Compounds containing the -SH radical.
Sulfhydryl acylated derivative of GLYCINE.
A radiation-protective agent that can inhibit DNA damage by binding to the DNA. It also increases the susceptibility of blood cells to complement-mediated lysis.
A mercaptoethylamine compound that is endogenously derived from the COENZYME A degradative pathway. The fact that cysteamine is readily transported into LYSOSOMES where it reacts with CYSTINE to form cysteine-cysteamine disulfide and CYSTEINE has led to its use in CYSTINE DEPLETING AGENTS for the treatment of CYSTINOSIS.
A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.
**Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is an organosulfur compound with the formula HOCH2CH2SH, functionally serving as a reducing agent and a sulfhydryl group protector in biochemical and molecular biology applications.**
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A standard reagent for the determination of reactive sulfhydryl groups by absorbance measurements. It is used primarily for the determination of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in proteins. The color produced is due to the formation of a thio anion, 3-carboxyl-4-nitrothiophenolate.
Chloride and mercury-containing derivatives of benzoic acid.
Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.
An alkylating sulfhydryl reagent. Its actions are similar to those of iodoacetate.
Mercury-containing benzoic acid derivatives.
An organic mercurial used as a sulfhydryl reagent.

Action of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver. (1/4324)

The effects of partially thiolated polynucleotides on the DNA polymerase alpha from regenerating rat liver were investigated. The enzyme was isolated from the nuclear fraction essentially according to the method of Baril et al.; it was characterized as the alpha polymerase on the basis of its response to synthetic templates and its inhibition with N-ethylmaleimide. Although polycytidylic acid had no effect on the DNA polymerase alpha either as a template or as an inhibitor, partially thiolated polycytidylic acid (MPC) was found to be a potent inhibitor, its activity being directly related to its extent of thiolation (percentage of 5-mercaptocytidylate units in the polymer). In comparison, the DNA polymerase beta which was purified from normal rat liver nuclear fraction, was much less sensitive to inhibition by MPC. Analysis of the inhibition of the alpha polymerase by the method of Lineweaver and Burk showed that the inhibitory action of MPC was competitively reversible with the DNA template, but the binding of the 7.2%-thiolated MPC to the enzyme was much stronger than that of the template (Ki/Km less than 0.03). Polyuridylic acid as such showed some inhibitory activity which increased on partial thiolation, but the 8.4%-thiolated polyuridylic acid was less active than the 7.2% MPC. When MPC was annealed with polyinosinic acid, it lost 80% of its inhibitory activity in the double-stranded configuration. However, 1 to 2%-thiolated DNA isolates were significantly more potent inhibitors than were comparable (1.2%-thiolated) MPC and showed competitive reversibility with the unmodified (but "activated") DNA template. These results indicate that the inhibitory activities of partially thiolated polynucleotides depend not only on the percentage of 5-mercapto groups but also on the configuration, base composition, and other specific structural properties.  (+info)

Sulfhydryl compounds in melanocytes of yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a), and agouti (A/A) mice. (2/4324)

CLEFFMANN (1953, 1963a,b) has reported that yellow but not black melanocytes of agouti (A/A) rabbits contained reducing sulfhydryl compounds. We have attempted to repeat CLEFFMANN's observations in mouse melanocytes of the lethal yellow (Ay/a), nonagouti (a/a) and agouti (A/A) genotypes. Our results contradict those of CLEFFMANN and reveal that yellow and black melanocytes, regardless of genotype, possess equivalent amounts of histochemically detectable sulfhydryl compounds. These results do not support the hypothesis that agouti-locus genes act by controlling the sulfhydryl metabolism of pigment cells.  (+info)

Kinetics of oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic thiols by myeloperoxidase compounds I and II. (3/4324)

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the most abundant protein in neutrophils and plays a central role in microbial killing and inflammatory tissue damage. Because most of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and other drugs contain a thiol group, it is necessary to understand how these substrates are oxidized by MPO. We have performed transient kinetic measurements to study the oxidation of 14 aliphatic and aromatic mono- and dithiols by the MPO intermediates, Compound I (k3) and Compound II (k4), using sequential mixing stopped-flow techniques. The one-electron reduction of Compound I by aromatic thiols (e.g. methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine) varied by less than a factor of seven (between 1.39 +/- 0.12 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 9.16 +/- 1.63 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)), whereas reduction by aliphatic thiols was demonstrated to depend on their overall net charge and hydrophobic character and not on the percentage of thiol deprotonation or redox potential. Cysteamine, cysteine methyl ester, cysteine ethyl ester and alpha-lipoic acid showed k3 values comparable to aromatic thiols, whereas a free carboxy group (e.g. cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione) diminished k3 dramatically. The one-electron reduction of Compound II was far more constrained by the nature of the substrate. Reduction by methimidazole, 2-mercaptopurine and 6-mercaptopurine showed second-order rate constants (k4) of 1.33 +/- 0.08 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1), 5.25 +/- 0.07 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and 3.03 +/- 0.07 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1). Even at high concentrations cysteine, penicillamine and glutathione could not reduce Compound II, whereas cysteamine (4.27 +/- 0.05 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine methyl ester (8.14 +/- 0.08 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)), cysteine ethyl ester (3.76 +/- 0.17 x 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) and alpha-lipoic acid (4.78 +/- 0.07 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1)) were demonstrated to reduce Compound II and thus could be expected to be oxidized by MPO without co-substrates.  (+info)

Thiol-dependent degradation of protoporphyrin IX by plant peroxidases. (4/4324)

