cysteate (2-amino-3-sulfopropionate) and taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate), under nitrate-reducing conditions. These two sulfonates were also oxidized during reduction of iron(III), though isolation of pure cultures was not successful. One nitrate-reducing cysteate-oxidizing bacterium, strain NKNCYSA, was studied in detail. It was identified as Paracoccus pantotrophus. Eighteen sulfonates were tested, and the organism degraded cysteate, taurine, isethionate (2-hydroxyethanesulfonate), sulfoacetate or 3-aminopropanesulfonate with concomitant reduction of nitrate, presumably to molecular nitrogen. The carbon skeleton of these substrates was converted to cell material and, presumably, CO2. The amino group was released as ammonia and the sulfono moiety was recovered as sulfate. Cell-free extracts of P. pantotrophus NKNCYSA contained constitutive L-cysteate:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase (EC 2.6.1.-) and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC 1.4.1.4). Taurine:pyruvate aminotransferase, in contrast, was inducible.  (+info)

Modulation of fibroblast growth factor-2 receptor binding, signaling, and mitogenic activity by heparin-mimicking polysulfonated compounds. (4/630)

Basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) interacts with high-affinity tyrosine-kinase fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFRs) and low-affinity heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) in target cells. Both interactions are required for FGF-2-mediated biological responses. Here we report the FGF-2 antagonist activity of novel synthetic sulfonic acid polymers with distinct chemical structures and molecular masses (MMs). PAMPS [poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid)], (MM approximately 7,000-10,000), PAS [poly(anetholesulfonic acid)], (MM approximately 9,000-11,000), PSS [poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid)], (MM = 70,000), and poly(vinylsulfonic acid) (MM = 2,000), inhibited FGF-2 binding to HSPGs and FGFRs in fetal bovine aortic endothelial GM 7373 cells. They also abrogated the formation of the HSPG/FGF-2/FGFR ternary complex, as evidenced by their capacity to prevent FGF-2-mediated cell-cell attachment of FGFR-1-overexpressing, HSPG-deficient Chinese hamster ovary cells to wild-type HSPG-bearing cells. Direct interaction of the polysulfonates with FGF-2 was demonstrated by their ability to protect the growth factor from proteolytic cleavage. Accordingly, molecular modeling, based on the crystal structure of the interaction of FGF-2 with a heparin hexamer, showed the feasibility of docking PAMPS into the heparin-binding domain of FGF-2. In agreement with their FGF-2-binding capacity, PSS, PAS, and PAMPS inhibited FGF-2-induced cell proliferation in GM 7373 cells and murine brain microvascular endothelial cells. The antiproliferative activity of these compounds was associated with the abrogation of FGF-2-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of FGFR-1. Moreover, the polysulfonates PSS and PAS inhibited FGF-2-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-1/2, involved in FGF-2 signal transduction. In conclusion, sulfonic acid polymers bind FGF-2 by mimicking heparin interaction. These compounds may provide a tool to inhibit FGF-2-induced endothelial cell proliferation in angiogenesis and tumor growth.  (+info)

Inhibition of ACAT by avasimibe decreases both VLDL and LDL apolipoprotein B production in miniature pigs. (5/630)

An orally bioavailable acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, avasimibe (CI-1011), was used to test the hypothesis that inhibition of cholesterol esterification, in vivo, would reduce hepatic very low density (VLDL) apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion into plasma. ApoB kinetic studies were carried out in 10 control miniature pigs, and in 10 animals treated with avasimibe (10 mg/kg/d, n = 6; 25 mg/kg/d, n = 4). Pigs were fed a diet containing fat (34% of calories) and cholesterol (400 mg/d; 0.1%). Avasimibe decreased the plasma concentrations of total triglyceride, VLDL triglyceride, and VLDL cholesterol by 31;-40% 39-48%, and 31;-35%, respectively. Significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol (35%) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (51%) concentrations were observed only with high dose avasimibe. Autologous 131I-labeled VLDL, 125I-labeled LDL, and [3H]leucine were injected simultaneously into each pig and apoB kinetic data were analyzed using multicompartmental analysis (SAAM II). Avasimibe decreased the VLDL apoB pool size by 40;-43% and the hepatic secretion rate of VLDL apoB by 38;-41%, but did not alter its fractional catabolism. Avasimibe decreased the LDL apoB pool size by 13;-57%, largely due to a dose-dependent 25;-63% in the LDL apoB production rate. Hepatic LDL receptor mRNA abundances were unchanged, consistent with a marginal decrease in LDL apoB FCRs. Hepatic ACAT activity was decreased by 51% (P = 0.050) and 68% (P = 0.087) by low and high dose avasimibe, respectively. The decrease in total apoB secretion correlated with the decrease in hepatic ACAT activity (r = 0.495; P = 0.026). We conclude that inhibition of hepatic ACAT by avasimibe reduces both plasma VLDL and LDL apoB concentrations, primarily by decreasing apoB secretion.  (+info)

Low-molecular-weight sulfonates, a major substrate for sulfate reducers in marine microbial mats. (6/630)

Several low-molecular-weight sulfonates were added to microbial mat slurries to investigate their effects on sulfate reduction. Instantaneous production of sulfide occurred after taurine and cysteate were added to all of the microbial mats tested. The rates of production in the presence of taurine and cysteate were 35 and 24 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a stromatolite mat, 38 and 36 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt pond mat, and 27 and 18 microM HS(-) h(-1) in a salt marsh mat, respectively. The traditionally used substrates lactate and acetate stimulated the rate of sulfide production 3 to 10 times more than taurine and cysteate stimulated the rate of sulfide production in all mats, but when ethanol, glycolate, and glutamate were added to stromatolite mat slurries, the resulting increases were similar to the increases observed with taurine and cysteate. Isethionate, sulfosuccinate, and sulfobenzoate were tested only with the stromatolite mat slurry, and these compounds had much smaller effects on sulfide production. Addition of molybdate resulted in a greater inhibitory effect on acetate and lactate utilization than on sulfonate use, suggesting that different metabolic pathways were involved. In all of the mats tested taurine and cysteate were present in the pore water at nanomolar to micromolar concentrations. An enrichment culture from the stromatolite mat was obtained on cysteate in a medium lacking sulfate and incubated anaerobically. The rate of cysteate consumption by this enrichment culture was 1.6 pmol cell(-1) h(-1). Compared to the results of slurry studies, this rate suggests that organisms with properties similar to the properties of this enrichment culture are a major constituent of the sulfidogenic population. In addition, taurine was consumed at some of highest dilutions obtained from most-probable-number enrichment cultures obtained from stromatolite samples. Based on our comparison of the sulfide production rates found in various mats, low-molecular-weight sulfonates are important sources of C and S in these ecosystems.  (+info)

Antioxidant activity: what do we measure? (7/630)

Inhibition of oxidation of 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) by free radicals generated by decomposition of 2,2'-azobis(2-amidopropane) (ABAP) by antioxidants and biological material was studied. A correlation was found between the ability of various substances to delay the onset of ABTS oxidation and their rapid reduction of the ABTS+* cation radical, and between the ability to reduce the maximal rate of ABTS oxidation and slow reduction of ABTS+*. The length of the lag period of ABTS oxidation was found to be independent of ABTS concentration. Similar decrease of peroxynitrite-induced ABTS+* formation by antioxidants was observed when the antioxidants were added before and after peroxynitrite. All these findings indicate that the main effect of antioxidants in this system is reduction of ABTS+* and not prevention of its formation. Reduction of oxidation products rather than inhibition of their formation may be the predominant mode of action of antioxidants in various assays of antioxidant activity.  (+info)

Malaria vectors in a traditional dry zone village in Sri Lanka. (8/630)

Malaria transmission by anopheline mosquitoes was studied in a traditional tank-irrigation-based rice-producing village in the malaria-endemic low country dry zone of northcentral Sri Lanka during the period August 1994-February 1997. Adult mosquitoes were collected from human and bovid bait catches, bovid-baited trap huts, indoor catches, and pit traps. Mosquito head-thoraces were tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, and blood-engorged abdomens for the presence of human blood by ELISAs. House surveys were done at two-day intervals to record cases of blood film-confirmed malaria among the villagers. A total of 7,823 female anophelines representing 14 species were collected. Trends in anopheline abundance were significantly correlated with rainfall of the preceding month in An. annularis, An. barbirostris, An. subpictus, An. vagus, and An. varuna, but were not significant in An. culicifacies and An. peditaeniatus. Malaria parasite infections were seen in seven mosquito species, with 75% of the positive mosquitoes containing P. falciparum and 25% P. vivax. Polymorph PV247 was recorded from a vector (i.e., An. varuna) for the first time in Sri Lanka. Computations of mean number of infective vector (MIV) rates using abundance, circumsporozoite (CS) protein rate, and human blood index (HBI) showed the highest rate in An. culicifacies. A malaria outbreak occurred from October 1994 to January 1995 in which 45.5% of village residents experienced at least a single disease episode. Thereafter, malaria incidence remained low. Anopheles culicifacies abundance lagged by one month correlated positively with monthly malaria incidence during the outbreak period, and although this species ranked fifth in terms of abundance, infection was associated with a high MIV rate due to a high CS protein rate and HBI. Abundance trends in other species did not correlate significantly with malaria. It was concluded that An. culicifacies was epidemiologically the most important vector in the study area.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sulfonic acids" are not a medical term. They are a type of compound in chemistry, specifically strong organic acids that contain the functional group -SO3H. Sulfonic acids are widely used in industry and research, including the production of detergents, dyes, and pharmaceuticals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, please don't hesitate to ask!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid" is not a medical term. It is an organic compound used in industrial and research applications, such as a reagent in chemical reactions. Its formula is C6H3N3O9S. If you have any questions about chemical compounds or scientific terms, I'd be happy to try to help with those!

Naphthalenesulfonates are a group of chemical compounds that consist of a naphthalene ring, which is a bicyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, substituted with one or more sulfonate groups. Sulfonates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid. Naphthalenesulfonates are commonly used as detergents, dyes, and research chemicals.

In the medical field, naphthalenesulfonates may be used in diagnostic tests to detect certain enzyme activities or metabolic disorders. For example, 1-naphthyl sulfate is a substrate for the enzyme arylsulfatase A, which is deficient in individuals with the genetic disorder metachromatic leukodystrophy. By measuring the activity of this enzyme using 1-naphthyl sulfate as a substrate, doctors can diagnose or monitor the progression of this disease.

It's worth noting that some naphthalenesulfonates have been found to have potential health hazards and environmental concerns. For instance, sodium naphthalenesulfonate has been classified as a possible human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Therefore, their use should be handled with caution and in accordance with established safety protocols.

Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates are a group of compounds that contain both aniline and naphthalene sulfonate components. Aniline is a organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2, and naphthalene sulfonate is the sodium salt of naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid.

Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates are commonly used as fluorescent dyes in various applications such as histology, microscopy, and flow cytometry. These compounds exhibit strong fluorescence under ultraviolet light and can be used to label and visualize specific structures or molecules of interest. Examples of Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates include Propidium Iodide, Acridine Orange, and Hoechst 33258.

It is important to note that while these compounds are widely used in research and diagnostic settings, they may also have potential hazards and should be handled with appropriate safety precautions.

Colitis is a medical term that refers to inflammation of the inner lining of the colon or large intestine. The condition can cause symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and urgency to have a bowel movement. Colitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), microscopic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation therapy. The specific symptoms and treatment options for colitis may vary depending on the underlying cause.

Alkanesulfonic acids are a type of organic compound that consist of an alkane chain, which is a saturated hydrocarbon, with a sulfonic acid group (-SO3H) attached to one end of the chain. The general formula for an alkanesulfonic acid is CnH2n+1SO3H, where n represents the number of carbon atoms in the alkane chain.

Alkanesulfonic acids are strong acids and are highly soluble in water. They are commonly used as detergents, catalysts, and intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals. Some examples of alkanesulfonic acids include methanesulfonic acid (CH3SO3H), ethanesulfonic acid (C2H5SO3H), and p-toluensulfonic acid (C6H4CH3SO3H).

Benzothiazoles are a class of heterocyclic organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a thiazole ring. They have the chemical formula C7H5NS. Benzothiazoles and their derivatives have a wide range of applications in various industries, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, dyes, and materials science.

In the medical field, benzothiazoles have been studied for their potential therapeutic properties. Some benzothiazole derivatives have shown promising results as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, and anticancer agents. However, more research is needed to fully understand the medical potential of these compounds and to develop safe and effective drugs based on them.

It's important to note that while benzothiazoles themselves have some biological activity, most of the medical applications come from their derivatives, which are modified versions of the basic benzothiazole structure. These modifications can significantly alter the properties of the compound, leading to new therapeutic possibilities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sulfanilic Acids" is not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. Sulfanilic acid is a chemical compound with the formula H2SO3NCH2COOH. It is used in various industrial applications such as dye and drug synthesis, but it is not a term that would be commonly used in medical contexts.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or conditions, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more information so I can give you a relevant and accurate response.

Unithiol is the common name for the drug compound mercaptopropionylglycine (MPG). It is a synthetic aminocarboxylic acid that acts as a chelating agent, binding to heavy metals in the body and facilitating their elimination. Unithiol has been used in the treatment of various conditions associated with heavy metal toxicity, such as Wilson's disease, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning. It is also known for its potential use in protecting against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

In medical terms, Unithiol can be defined as:

A synthetic chelating agent with the chemical formula C5H9NO3S, used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning to promote the excretion of toxic metals from the body. It is administered orally and works by forming stable complexes with heavy metals, which are then eliminated through urine. Unithiol has been found to be particularly effective in treating Wilson's disease, a genetic disorder that causes copper accumulation in various organs. Additionally, it may provide neuroprotective effects against chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Alkanesulfonates are organic compounds that consist of a hydrocarbon chain, typically consisting of alkane molecules, which is bonded to a sulfonate group. The sulfonate group (-SO3-) consists of a sulfur atom bonded to three oxygen atoms, with one of the oxygen atoms carrying a negative charge.

Alkanesulfonates are commonly used as detergents and surfactants due to their ability to reduce surface tension and improve the wetting, emulsifying, and dispersing properties of liquids. They are also used in various industrial applications, such as in the production of paper, textiles, and leather.

In medical terms, alkanesulfonates may be used as topical antimicrobial agents or as ingredients in personal care products. However, some alkanesulfonates have been found to have potential health and environmental hazards, such as irritation of the skin and eyes, respiratory effects, and potential toxicity to aquatic life. Therefore, their use is subject to regulatory oversight and safety assessments.

Laccase is an enzyme (specifically, a type of oxidoreductase) that is widely distributed in plants, fungi, and bacteria. It catalyzes the oxidation of various phenolic compounds, including polyphenols, methoxy-substituted phenols, aromatic amines, and some inorganic ions, while reducing molecular oxygen to water. This enzyme plays a crucial role in lignin degradation, as well as in the detoxification of xenobiotic compounds and in the synthesis of various pigments and polymers. The medical relevance of laccase is linked to its potential applications in bioremediation, biofuel production, and biotechnology.

I am not a medical expert, but I can provide some information that may be helpful. "Picrates" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. Instead, it is a term used in chemistry to refer to salts of picric acid (2,4,6-trinitrophenol), which was once used as a yellow dye and explosive.

Picric acid has been used historically in some medical applications, such as a component in certain topical antiseptics and in histological staining procedures. However, its use in modern medicine is quite limited due to its high sensitivity to impact, heat, and friction, which makes it potentially dangerous to handle.

Therefore, it's important to note that "picrates" is not a medical term per se but rather a chemical one, and any medical application of picric acid or its salts would be highly specialized and unlikely to be encountered in most healthcare settings.

"Saussurea" is a genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy family. These plants are native to the mountainous regions of the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in Asia and North America. The genus includes over 300 species, many of which have medicinal properties.

In traditional medicine, some Saussurea species have been used for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. For example, Saussurea costus (also known as "costus root" or "kuth") has been used in Ayurvedic and Unani medicine to treat a variety of conditions such as respiratory disorders, digestive issues, and skin diseases.

However, it's important to note that while some Saussurea species have medicinal uses, they should only be used under the guidance of a qualified healthcare practitioner, as improper use or dosage can lead to adverse effects. Additionally, further research is needed to fully understand the pharmacological properties and safety profiles of these plants.

Dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) is a chemical compound that is often used in laboratory settings for research purposes. It is an aromatic organic compound that contains two nitro groups and a fluorine atom attached to a benzene ring. Dinitrofluorobenzene is primarily known for its ability to act as a hapten, which means it can bind to proteins in the body and stimulate an immune response.

In medical research, DNFB has been used as a contact sensitizer to study the mechanisms of allergic contact dermatitis, a type of skin reaction that occurs when the immune system becomes sensitized to a particular substance and then reacts to it upon subsequent exposure. When applied to the skin, DNFB can cause a red, itchy, and painful rash in individuals who have been previously sensitized to the compound. By studying this reaction, researchers can gain insights into the immune responses that underlie allergic reactions more broadly.

It is important to note that dinitrofluorobenzene is not used as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting due to its potential hazards, including skin and eye irritation, respiratory problems, and potential long-term health effects.

Fluorescence spectrometry is a type of analytical technique used to investigate the fluorescent properties of a sample. It involves the measurement of the intensity of light emitted by a substance when it absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then re-emits it at a longer wavelength. This process, known as fluorescence, occurs because the absorbed energy excites electrons in the molecules of the substance to higher energy states, and when these electrons return to their ground state, they release the excess energy as light.

Fluorescence spectrometry typically measures the emission spectrum of a sample, which is a plot of the intensity of emitted light versus the wavelength of emission. This technique can be used to identify and quantify the presence of specific fluorescent molecules in a sample, as well as to study their photophysical properties.

Fluorescence spectrometry has many applications in fields such as biochemistry, environmental science, and materials science. For example, it can be used to detect and measure the concentration of pollutants in water samples, to analyze the composition of complex biological mixtures, or to study the properties of fluorescent nanomaterials.

Peroxidase is a type of enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction in which hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is broken down into water (H2O) and oxygen (O2). This enzymatic reaction also involves the oxidation of various organic and inorganic compounds, which can serve as electron donors.

Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They play important roles in various biological processes, such as defense against oxidative stress, breakdown of toxic substances, and participation in metabolic pathways.

The peroxidase-catalyzed reaction can be represented by the following chemical equation:

H2O2 + 2e- + 2H+ → 2H2O

In this reaction, hydrogen peroxide is reduced to water, and the electron donor is oxidized. The peroxidase enzyme facilitates the transfer of electrons between the substrate (hydrogen peroxide) and the electron donor, making the reaction more efficient and specific.

Peroxidases have various applications in medicine, industry, and research. For example, they can be used for diagnostic purposes, as biosensors, and in the treatment of wastewater and medical wastes. Additionally, peroxidases are involved in several pathological conditions, such as inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases, making them potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

Indigo Carmine is not a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that is sometimes used in medical settings. Indigo Carmine is a type of dye that is often used as a marker in various medical tests and procedures. It can be used during surgeries to help identify structures or tissues within the body, such as the urinary tract or the gastrointestinal tract.

Indigo Carmine is also sometimes used as a diagnostic aid in urological procedures, such as cystoscopy, to help visualize the flow of urine and detect any abnormalities in the urinary tract. The dye is usually introduced into the body through a catheter or other medical device, and it is excreted in the urine, turning it blue or green.

It's important to note that Indigo Carmine should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as improper use can lead to adverse effects.

Fluorescent dyes are substances that emit light upon excitation by absorbing light of a shorter wavelength. In a medical context, these dyes are often used in various diagnostic tests and procedures to highlight or mark certain structures or substances within the body. For example, fluorescent dyes may be used in imaging techniques such as fluorescence microscopy or fluorescence angiography to help visualize cells, tissues, or blood vessels. These dyes can also be used in flow cytometry to identify and sort specific types of cells. The choice of fluorescent dye depends on the specific application and the desired properties, such as excitation and emission spectra, quantum yield, and photostability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sulfenic Acids" is not a term used in medical definitions. Sulfenic acids are organic compounds that contain a functional group with the structure R-SOH, where R represents an alkyl or aryl group. They are important intermediates in organic chemistry and biochemistry, but they are not directly related to medical terminology or human health conditions.

Isatin is not a medical term, but rather an organic compound that has been used in various biochemical and medicinal research contexts. Here's the chemical definition:

Isatin, also known as indole-2,3-dione, is an organic compound with the formula C8H5NO2. It is a derivative of indole and consists of a benzene ring fused to a pyrrole ring, with two ketone functional groups (=O) at positions 2 and 3. Isatin is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and more soluble in organic solvents. It occurs naturally in some plants and animals and can be synthesized in the laboratory.

In medical and biochemical research, isatin has been studied for its potential role as an inhibitor of various enzymes and biological targets, including monoamine oxidases, tyrosinase, and carbonic anhydrase. Some isatin derivatives have shown promising results in preclinical studies for the treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases. However, more research is needed to determine their safety and efficacy in humans before they can be approved for medical use.

