Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/3500)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (2/3500)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (3/3500)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (4/3500)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (5/3500)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system. (6/3500)

Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (7/3500)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (8/3500)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

MicroRNAs play a key role in the control of plant development and response to adverse environmental conditions. For example, microRNA395 (miR395), which targets three out of four isoforms of ATP sulfurylase, the first enzyme of sulfate assimilation, as well as a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, is strongly induced by sulfate deficiency. However, other components of sulfate assimilation are induced by sulfate starvation, so that the role of miR395 is counterintuitive. Here, we describe the regulation of miR395 and its targets by sulfate starvation. We show that miR395 is important for the increased translocation of sulfate to the shoots during sulfate starvation. MiR395 together with the SULFUR LIMITATION 1 transcription factor maintain optimal levels of ATP sulfurylase transcripts to enable increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway in sulfate-deficient plants. Reduced expression of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) alone affects both sulfate translocation and flux, but SULTR2;1 is ...
This investigation was designed to determine if sulfate metabolism is the function of a particular cell organelle, or whether the site of sulfation varies, depending upon the type of cell and the class of sulfated compound. Rats and mice were injected intravenously with inorganic sulfate labeled with 35S (H235SO4), and were then killed by vascular perfusion of fixative 5-30 min later. Several tissues were prepared for electron microscope autoradiography. 14 different types of specialized cells which incorporated the labeled sulfate were analyzed. In every case, the sulfate was initially detected in the smooth membranes and vesicles of the Golgi complex. Available evidence indicates that these cells were engaged in the synthesis of several different sulfated compounds, including mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, lipids, and steroids. These results lead to the generalization that the enzymes required for the transfer of inorganic sulfate to a variety of acceptor molecules are located in the ...
Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats. ...
We assessed the relative merits of two approaches for including polarization effects in classical force fields for the sulfate anion. One of the approaches is the explicit shell model for atomic polarization and the other is an implicit dielectric continuum representation of the electronic polarization, wherein the polarizability density is spatially uniform. Both the solvation and ion association properties of sulfate were considered. We carried out an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation for a single sulfate anion in aqueous solution to obtain a benchmark for the solvation structure. For the ion-pairing properties, the models were compared to experimental thermodynamic data through Kirkwood-Buff theory, which relates the integrals of the pair correlation functions to measurable properties. While deficiencies were found for both of the approaches, the continuum polarization model was not systematically worse than the shell model. The shell model was found to give a more structured solution ...
More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activiti …
Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs ...
The viability of low-temperature sulfate reduction with hydrogen as electron donor was studied with a bench-scale gas-lift bioreactor (GLB) operated at 9 degrees C. Prior to the GLB experiment, the temperature range of sulfate reduction of the inoculum was assayed. The results of the temperature gradient assay indicated that the inoculum was a psychrotolerant mesophilic enrichment culture that had an optimal temperature for sulfate reduction of 31 degrees C, and minimum and maximum temperatures of 7 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. In the GLB experiment at 9 degrees C, a sulfate reduction rate of 500-600 mg l(-1) d(-1), corresponding to a specific activity of 173 mg SO42- g VSS-1 d(-1), was obtained. The electron flow from the consumed H-2-gas to sulfate reduction varied between 27% and 52%, whereas the electron flow to acetate production decreased steadily from 15% to 5%. No methane was produced. Acetate was produced from CO2 and H-2 by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate supported the ...
General Information: Lithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing. Denitrification, Dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Moderately halophilic, obligately alkaliphilic and chemolithoautotrophic, Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a mixed culture capable of complete autotrophic denitrification with thiosulfate as electron donor at pH 10; the mixed culture was enriched from sediment from Lake Fazda (Wadi Natrun, Egypt), a hypersaline alkaline lake. ...
Although controversial, the idea that hydrothermal systems may have been the site for prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules and origin of life is widely supported. For the nascent life to survive, it must have had some sort of metabolic mechanism for generating energy. However, little is known of the specific metabolic pathways utilized by the early life forms or the effect of high temperatures on their activity. Recent research on natural high temperature aquatic environments, though limited because of difficult field logistics and experimental problems, is revolutionizing our understanding of possible energy-generating redox pathways, such as sulphate reduction. An abridged review of research on thermophilic sulphate reduction is presented here. Because of a complex interplay between microbiological and geochemical entities involved, and the uncertainties that modern hydrothermal systems are proxy for biogeochemical conditions on early Earth, great caution is required for interpretation and ...
Geochemical data from ancient sedimentary successions provide evidence for the progressive evolution of Earths atmosphere and oceans1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Key stages in increasing oxygenation are postulated for the Palaeoproterozoic era (~2.3 billion years ago, Gyr ago) and the late Proterozoic eon (about 0.8 Gyr ago), with the latter implicated in the subsequent metazoan evolutionary expansion8. In support of this rise in oxygen concentrations, a large database1, 2, 3, 9 shows a marked change in the bacterially mediated fractionation of seawater sulphate to sulphide of Δ34S , 25‰ before 1 Gyr to ≥50‰ after 0.64 Gyr. This change in Δ34S has been interpreted to represent the evolution from single-step bacterial sulphate reduction to a combination of bacterial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation, largely bacterially mediated3, 7, 9. This evolution is seen as marking the rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations and the evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria3, 7, ...
Control of S flux from sulphate to cysteine appears to be controlled in several ways (Figure 4). The first concerns the transcriptional control over the
Sulfated Peptide Standards are lyophilized peptides that are useful for the standardization and method development of sulfoproteomic analyses. Each Peptide Standard is Certified Mass Spec Grade and provided in convenient, lyophilized vials for easy reconstitution and usage.