Protoporphyrin IX (PP) is the last porphyrin intermediate in common between heme and chlorophyll biosynthesis. This pigment normally does not accumulate in plants because its highly photodynamic nature makes it toxic. While the steps leading to heme and chlorophylls are well characterized, relatively little is known of the metabolic fate of excess PP in plants. We have discovered that plant peroxidases can rapidly degrade this pigment in the presence of thiol-containing substrates such as glutathione and cysteine. This thiol-dependent degradation of PP by horseradish peroxidase consumes oxygen and is inhibited by ascorbic acid.  (+info)

Selenium redox biochemistry of zinc-sulfur coordination sites in proteins and enzymes. (5/4324)

Selenium has been increasingly recognized as an essential element in biology and medicine. Its biochemistry resembles that of sulfur, yet differs from it by virtue of both redox potentials and stabilities of its oxidation states. Selenium can substitute for the more ubiquitous sulfur of cysteine and as such plays an important role in more than a dozen selenoproteins. We have chosen to examine zinc-sulfur centers as possible targets of selenium redox biochemistry. Selenium compounds release zinc from zinc/thiolate-coordination environments, thereby affecting the cellular thiol redox state and the distribution of zinc and likely of other metal ions. Aromatic selenium compounds are excellent spectroscopic probes of the otherwise relatively unstable functional selenium groups. Zinc-coordinated thiolates, e.g., metallothionein (MT), and uncoordinated thiolates, e.g., glutathione, react with benzeneseleninic acid (oxidation state +2), benzeneselenenyl chloride (oxidation state 0) and selenocystamine (oxidation state -1). Benzeneseleninic acid and benzeneselenenyl chloride react very rapidly with MT and titrate substoichiometrically and with a 1:1 stoichiometry, respectively. Selenium compounds also catalyze the release of zinc from MT in peroxidation and thiol/disulfide-interchange reactions. The selenoenzyme glutathione peroxidase catalytically oxidizes MT and releases zinc in the presence of t-butyl hydroperoxide, suggesting that this type of redox chemistry may be employed in biology for the control of metal metabolism. Moreover, selenium compounds are likely targets for zinc/thiolate coordination centers in vivo, because the reactions are only partially suppressed by excess glutathione. This specificity and the potential to undergo catalytic reactions at low concentrations suggests that zinc release is a significant aspect of the therapeutic antioxidant actions of selenium compounds in antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic agents.  (+info)

Alloxan in vivo does not only exert deleterious effects on pancreatic B cells. (6/4324)

The aim of the experiment was to investigate the mechanism of harmful alloxan action in vivo. 75 mg/kg b.w. of this diabetogenic agent were administered to fasting rats. Two minutes later the animals were decapitated. It was observed that alloxan caused a distinct rise in blood insulin and glucose levels with a concomitant drop of free fatty acids. The amount of sulfhydryl groups in the liver of alloxan-treated rats was decreased and glutathione peroxidase activity was substantially higher. These results indicate that some changes observed in alloxan-induced diabetes can not only be the consequence of B cells damage by alloxan but may also be the result of its direct influence on other tissues. It was also observed that glucose given 20 min before alloxan injection only partially protected against the deleterious effects of alloxan.  (+info)

Formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal-modified proteins in ischemic rat heart. (7/4324)

4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE) is a major lipid peroxidation product formed during oxidative stress. Because of its reactivity with nucleophilic compounds, particularly metabolites and proteins containing thiol groups, HNE is cytotoxic. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and time course for the formation of HNE-modified proteins during ischemia and ischemia plus reperfusion in isolated rat hearts. With an antibody to HNE-Cys/His/Lys and densitometry of Western blots, we quantified the amount of HNE-protein adduct in the heart. By taking biopsies from single hearts (n = 5) at various times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 35, and 40 min) after onset of zero-flow global ischemia, we showed a progressive, time-dependent increase (which peaked after 30 min) in HNE-mediated modification of a discrete number of proteins. In studies with individual hearts (n = 4/group), control aerobic perfusion (70 min) resulted in a very low level (296 arbitrary units) of HNE-protein adduct formation; by contrast, after 30-min ischemia HNE-adduct content increased by >50-fold (15,356 units, P < 0.05). In other studies (n = 4/group), administration of N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine (MPG, 1 mM) to the heart for 5 min immediately before 30-min ischemia reduced HNE-protein adduct formation during ischemia by approximately 75%. In studies (n = 4/group) that included reperfusion of hearts after 5, 10, 15, or 30 min of ischemia, there was no further increase in the extent of HNE-protein adduct formation over that seen with ischemia alone. Similarly, in experiments with MPG, reperfusion did not significantly influence the tissue content of HNE-protein adduct. Western immunoblot results were confirmed in studies using in situ immunofluorescent localization of HNE-protein in cryosections. In conclusion, ischemia causes a major increase in HNE-protein adduct that would be expected to reflect a toxic sequence of events that might act to compromise tissue survival during ischemia and recovery on reperfusion.  (+info)

Differential protein S-thiolation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase isoenzymes influences sensitivity to oxidative stress. (8/4324)

The irreversible oxidation of cysteine residues can be prevented by protein S-thiolation, in which protein -SH groups form mixed disulfides with low-molecular-weight thiols such as glutathione. We report here the identification of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as the major target of protein S-thiolation following treatment with hydrogen peroxide in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our studies reveal that this process is tightly regulated, since, surprisingly, despite a high degree of sequence homology (98% similarity and 96% identity), the Tdh3 but not the Tdh2 isoenzyme was S-thiolated. The glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity of both the Tdh2 and Tdh3 isoenzymes was decreased following exposure to H2O2, but only Tdh3 activity was restored within a 2-h recovery period. This indicates that the inhibition of the S-thiolated Tdh3 polypeptide was readily reversible. Moreover, mutants lacking TDH3 were sensitive to a challenge with a lethal dose of H2O2, indicating that the S-thiolated Tdh3 polypeptide is required for survival during conditions of oxidative stress. In contrast, a requirement for the nonthiolated Tdh2 polypeptide was found during exposure to continuous low levels of oxidants, conditions where the Tdh3 polypeptide would be S-thiolated and hence inactivated. We propose a model in which both enzymes are required during conditions of oxidative stress but play complementary roles depending on their ability to undergo S-thiolation.  (+info)