"Petasites" is a genus name in botany, which refers to a group of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae. While it may not have a direct medical definition, some species within this genus have been used in traditional medicine. For instance, Petasites hybridus (also known as butterbur) has been used in herbal medicine for treating migraines, allergies, and asthma. However, it's important to note that the use of these plants should be under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and interact with certain medications.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Sulfhydryl reagents are chemical compounds that react with sulfhydryl groups (-SH), which are found in certain amino acids such as cysteine. These reagents can be used to modify or inhibit the function of proteins by forming disulfide bonds or adding functional groups to the sulfur atom. Examples of sulfhydryl reagents include N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), and iodoacetamide. These reagents are widely used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to study protein structure and function, as well as in the development of drugs and therapeutic agents.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

Camphor is a waxy, flammable solid with a strong aroma, derived from the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora). In a medical context, camphor is used topically as a skin protectant and a counterirritant, and in some over-the-counter products such as nasal decongestants and muscle rubs. It can also be found in some insect repellents and embalming fluids.

Camphor works by stimulating nerve endings and increasing blood flow to the area where it is applied. This can help to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, and alleviate congestion. However, camphor should be used with caution, as it can be toxic if ingested or absorbed in large amounts through the skin. It is important to follow the instructions on product labels carefully and avoid using camphor on broken or irritated skin.

Benzenesulfonates are organic compounds that contain a benzene ring substituted with a sulfonate group. In chemistry, a sulfonate group is a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom connected to three oxygen atoms (-SO3). Benzenesulfonates are often used as detergents, emulsifiers, and phase transfer catalysts in various chemical reactions. They can also be found in some pharmaceuticals and dyes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fluorocarbons" are not typically associated with medical definitions. Fluorocarbons are chemical compounds that contain carbon atoms bonded to fluorine atoms. They are often used in a variety of applications including refrigerants, fire extinguishing agents, and in the manufacturing of Teflon and other non-stick coatings.

If you have any medical terms or concepts you'd like me to define or explain, please let me know!

Cysteic acid is a derivative of the amino acid cysteine, which contains a sulfur atom. In cysteic acid, the sulfur atom in cysteine has been oxidized and is now in its maximum oxidation state, appearing as a sulfonic acid group (-SO3H). This results in cysteic acid being a polar, negatively charged molecule at neutral pH. It is commonly found in proteins that have undergone extensive oxidation or as a product of chemical reactions involving cysteine residues.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Sulfur isotopes are different forms of the chemical element sulfur, each with a distinct number of neutrons in their atomic nuclei. The most common sulfur isotopes are sulfur-32 (with 16 neutrons) and sulfur-34 (with 18 neutrons). These isotopes have similar chemical properties but different atomic masses, which can be used to trace the movement and cycling of sulfur through various environmental processes, such as volcanic emissions, bacterial metabolism, and fossil fuel combustion. The relative abundances of sulfur isotopes can also provide information about the origins and history of sulfur-containing minerals and compounds.

Cytophaga is a genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria that are found in various environments such as soil, water, and decaying organic matter. They are known for their gliding motility and unique method of cell division, where the cells divide transversely into several disc-shaped protoplasts that then separate from each other.

Cytophaga species are capable of breaking down complex polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, due to their ability to produce a variety of enzymes that can degrade these substances. They play an important role in the carbon cycle by helping to recycle organic matter in the environment.

While Cytophaga species are not typically associated with human diseases, they have been isolated from clinical specimens such as wounds, sputum, and feces. However, their exact role in human health and disease is not well understood.

Eudesmane is a subclass of sesquiterpenes, which are organic compounds consisting of three isoprene units and having the molecular formula C15H24. Sesquiterpenes are derived from farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) in the mevalonate pathway and are biosynthesized through a series of enzymatic reactions.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes are characterized by a unique carbon skeleton with a cyclohexane ring fused to a bicyclic system consisting of a cyclopentane and a cyclobutane ring. They can be found in various plants, fungi, and insects, and some eudesmane derivatives have been shown to possess biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties.

Eudesmane sesquiterpenes can exist in different forms, including alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, and esters, depending on the functional groups attached to the carbon skeleton. Some examples of eudesmane sesquiterpenes include α-eudesmol, β-eudesmol, and eudesma-1,4-diene.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Dextran sulfate is a type of polysaccharide (a complex carbohydrate) that is made up of repeating units of the sugar dextran, which has been sulfonated (introduced with a sulfonic acid group). It is commonly used as a molecular weight standard in laboratory research and can also be found in some medical products.

In medicine, dextran sulfate is often used as a treatment for hemodialysis patients to prevent the formation of blood clots in the dialyzer circuit. It works by binding to and inhibiting the activity of certain clotting factors in the blood. Dextran sulfate may also have anti-inflammatory effects, and it has been studied as a potential treatment for conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease and hepatitis.

It is important to note that dextran sulfate can have side effects, including allergic reactions, low blood pressure, and bleeding. It should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxyquinoline" does not have a specific medical definition as it is not a widely recognized medical term or a medication used in human healthcare. Oxyquinoline is an organic compound that contains a quinoline ring substituted with an alcohol group (hydroxyl) at position 8. It has been used in the past as a disinfectant and antiseptic, but it's not common in modern medical practice.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, please provide more context so I can offer a more accurate and helpful response.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Protein denaturation is a process in which the native structure of a protein is altered, leading to loss of its biological activity. This can be caused by various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or exposure to chemicals or radiation. The three-dimensional shape of a protein is crucial for its function, and denaturation causes the protein to lose this shape, resulting in impaired or complete loss of function. Denaturation is often irreversible and can lead to the aggregation of proteins, which can have negative effects on cellular function and can contribute to diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Circular dichroism (CD) is a technique used in physics and chemistry to study the structure of molecules, particularly large biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. It measures the difference in absorption of left-handed and right-handed circularly polarized light by a sample. This difference in absorption can provide information about the three-dimensional structure of the molecule, including its chirality or "handedness."

In more technical terms, CD is a form of spectroscopy that measures the differential absorption of left and right circularly polarized light as a function of wavelength. The CD signal is measured in units of millidegrees (mdeg) and can be positive or negative, depending on the type of chromophore and its orientation within the molecule.

CD spectra can provide valuable information about the secondary and tertiary structure of proteins, as well as the conformation of nucleic acids. For example, alpha-helical proteins typically exhibit a strong positive band near 190 nm and two negative bands at around 208 nm and 222 nm, while beta-sheet proteins show a strong positive band near 195 nm and two negative bands at around 217 nm and 175 nm.

CD spectroscopy is a powerful tool for studying the structural changes that occur in biological molecules under different conditions, such as temperature, pH, or the presence of ligands or other molecules. It can also be used to monitor the folding and unfolding of proteins, as well as the binding of drugs or other small molecules to their targets.

Biphenyl compounds, also known as diphenyls, are a class of organic compounds consisting of two benzene rings linked by a single carbon-carbon bond. The chemical structure of biphenyl compounds can be represented as C6H5-C6H5. These compounds are widely used in the industrial sector, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, as solvents, and in the production of plastics and dyes. Some biphenyl compounds also have biological activity and can be found in natural products. For example, some plant-derived compounds that belong to this class have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Visceral afferents are specialized nerve fibers that carry sensory information from the internal organs (viscera) to the central nervous system. These afferent neurons detect and transmit information about various visceral stimuli, such as pain, temperature, touch, pressure, chemical changes, and the state of organ distension or fullness. The information they relay helps regulate physiological functions, including digestion, respiration, and cardiovascular activity, and contributes to the perception of bodily sensations and visceral pain. Visceral afferents are an essential component of the autonomic nervous system and have their cell bodies located in the dorsal root ganglia or nodose ganglia.

A hapten is a small molecule that can elicit an immune response only when it is attached to a larger carrier protein. On its own, a hapten is too small to be recognized by the immune system as a foreign substance. However, when it binds to a carrier protein, it creates a new antigenic site that can be detected by the immune system. This process is known as haptenization.

Haptens are important in the study of immunology and allergies because they can cause an allergic response when they bind to proteins in the body. For example, certain chemicals found in cosmetics, drugs, or industrial products can act as haptens and trigger an allergic reaction when they come into contact with the skin or mucous membranes. The resulting immune response can cause symptoms such as rash, itching, or inflammation.

Haptens can also be used in the development of vaccines and diagnostic tests, where they are attached to carrier proteins to stimulate an immune response and produce specific antibodies that can be measured or used for therapy.

"Energy transfer" is a general term used in the field of physics and physiology, including medical sciences, to describe the process by which energy is passed from one system, entity, or location to another. In the context of medicine, energy transfer often refers to the ways in which cells and organ systems exchange and utilize various forms of energy for proper functioning and maintenance of life.

In a more specific sense, "energy transfer" may refer to:

1. Bioenergetics: This is the study of energy flow through living organisms, including the conversion, storage, and utilization of energy in biological systems. Key processes include cellular respiration, photosynthesis, and metabolic pathways that transform energy into forms useful for growth, maintenance, and reproduction.
2. Electron transfer: In biochemistry, electrons are transferred between molecules during redox reactions, which play a crucial role in energy production and consumption within cells. Examples include the electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria, where high-energy electrons from NADH and FADH2 are passed along a series of protein complexes to generate an electrochemical gradient that drives ATP synthesis.
3. Heat transfer: This is the exchange of thermal energy between systems or objects due to temperature differences. In medicine, heat transfer can be relevant in understanding how body temperature is regulated and maintained, as well as in therapeutic interventions such as hyperthermia or cryotherapy.
4. Mechanical energy transfer: This refers to the transmission of mechanical force or motion from one part of the body to another. For instance, muscle contractions generate forces that are transmitted through tendons and bones to produce movement and maintain posture.
5. Radiation therapy: In oncology, ionizing radiation is used to treat cancer by transferring energy to malignant cells, causing damage to their DNA and leading to cell death or impaired function.
6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This non-invasive diagnostic technique uses magnetic fields and radio waves to excite hydrogen nuclei in the body, which then release energy as they return to their ground state. The resulting signals are used to generate detailed images of internal structures and tissues.

In summary, "energy transfer" is a broad term that encompasses various processes by which different forms of energy (thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic, etc.) are exchanged or transmitted between systems or objects in the context of medicine and healthcare.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Caprylates are the salts or esters of capric acid, a saturated fatty acid with a chain length of 8 carbon atoms. In medical and biological contexts, caprylate refers to the anion (negatively charged ion) form of capric acid, which has the chemical formula C8H17O2-. Caprylates are used in various applications, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products.

Some examples of caprylate compounds include:

* Sodium caprylate (sodium octanoate): a sodium salt commonly used as a preservative and flavor enhancer in foods.
* Calcium caprylate (calcium octanoate): a calcium salt used as an emulsifier in food products and as a stabilizer in cosmetics.
* Caprylic acid/caprylate triglycerides: esters of glycerin with caprylic acid, used as emollients and solvents in skin care products and pharmaceuticals.

Caprylates have antimicrobial properties against certain bacteria, fungi, and viruses, making them useful in various medical applications. For instance, sodium caprylate is sometimes used as an antifungal agent to treat conditions like candidiasis (yeast infections). However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using caprylates for medicinal purposes.