SULFATEQ™ removes sulphate to less than 300 mg/l and converts it into hydrophilic (non-clogging) elemental sulphur. In addition, it recovers valuable metals such as copper, nickel and zinc as marketable metal sulphides. Lime treatment for sulphate removal no longer meets the authorities requirements for sulphate concentrations or total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis and ion exchange do not completely solve the problem either. They merely concentrate the pollutants, whereas SULFATEQ™ converts the pollutants into a valuable product. The typical range for the application of SULFATEQ™ is an influent sulphate concentration of 1,000-25,000 mg/l and a pH level of 2-8. SULFATEQ™ is used as a standalone installation or as the final treatment at a lime-gypsum plant. The power of this technology lies in its ability to solve multiple problems with one installation: sulphate removal and simultaneous metal recovery.
Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, followed by a final neutralization stage using carbon dioxide. Gypsum precipitation can be included before the sulfate removal stage when required.. The process, built on easy-to-understand chemistry, can be applied to sulfate removal from gypsum saturated waters. Importantly, sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. The sulfate concentration after treatment is typically 200-1000 mg/L. A level below 200 mg/L can be achieved with enhanced precipitation chemistry.. In addition to sulfate removal, the process includes advanced removal of metal impurities such as Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn as metal hydroxides. The final product includes treated water with a low sulfate concentration for discharge or re-use, and stable, solid precipitate with a high buffer capacity.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How do you test for sulfate levels? Is the sulfate level likely to get high using dry acid to decrease pH using liquid chlorine following TFP guidelines?
The metabolic fate of potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was studied in rats. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of the ester into free-ranging animals were followed by the excretion of the bulk of the radioactivity in the urine within 12hr., approximately 17% being eliminated as inorganic [35S]sulphate. Similar results were obtained in experiments in which potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was injected intravenously into anaesthetized rats with bile-duct and ureter cannulae. Analysis of urinary radioactivity revealed the presence of a new ester sulphate (metabolite A). This metabolite was isolated, purified and subsequently identified as the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid by paper, thin-layer and gas chromatography, by paper electrophoresis and by comparison of its properties with those of authentic butyric acid 4-sulphate. The identity of the metabolite was confirmed by isotope-dilution experiments. When either purified metabolite A or authentic potassium butyric acid 4[35S]-sulphate ...
Hey, guys! Im gettin up on my little blogger soap box to tell you youre caring for yourself in a harmful way. That is, if you use products with sulfates. Say naahhhh to sulfates.. Check the ingredients on the back of your face wash and your shampoo. If anything listing ingredients that sound like sulfate- is toward the top of the list, its bad news.. Why? Soaps strip your skin and hair; its just the facts. Sulfates are soaps. Find out more details by clicking here.. So do you have to go high-end and spend lotsa dollars to get sulfate-free cleansers? Not exactly. Even expensive cleansers can have sulfates! For example, this: ...
Isotopic distribution is a function of physical and biological processes. In general, equilibrium-controlled reactions occur at high temperatures among solid phases, whereas low-temperature reactions, especially those mediated by organisms, are kinetically controlled. The solar and stellar abundance of isotopes is poorly known. Knowledge of extra-terrestrial distributions of the isotopes of light elements presently comes from lunar and meteorite measurements. On Earth, the elements associated with biological synthesis which have been studied most intensively, are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. In general, reduced products of metabolism are enriched in light isotopes. Thus, 1H and 12C are enriched in hydrogen gas and methane, when produced by fermentation or CO2 reduction. Nitrogen gas is enriched in 14N when produced by denitrification, and H2S is highly enriched in 32S when it results from sulphate reduction. A pattern of biological enrichment factors has been recognized on ...
Vald s, Freddy et al. Effect of sulphate concentration and sulphide desorption on the combined removal of organic matter and sulphate from wastewaters using expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors . Electron. J. Biotechnol., July 2006, vol.9, no.4, p.0-0. ISSN 0717- ...
This gene is one member of a family of sulfate/anion transporter genes. Family members are well conserved in their genomic (number and size of exons) and protein (aa length among species) structures yet have markedly different tissue expression patterns. This gene is expressed primarily in spermatocytes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[3] ...
Soil column was equipped with the sediments and aquifer media collected from Weihe Riverbed and its bank, and was used to research the...
Provides the optimum potency and the ideal form (All Sulfate) of the most important ingredient for the maintenance and repair of healthy joint tissue.
Synthetic sulfates are the ones you should be worried about. Learn the facts about this ingredient and what you should do about it.
Abstract. A novel, high-yielding method for sulfation of alcohols proceeds via sulfite- and sulfate diester intermediates. Sulfite diesters serve as versatile sulfate monoester precursors, that allow interesting transformations.. ...
All pieces are sold with a full description of the fossil and its origins, and comes with a money-back, lifetime guarantee of authenticity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain BSC154, isolated from biological soil crust of Moab, Utah. AU - Bailey, Alexis C.. AU - Kellom, Matthew. AU - Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.. AU - Noonan, Kathryn. AU - Hartnettc, Hilairy E.. AU - Raymond, Jason. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.. AB - Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.. UR - ...
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We studied the annual variability of the concentration and isotopic composition of main sulfur species and sulfide oxidation intermediates in the water column of monomictic fresh-water Lake Kinneret. Sulfate concentrations in the lake are |1 mM and similar to concentrations that are proposed to have existed in the Paleoproterozoic ocean. The main goal of this research was to explore biogeochemical constrains of sulfur cycling in the modern low-sulfate fresh-water lake and to identify which processes may be responsible for the isotopic composition of sulfur species in the Precambrian sedimentary rocks. At the deepest point of the lake, the sulfate inventory decreases by more than 20% between March and December due to microbial sulfate reduction leading to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide. During the initial stages of stratification, sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is low (11.6 ‰) and sulfur oxyanions (e.g. thiosulfate and sulfite) are the main products of the incomplete
Article Photocatalysis assisted by peroxymonosulfate and persulfate for benzotriazole degradation: effect of pH on sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. Recently, notable attempts have been devoted to removing emerging pollutants from water resources. Benzo...