Sulfhydryl compounds, also known as thiol compounds, are organic compounds that contain a functional group consisting of a sulfur atom bonded to a hydrogen atom (-SH). This functional group is also called a sulfhydryl group. Sulfhydryl compounds can be found in various biological systems and play important roles in maintaining the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and other biomolecules. They can also act as antioxidants and help protect cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species. Examples of sulfhydryl compounds include cysteine, glutathione, and coenzyme A.

Tiopronin is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called mucolytic agents. It works by breaking down mucus in the respiratory tract, making it easier to cough up and clear the airways. Tiopronin is also known as tiopronin sodium or Thiola®.

In addition to its use as a mucolytic agent, tiopronin has been found to be effective in reducing the formation of cystine kidney stones in patients with a rare genetic disorder called cystinuria. It works by binding to cystine in the urine and preventing it from forming into crystals or stones.

Tiopronin is available as a tablet or oral solution and is typically taken several times a day, with dosing adjusted based on the patient's individual needs and response to treatment. Common side effects of tiopronin include stomach upset, loss of appetite, and rash.

Beta-Aminoethyl Isothiourea is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. Its systematic name is (betaine) N-(β-aminoethyl)-isothiouronium bromide. It is used in research and pharmaceutical industry as a tool for studying various biochemical processes, particularly related to enzyme inhibition.

It acts as a potent and irreversible inhibitor of several enzymes such as carboxylesterases, cholinesterases, and proteases. It is not used in clinical medicine or approved for human use.

Cysteamine is a medication and a naturally occurring aminothiol compound, which is composed of the amino acid cysteine and a sulfhydryl group. It has various uses in medicine, including as a treatment for cystinosis, a rare genetic disorder that causes an accumulation of cystine crystals in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine works by reacting with cystine to form a compound that can be more easily eliminated from the body. It is available in oral and topical forms and may also be used for other indications, such as treating lung diseases and radiation-induced damage.

Dithiothreitol (DTT) is a reducing agent, which is a type of chemical compound that breaks disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins. DTT is commonly used in biochemistry and molecular biology research to prevent the formation of disulfide bonds during protein purification and manipulation.

Chemically, DTT is a small molecule with two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) that can donate electrons to oxidized cysteine residues in proteins, converting them to their reduced form (-S-H). This reaction reduces disulfide bonds and helps to maintain the solubility and stability of proteins.

DTT is also used as an antioxidant to prevent the oxidation of other molecules, such as DNA and enzymes, during experimental procedures. However, it should be noted that DTT can also reduce other types of bonds, including those in metal ions and certain chemical dyes, so its use must be carefully controlled and monitored.

Mercaptoethanol, also known as β-mercaptoethanol or BME, is not a medical term itself but is commonly used in laboratories including medical research. It is a reducing agent and a powerful antioxidant with the chemical formula HOCH2CH2SH.

Medical Definition:
Mercaptoethanol (β-mercaptoethanol) is a colorless liquid with an unpleasant odor, used as a reducing agent in biochemical research and laboratory experiments. It functions by breaking disulfide bonds between cysteine residues in proteins, allowing them to unfold and denature. This property makes it useful for various applications such as protein purification, enzyme assays, and cell culture.

However, it is important to note that Mercaptoethanol has a high toxicity level and should be handled with caution in the laboratory setting.

Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid, which means that it can be produced by the human body under normal circumstances, but may need to be obtained from external sources in certain conditions such as illness or stress. Its chemical formula is HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH, and it contains a sulfhydryl group (-SH), which allows it to act as a powerful antioxidant and participate in various cellular processes.

Cysteine plays important roles in protein structure and function, detoxification, and the synthesis of other molecules such as glutathione, taurine, and coenzyme A. It is also involved in wound healing, immune response, and the maintenance of healthy skin, hair, and nails.

Cysteine can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, eggs, legumes, nuts, seeds, and some grains. It is also available as a dietary supplement and can be used in the treatment of various medical conditions such as liver disease, bronchitis, and heavy metal toxicity. However, excessive intake of cysteine may have adverse effects on health, including gastrointestinal disturbances, nausea, vomiting, and headaches.

Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of three amino acids: cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine. It is a vital antioxidant that plays an essential role in maintaining cellular health and function. Glutathione helps protect cells from oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can damage cells and contribute to aging and diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and dementia. It also supports the immune system, detoxifies harmful substances, and regulates various cellular processes, including DNA synthesis and repair.

Glutathione is found in every cell of the body, with particularly high concentrations in the liver, lungs, and eyes. The body can produce its own glutathione, but levels may decline with age, illness, or exposure to toxins. As such, maintaining optimal glutathione levels through diet, supplementation, or other means is essential for overall health and well-being.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Ethylmaleimide is a chemical compound that is commonly used in research and scientific studies. Its chemical formula is C7H10N2S. It is known to modify proteins by forming covalent bonds with them, which can alter their function or structure. This property makes it a useful tool in the study of protein function and interactions.