Guanidine is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather, it is a chemical compound with the formula NH2(C=NH)NH2. However, guanidine and its derivatives do have medical relevance:

1. Guanidine is used as a medication in some neurological disorders, such as stiff-person syndrome, to reduce muscle spasms and rigidity. It acts on the central nervous system to decrease abnormal nerve impulses that cause muscle spasticity.

2. Guanidine derivatives are found in various medications used for treating diabetes, like metformin. These compounds help lower glucose production in the liver and improve insulin sensitivity in muscle cells.

3. In some cases, guanidine is used as a skin penetration enhancer in transdermal drug delivery systems to increase the absorption of certain medications through the skin.

It is essential to note that guanidine itself has limited medical use due to its potential toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. Its derivatives, like metformin, are more commonly used in medical practice.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Antioxidants are substances that can prevent or slow damage to cells caused by free radicals, which are unstable molecules that the body produces as a reaction to environmental and other pressures. Antioxidants are able to neutralize free radicals by donating an electron to them, thus stabilizing them and preventing them from causing further damage to the cells.

Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Some common antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium. Antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements.

In addition to their role in protecting cells from damage, antioxidants have been studied for their potential to prevent or treat a number of health conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and age-related macular degeneration. However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using antioxidant supplements.

Peroxidases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of various substrates using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as the electron acceptor. These enzymes contain a heme prosthetic group, which plays a crucial role in their catalytic activity. Peroxidases are widely distributed in nature and can be found in plants, animals, and microorganisms. They play important roles in various biological processes, including defense against oxidative stress, lignin degradation, and host-pathogen interactions. Some common examples of peroxidases include glutathione peroxidase, which helps protect cells from oxidative damage, and horseradish peroxidase, which is often used in laboratory research.

Indicators and reagents are terms commonly used in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Here are their definitions:

1. Indicator: An indicator is a substance that changes its color or other physical properties in response to a chemical change, such as a change in pH, oxidation-reduction potential, or the presence of a particular ion or molecule. Indicators are often used in laboratory tests to monitor or signal the progress of a reaction or to indicate the end point of a titration. A familiar example is the use of phenolphthalein as a pH indicator in acid-base titrations, which turns pink in basic solutions and colorless in acidic solutions.

2. Reagent: A reagent is a substance that is added to a system (such as a sample or a reaction mixture) to bring about a chemical reaction, test for the presence or absence of a particular component, or measure the concentration of a specific analyte. Reagents are typically chemicals with well-defined and consistent properties, allowing them to be used reliably in analytical procedures. Examples of reagents include enzymes, antibodies, dyes, metal ions, and organic compounds. In laboratory settings, reagents are often prepared and standardized according to strict protocols to ensure their quality and performance in diagnostic tests and research applications.

Oxygen isotopes are different forms or varieties of the element oxygen that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei, which is 8, but a different number of neutrons. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16 (^{16}O), which contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons, and oxygen-18 (^{18}O), which contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons.

The ratio of these oxygen isotopes can vary in different substances, such as water molecules, and can provide valuable information about the origins and history of those substances. For example, scientists can use the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in ancient ice cores or fossilized bones to learn about past climate conditions or the diets of ancient organisms.

In medical contexts, oxygen isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or treatments, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where a radioactive isotope of oxygen (such as oxygen-15) is introduced into the body and emits positrons that can be detected by specialized equipment to create detailed images of internal structures.

Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is not a medical term itself but is commonly used in laboratories including medical research. It is a reducing agent and a powerful antioxidant with the chemical formula HOCH2CH2SH.

Medical Definition:
Mercaptoethanol (β-mercaptoethanol) is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor, used as a reducing agent in biochemical research and laboratory experiments. It functions by breaking disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, allowing them to unfold and denature. This property makes it useful for various applications such as protein purification, enzyme assays, and cell culture.

However, it is important to note that Mercaptoethanol has a high toxicity level and should be handled with caution in the laboratory setting.

Iodoacetamide is not typically defined in a medical context, but it is a chemical compound with the formula CH3C(=NH)COI. It is used in laboratory settings as a reagent for various chemical reactions. In a biochemical context, iodoacetamide is an alkylating agent that can react with cysteine residues in proteins, modifying their structure and function. This property has made it useful in research applications such as the study of protein function and enzyme kinetics.

However, it's important to note that iodoacetamide is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine due to its potential toxicity and reactivity with various biological molecules. Therefore, there is no medical definition for this compound.

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

Taurine is an organic compound that is widely distributed in animal tissues. It is a conditionally essential amino acid, meaning it can be synthesized by the human body under normal circumstances, but there may be increased requirements during certain periods such as infancy, infection, or illness. Taurine plays important roles in various physiological functions, including bile salt formation, membrane stabilization, neuromodulation, and antioxidation. It is particularly abundant in the brain, heart, retina, and skeletal muscles. In the human body, taurine is synthesized from the amino acids cysteine and methionine with the aid of vitamin B6.

Taurine can also be found in certain foods like meat, fish, and dairy products, as well as in energy drinks, where it is often added as a supplement for its potential performance-enhancing effects. However, there is ongoing debate about the safety and efficacy of taurine supplementation in healthy individuals.

In the context of medicine, Mercury does not have a specific medical definition. However, it may refer to:

1. A heavy, silvery-white metal that is liquid at room temperature. It has been used in various medical and dental applications, such as therapeutic remedies (now largely discontinued) and dental amalgam fillings. Its use in dental fillings has become controversial due to concerns about its potential toxicity.
2. In microbiology, Mercury is the name of a bacterial genus that includes the pathogenic species Mercury deserti and Mercury avium. These bacteria can cause infections in humans and animals.

It's important to note that when referring to the planet or the use of mercury in astrology, these are not related to medical definitions.

Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify the chemical components of a mixture or compound. It works by ionizing the sample, generating charged molecules or fragments, and then measuring their mass-to-charge ratio in a vacuum. The resulting mass spectrum provides information about the molecular weight and structure of the analytes, allowing for identification and characterization.

In simpler terms, mass spectrometry is a method used to determine what chemicals are present in a sample and in what quantities, by converting the chemicals into ions, measuring their masses, and generating a spectrum that shows the relative abundances of each ion type.

Fluorescence Polarization (FP) is not a medical term per se, but a technique used in medical research and diagnostics. Here's a general definition:

Fluorescence Polarization is a biophysical technique used to measure the rotational movement of molecules in solution after they have been excited by polarized light. When a fluorophore (a fluorescent molecule) absorbs light, its electrons become excited and then return to their ground state, releasing energy in the form of light. This emitted light often has different properties than the incident light, one of which can be its polarization. If the fluorophore is large or bound to a large structure, it may not rotate significantly during the time between absorption and emission, resulting in emitted light that maintains the same polarization as the excitation light. Conversely, if the fluorophore is small or unbound, it will rotate rapidly during this period, and the emitted light will be depolarized. By measuring the degree of polarization of the emitted light, researchers can gain information about the size, shape, and mobility of the fluorophore and the molecules to which it is attached. This technique is widely used in various fields including life sciences, biochemistry, and diagnostics.

Suramin is a medication that has been used for the treatment of African sleeping sickness, which is caused by trypanosomes. It works as a reverse-specific protein kinase CK inhibitor and also blocks the attachment of the parasite to the host cells. Suramin is not absorbed well from the gastrointestinal tract and is administered intravenously.

It should be noted that Suramin is an experimental treatment for other conditions such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, viral infections and autoimmune diseases, but it's still under investigation and has not been approved by FDA for those uses.

Troponin C is a subunit of the troponin complex, which is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in muscle contraction. In the heart, the troponin complex is found in the myofibrils of cardiac muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). It is composed of three subunits: troponin C, troponin T, and troponin I.

Troponin C has the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca²+), which is essential for muscle contraction. When Ca²+ binds to troponin C, it causes a conformational change that leads to the exposure of binding sites on troponin I for another protein called actin. This interaction allows for the cross-bridge formation between actin and myosin, generating the force needed for muscle contraction.

In clinical settings, cardiac troponins (including troponin T and troponin I) are commonly measured in blood tests to diagnose and monitor heart damage, particularly in conditions like myocardial infarction (heart attack). However, Troponin C is not typically used as a biomarker for heart injury because it is less specific to the heart than troponin T and troponin I. Increased levels of Troponin C in the blood can be found in various conditions involving muscle damage or disease, making it less useful for diagnosing heart-specific issues.

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Phenols, also known as phenolic acids or phenol derivatives, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon ring. In the context of medicine and biology, phenols are often referred to as a type of antioxidant that can be found in various foods and plants.

Phenols have the ability to neutralize free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Some common examples of phenolic compounds include gallic acid, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, and ellagic acid, among many others.

Phenols can also have various pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and analgesic effects. However, some phenolic compounds can also be toxic or irritating to the body in high concentrations, so their use as therapeutic agents must be carefully monitored and controlled.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources. Its chemical formula is C11H12N2O2. Tryptophan plays a crucial role in various biological processes as it serves as a precursor to several important molecules, including serotonin, melatonin, and niacin (vitamin B3). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter involved in mood regulation, appetite control, and sleep-wake cycles, while melatonin is a hormone that regulates sleep-wake patterns. Niacin is essential for energy production and DNA repair.

Foods rich in tryptophan include turkey, chicken, fish, eggs, cheese, milk, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. In some cases, tryptophan supplementation may be recommended to help manage conditions related to serotonin imbalances, such as depression or insomnia, but this should only be done under the guidance of a healthcare professional due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

Ulcerative colitis is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum. In ulcerative colitis, the lining of the colon becomes inflamed and develops ulcers or open sores that produce pus and mucous. The symptoms of ulcerative colitis include diarrhea, abdominal pain, and rectal bleeding.

The exact cause of ulcerative colitis is not known, but it is thought to be related to an abnormal immune response in which the body's immune system attacks the cells in the digestive tract. The inflammation can be triggered by environmental factors such as diet, stress, and infections.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic condition that can cause symptoms ranging from mild to severe. It can also lead to complications such as anemia, malnutrition, and colon cancer. There is no cure for ulcerative colitis, but treatment options such as medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery can help manage the symptoms and prevent complications.

Oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze oxidation-reduction reactions, which involve the transfer of electrons from one molecule (the reductant) to another (the oxidant). These enzymes play a crucial role in various biological processes, including energy production, metabolism, and detoxification.

The oxidoreductase-catalyzed reaction typically involves the donation of electrons from a reducing agent (donor) to an oxidizing agent (acceptor), often through the transfer of hydrogen atoms or hydride ions. The enzyme itself does not undergo any permanent chemical change during this process, but rather acts as a catalyst to lower the activation energy required for the reaction to occur.

Oxidoreductases are classified and named based on the type of electron donor or acceptor involved in the reaction. For example, oxidoreductases that act on the CH-OH group of donors are called dehydrogenases, while those that act on the aldehyde or ketone groups are called oxidases. Other examples include reductases, peroxidases, and catalases.