Three decades of study of laminated mats in low-sulfate thermal springs have provided a better understanding of the microbial diversity of these communities and highlighted the importance of a number of metabolic processes, including oxygenic photosynthesis by the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus (31), cross-feeding between cyanobacteria and photoheterotrophic Chloroflexus-type filaments (2), nitrogen fixation (34), methanogenesis (40, 47), and acetogenesis, and the importance of anaerobic processes in decomposition and mineralization (1, 12, 34). Although the contribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria to processes in photosynthetic mats in high-sulfate hypersaline environments is well documented (11, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32), their contributions to processes in mats that develop in low-sulfate environments are less well studied. However, the study of sulfate respiration in microbial mats in low-sulfate environments is especially relevant to understanding the evolution of these ...
Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to Fe(III) reduction. In a similar manner, Fe(III) additions also inhibited methane production in sulfate-depleted sediments. The inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production was the result of substrate limitation, because the sediments retained the potential for sulfate reduction and methane production in the presence of excess hydrogen and acetate. Sediments in which Fe(III) reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process had much lower concentrations of hydrogen and acetate than sediments in which sulfate reduction or methane production was the ...
A simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of free sulfate anions in heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin with indirect UV detection is reported. The background electrolyte consists of 20 mM nitrate (pH 5.5) containing 0.2 mM CTAB. The use of nitrate as the probe anion is based on the consideration that nitrate has a very close electrophoretic mobility to that of sulfate, leading to a very narrow peak shape. Moreover, the apparent molar absorptivity of nitrate at 202 nm (8413 L mol(-1) cm(-1)) is much higher than that of the commonly used probe anion chromate at 254 nm (2400 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The combination of the narrow peak shape with the high apparent molar absorptivity of the probe ion improved the limit of detection by 2.4 times and the limit of quantitation by 3.2 times. The effect of various CE parameters on the separation of sulfate from chloride was investigated and optimized. The method displays linearity in the range ...
Mine wastewaters generated during active mining operations or resulting from groundwater rebound at abandoned sites will have major environmental and economic implications for South Africa in the medium and longer term, particularly as active dewatering of some underground basins ceases. Active chemical treatment of the wastewaters, involving oxidation, neutralisation and sedimentation, is the most widely employed technology. Recently there has been increasing interest in passive biological treatment processes. Biological sulphate reduction is a well understood and efficient process and has been incorporated into a number of full scale treatment systems. Sulphate in acid mine drainage (AMD) streams is typically derived from the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) resulting in a stoichiometric excess of sulphate relative to metals. As a result, even if the biological treatment system incorporates a metal sulphide precipitation step there will be a surplus of sulphide, from the sulphate reduction step. ...
Mine wastewaters generated during active mining operations or resulting from groundwater rebound at abandoned sites will have major environmental and economic implications for South Africa in the medium and longer term, particularly as active dewatering of some underground basins ceases. Active chemical treatment of the wastewaters, involving oxidation, neutralisation and sedimentation, is the most widely employed technology. Recently there has been increasing interest in passive biological treatment processes. Biological sulphate reduction is a well understood and efficient process and has been incorporated into a number of full scale treatment systems. Sulphate in acid mine drainage (AMD) streams is typically derived from the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) resulting in a stoichiometric excess of sulphate relative to metals. As a result, even if the biological treatment system incorporates a metal sulphide precipitation step there will be a surplus of sulphide, from the sulphate reduction step. ...
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Genes whose expression is regulated by sulfate starvation in Escherichia coli were identified by generating random translational lacZ fusions in the chromosome with the lambda placMu9 system. Nine lacZ fusion strains which expressed beta-galactosidase after growth under sulfate starvation conditions but not after growth in the presence of sulfate were found. These included two strains with insertions in the dmsA and rhsD genes, respectively, and seven strains in which the insertions were located within a 1.8-kb region downstream of hemB at 8.5 minutes on the E. coli chromosome. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of this region indicated the presence of four open reading frames designated tauABCD. Disruption of these genes resulted in the loss of the ability to utilize taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) as a source of sulfur but did not affect the utilization of a range of other aliphatic sulfonates as sulfur sources. The TauA protein contained a putative signal peptide for transport into the ...
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
The demonstration of CDO and SO protein and mRNA in human alveolar epithelial cells suggests that these enzymes are responsible for the production of sulfate in situ, which can then be converted to the substrate for phase II sulfotransferases or be used for the sulfation of structural components of the alveolus. Sulfate is present within the alveolus,13 as demonstrated by the expression of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans within the human alveoli,14,15 but there has been no direct measurement of sulfate production to date. The presence of the metabolic machinery for sulfate production in the epithelial cells of the alveolus, as shown in our study, does not prove conclusively that sulfate production actually occurs here. It is possible that PAPS, the sulfate carrier for sulfation reactions, may be transported to the lung after synthesis elsewhere in the body, but no evidence for this has yet been provided. However, the presence of sulfated proteins within the alveolus suggests ...
Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. ...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria comprise a diverse and ecologically interactive group of anaerobic prokaryotes which share an extraordinary trait: growth by sulfate respiration with hydrogen sulfide as a major end-product. Sulfate-reducers are found in diverse environments ranging from estuaries to geological oil-bearing formations.
Manganese sulfate tetrahydrate | H8MnO8S | CID 22572548 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na+-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (≈66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal ...