In a medical context, Ethylmaleimide is not used as a therapeutic agent due to its reactivity and potential toxicity. However, it has been used in research to investigate various physiological processes, including the regulation of ion channels and the modulation of enzyme activity. It is important to note that the use of Ethylmaleimide in medical research should be carried out with appropriate precautions and safety measures due to its potential hazards.

Dithionitrobenzoic acid is not a medical term, as it is related to chemistry rather than medicine. It is an organic compound with the formula C6H4N2O4S2. This compound is a type of benzenediol that contains two sulfur atoms and two nitro groups. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in water and alcohol.

Dithionitrobenzoic acid is not used directly in medical applications, but it can be used as a reagent in chemical reactions that are relevant to medical research or analysis. For example, it can be used to determine the concentration of iron in biological samples through a reaction that produces a colored complex. However, if you have any specific questions related to its use or application in a medical context, I would recommend consulting with a medical professional or a researcher in the relevant field.

Chloromercuribenzoates are organic compounds that contain a mercury atom bonded to a benzene ring and a chlorine atom. They are primarily used in research as reagents for the determination of various chemical properties, such as the presence of certain functional groups or the ability to act as a reducing agent.

The compound is typically prepared by reacting mercuric chloride with a benzoic acid derivative, resulting in the formation of a mercury-carbon bond. The presence of the mercury atom makes these compounds highly reactive and useful for chemical analysis. However, due to their toxicity and environmental persistence, they are not used in clinical or industrial settings.

Disulfides are a type of organic compound that contains a sulfur-sulfur bond. In the context of biochemistry and medicine, disulfide bonds are often found in proteins, where they play a crucial role in maintaining their three-dimensional structure and function. These bonds form when two sulfhydryl groups (-SH) on cysteine residues within a protein molecule react with each other, releasing a molecule of water and creating a disulfide bond (-S-S-) between the two cysteines. Disulfide bonds can be reduced back to sulfhydryl groups by various reducing agents, which is an important process in many biological reactions. The formation and reduction of disulfide bonds are critical for the proper folding, stability, and activity of many proteins, including those involved in various physiological processes and diseases.

Iodoacetamide is not typically defined in a medical context, but it is a chemical compound with the formula CH3C(=NH)COI. It is used in laboratory settings as a reagent for various chemical reactions. In a biochemical context, iodoacetamide is an alkylating agent that can react with cysteine residues in proteins, modifying their structure and function. This property has made it useful in research applications such as the study of protein function and enzyme kinetics.

However, it's important to note that iodoacetamide is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine due to its potential toxicity and reactivity with various biological molecules. Therefore, there is no medical definition for this compound.

Mercuribenzoates are organic compounds that contain a mercury atom bonded to a benzoate group. They were historically used as diuretics and antiseptics, but their use has been largely discontinued due to the toxicity of mercury.

The medical definition of Mercuribenzoates is not widely used in modern medicine, as these compounds have fallen out of favor due to safer and more effective treatment options being available. Additionally, the use of mercury-containing compounds in medicine has become increasingly restricted due to concerns about their environmental impact and potential health risks.

P-Chloromercuribenzoic acid (CMB) is not primarily considered a medical compound, but rather an organic chemical one. However, it has been used in some medical research and diagnostic procedures due to its ability to bind to proteins and enzymes. Here's the chemical definition:

P-Chloromercuribenzoic acid (CMB) is an organomercury compound with the formula C6H4ClHgO2. It is a white crystalline powder, soluble in water, and has a melting point of 208-210 °C. It is used as a reagent to study protein structure and function, as it can react with sulfhydryl groups (-SH) in proteins, forming a covalent bond and inhibiting their activity. This property has been exploited in various research and diagnostic applications. However, due to its toxicity and environmental concerns related to mercury, its use is now limited and regulated.