Understanding the function and regulation of oxidoreductases is important for understanding various physiological processes and developing therapeutic strategies for diseases associated with impaired redox homeostasis, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Urea is not a medical condition but it is a medically relevant substance. Here's the definition:

Urea is a colorless, odorless solid that is the primary nitrogen-containing compound in the urine of mammals. It is a normal metabolic end product that is excreted by the kidneys and is also used as a fertilizer and in various industrial applications. Chemically, urea is a carbamide, consisting of two amino groups (NH2) joined by a carbon atom and having a hydrogen atom and a hydroxyl group (OH) attached to the carbon atom. Urea is produced in the liver as an end product of protein metabolism and is then eliminated from the body by the kidneys through urination. Abnormal levels of urea in the blood, known as uremia, can indicate impaired kidney function or other medical conditions.

Basidiomycota is a phylum in the kingdom Fungi that consists of organisms commonly known as club fungi or club mushrooms. The name Basidiomycota is derived from the presence of a characteristic reproductive structure called a basidium, which is where spores are produced.

The basidiomycetes include many familiar forms such as mushrooms, toadstools, bracket fungi, and other types of polypores. They have a complex life cycle that involves both sexual and asexual reproduction. The sexual reproductive stage produces a characteristic fruiting body, which may be microscopic or highly visible, depending on the species.

Basidiomycota fungi play important ecological roles in decomposing organic matter, forming mutualistic relationships with plants, and acting as parasites on other organisms. Some species are economically important, such as edible mushrooms, while others can be harmful or even deadly to humans and animals.

Fluorescence is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in diagnostic tests, medical devices, and research. Fluorescence is a physical phenomenon where a substance absorbs light at a specific wavelength and then emits light at a longer wavelength. This process, often referred to as fluorescing, results in the emission of visible light that can be detected and measured.

In medical terms, fluorescence is used in various applications such as:

1. In-vivo imaging: Fluorescent dyes or probes are introduced into the body to highlight specific structures, cells, or molecules during imaging procedures. This technique can help doctors detect and diagnose diseases such as cancer, inflammation, or infection.
2. Microscopy: Fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for visualizing biological samples at the cellular and molecular level. By labeling specific proteins, nucleic acids, or other molecules with fluorescent dyes, researchers can observe their distribution, interactions, and dynamics within cells and tissues.
3. Surgical guidance: Fluorescence-guided surgery is a technique where surgeons use fluorescent markers to identify critical structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or tumors during surgical procedures. This helps ensure precise and safe surgical interventions.
4. Diagnostic tests: Fluorescence-based assays are used in various diagnostic tests to detect and quantify specific biomarkers or analytes. These assays can be performed using techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or flow cytometry.

In summary, fluorescence is a physical process where a substance absorbs and emits light at different wavelengths. In the medical field, this phenomenon is harnessed for various applications such as in-vivo imaging, microscopy, surgical guidance, and diagnostic tests.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

A Structure-Activity Relationship (SAR) in the context of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology refers to the relationship between the chemical structure of a drug or molecule and its biological activity or effect on a target protein, cell, or organism. SAR studies aim to identify patterns and correlations between structural features of a compound and its ability to interact with a specific biological target, leading to a desired therapeutic response or undesired side effects.

By analyzing the SAR, researchers can optimize the chemical structure of lead compounds to enhance their potency, selectivity, safety, and pharmacokinetic properties, ultimately guiding the design and development of novel drugs with improved efficacy and reduced toxicity.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons in their outermost shell, making them highly reactive. They can be formed naturally in the body through processes such as metabolism and exercise, or they can come from external sources like pollution, radiation, and certain chemicals. Free radicals can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize free radicals and help protect against their harmful effects.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a reducing agent, which is a type of chemical compound that breaks disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins. DTT is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds during protein purification and manipulation.

Chemically, DTT is a small molecule with two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that can donate electrons to oxidized cysteine residues in proteins, converting them to their reduced form (-S-H). This reaction reduces disulfide bonds and helps to maintain the solubility and stability of proteins.

DTT is also used as an antioxidant to prevent the oxidation of other molecules, such as DNA and enzymes, during experimental procedures. However, it should be noted that DTT can also reduce other types of bonds, including those in metal ions and certain chemical dyes, so its use must be carefully controlled and monitored.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Anti-inflammatory agents are a class of drugs or substances that reduce inflammation in the body. They work by inhibiting the production of inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes, which are released during an immune response and contribute to symptoms like pain, swelling, redness, and warmth.

There are two main types of anti-inflammatory agents: steroidal and nonsteroidal. Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (SAIDs) include corticosteroids, which mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a larger group that includes both prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While both types of anti-inflammatory agents can be effective in reducing inflammation and relieving symptoms, they differ in their mechanisms of action, side effects, and potential risks. Long-term use of NSAIDs, for example, can increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, kidney damage, and cardiovascular events. Corticosteroids can have significant side effects as well, particularly with long-term use, including weight gain, mood changes, and increased susceptibility to infections.

It's important to use anti-inflammatory agents only as directed by a healthcare provider, and to be aware of potential risks and interactions with other medications or health conditions.

Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet (UV-Vis) is a type of spectrophotometry that measures how much ultraviolet (UV) and visible light is absorbed or transmitted by a sample. It uses a device called a spectrophotometer to measure the intensity of light at different wavelengths as it passes through a sample. The resulting data can be used to determine the concentration of specific components within the sample, identify unknown substances, or evaluate the physical and chemical properties of materials.

UV-Vis spectroscopy is widely used in various fields such as chemistry, biology, pharmaceuticals, and environmental science. It can detect a wide range of substances including organic compounds, metal ions, proteins, nucleic acids, and dyes. The technique is non-destructive, meaning that the sample remains unchanged after the measurement.

In UV-Vis spectroscopy, the sample is placed in a cuvette or other container, and light from a source is directed through it. The light then passes through a monochromator, which separates it into its component wavelengths. The monochromatic light is then directed through the sample, and the intensity of the transmitted or absorbed light is measured by a detector.

The resulting absorption spectrum can provide information about the concentration and identity of the components in the sample. For example, if a compound has a known absorption maximum at a specific wavelength, its concentration can be determined by measuring the absorbance at that wavelength and comparing it to a standard curve.

Overall, UV-Vis spectrophotometry is a versatile and powerful analytical technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of various samples in different fields.

Enzyme stability refers to the ability of an enzyme to maintain its structure and function under various environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of denaturants or inhibitors. A stable enzyme retains its activity and conformation over time and across a range of conditions, making it more suitable for industrial and therapeutic applications.

Enzymes can be stabilized through various methods, including chemical modification, immobilization, and protein engineering. Understanding the factors that affect enzyme stability is crucial for optimizing their use in biotechnology, medicine, and research.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Spectrophotometry is a technical analytical method used in the field of medicine and science to measure the amount of light absorbed or transmitted by a substance at specific wavelengths. This technique involves the use of a spectrophotometer, an instrument that measures the intensity of light as it passes through a sample.

In medical applications, spectrophotometry is often used in laboratory settings to analyze various biological samples such as blood, urine, and tissues. For example, it can be used to measure the concentration of specific chemicals or compounds in a sample by measuring the amount of light that is absorbed or transmitted at specific wavelengths.

In addition, spectrophotometry can also be used to assess the properties of biological tissues, such as their optical density and thickness. This information can be useful in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions, including skin disorders, eye diseases, and cancer.

Overall, spectrophotometry is a valuable tool for medical professionals and researchers seeking to understand the composition and properties of various biological samples and tissues.

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that provides information about the biochemical composition of tissues, including their metabolic state. It is often used in conjunction with Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to analyze various metabolites within body tissues, such as the brain, heart, liver, and muscles.

During MRS, a strong magnetic field, radio waves, and a computer are used to produce detailed images and data about the concentration of specific metabolites in the targeted tissue or organ. This technique can help detect abnormalities related to energy metabolism, neurotransmitter levels, pH balance, and other biochemical processes, which can be useful for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, including cancer, neurological disorders, and metabolic diseases.

There are different types of MRS, such as Proton (^1^H) MRS, Phosphorus-31 (^31^P) MRS, and Carbon-13 (^13^C) MRS, each focusing on specific elements or metabolites within the body. The choice of MRS technique depends on the clinical question being addressed and the type of information needed for diagnosis or monitoring purposes.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Polyporales is an order of class Agaricomycetes, division Basidiomycota, in the kingdom Fungi. This order consists of various wood-decay fungi, characterized by their typically annual growth rings and pores on the underside of the cap. The fruiting bodies or conks of these fungi can be either resupinate (crust-like) or pileate (cap-like). Polyporales includes several economically important species that cause decay in trees and timber, as well as some medicinal mushrooms. Examples of genera within this order include Polyporus, Trametes, Fomes, and Ganoderma.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

Phytotherapy is the use of extracts of natural origin, especially plants or plant parts, for therapeutic purposes. It is also known as herbal medicine and is a traditional practice in many cultures. The active compounds in these plant extracts are believed to have various medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, or sedative effects. Practitioners of phytotherapy may use the whole plant, dried parts, or concentrated extracts to prepare teas, capsules, tinctures, or ointments for therapeutic use. It is important to note that the effectiveness and safety of phytotherapy are not always supported by scientific evidence, and it should be used with caution and preferably under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Liposomes are artificially prepared, small, spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that enclose an aqueous compartment. They can encapsulate both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs, making them useful for drug delivery applications in the medical field. The lipid bilayer structure of liposomes is similar to that of biological membranes, which allows them to merge with and deliver their contents into cells. This property makes liposomes a valuable tool in delivering drugs directly to targeted sites within the body, improving drug efficacy while minimizing side effects.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is a type of chromatography used to separate, identify, and quantify the components of a mixture. In TLC, the sample is applied as a small spot onto a thin layer of adsorbent material, such as silica gel or alumina, which is coated on a flat, rigid support like a glass plate. The plate is then placed in a developing chamber containing a mobile phase, typically a mixture of solvents.

As the mobile phase moves up the plate by capillary action, it interacts with the stationary phase and the components of the sample. Different components of the mixture travel at different rates due to their varying interactions with the stationary and mobile phases, resulting in distinct spots on the plate. The distance each component travels can be measured and compared to known standards to identify and quantify the components of the mixture.

TLC is a simple, rapid, and cost-effective technique that is widely used in various fields, including forensics, pharmaceuticals, and research laboratories. It allows for the separation and analysis of complex mixtures with high resolution and sensitivity, making it an essential tool in many analytical applications.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Oxidative stress is defined as an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) and the body's ability to detoxify them or repair the damage they cause. This imbalance can lead to cellular damage, oxidation of proteins, lipids, and DNA, disruption of cellular functions, and activation of inflammatory responses. Prolonged or excessive oxidative stress has been linked to various health conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and aging-related diseases.