The effects of Na2S04 addition to cement pastes containing PNS superplasticizer with different molecular weight were investigated in different parameters of cem
The corresponding metal sulfate would be MSO_4........... Why? We gots M_3(PO_4)_2; now phosphate anion is formally PO_4^(3-), i.e. a salt of phosphoric acid, H_3PO_4. And in the given formula we have 2xxPO_4^(3-), a formal electronic charge of -6. Clearly, to form a neutral salt, the three metal ions must have a combined formal charge of +6, and given this we have M^(2+) ions....... And thus the salt the metal forms with sulfate anion would be 1:1, i.e. M^(2+)SO_4^(2-).
|img src=q.gif>|br>Sodium sulfate is added to glass formulas as a source of sodium and to prevent scumming. Sodium sulfate glasses are harder, stronger and have a higher softening point than soda-lime glasses without the sulfate addition.
Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Direct road mortality and the barrier effect of roads are typically identified as one of the greatest threats to wildlife. In addition, collisions with large mammals are also a threat to human safety and represent an ...
Grade: Biotech Appearance Fine, white homogeneous powder Moisture content ≤10% Gel Strength 1.5% ≥1,120 g/cm2 Gelling Point 34.5 - 37.5°C Electroendosmosis-Mr 0.09-0.13 Sulfate ≤0.15% DNase , RNase and protease None detected ...
Properties: Pale red, slightly efflorescent crystals; loses all water at 400-450°. Sol in about 1 part cold, 0.6 part boiling water; insol in alcohol. ...
Tyrosine sulfation Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein molecule. Secreted
I have always been interested in the sulphation pathway as addition of a sulphate group can make dramatic changes to the properties of both drugs and tissue components. Our group first started working in the field of autism about 15 years ago, when we were asked to measure the metabolism of paracetamol in an autistic child. At the time, I had only heard the orthodox medical view that autism was all in the mind and had no biochemical basis. To our great surprise, we found that children with autism, unlike the age-matched controls, were much less able to form the sulphate conjugate of paracetamol, although the other metabolic pathways were normal. We went on to look at the levels of sulphate in the blood plasma, because sulphation capacity depends on both the amount of sulphate available and also the activity of the enzyme that carries out the reaction. We found that autistic children generally had low sulphate levels, typically about 10-15% of the control values. Sulphate is produced in vivo by ...
Alternative Description: Manganous sulfate. Formula: MnSO₄.H₂O. M.W. 169.01. CAS No: 10034-96-5. EEC No: 232-089-9. Warning. Hazard: H373, H411. Precaution: P273. The National Counter Terrorism Security Office seeks to restrict the supply of certain chemicals. Philip Harris have a duty to control the supply for these chemicals and any private individual attempting to purchase these chemicals may have their details passed to the police in their area. If you require waste disposal within the UK, please contact All Waste Matters Ltd on [email protected] for a quote.. ...
Current methods to recover sulfates from wastewater streams are limited in their capability to work in challenging industrial conditions and/or to generate a new revenue stream from the recovered sulfates. Hence, SUEZ is looking for a solution to solve these two limitations.  This Theoretical Challenge requires only a written proposal.
Did you know that the really foamy lather produced by your shampoo is due to sulfates within the ingredients of the Shampoo and could actually be damaging you
To Determine the amount of Sulfate by Gravimetric Method This method is valid for 20-100mg/l Principle: sulfate ion is precipitated and weighed as BaSO4. The solution is first acidified with HCL to prevent the precipitation of BaCO3 and Ba(OH)2 and it also aids the larger precipitate crystals. Procedure: Take 200ml …. Read More » ...
solid bleached sulphate for sale - 173 - solid bleached sulphate wholesalers & solid bleached sulphate manufacturers from China manufacturers.
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Hi, just to add on, if you look at the example we did in lecture where we assigned formal charged to a sulfate ion (SO4^2-) we see that two of the oxygen atoms had a -1 charge while all the other atoms had 0 charge. Because two atoms had a -1 charge, the total charge for the molecule was -2 ...
Want to steer clear of adding sulphates to your hair? Take a look at HQhairs innovative range of sulphate free haircare. Free delivery options available.
The Mannheim furnace is also used to produce potassium sulfate from potassium chloride. The Mannheim process is a stage in the ... The Mannheim process is an industrial process for the production of hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfuric acid and ... The intermediate product reacts with more sodium chloride in the lower, hotter section of the kiln producing sodium sulfate. ... Helmold Plessen (2000). "Sodium Sulfates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
It has many synonyms including bisulfate of soda, sodium acid sulfate, mono sodium hydrogen sulfate, sodium hydrogen sulfate, ... and other bisulfates as in sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) and other sulfates. Helmold Plessen (2000). "Sodium Sulfates". Ullmann's ... Sodium bisulfate, also known as sodium hydrogen sulfate, is the sodium salt of the bisulfate anion, with the molecular formula ... comes from an outdated naming system and is based on the observation that there is two times as much sulfate (SO4) in sodium ...
Helmold Plessen (2000). "Sodium Sulfates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ... producing sodium sulfate and sulfur trioxide: Na2S2O7 → Na2SO4 + SO3 Sodium pyrosulfate was used in analytical chemistry. ...
... where methane is oxidized and sulfate is reduced by a consortium of methane oxidizers and sulfate reducers, leading to ... V (Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates). Chantilly, VA, US: Mineralogical Society of America. ISBN 978-0962209741. "Calcite". mindat. ... Calcite may form in the subsurface in response to activity of microorganisms, such as during sulfate-dependent anaerobic ...
Structurally, they resemble sulfates. Six-coordinate, octahedral tungsten dominates in the polyoxotungstates. In these ...