Sulfhydryl-containing compounds. The metabolism of organic nitrates to nitric oxide is dependent on the presence of sulfhydryl ... Concomitant administration of other exogenous sources of sulfhydryl groups such as methionine and captopril may produce a ...
Tumor-binding sulfhydryl boron compounds". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 10 (4): 714-7. doi:10.1021/jm00316a042. PMID 6037065 ... Second, gadolinium compounds, such as Gd-DTPA (gadopentetate dimeglumine Magnevist), have been used routinely as contrast ... Ono K (August 2016). "An analysis of the structure of the compound biological effectiveness factor". Journal of Radiation ... 1 and a compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor for BPA in skin of 2.5. A relative biological effectiveness (RBE) or CBE ...
Bremer J; Greenberg DM (1961). "Enzymic methylation of foreign sulfhydryl compounds". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 46 (2): 217-224. ...
Jaffe IA (March 1986). "Adverse effects profile of sulfhydryl compounds in man". The American Journal of Medicine. 80 (3): 471- ... which are broadly similar to those of D-penicillamine and other compounds containing active sulfhydryl groups. Its ... In 2016 Imprimis Pharmaceuticals introduced a lower cost version marketed as a compounded drug. It may also be used for ... Portal: Medicine (Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Chemical ...
... is an organosulfur compound containing carboxyl and sulfhydryl functional groups. Its molecular formula is ... Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Articles without InChI ...
"In vitro proteoglycan sulfation derived from sulfhydryl compounds in sulfate transporter chondrodysplasias". Pediatric ...
Budwig believed sulphydryl compounds were important to cellular metabolism and cellular respiration. Budwig researched the ... theory that a low oxygen environment would develop in the absence of sulphydryl groups and/or fatty acid partners that would ... a researcher at the German Federal Health Office she noted many cancer drugs being evaluated in the 1950s contained sulphydryl ...
The pattern of resistance and sensitivity correlates with the level of sulfhydryl compounds in the cell. Sulfhydryls are ...
The activity of PTGES2 is thought to be increased in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds, in particular dithiothreitol. The ...
... prostaglandins and sulfhydryl compounds". Pharmacology. 54 (4): 193-202. doi:10.1159/000139487. PMID 9211565. Alarcón de la ...
Kunin, Calvin A. (September 10, 1976). "Effect of organic mercurials and sulfhydryl compounds on the urease activity of Proteus ... Studies in the late 1970s showed the compound had antimicrobial effect against Proteus bacteria responsible for urinary tract ... Studies from Japan showed the compound caused ventricular fibrillation in a high percentage of animals when compared to ...
... reacts with primary amines efficiently at pH 7 to 9, creating amidine compounds with a sulfhydryl group. Thus ... It is a thiolating reagent that reacts with primary amine groups, such as those of amino acids, to form sulfhydryl groups. ... Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Chemical articles with ... 2-Iminothiolane is a cyclic thioimidate compound also known as Traut's reagent. ...
... did not deplete sulfhydryl-group containing compounds. The isopropyl radical formed as a result of the metabolism of iproniazid ... In contrast, the compounds cobalt chloride, piperonyl butoxide and alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate inhibit microsomal enzymes ... Alkylating agents have the capability to bind to chemical groups such as amino, phosphate hydroxyl, imidazole and sulfhydryl ... Rat models and other animal models have shown that cytochrome P450 enzymes convert isopropyl hydrazine to alkylating compounds ...
He pursued biochemical research on the metabolic and developmental roles of sulfhydryl compounds, working initially with ... Rapkine, L. (1938). "Sulfhydryl groups and enzymic oxido-reduction". Biochemical Journal. 32 (10): 1729-1739. doi:10.1042/ ...
... is an organosulfur compound. It works by altering the breakdown products of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide found in the ... Mesna assists to detoxify these metabolites by reaction of its sulfhydryl group with α,β-unsaturated carbonyl containing ... Mesna reduces the toxicity of urotoxic compounds that may form after chemotherapy administration. Mesna is a water-soluble ... This conjugation reaction inactivates the urotoxic compounds to harmless metabolites. The metabolites are then excreted in the ...
Her studies with laboratory animals showed that sulfhydryl compounds may protect against toxicity from x-irradiation and ... alkylating agents by a distribution pattern which causes more of a protective compound to accumulate in the sensitive tissues ...
For example, via epoxide hydratase (EH) or via interactions with a sulfhydryl compound, which leads to the formation of a ... Methacrylonitrile (or 2-Methylprop-2-enenitrile), MeAN in short, is a chemical compound that is an unsaturated aliphatic ... "unsaturated compounds formed by a burning cigarette. Anal. Proc. 21, 135 Farooqui, M. Y. H. and M. M. Mumtaz (1991). " ...
Organic mercurial compounds, such as methylmercury, have a high affinity for sulfhydryl groups, which causes dysfunction of the ... Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic compound that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as ... In 1926, Loewi and E. Navratil deduced that the compound is probably acetylcholine, as vagusstoff and synthetic acetylcholine ... Acetylcholine is synthesized in certain neurons by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase from the compounds choline and acetyl- ...
A divergence of structure-activity relationships for non-sulfhydryl and sulfhydryl types". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 29 ( ... and is metabolized in the liver to form the pharmacologically active compound moexiprilat. Formation of moexiprilat is caused ... "Synthesis of novel angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor quinapril and related compounds. ...
... sulfhydryl, or Cu2+ or Co2+ reagents/compounds Enzyme catalyzes reaction best with branched chain amino acids (in order from ... In Cucumis melo (melon), BCATs have been found to play a role in developing aroma volatile compounds that give melons their ... As fermentation proceeds, these α-ketoacids degrade into a class of compounds known as methyl-branched volatiles that include ... The branched-chain amino acid aminotransferases help to produce compounds like isovaleric acid, isobutyric acid, 2- and 3- ...
... s also describes a class of compounds formally derived from thiophenol itself. All have a sulfhydryl group (-SH) ... The prefix thio- implies a sulfur-containing compound and when used before a root word name for a compound which would normally ... Thiophenol is an organosulfur compound with the formula C6H5SH, sometimes abbreviated as PhSH. This foul-smelling colorless ... There are several methods of synthesis for thiophenol and related compounds, although thiophenol itself is usually purchased ...