Lysine is an essential amino acid, which means that it cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through the diet. Its chemical formula is (2S)-2,6-diaminohexanoic acid. Lysine is necessary for the growth and maintenance of tissues in the body, and it plays a crucial role in the production of enzymes, hormones, and antibodies. It is also essential for the absorption of calcium and the formation of collagen, which is an important component of bones and connective tissue. Foods that are good sources of lysine include meat, poultry, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thermodynamics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a branch of physics that deals with the relationships between heat and other forms of energy. However, the principles of thermodynamics can be applied to biological systems, including those in the human body, such as in the study of metabolism or muscle function. But in a medical context, "thermodynamics" would not be a term used independently as a diagnosis, treatment, or any medical condition.

Mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI-MS) is an analytical technique used to identify and quantify chemical species in a sample based on the mass-to-charge ratio of charged particles. In ESI-MS, analytes are ionized through the use of an electrospray, where a liquid sample is introduced through a metal capillary needle at high voltage, creating an aerosol of charged droplets. As the solvent evaporates, the analyte molecules become charged and can be directed into a mass spectrometer for analysis.

ESI-MS is particularly useful for the analysis of large biomolecules such as proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids, due to its ability to gently ionize these species without fragmentation. The technique provides information about the molecular weight and charge state of the analytes, which can be used to infer their identity and structure. Additionally, ESI-MS can be interfaced with separation techniques such as liquid chromatography (LC) for further purification and characterization of complex samples.

Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) Spectroscopy, also known as Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) Spectroscopy, is a technique used to investigate materials with unpaired electrons. It is based on the principle of absorption of energy by the unpaired electrons when they are exposed to an external magnetic field and microwave radiation.

In this technique, a sample is placed in a magnetic field and microwave radiation is applied. The unpaired electrons in the sample absorb energy and change their spin state when the energy of the microwaves matches the energy difference between the spin states. This absorption of energy is recorded as a function of the magnetic field strength, producing an ESR spectrum.

ESR spectroscopy can provide information about the number, type, and behavior of unpaired electrons in a sample, as well as the local environment around the electron. It is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to study materials such as free radicals, transition metal ions, and defects in solids.