Carbonates, sulfates, and silica should precipitate out ahead of them. Sulfates and silica have been discovered by the Mars ... Mini-TES data from the same rock showed that it consists of a considerable amount of sulfates. Sulfates also contain water. ... Sulfate contains chemically bound water, hence its presence suggests water was around in the past. Viking 2 found similar group ... The sulfur may be present as sulfates of sodium, magnesium, calcium, or iron. A sulfide of iron is also possible. Using results ...
... but selenitic cement may be made using any form of sulfate or sulfuric acid. Sulfate arrests slaking, causes the cement to set ... which could lead to the formation of magnesium sulfate salts." Magnesium sulfate salts may damage the mortar when they dry and ... Lime is used extensively for wastewater treatment with ferrous sulfate. The rocks and minerals from which these materials are ... Heather Hartshorn, "Dolomitic Lime Mortars: Carbonation Complications and Susceptibility to Acidic Sulfates" Thesis 2012 ...
... of natural estrogens including estrone sulfate and equine estrogens such as equilin sulfate and 17β-dihydroequilin sulfate. A ... Esters of estrone and estriol also exist and are or have been used in clinical medicine, for example estrone sulfate (e.g., as ... Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of ... such as ethinylestradiol and conjugated estrogens like equilin sulfate. Nonsteroidal estrogens belong predominantly to the ...
Some sea salt contains sulfates. It may be difficult to distinguish sea salt from other salts, such as pink Himalayan salt, ... These are mostly calcium, potassium, and magnesium salts of chloride and sulfate with substantially lesser amounts of many ...
Herr F, Revesz C, Manson AJ, Jewell JB (1970). "Biological Properties of Estrogen Sulfates". Chemical and Biological Aspects of ...
"Bleomycin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 8 September 2015. ... "Bleomycin- bleomycin sulfate injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution". DailyMed. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 16 February ...
The mixed sulfite-sulfate represents an intermediate in the oxidation of the sulfite to the sulfate, as is practiced in the ... This solid solution consists of [Ca3(SO3)2(H2O)12]2+ cations and either sulfite or sulfate as the anion. Calcium sulfate(IV) ... "How can we convert calcium sulfite into calcium sulfate after..." ResearchGate. Retrieved 2018-05-18. Yasue, Tamotsu; Arai, ... Wirsching, Franz (2000). "Calcium Sulfate". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/ ...
Quinidine sulfate affects the way the heart beats, and is generally used in people with certain heart rhythm disorders. It is ... "Quinidine sulfate". PDRhealth™. 2016. Archived from the original on 2015-09-05. Retrieved 2016-02-18. "Label: NUEDEXTA- ... Quinidine sulfate, as a metabolic inhibitor, "increases plasma levels of dextromethorphan by competitively inhibiting ... dextromethorphan hydrobromide 20 mg/quinidine sulfate 10 mg (N=107) 283 patients (86.8%) completed the study. The number of PBA ...
". "The Magician Christopher Zeischegg , Amphetamine Sulphate". February 2020. Retrieved 24 February 2020. CS1 maint: ...
... sulfates are reduced to hydrogen sulfide as an alternative source of oxygen for catabolizing organic waste by sulfate reducing ... It must be included between 5.5 and 9 with an optimum at 7.5-8. Sulfate concentration. Nutrients concentration, associated to ... For ordinary Portland cement, it reacts with the calcium hydroxide in concrete to form calcium sulfate. This change ... There must be an underlying anaerobic aquatic habitat containing sulfates and an overlying aerobic aquatic habitat separated by ...
"Capreomycin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. ...
The sulfate particles or sulfuric acid droplets in the atmosphere are about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer (a millionth of a meter) in ... "Sulfate Aerosols". Mathera, T.A., C. Oppenheimer, A.G. Allen and A.J.S. McGonigle (2004). "Aerosol chemistry of emissions from ... 2003). "Effect of sulfate aerosol on tropospheric NOx and ozone budgets: Model simulations and TOPSE evidence". J. Geophys. Res ... The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change AR4 regards stratospheric sulfate aerosols as having a low level of scientific ...
"Vinblastine sulfate- vinblastine sulfate injection". DailyMed. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 15 April 2020. van Der Heijden R, ... "Vinblastine Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 2015-01-02. Retrieved ... "Two ultrastructurally distinct tubulin paracrystals induced in sea-urchin eggs by vinblastine sulphate" (PDF). Journal of Cell ...
Chondroitin sulfate N-Acetylglucosamine The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate on OA of the knee joint. BestBets. Burdett N, ... The Long-term Evaluation of Glucosamine Sulfate (LEGS) study ran between 2007 and 2011, to study whether glucosamine sulfate, ... A difference may exist between glucosamine sulfate and glucosamine hydrochloride, with glucosamine sulfate showing a benefit ... "there is compelling evidence that glucosamine sulfate and chondroitin sulfate may interfere with progression of OA." The ...
"Larotrectinib sulfate". National Cancer Institute. "Larotrectinib sulfate". NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms. National Cancer ...
Evekeo is an FDA-approved medication that contains racemic amphetamine sulfate (i.e., 50% levoamphetamine sulfate and 50% ... "Adderall XR- dextroamphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine sulfate and amphetamine aspartate capsule, ... "Adderall- dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, and amphetamine sulfate tablet". ... The first patented amphetamine brand, Benzedrine, was a racemic (i.e., equal parts) mixture of the free bases or sulfate salts ...
"Amikacin sulfate injection, solution". DailyMed. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 13 March 2020. Scholar, Eric M.; Pratt, William B. ( ... "Amikacin sulfate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ... ISBN 978-0-470-95964-0. "Amikacin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 ... ISBN 978-1-118-71416-4. US National Library of Medicine (9 March 2017). "Amiglyde-V- amikacin sulfate injection". DailyMed. ...
Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and ... In the process sulfates were deposited. After sulfates cemented the sediments, hematite concretions grew by precipitation from ... Some sulfates formed into large crystals which later dissolved to leave vugs. Several lines of evidence point toward an arid ... The rocks contained the sulfates had a light tone compared to isolated rocks and rocks examined by landers/rovers at other ...
Artemisinin Forsythoside B Xiao XW, Fu HZ, Luo YH, Wei XY (2013). "Potential anti-angiogenic sulfates of andrographolide". ... "Simultaneous determination of 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide and sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate in ... is primarily composed of 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide and sodium 9-dehydro-17-hydro-andrographolide-19-yl sulfate. It is ...
... sulfates, and total dissolved solids. fecal coliform was also found in Bear Head creek up to Houston River as an impairment ... sulfates, and total dissolved solids. GNIS: Houston River- Retrieved 2017-07-13 GNIS list Houston River as a stream- Retrieved ...
Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and ... In the process sulfates were deposited. After sulfates cemented the sediments, hematite concretions grew by precipitation from ... Sulfate was found, and it needs water to form. Wishstone contained a great deal of plagioclase, some olivine, and anhydrate (a ... Spirit rover discovered sulfates and goethite in the Columbia Hills. Some of the mineral classes detected may have formed in ...
Some of the sulfates that may be present in bedrocks are kieserite, sulfate anhydrate, bassanite, hexahydrite, epsomite, and ... In the process sulfates were deposited. After sulfates cemented the sediments, hematite concretions grew by precipitation from ... Some sulfates formed into large crystals which later dissolved to leave vugs. Several lines of evidence point toward an arid ... The clay was not mixed with sulfates which form under acid conditions. Life is probably more likely to form under neutral pH ...
Calcium sulfate (anhydrite, hemihydrate, gypsum); Calcium oxalate (e.g., beerstone); Barium sulfate (barite); Magnesium ... Calcium sulfate is a common precipitation foulant of heating surfaces due to its retrograde solubility. Precipitation fouling ... For example, calcium sulfate decreases its solubility with decreasing pressure. This can lead to precipitation fouling of ... Examples may include sulfate-reducing bacteria (or sulfur-reducing bacteria), which produce sulfide and often cause corrosion ...
Tb4O7 is most often produced by ignition of the oxalate at or the sulfate in air. The oxalate (at 1000 °C) is generally ... For example, reaction with sulfuric acid gives terbium(III) sulfate. Terbium oxide reacts slowly with hydrochloric acid to form ... Bissell, D. W.; James, C. (1916). "Gadolinium Sodium Sulfate". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 38 (4): 873-875. doi: ... preferred, since the sulfate requires a higher temperature, and it produces an almost black product contaminated with Tb6O11 or ...
Kreuger, J (2001). "Decoding heparan sulfate". Retrieved 2008-01-11. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) Marth, JD (2008). " ...
Synthetic sulfates are the ones you should be worried about. Learn the facts about this ingredient and what you should do about ... Sulfates can also be found in some plant products.. Sulfate concerns. *Health: SLS and SLES can irritate eyes, skin, and lungs ... What are sulfates?. Sulfate is a salt that forms when sulfuric acid reacts with another chemical. Its a broader term for other ... Try going sulfate-free for a week to see if it makes a difference for you. This can help eliminate sulfate as cause for your ...
Sulfate Removal Process. Outotec® Sulfate Removal Process. Streamline your sulfate treatment process and water recycling with ... sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. The sulfate ... Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, ... Control of sulfate in discharge water: effluent treatment plant to manage sulfate concentration in concentrators, mines, and ...
... M. Huibers, lvaro Manuzi, Floris P. J. T. Rutjes and Floris ... A novel, high-yielding method for sulfation of alcohols proceeds via sulfite- and sulfate diester intermediates. Sulfite ...
14 different types of specialized cells which incorporated the labeled sulfate were analyzed. In every case, the sulfate was ... Rats and mice were injected intravenously with inorganic sulfate labeled with 35S (H235SO4), and were then killed by vascular ... These results lead to the generalization that the enzymes required for the transfer of inorganic sulfate to a variety of ... This investigation was designed to determine if sulfate metabolism is the function of a particular cell organelle, or whether ...
The aniline degradation and sulfate reducing produce some intermediates, some of which are harmful to sulfate-reducing ... The results show that most aniline could be degraded, even be mineralized by the indigenous microbes under sulfate-reducing ... The lag phase was about 14 days Keywords: sulfate-reducing conditions, aniline, riverbank filtration, anaerobic bio-translation ... and was used to research the characteristics of aniline degradation in the riverbank filtration under sulfate-reducing ...
Is the sulfate level likely to get high using dry acid to decrease pH using liquid chlorine following TFP guidelines? ... How do you test for sulfate levels? How do you test for sulfate levels? Is the sulfate level likely to get high using dry acid ... Re: How do you test for sulfate levels? For most people sulfates will never get too high, so it is not normally tested for. For ... How do you test for sulfate levels? * Welcome to Trouble Free Pool. We would like to welcome you to TFP, the webs leading Pool ...
All pieces are sold with a full description of the fossil and its origins, and comes with a money-back, lifetime guarantee of authenticity ...
This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source ... Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on ... They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. ... Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits ...
All Sulfate) of the most important ingredient for the maintenance and repair of healthy joint tissue. ... Andrew Lessmans Glucosamine Sulfate-1500 provides the optimum potency and the ideal form (All Sulfate) of the most important ... Glucosamine Sulfate. Glucosamine Sulfate-1500 also provides bonus levels of Potassium, which is essential for heart, nervous ... yet ultra-high potency Glucosamine Sulfate-1500.. To achieve the optimum levels of Glucosamine Sulfate established by the ...