However, the monomethylated compound was shown to be more reactive and more toxic than the inorganic arsenic compounds to human ... Enzymes and receptors that contain thiol or sulfhydryl functional groups are actively targeted by arsenite (III) metabolites. ... This compound is then converted to a mono-methylated arsenic (III) compound using Glutathione S-Transferase Omega-1 (GSTO1). ... Representative organoarsenic compounds found in nature. Arsenobetaine, one of the most common arsenic compound in nature. Also ...
He settled on using a sulfhydryl group which binds strongly to zinc. Ondetti had discovered Captopril, an ACE inhibitor with ... U.S. Patent 3,740,385 "N-Terminal Derivatives of Secretin", filed May 1970, issued June 1973 U.S. Patent 4,199,512 "Compounds ... "Compounds for alleviating angiotensin related hypertension", filed February 1978, issued July 1982 U.S. Patent 4,722,810 " ... His group tried thousands of compounds from the Squibb library, but none yielded satisfying results. After reading literature ...
... of GSH-via a sulfhydryl group-to electrophilic centers on a wide variety of substrates in order to make the compounds more ... However, some endogenous compounds, e.g., bilirubin, can inhibit the activity of GSTs. In mammals, GST isoforms have cell ... The compounds targeted in this manner by GSTs encompass a diverse range of environmental or otherwise exogenous toxins, ... Because the GST protein has a strong binding affinity for GSH, beads coated with the compound can be added to the protein ...
The mechanism of action of an isolated compound can also be misidentified if a single assay is used because some compounds ... For example, the sulfhydryl-scavenging assay used to detect histone acetyltransferase inhibition can give a false positive ... to include reference compounds (ie. pure chemical compounds for which accurate bioactivity and toxicity data are available), to ... Using just a single assay, especially a single in vitro assay, gives a very incomplete picture of an extract or compound's ...
... is an organic compound with the molecular formula C3H8S. It belongs to the group of thiols. It is a colorless ... except that sulfur-containing sulfhydryl group (-SH) replaces the oxygen-containing hydroxyl group in the molecule. ... Propanethiol is chemically classified among the thiols, which are organic compounds with molecular formulas and structural ... 21, 1962, Preparation of Organic Sulfur Compounds (Webarchive template wayback links, Articles without InChI source, Articles ...
The term sulfhydryl- or mercapto- is used as a prefix, e.g. mercaptopurine. Many thiols have strong odors resembling that of ... These compounds are detectable by the human nose at concentrations of only 10 parts per billion. Human sweat contains (R)/(S)-3 ... Sulfhydryl groups in the active site of an enzyme can form noncovalent bonds with the enzyme's substrate as well, contributing ... The −SH functional group itself is referred to as either a thiol group or a sulfhydryl group, or a sulfanyl group. Thiols are ...
... is a very noxious and caustic chemical compound, and at sufficiently high concentrations, it produces serious ... except that the sulfur-containing sulfhydryl group (-SH) replaces the oxygen-containing hydroxyl group (-OH) in the molecule. 1 ... which are organic compounds with molecular formulas and structural formulas similar to alcohols, ...
The double bond in the carbonyl group can undergo a Michael addition with a thiol group, also called a sulfhydryl group. ... For this reason the compound or its derivatives may have potential medical applications. Helenalin belongs to the group of ... Depending on the dose of helenalin, thiol-bearing compounds such as glutathione may provide some protection to cells from ... Most of these derivatives occur naturally, such as the compound dihydrohelenalin, but there are also some semi-synthetic ...
... reactive iodacetyl function group which labels sulfhydryl-(-SH) groups (iodoTMT) and (3) reactive alkoxyamine functional group ... which provides covalent labeling of carbonyl-containing compounds (aminoxyTMT). A key benefit of isobaric labeling over other ...
Sulfhydryl-containing compounds. The metabolism of organic nitrates to nitric oxide is dependent on the presence of sulfhydryl ... Concomitant administration of other exogenous sources of sulfhydryl groups such as methionine and captopril may produce a ...
Sulfhydryl Compounds / analysis* * Sulfhydryl Compounds / chemistry * Sulfhydryl Compounds / metabolism Substances * Disulfides ...
... and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMC. Results: As the administered dose did not ... activity of Muntingia calabura leaves involves the modulation of endogenous nitric oxide and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds ... activity of Muntingia calabura leaves involves the modulation of endogenous nitric oxide and nonprotein sulfhydryl compounds. ... Gastroprotection; leaves; methanol extract; Muntingia calabura; nitric oxide; peptic ulcers; sulfhydryl group. ...
Sulfhydryl Compounds); 31C4KY9ESH (Nitric Oxide); OTO: NOTNLM; 2013/06/09 [received]; 2013/10/10 [accepted]; 2013/11/17 [ ... The cytoprotective mechanisms of the Sm-FRF in relation to sulfhydryl (SH) groups, nitric oxide (NO) and antioxidant enzymes ...
Categories: Sulfhydryl Compounds Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Filters: Keyword is Sulfhydryl Compounds [Clear All Filters]. 2006. P. A. Vazquez-Landaverde, Torres, J. A., and Qian, M. C., " ... F. Tilton, La Du, J. K., and Tanguay, R. L., "Sulfhydryl systems are a critical factor in the zebrafish developmental toxicity ... "Quantification of trace volatile sulfur compounds in milk by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-pulsed flame ... the role of glutathione/dipeptide transporters and vacuolar function in the release of volatile sulfur compounds 3- ...
Mercury compounds reacting with sulfhydryl groups inhibit a variety of enzymes. Chronic occupational exposure to mercury ... Occupational-exposure; Environmental-exposure; Lead-compounds; Cadmium-compounds; Mercury-compounds; Arsenic-compounds; Acute- ... Organic compounds of mercury are used in agriculture and have environmental and occupational impacts. ...
Zlamalova, M; Nesmerak, K; Recent advances in electrochemical detection of important sulfhydryl-containing compounds; Mon. Chem ... X-ray Inducible Luminescence and Singlet Oxygen Sensitization by an Octahedral Molybdenum Cluster Compound: A New Class of ... Water-soluble octahedral molybdenum cluster compounds Na-2[Mo6I8(N-3)(6)] and Na-2[Mo6I8(NCS)(6)]: Syntheses, luminescence, and ... An electrochemical device generating metal ion adducts of organic compounds for electrospray mass spectrometry; Electrochim. ...