Representative sulfonic acids and sulfonates Taurine, a bile acid, and one of the few naturally occurring sulfonic acids (shown ... The structure of sulfonic acids is illustrated by the prototype, methanesulfonic acid. The sulfonic acid group, RSO2OH features ... is the parent sulfonic acid, HS(=O)2(OH), a tautomer of sulfurous acid, S(=O)(OH)2. Salts or esters of sulfonic acids are ... p-Cresidinesulfonic acid is used to make food dyes. Being strong acids, sulfonic acids are also used as catalysts. The simplest ...
6-naphthalenetrisulfonic acid. Naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid condenses with formaldehyde to give polymeric sulfonic acids. Gerald ... however under equilibrating conditions that allow the 1-sulfonic acid isomer to convert to the more stable 2-sulfonic acid. ... It is one of two monosulfonic acids of naphthalene, the other being naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid. The compound is mainly used in ... Naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid is an organic compound with the formula C10H7SO3H. A colorless, water-soluble solid, it is often ...
Diimine can formed in situ from hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid respectively hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid hydroxylamine sulfate ... Erdik, Ender (2001). "Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic Acid". Hydroxylamine-O-Sulfonic Acid. Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic ... hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid reacts with ketones and aldehydes as a nucleophile to the corresponding oxime-O-sulfonic acids or ... The oxime-O-sulfonic acids of aldehydes react above room temperature upon elimination of sulfuric acid in high yields to ...
It is one of two monosulfonic acids of naphthalene, the other being the more stable naphthalene-2-sulfonic acid. The compound ... Naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid is an organic compound with the formula C10H7SO3H. A colorless, water-soluble solid, it is often ... Naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid undergoes many reactions, some of which are or were of commercial interest. Upon heating with ... Further sulfonation gives 1,5-naphthalene-disulfonic acid. Reduction with triphenylphosphine gives 1-naphthalenethiol. Gerald ...
... (ANS), also called 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate, is an organic compound containing ... both a sulfonic acid and an amine group. This compound is used as a fluorescent molecular probe. For example, ANS can be used ... Naphthalenesulfonic acids, Fluorescent dyes, Anilines, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs, Organic ...
"Effects of a carboxylic acid/sulfonic acid copolymer on the material properties of cementitious materials" Cement and Concrete ... Coating and adhesive: Its sulfonic acid group gives the monomers ionic character over a wide range of pH. Anionic charges from ... It is a reactive, hydrophilic, sulfonic acid acrylic monomer used to alter the chemical properties of wide variety of anionic ... Inhibition of divalent cation precipitation: Sulfonic acid in AMPS is a very strong ionic group and ionizes completely in ...
... (/ˈtɔːriːn/), or 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid, is a non-proteinogenic amino sulfonic acid that is widely distributed in ... The sulfonic acid has a low pKa ensuring that it is fully ionized to the sulfonate at the pHs found in the intestinal tract. ... Sulfonic acids, Glycine receptor agonists, Inhibitory amino acids). ... Kosswig K (2000). "Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002 ...
It can decompose explosively when heated above 170 °C.[citation needed] Kosswig, Kurt (2000). "Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". doi: ... Ethionic acid undergoes further hydrolysis to isethionic acid: Carbyl sulfate is used as precursor for vinylsulfonic acid and ... Disulfuric acid and chlorosulfuric acid can also be used as a sulfonating agent, replacing sulfur trioxide. Instead of ethylene ... with a variety of applications are available by nucleophilic addition at the activated double bond of the vinyl sulfonic acid ...
... is the organosulfur compound with the chemical formula CH2=CHSO3H. It is the simplest unsaturated sulfonic ... Vinylsulfonic acid also can be prepared by dehydration of isethionic acid with phosphorus pentoxide: Vinylsulfonic acid can ... 2-Aminoethanesulfonic acid is formed with ammonia and 2-methylaminoethanesulfonic acid with methylamine. Vinylsulfonic acid is ... Where the sulfonic acid functionality is not essential, the much more usable alkaline aqueous solution of sodium vinylsulfonate ...
Kosswig, Kurt (2000). "Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ... Dehydration of isethionic acid gives vinylsulfonic acid. Fatty acid esters of isethionic acid (such as sodium lauroyl ... Isethionic acid is an organosulfur compound containing an alkylsulfonic acid located beta to a hydroxy group. Its discovery is ... Isethionic acid is also used as a counter ion in certain pharmaceutical formulations, including the antimicrobials hexamidine ...
Sulfonic acid chlorides, or sulfonyl chlorides, are a sulfonyl halide with the general formula RSO2Cl. Arylsulfonyl chlorides ... Kosswig, Kurt (2000). "Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ... Sulfonyl chlorides react with water to give the corresponding sulfonic acid: RSO 2 Cl + H 2 O ⟶ RSO 3 H + HCl {\displaystyle {\ ... "Benzenesulfonic Acids and Their Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
"Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_503 ... Its acid strength (pKa) is comparable to that of sulfuric acid. Ethanedisulfonic acid 1,3-Propanedisulfonic acid Goldwhite, H ... Methanedisulfonic acid is the organosulfur compound with the formula CH2(SO3H)2. It is the disulfonic acid of methane. It is ... prepared by treatment of methanesulfonic acid with oleum. ...
Kosswig, Kurt (2000). "Sulfonic Acids, Aliphatic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi: ... This reaction is employed industrially to produce alkyl sulfonic acids, which are used as surfactants. The reaction requires UV ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Sulfonic acids, Photochemistry, Sulfoxides). ...
... sulfonic and phosphonic acids; amino, hydroxycarboxylic, and carboxylic acids; purines and pyrimidines; and kerogen-type ... as well as the amino acids, nucleobases, and many other compounds in meteorites, carry deuterium (2H) and isotopes of carbon, ...
Field, Lamar (2002). "Aromatic Sulfonic Acid Anhydrides". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 74 (2): 394-398. doi: ...
Like typical sulfonic acids, it is a relatively strong acid that is a colorless solid at room temperature and is soluble in ... 3-bromocamphor-8-sulfonic acid was used in the synthesis of enantiopure devazepide. Camphorsulfonic acid is also being used for ... Charette, André B. (2001). "3-Bromocamphor-8-sulfonic Acid". Encyclopedia of Reagents for Organic Synthesis. John Wiley & Sons ... Bartlett, Paul D.; Knox, L. H. (1965). "D,L-10-Camphorsulfonic acid (Reychler's Acid)". Organic Syntheses. 45: 12. doi:10.15227 ...
Sulfonic acids of this type are chemically stable and strong acids. SQDGs have been found in all photosynthetic plants, algae, ...
Sarver, L. A; Kolthoff, I. M (1931). "Diphenylamine Sulfonic Acid as a New Oxidation-Reduction Indicator". Journal of the ... With strong acids, it forms salts. For example, treatment with sulfuric acid gives the bisulfate [(C6H5)2NH2]+[HSO4]− as a ... Sarver, L. A; Kolthoff, I. M (1937). "Electrochemical Properties of Diphenylbenzidine Sulfonic Acid". Journal of the American ... In 1872, diphenylamine was suggested as a means to detect nitrous acid in sulfuric acid due to its blue coloration in the ...
NH2OH reacts with chlorosulfonic acid to give hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid, a useful reagent for the synthesis of caprolactam ... HOSO2Cl + NH2OH → NH2OSO2OH + HCl The hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid, which should be stored at 0 °C to prevent decomposition, ... preparation of hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid). Calorimetric studies of hydroxylamine decomposition Chemical company BASF info ... Amine Amino acid "Front Matter". Nomenclature of Organic Chemistry : IUPAC Recommendations and Preferred Names 2013 (Blue Book ...
The resulting phenol sulfonic acid chlorinates at the positions flanking the phenol. Hydrolysis releases the sulfonic acid ... which is converted to its 4-sulfonic acid derivative. ... synthesis starts with the ethyl ester of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ... Otto Lindner; Lars Rodefeld (2005). "Benzenesulfonic Acids and Their Derivatives". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial ...
Sulfonic acids are used in many detergents. Compounds with carbon-sulfur multiple bonds are uncommon, an exception being carbon ... and sulfurous acid (H2SO3). These acids are components of acid rain, lowering the pH of soil and freshwater bodies, sometimes ... Sulfuryl chloride and chlorosulfuric acid are derivatives of sulfuric acid; thionyl chloride (SOCl2) is a common reagent in ... and sulfuric acid are similarly highly acidic and corrosive in the presence of water. Sulfuric acid is a strong dehydrating ...
... exhibits the reactions typical of other aromatic sulfonic acids, forming sulfonamides, sulfonyl chloride, ... It is the simplest aromatic sulfonic acid. It forms white deliquescent sheet crystals or a white waxy solid that is soluble in ... ISBN 978-0-85404-182-4. Guthrie, J. P. Hydrolysis of esters of oxy acids: pKa values for strong acids Can. J. Chem. 1978, 56, ... Benzenesulfonic acid is prepared from the sulfonation of benzene using concentrated sulfuric acid: This conversion illustrates ...
By reacting toluene sulfonic acids with the base, Volkova obtained the corresponding cresols, thereby facilitating the sulfonic ... Obtained in pure form ortho-toluene sulfonic acid, its acid chloride, and its amide (1870); Synthesized para-tricresol ... Discovered that substitution of the hydrogen atom of the ammonia residue in the amides of sulfonic acids with an acid residue ( ... Volkova was the first chemist to prepare pure ortho-toluene sulfonic acid, its acyl chloride, and its amide (1870). She was the ...
Sulfonic acids are used in many detergents. Compounds with carbon-sulfur multiple bonds are uncommon, an exception being carbon ... Sulfuryl chloride and chlorosulfuric acid are derivatives of sulfuric acid; thionyl chloride (SOCl2) is a common reagent in ... an amino acid containing a thiol group Methionine, an amino acid containing a thioether Diphenyl disulfide, a representative ... disulfide Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid, a surfactant Dibenzothiophene, a component of crude oil Penicillin, an antibiotic where ...
Hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid provides 3-pinanamine. Also useful is the reaction of diisopinocampheylborane with an aldehyde ( ... Effective Intramolecular Asymmetric Reductions of α-,β and γ-Keto Acids with Diisopinocampheylborane and Intermolecular ...
The EW is the number of grams of dry Nafion per mole of sulfonic acid groups when the material is in the acid form. Nafion ... sulfonic acid groups, and the stabilizing effect of the polymer matrix make Nafion a very strong acid, with pKa ~ -6. In this ... sulfonic acid) group. The dissociated protons "hop" from one acid site to another through mechanisms facilitated by the water ... is finally converted to the acid form containing the sulfonic acid (-SO3H) groups. Nafion can be dispersed into solution by ...
Sulfonic acids, such as p-toluenesulfonic acid (tosylic acid) are a class of strong organic oxyacids. Some sulfonic acids can ... Typical examples of weak acids include acetic acid and phosphorous acid. An acid such as oxalic acid ( HOOC − COOH {\ ... For a more rigorous treatment of acid strength see acid dissociation constant. This includes acids such as the dibasic acid ... but is a weak acid when dissolved in glacial acetic acid. The usual measure of the strength of an acid is its acid dissociation ...
They are the conjugate bases of sulfonic acids with formula RSO2OH. As sulfonic acids tend to be strong acids, the ... In organosulfur chemistry, a sulfonate is a salt or ester of a sulfonic acid. It contains the functional group R−S(=O)2−O−, ... In the presence of water, they slowly hydrolyze to the hydroxy sulfonic acids. Sultone oximes are key intermediates in the ... Sulfonates are the conjugate bases of sulfonic acids. Sulfonates are generally stable in water, non-oxidizing, and colorless. ...
2-Acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid (AMPS) "AMPS". Ataman Kimya (in Turkish). Retrieved 2023-07-05. v t e (CS1 Turkish- ... PolyAMPS, or poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid) (trademark of the Lubrizol Corporation), is an organic polymer ...
This reaction affords 4-nitrotoluene-2-sulfonic acid. Oxidation of this species with sodium hypochlorite yields the disodium ... Reduction gives 4,4′-diamino-2,2′-stilbenedisulfonic acid, which is a common optical brightener. Arthur Green and André Wahl ... Cumming, William M.; Hopper, I. Vance; Wheeler, T. Sherlock (1926). "Preparation 294.-Dinitro-Stilbene-Disulphonic Acid (Na ... On the oxidation of para-nitrotoluenesulfonic acid]. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges. (in German). 30 (3): 3097-3101. doi:10.1002/cber. ...
Representative sulfonic acids and sulfonates Taurine, a bile acid, and one of the few naturally occurring sulfonic acids (shown ... The structure of sulfonic acids is illustrated by the prototype, methanesulfonic acid. The sulfonic acid group, RSO2OH features ... is the parent sulfonic acid, HS(=O)2(OH), a tautomer of sulfurous acid, S(=O)(OH)2. Salts or esters of sulfonic acids are ... p-Cresidinesulfonic acid is used to make food dyes. Being strong acids, sulfonic acids are also used as catalysts. The simplest ...
... is a strong acid widely used as a catalyst (esterification, alkylation, etc.) ... What are the benefits of Methane sulfonic acid (MSA)?. Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is a versatile and valuable chemical ... What are the applications of Methane sulfonic acid (MSA)?. Methane sulfonic Acid (MSA) has a wide range of industrial ... MSA 70% (Methane Sulfonic Acid) is an organic acid with the chemical formula CH3SO3H. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is ...
2-Naphthol-6-Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt ► Flinn Scientific SDS Sheets ► Learn health and safety information about chemicals. ... 2-Naphthol-6-Sulfonic Acid Sodium Salt. Flinn Scientific, Inc. P.O. Box 219, Batavia, IL 60510 (800) 452-1261. Chemtrec ... Flinn Suggested Chemical Storage Pattern: Organic #1. Store with acids, anhydrides and peracids. Light sensitive. Store in an ... 2-Naphthol-6-sulfonic acid, sodium salt. Synonyms: Schaeffers salt; 6-Hydroxy-2-naphthalene sulfonic acid, sodium salt ...
The quantitative estimation of certain beta-naphthol sulphonic acids singly and in presence of one another ... 3. The temperature must not exceed 50 °, when titrat - ing in hydrochloric acid solution, owing to dibromination of all four ... 1. Crocein and G salts brominate extremely slowly in sulphuric acid solution, whereas Schaffer and R salts brominate readily. 2 ... and G salt by taking advantage of the different rates of bromination in sulphuric acid. 5. The total sulphonate content of ...
Literature References: Prepd by sulfonation of 2-naphthylamine: Tinker, Hansen, US 1969189 (1934 to du Pont). Utilization in viral biology study: N. Sakota et al., J. Ferment. Technol. 56, 53 (1978). TLC study: J. Franc, V. Koudelkova, J. Chromatogr. 170, 89 (1979). ...
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Sulfonic Acid Market Size was $700.1 Mn in 2021 and is predicted to generate a revenue of $ 1664.7 Mn by 2031. ... Sulfonic Acid Overview. Sulfonic acid, usually spelled sulphonic, is a class of sulfur-containing organic acids with the ... Sulfonic acid is a great choice for many applications, but there are some disadvantages to using sulfonic acid. First, sulfonic ... Thus, when compared to sulfuric acid, sulfonic acid has one organic group compound in place of a hydroxyl group. Sulfonic acid ...
Amino-PEG-sulfonic acid is a versatile compound that finds applications in various fields, including pharmaceutical research ... derivatives that contain a sulfonic acid functional group and an amino group. The sulfonic acid group imparts water solubility ... Amino-PEG-sulfonic acid is a versatile compound that finds applications in various fields, including pharmaceutical research ... In pharmaceutical research and development, Amino-PEG-sulfonic acid is commonly used as a linker molecule to attach drugs or ...
It can be used as a chromium mist inhibitor in the chromium plating process to prevent dangerous chromic acid fumes. ... The amount of chromium mist inhibitor used: the addition amount of tridecafluorooctanesulfonic acid per liter of electroplating ...