Chondroitin sulfate 800 mg/day (CS) pharmaceutical-grade in the management of symptomatic knee osteoarthritis consistent with ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ... Pharmaceutical-grade Chondroitin sulfate is as effective as celecoxib and superior to placebo in symptomatic knee ...
... strontium sulfate, lead(II) sulfate, and barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble. Radium sulfate is the most insoluble sulfate ... Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. "Sulfate" is ... sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4·5H2O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO4·7H2O. Alum, a double sulfate of ... The sulfate ion carries an overall charge of −2 and it is the conjugate base of the bisulfate (or hydrogen sulfate) ion, HSO− 4 ...
Uranyl sulfate describes a family of inorganic compounds with the formula UO2SO4(H2O)n. These compounds consist of sulfate, the ... the hydrogen sulfate. potassium uranyl sulfate, K2UO2(SO4)2, which was used by Henri Becquerel in his discovery of ... in the form of uranyl sulfate. The acid process of milling uranium ores involves precipitating uranyl sulfate from the pregnant ... Uranyl sulfates are intermediates in some extraction methods used for uranium ores. The structure of UO2(SO4)(H2O)3.5 is ...
Calcium sulfate (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ- ... from anhydrous calcium sulfate. Upon being mixed with shale or marl, and roasted, the sulfate liberates sulfur trioxide gas, a ... 2011 findings by the Opportunity rover on Mars show a form of calcium sulfate in a vein on the surface. Images suggest the ... In the refining of zinc, solutions of zinc sulfate are treated with lime to co-precipitate heavy metals such as barium. ...
... chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical [1]. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid [2], H2SO4, formed by ... sulfates in which only one hydrogen is replaced are called hydrogen sulfates, acid sulfates, or bisulfates. Most metal sulfates ... blue vitriol is cupric sulfate, green vitriol is ferrous sulfate, and white vitriol is zinc sulfate. Alums are double sulfates ... sulfate, chemical compound containing the sulfate (SO4) radical. Sulfates are salts or esters of sulfuric acid, H2SO4, formed ...
All rights reserved. The published material is being distributed without warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied. Neither ILO nor WHO nor the European Commission shall be responsible for the interpretation and use of the information contained in this material ...
... has role antineoplastic agent (CHEBI:35610) vincristine sulfate (CHEBI:79401) is a organic ... An organic sulfate salt containing equimolar amounts of vincristine(2+) and sulfate. Used for the treatment of a variety of ... CHEBI:79401 - vincristine sulfate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... vincristine sulfate (CHEBI:79401) has part vincristine(2+) (CHEBI:143658) ...
... has role mouse metabolite (CHEBI:75771) heparan sulfate (CHEBI:28815) is a heparan sulfates ( ... The structure of heparan sulfate is representative and shows the most common repeating unit, which is variably sulfated. ... CHEBI:28815 - heparan sulfate. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ... heparan sulfate (CHEBI:28815) has role human metabolite (CHEBI:77746) ...
Glucosamine Sulfate: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Sulfate de Glucosamine, Sulfate de Glucosamine 2KCl, SG, Sulfated Monosaccharide, Sulfated Saccharide, Sulfato de Glucosamina. ... D-Glucosamine Sulfate, D-Glucosamine Sulphate, G6S, Glucosamine, Glucosamine Potassium Sulfate, Glucosamine Sulfate 2KCl, ... Some researchers think the "sulfate" part of glucosamine sulfate is also important. Sulfate is needed by the body to produce ...
Chondroitin Sulfate: learn about effectiveness, usual dosage, and drug interactions on MedlinePlus ... Chondroïtine Sulfate A, Chondroïtine Sulfate B, Chondroïtine Sulfate C, Chondroïtine 4-Sulfate, Chondroïtine 4- et 6- Sulfate, ... Chondroitin Sulfate A, Chondroitin Sulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate B, Chondroitin Sulfate C, Chondroitin Sulphates, Chondroitin ... Sulfate de Chondroïtine, Sulfate de Galactosaminoglucuronoglycane, Sulfates de Chondroïtine, Sulfato de Condroitina.. ...
... reacts with the reddish-orange potassium dichromate to produce the greenish-colored chromium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and ... reacts with the reddish-orange potassium dichromate to produce the greenish-colored chromium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and ...
Methyl sulfate, DMS, Dimethoxysulfone, Dimethyl monosulfate, Dimethyl sulphate, Sulfuric acid, dimethyl ester (en); Dumetila ... Dimetilsolfato (it); Sulfate de diméthyle (fr); Sulfato de dimetilo (es); Dimetil-sulfat (hr); 硫酸二甲酯 (zh-hans); Dimetilsulfat ( ... Media in category "Dimethyl sulfate". The following 12 files are in this category, out of 12 total. ... Dimethyl sulfate -Molecule-3D-balls-by-AHRLS-2012.png 1,100 × 499; 147 KB. ...
The drug protamine sulfate, prepared from the sperm of various fishes, is used as an antidote to overdoses of the anticoagulant ... Other articles where Protamine sulfate is discussed: protamine: ... Protamine sulfate. drug. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica ... The drug protamine sulfate, prepared from the sperm of various fishes, is used as an antidote to overdoses of the anticoagulant ...
Copper sulfate solutions for wood treatment consist of a stable copper compound mixed with a soluble liquid. The goal is allow ... Copper sulfate treatments, while effective at penetrating wood and protecting against mold and, to some extent, weather wear, ... Copper oxides, copper sulfates, copper hydroxide, copper carbonate and many other compounds are used, sometimes in combination ...