Filters: Keyword is Sulfhydryl Compounds and Author is Saili, Katerine S [Clear All Filters] ...
Conversion to mercaptopurine also occurs in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione, and hydrogen ... Azathioprine is metabolized to 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP). Both compounds are rapidly eliminated from blood and are oxidized or ... is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound ...
Sulfur Compounds [D02.886]. *Sulfhydryl Compounds [D02.886.489]. *Methimazole [D02.886.489.600]. *Heterocyclic Compounds [D03] ...
However, the majority of these compounds are characterized by significant toxicity toward human cells, which hinders their ... Compounds with free sulfhydryl groups (Figure 1B) have not been studied herein due to their high susceptibility to oxidation [ ... A) At least one Arg (compounds L3, L4, L5, L6, L7)-linear correlation; (B) one Arg (compounds C3, C4, C5, C6)-linear ... A) At least one Arg (compounds L3, L4, L5, L6, L7)-linear correlation; (B) one Arg (compounds C3, C4, C5, C6)-linear ...
... and other sulfhydryl-containing compounds may cause false-positive testing results. [11] ...
This drug is a thiol compound, eg, a sulfhydryl (SH) group-containing organic compound; hypersensitivity reactions to mesna and ... Oxidized to dimesna in the blood, and is in turn reduced back to mesna in the kidney; synthetic sulfhydryl (thiol) compound ... Hypersensitivity to mesna or other thiol compounds. Cautions. Does NOT prevent nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, or ... it is not clear whether patients who experienced an adverse reaction to a thiol compound are at increased risk for a ...
Spontaneous development of L forms of streptococci requiring secretions of other bacteria or sulphydryl compounds for normal ... or in media enriched with sulfhydryl compounds, such as cysteine. These nutritionally variant streptococci were eventually ...
Aminothiols are the major nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds characterized by reduced sulfhydryl moieties that directly quench ... This compound was quantified in excreted urine. A commercially available enzyme immunoassay EIA kit (Cayman Chemical, USA) for ... For all these reasons, erythrocytes have been used as a simple model (a) to study the cellular effects of various compounds [10 ... Aminothiols are the major nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds in erythrocytes too. These cells are particularly susceptible to ...
Danysz A, Wierzba K, Pniewska A. The effect of sulfhydryl compounds on 5-fluorouracil toxicity and distribution. Arch Immunol ... Danysz A, Wierzba K, Wutkiewicz M. Influence of some sulfhydryl compounds on the antineoplastic effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil ... Erythropoietin (EPO)7 is a neuroprotective compound that is produced by the brain in response to stroke.33 When given as a ... Aspirin additionally suppresses production by the body of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a compound which suppresses immune function ...
Sulfhydryl Compounds 74% * Reactive Oxygen Species 54% * Visceral Leishmaniasis 31% * Parasites 21% ...
The resultant stable product, taurine chloramine, can be quantitated by its ability to oxidize the sulfhydryl compound, 5-thio- ...
Bremer, J. and Greenberg, D.M. Enzymic methylation of foreign sulfhydryl compounds. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 46 (1961) 217-224. ...
Our sterile 2D-Detergent™ solutions contain reduced peroxides and carbonyl compounds (Figure). In addition, the detergents have ... Many commercial grade detergents contain elevated levels of sulfhydryl oxidizing agents, peroxides, salts and carbonyl ... compounds (Figure 1). The proteins that are isolated with these detergents are highly susceptible to contaminating peroxides ...
... following serendipitous observations by numerous researchers in the 1940s who found that sulfhydryl-containing compounds were ... In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of ... Searching for bioactive compounds within the huge chemical space is like trying to find a needle in a haystack. Isatin is a ... However, all these compounds need to be further validated by wet lab experiments and should be approved for clinical use only ...
Sulfhydryl Compounds [D02.886.489]. *Pantetheine [D02.886.489.700]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is related to " ...
Its maleimide end can then be conjugated to a sulfhydryl-containing compound to create a thioether linkage (Bioconjugate ... Small molecules include organic compounds, organometallic compounds, salts of organic and organometallic compounds, ... Its maleimide end can then be conjugated to a sulfhydryl-containing compound to create a thioether linkage (Bioconjugate ... Small molecules include compounds that are found in nature as well as synthetic compounds. Examples of small molecules which ...
Thiols are the organic compounds that contain a sulphydryl group. Among all the antioxidants that are available in the body, ... Thiol reducing compounds prevent human amylin-evoked cytotoxicity. FEBS J 2005;272:4949-59. ...
The affinity of arsenic for sulphydryl groups is utilized in chelation therapy. TOXICOKINETICS Absorption Insoluble compounds ... dithiol compounds which can remove arsenic from endogenous sulphydryl groups, the targets of arsenic toxicity (Jones, 1995). ... Inorganic arsenic compounds. London: HMSO, 1986. Fournier L, Thomas G, Garnier R, Buisine A, Houze P, Pradier F, Dally S. 2,3- ... Vet Hum Toxicol 1989; 31: 1-5. Kreppel H, Reichl F-X, Szinicz L, Fichtl B, Forth W. Efficacy of various dithiol compounds in ...
Sulfhydryl Compounds 100% * Regulatory T-Lymphocytes 98% * Oxidoreductases 84% * Interferon-gamma 82% ...
  • Conversion to mercaptopurine also occurs in the presence of sulfhydryl compounds such as cysteine, glutathione, and hydrogen sulfide. (nih.gov)
  • In contrast, glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and L-cystine were reduced slowly but with high apparent affinity, and 60 to 80% of the increase in sulfhydryls was intracellular. (bocsci.com)
  • Uptake of glutathione or L-cysteine, or the uptake and reduction of GSSG or L-cystine, resulted in up to a 10-fold increase in cell sulfhydryl content that raised intracellular concentrations to between 30 and 40 mM. (bocsci.com)
  • Lewisite causes skin damage similar to that caused by sulfur mustard, although the mechanism of damage is different and involves effects on glutathione and sulfhydryl groups in enzymes as well as inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In 1961, Frenkel and Hirsch described strains of streptococci isolated from cases of bacterial endocarditis that grew only in the presence of other bacteria, around which they formed satellite colonies, or in media enriched with sulfhydryl compounds, such as cysteine. (cdc.gov)