Phenylbenzimidazole Sulfonic Acid is also known under the names Ensulizole and 2-Phenyl-1H-benzimidazole-5-sulphonic acid. ... AakoSun PBSA is better known as Phenylbenzimidazole Sulfonic Acid. It is a water-soluble sun filter that offers protection ... The free acid is poorly soluble in water, so it is only used as its soluble salts. When combined with oil-soluble UV filters ...
2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,6-amino-7-hydroxy-,CAS 6399-72-0,239.25,C10H9NO4S 6-Amino-7-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid,2- ... 2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,6-amino-7-hydroxy- Molecular Structure: 6-Amino-7-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, ... Naphthalenesulfonic acid,6-amino-7-hydroxy-,CAS 6399-72-0,239.25,C10H9NO4S Molecular Formula:C10H9NO4S Molecular Weight: 239.25 ... 6-Amino-7-hydroxynaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid,2-Naphthalenesulfonic acid,6-amino-7-hydroxy-,CAS 6399-72-0,239.25,C10H9NO4S ...
Laurylbenzenesulfonate; n-Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid. Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid is a synthetic surfactant with a ... Synonyms: Dodecylbenzene Sulfonic Acid (Strait Chain); LAS; LABSA; Laurylbenzenesulfonic Acid;. ...
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  • perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were analyzed in plasma together with information on prevalent diabetes. (lu.se)
  • With this technology, CycloPure quickly and effectively removed more than 95% of two common PFAS, perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid, as well as the other 38 types of PFAS targeted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and related substances are now restricted, another restriction is under preparation, and many assessments are underway. (chemistryviews.org)
  • Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, also known as C8) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are stable compounds with many industrial and consumer uses. (nih.gov)
  • Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA) is a versatile chemical compound that finds numerous applications in various industries. (oliviaproducts.com)
  • Q: What is Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid (LABSA)? (oliviaproducts.com)
  • A: Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid, commonly known as LABSA, is an organic compound with the chemical formula C18H30SO3H. (oliviaproducts.com)
  • This reaction is employed industrially to produce alkyl sulfonic acids, which are used as surfactants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Polyaniline (PANI) composites doped with Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) of different weight percentage using dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid (DBSA) as surfactant was prepared by in-situ chemical oxidation reaction method. (iaamonline.org)
  • Both alkyl and aryl sulfonic acids are known, most large-scale applications are associated with the aromatic derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aromatic sulphonic acids have very low logPow values and are therefore not expected to be sorbed onto sediments. (europa.eu)
  • The aromatic sulphonic acids are corrosive for skin and therefore with regard to animal welfare, dermal studies are not recommended. (europa.eu)
  • Compared to previous methods, the modified procedures herein using aromatic sulfonic acids (a pairing agent or covalently bound to a matrix on a strong cation exchange column) provide less expensive and more sensitive determinations. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • Salts or esters of sulfonic acids are called sulfonates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. Crocein and G salts brominate extremely slowly in sulphuric acid solution, whereas Schaffer and R salts brominate readily. (bl.uk)
  • the free acids are frequently used as catalysts in organic synthesis, while the salts and other derivatives serve as the building blocks in the production of detergents, water-soluble dyes and catalysts, sulfonamide pharmaceuticals, and ion-exchange resins. (researchdive.com)
  • The free acid is poorly soluble in water, so it is only used as it's soluble salts. (aako.nl)
  • Their polarity, in conjunction with their high acidity, renders short-chain sulfonic acids water-soluble, while longer-chain ones exhibit detergent-like properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • MSA 70% (Methane Sulfonic Acid) is an organic acid with the chemical formula CH 3 SO 3 H. It is a colorless, viscous liquid that is soluble in water and polar organic solvents. (arkema.com)
  • First, sulfonic acid is less soluble in water than other types of acid. (researchdive.com)
  • The sulfonic acid group makes ABSA highly soluble in water, allowing it to be easily used in cleaning and other applications. (dongkepce.com)
  • In the printing and dyeing industry, it is mainly used for vat dye suspension pad dyeing, leuco acid dyeing, dispersing and soluble vat dyes, and also for dyeing silk and wool interwoven fabrics. (tqhp.com)
  • They are commonly cited as being around a million times stronger than the corresponding carboxylic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • You can purchase 1-Hexadecane Sulphonic Acid Sodium Salt AR & Hplc online at ibuychemikals, along with a number of other chemicals in categories like those used in water treatment, laundry, food colouring, and fine chemicals, among others. (chemicalchaos.org)
  • With deliveries arriving in 7 to 10 working days and 1-Hexadecane Sulphonic Acid Sodium Salt AR & Hplc MSDS included for safe handling, we provide the best 1-Hexadecane Sulphonic Acid Sodium Salt AR & Hplc price in India.You can count on us for unrivalled quality and affordable prices. (chemicalchaos.org)
  • Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonic Acid is a synthetic surfactant with a wide range of applications like as a coupling agent, as an emulsifier and in the production of household detergents. (biesterfeld.com)
  • The sulfonic acid group in ABSA acts as a surfactant, breaking down the surface tension of water and allowing it to penetrate fabric fibers and lift dirt. (dongkepce.com)
  • It is a type of anionic surfactant that is derived from linear alkylbenzene (LAB) and sulfonated with sulfuric acid. (oliviaproducts.com)
  • Sulfonic acid functionalised periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PrSO 3 H-PMOs) with tunable hydrophobicity were synthesised via a surfactant-templating route, and characterised by porosimetry, TEM, XRD, XPS, inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and ammonia pulse chemisorption. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Sulfonic acids are strong acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to its versatility, MSA 70% is a viable substitute for organic and inorganic strong acids in a variety of applications. (arkema.com)
  • RSO3H}}} Direct reaction of alkanes with sulfur trioxide is not generally useful, except for the conversion methanesulfonic acid to methanedisulfonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sulfonic acid, usually spelled sulphonic, is a class of sulfur-containing organic acids with the general formula RSO3H, where R is an organic combining group. (researchdive.com)
  • Sulfonic acids are known to react with solid sodium chloride (salt) to form the sodium sulfonate and hydrogen chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sodium Salt of Polynaphthalene Sulphonic Acid has the characteristics of rich and fine foam, low degreasing power, low irritation to skin and hair, and good biodegradability. (tqhp.com)
  • Tqhp is a trusted global Sodium Salt of Polynaphthalene Sulphonic Acid . (tqhp.com)
  • Feel free to send an inquiry to get the latest price of Sodium Salt of Polynaphthalene Sulphonic Acid if you would like to buy Sodium Salt of Polynaphthalene Sulphonic Acid in bulk. (tqhp.com)
  • We have many different kinds of packing which depend on Sodium Salt of Polynaphthalene Sulphonic Acid quantity. (tqhp.com)
  • For example, p-Toluenesulfonic acid and methanesulfonic acid have pKa values of −2.8 and −1.9, respectively, while those of benzoic acid and acetic acid are 4.20 and 4.76, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vinylsulfonic acid is derived by hydrolysis of carbyl sulfate, (C2H4(SO3)2), which in turn is obtained by the addition of sulfur trioxide to ethylene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This stability ensures a longer shelf life compared to many other corrosive acids, allowing for better inventory management and reduced wastage. (arkema.com)
  • For instance, various sources have reported the pKa of methanesulfonic acid to be as high as −0.6 or as low as −6.5. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of sulfonic acids is illustrated by the prototype, methanesulfonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chemical structure of Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) consists of a central carbon atom (C) bonded to three hydrogen atoms (H). One of the hydrogen atoms is also bonded to a sulfur atom (S), and the sulfur atom is further bonded to three oxygen atoms (O). These oxygen atoms are also bonded to a hydrogen atom each. (arkema.com)
  • In organic chemistry, sulfonic acid (or sulphonic acid) refers to a member of the class of organosulfur compounds with the general formula R−S(=O)2−OH, where R is an organic alkyl or aryl group and the S(=O)2(OH) group a sulfonyl hydroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many sulfonic acids are prepared by hydrolysis of sulfonyl halides and related precursors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, perfluorooctanesulfonic acid is prepared by hydrolysis of the sulfonyl fluoride, which in turn is generated by the electrofluorination of octanesulfonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similarly the sulfonyl chloride derived from polyethylene is hydrolyzed to the sulfonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are also usually colourless and nonoxidizing, which makes them suitable for use as acid catalysts in organic reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The non-specific dispersive surface energy of adsorption of PMO-SO 3 H materials is strongly correlated with their activity towards palmitic acid esterification with methanol, demonstrating the power of IGC as an analytical tool for identifying promising solid acid catalysts for the esterification of free fatty acids. (aston.ac.uk)
  • The crystal structures of the proton-transfer compounds of ferron (8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonic acid) with 4-chloroaniline and 4-bromoaniline, namely 4-chloroanilinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate monohydrate, C6H7ClN+烹H5INO4S-爲O, and 4-bromoanilinium 8-hydroxy-7-iodoquinoline-5-sulfonate monohydrate, C6H7BrN+烹H5INO4S-爲O, have been determined. (edu.au)
  • Apparently, the bulk of plants still rely on homogeneous catalysis, and while liquid mineral acids (such as H2SO4) have good catalytic activity. (researchdive.com)
  • 4. Do you accept bulk and small orders of sulphonic acid? (camachem.com)
  • Camachem is experienced at managing bulk orders for all sulphonic acid. (camachem.com)
  • If you seek samples of sulphonic acid flakes to obtain before you decide to buy the chemicals in bulk, please reach out to us at our contact page . (camachem.com)
  • Methane sulfonic acid (MSA) is a versatile and valuable chemical compound that offers a range of benefits across various industries. (arkema.com)
  • Sulfonic acid is used in chemical synthesis as a major synthesis material and for making various chemicals. (researchdive.com)
  • However, disruptions in the import exports as well as the closure of chemical and manufacturing units have hampered the sulfonic acid market share during the pandemic. (researchdive.com)
  • Acid catalysis is frequently employed in the chemical industry due to the wide range of chemical syntheses that involve acids. (researchdive.com)
  • 10. Can you arrange third party testing of the chemical before purchase of sulphonic acid? (camachem.com)
  • ANSD acid-Luoyang Dongyuan Chemical Co.,Ltd. (china-machineparts.com)
  • Para- aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was one of the first chemical sunscreens to be widely available. (medscape.com)
  • 6. Can you provide me with a copy of SDS or MSDS for sulphonic acid? (camachem.com)
  • We have a suite of SDS and MSDS documents for all of our chemicals, including sulphonic acid. (camachem.com)
  • When inquiring to buy chemicals, feel free to download the sulphonic acid SDS or sulphonic acid MSDS that is available on our website. (camachem.com)
  • In pharmaceutical research and development, Amino-PEG-sulfonic acid is commonly used as a linker molecule to attach drugs or other bioactive molecules to targeting agents such as antibodies or peptides. (axispharm.com)
  • Alkylbenzenesulfonic acids are a type of organic compound that has a benzene ring with a sulfonic acid group and an alkyl chain attached to it. (dongkepce.com)
  • In conclusion, alkylbenzenesulfonic acid is an important organic compound that is widely used in the production of detergents, surfactants, and other industrial products. (dongkepce.com)
  • 3. How quickly will I hear back about my inquiry about sulphonic acid? (camachem.com)
  • Please include this in your inquiry for buying sulphonic acid. (camachem.com)
  • A sulfonic acid can be thought of as sulfuric acid with one hydroxyl group replaced by an organic substituent. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall geometry of the sulfur centre is reminiscent of the shape of sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that it will take longer to disperse the sulfuric acid throughout a solution. (researchdive.com)
  • citation needed] Because of their polarity, sulfonic acids tend to be crystalline solids or viscous, high-boiling liquids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Camachem has more than a decade of exporting directly from our manufacturer of sulphonic acid from China to the world. (camachem.com)
  • Demand for detergents and personal care items containing sulfonic acid has significantly increased as a result of changing lifestyles and altering consumer preferences toward environmentally friendly products. (researchdive.com)
  • The rising demand for detergents and cleansers to meet hygiene standards has resulted in a rise in demand for sulfonic acid. (researchdive.com)
  • Also, industrial hygiene standards in the pharmaceutical, food and beverage, chemicals, healthcare, and many other industries have led to an increase in demand for detergents for industrial cleaning applications, which has resulted in an increase in demand for the sulfonic acid market share growth. (researchdive.com)
  • Leveraging on the expertise of our dexterous personnel, we are involved in supplying a premium quality Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulphonic Acid to our valuable patrons that is utilized in the various industries for making detergents and personal care products. (oliviaproducts.com)
  • This has ultimately lowered the demand for sulfonic acid due to disruptions in the supply chain, closure of manufacturing plants, as well as economic slowdown across several countries. (researchdive.com)
  • Amino-PEG-sulfonic acid is a versatile compound that finds applications in various fields, including pharmaceutical research and development. (axispharm.com)
  • The sulfonic acid group, RSO2OH features a tetrahedral sulfur centre, meaning that sulfur is at the center of four atoms: three oxygens and one carbon. (wikipedia.org)
  • This molecule belongs to the class of polyethylene glycol (PEG) derivatives that contain a sulfonic acid functional group and an amino group. (axispharm.com)
  • The sulfonic acid group imparts water solubility to the compound, while the amino group facilitates bioconjugation reactions. (axispharm.com)
  • In addition, import-export restrictions were laid down on major sulfonic acid-producing countries such as China and many others. (researchdive.com)
  • Methacrylic acid(MAA) CAS 79-41-4 Buy Methacrylic acid 99.9% CAS 79-41-4 from AECOCHEM, Your reliable partner in China Methacrylic acid suppliers, factory & manufacturers. (aecochemical.com)
  • Can surface energy measurements predict the impact of catalyst hydrophobicity upon fatty acid esterification over sulfonic acid functionalised periodic mesoporous organosilicas? (aston.ac.uk)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Can surface energy measurements predict the impact of catalyst hydrophobicity upon fatty acid esterification over sulfonic acid functionalised periodic mesoporous organosilicas? (aston.ac.uk)
  • Histologic examination of the in vivo surgical site showed the almost complete degradation of Arista after 12 h (day 0), whereas both PerClot and potato starch were still present at 28 d with crystals identifiable with polarized light microscopy and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining. (bvsalud.org)