  • The metabolism of organic nitrates to nitric oxide is dependent on the presence of sulfhydryl groups in the muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The animals were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME) or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM) prior to MEMC treatment to assess the possible involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) compounds in the gastroprotective effect of MEMC. (unisza.edu.my)
  • 6] Dehydration and the presence of levodopa metabolites, mesna (sodium mercaptoethanesulfonate), and other sulfhydryl-containing compounds may cause false-positive testing results. (medscape.com)
  • Aminothiols are the major nonenzymatic antioxidant compounds characterized by reduced sulfhydryl moieties that directly quench ROS and are present in all physiological samples (fluids and tissues). (hindawi.com)
  • Many studies have reported that chalcone-based compounds exhibit biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. (bvsalud.org)
  • Inorganic or organic compounds that contain sulfur as an integral part of the molecule. (bvsalud.org)
  • Mercury compounds reacting with sulfhydryl groups inhibit a variety of enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • At high concentrations, these compounds were reduced at rates comparable to that of glucose metabolism, and all of the increase in sulfhydryls was in the medium. (bocsci.com)
  • The efficacy of the tested compounds determined as minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) varied greatly. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is an imidazolyl derivative of 6-mercaptopurine and many of its biological effects are similar to those of the parent compound. (nih.gov)
  • The perceptions of these odors are so subjective that they are not reliable indicators of the presence or identity of these compounds. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Concomitant administration of other exogenous sources of sulfhydryl groups such as methionine and captopril may produce a similar interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many commercial grade detergents contain elevated levels of sulfhydryl oxidizing agents, peroxides, salts and carbonyl compounds (Figure 1). (gbiosciences.com)
  • Two transport systems for disulfide and sulfhydryl compounds were distinguished. (bocsci.com)
  • Among the synthesized compounds, (E)-3-chloro-2-(2-((3-methoxypyridin-2-yl)sulfonyl)vinyl) pyridine (10e) was found to have approximately 16-folds higher Nrf2 activating effects than VEDA-1209 (10e: EC50 = 37.9 nM vs VEDA-1209: EC50 = 625 nM) in functional cell-based assay. (bvsalud.org)
  • Discussion and conclusion: The results obtained indicate that MEMC has significant antiulcer activity that might involve the participation of endogenous NO and NP-SH compounds. (unisza.edu.my)
  • Their efficacies were similar or much higher than those of selected reference compounds known to be active against P. larvae-lauric acid, monolaurin, and honeybee larval food components, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid, and sebacic acid (MICs ranged from 25 µM to 6400 µM). (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we aimed to further define the specific molecular mechanisms of MB toxicity through the comparison of several thiol-containing compounds and their effects on cellular energy metabolism and thiol redox nodes. (nih.gov)
  • Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) are sulfhydryls (thiol)-containing compounds, often associated with metals, and have both antioxidant and pro-oxidant abilities depending on the compound, experimental system and condition. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In this study we investigated whether cell death plays a role in the manifestation of DTC-induced notochord distortions in the developing zebrafish and if thiol-containing compounds or antioxidants could modify this developmental toxicity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Sulfhydryl systems are a critical factor in the zebrafish developmental toxicity of the dithiocarbamate sodium metam (NaM). (oregonstate.edu)
  • However, cellular thiol status or critical sulfhydryl moieties are important considerations in the mechanisms of DTC developmental toxicity. (oregonstate.edu)
  • When both compounds were tested in primary chondrocytes from a DTD patient, partial rescue of PG sulfation was observed, suggesting that the metabolic pathways producing cytoplasmic sulfate from thiols are also active in this cell type. (nih.gov)
  • Thiols, compounds that contain sulfhydryl group, are powerful reducing agents capable of acting as antioxidants, enzyme cofactors, and neuromodulators. (synchrone.studio)
  • Multiple solvent system is a crucial variable to retrieve pharmacological potential of medicinal plants and D. innoxia can be envisaged as a novel source of natural antioxidants, antimicrobials and anticancer compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sulfhydryl compound that accumulates in urine and inactivates toxic byproducts of cyclophosphamide and ifosfamide. (medscape.com)
  • Organic compounds of mercury are used in agricultur e and have environmental and occupational impacts. (cdc.gov)
  • Mercury compounds reacting with sulfhydryl groups inhibit a variety of enzymes. (cdc.gov)
  • Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group. (reference.md)
  • Once inside the body, thiopurine drugs are converted to toxic compounds that kill immune system cells in the bone marrow. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These findings demonstrate that SH-Cs-AgNPs have potential as a new therapeutic compound against infections caused by UPEC. (unison.mx)
  • The TPMT enzyme "turns off" thiopurine drugs by metabolizing them to inactive, nontoxic compounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Without enough of this enzyme, the body cannot "turn off" thiopurine drugs by metabolizing them into inactive compounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This enzyme carries out a specific chemical reaction called S-methylation of a group of molecules known as aromatic and heterocyclic sulphydryl compounds. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The antisecretory potential of MMMC was investigated using the pyloric ligation model while the role of nitric oxide and endogenous sulfhydryl group were measured by testing the extract against L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME) and N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM)using the ethanol-induced model. (upm.edu.my)
  • The Effect of Sulphydryl Compounds on the Ability to Catalyze the Polymerization Reaction. (nih.gov)
  • Besides that, the result obtained from the GC-MS analysis showed several peaks detected at the different real time suggested that MMMC contained several compounds that have been proven by other studies to show antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and gastro protective effect. (upm.edu.my)