Personal protection: particulate filter respirator adapted to the airborne concentration of the substance. Do NOT let this chemical enter the environment. Sweep spilled substance into covered containers. If appropriate, moisten first to prevent dusting. Then store and dispose of according to local regulations ...
Magnesium sulfate should be administered with caution to people taking digoxin.. If magnesium sulfate is given together with ... If magnesium sulfate is given in combination with any of the following medicines there may be a risk of slow, shallow breathing ... Magnesium sulfate is given by injection to correct a deficiency when it is not possible to take a supplement by mouth. ... Magnesium sulfate injection. Magnesium is a mineral that is essential for many systems in the body, in particular the ...
Ferrous sulphate oral solution, paediatric, BP. Ironorm drops. Ferrous sulphate tablets are also available without a brand name ... Feospan (ferrous sulphate). Feospan spansules contain the active ingredient ferrous sulphate, which is a form of iron. Ferrous ... Feospan spansules contain the active ingredient ferrous sulphate, which is a form of iron. Ferrous sulphate is also available ... Feospan spansules are a modified-release form of ferrous sulphate. They are designed to release the iron slowly over the day ...
... pentahydrate. Other names. Copper(II) sulfate. Copper(II)sulfate. Cupric sulfate. Blue vitriol. Bluestone. ... Nickel(II) sulfate. Zinc sulfate. Except where noted otherwise, data are given for. materials in their standard state. (at 25 ° ... Copper(II) sulfate is also used in the Biuret reagent to test for proteins.. Copper sulfate is also used to test blood for ... Copper(II) sulfate. 2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: Chemical compounds. Copper(II) sulfate. ...
Blades, A.T.; Kebarle, P., Sequential hydration energies of the sulfate ion, from determinations of the equilibrium constants ...
Copper Sulfate - سولفات مس 5 آبه - تولیدی شرکت مینار گونش آذربایجان.jpg 600 × 420; 74 KB. ... Media in category "Copper(II) sulfate". The following 58 files are in this category, out of 58 total. ... Artificial Crystal of copper(II) sulfate GLAM MHNL 2016 FL b 02.JPG 4,608 × 3,456; 3.23 MB. ... Artificial Crystal of copper(II) sulfate GLAM MHNL 2016 FL b 09.JPG 2,457 × 2,468; 1.26 MB. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Protamine Sulfate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Protamine Sulfate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Protamine Sulphate 1% Amdipharm. Amdipharm Mercury Company, United Kingdom. *Protamine Sulphate Leo. LEO Pharma, Greece; LEO ... Novo Protamine Sulfate. Mochida Pharmaceutical, Japan. *Prosulf. CP Pharm, Hong Kong; CP Pharmaceuticals, Georgia; CP ...
Dimethyl sulfate, an oily liquid used extensively as an alkylating agent, is highly toxic for man, with particularly acute ... Dimethyl sulfate. Authors: International Programme on Chemical Safety. International Labour Organization. United Nations ... This document evaluates the risks to human health and the environment from exposure to dimethyl sulfate. Prepared by a 14- ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Magnesium Sulfate is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Magnesium Sulfate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Magnesium Sulphate 20% Bayer (veterinary use). Bayer New Zealand, New Zealand. *Magnesium Sulphate Atlantic. Atlantic Lab, ... Suclear (Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium, + Potassium). Braintree, United States. *Sulfate de Magnesium Proamp. Aguettant, Tunisia ...
USPs revision of the standard for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate has been approved by the Pharmacopeial Discussion Group (PDG) and will ... Download the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph - Stage 6. *Download the Sodium Lauryl Sulfate PDG sign-off documents: *Nov. 14, ... The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph that was posted on April 24, 2015 had an incorrect official date of May 1, 2015, instead of ... The Sodium Lauryl Sulfate monograph will be incorporated into and become official in USP 39-NF 34. ...
German Sulphate Producers Quit.. AUG. 18, 1916. Continue reading the main story Share This Page Continue reading the main story ... German Sulphate Producers Quit. Order Reprints, Todays Paper,Subscribe ...
Notice: Except where noted, spectra from this collection were measured on dispersive instruments, often in carefully selected solvents, and hence may differ in detail from measurements on FTIR instruments or in other chemical environments. More information on the manner in which spectra in this collection were collected can be found here. Notice: Concentration information is not available for this spectrum and, therefore, molar absorptivity values cannot be derived. ...
... MSDS Number: S5022 --- Effective Date: 12/08/96. 1. Product Identification. Synonyms: Sodium sulfate ... Not considered an explosion hazard, but violent explosions occur when potassium sulfate and sodium sulfate are melted with ... In combination with sodium sulfate, aluminum and magnesium will explode @ 800C (1472F); strong mineral acids and bases. ... sodium sulfate, 10-hydrate CAS No.: 7757-82-6 (Anhydrous) Molecular Weight: 322.19 Chemical Formula: Na2SO4.10H2O Product Codes ...
For health professionals : Refer a patient : Laboratory Services : Test Table : Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate ...
About MAGNESIUM SULFATE: Magnesium sulfate (Epson salt) is an inorganic salt; found in sea water and in mineral deposits.. ... Synonym(s): ANHYDROUS MAGNESIUM SULFATE; EPSOM SALT; MAGNESIUM SALT SULFURIC ACID; SULFURIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT (1:1) ; ... SULFURIC ACID, MAGNESIUM SALT; EPSOM SALTS; MAGNESIUM SULPHATE; SULFURIC ACID MAGNESIUM SALT (1:1) ...
  • The first concerns the transcriptional control over the sulphate transporting membrane proteins. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • As discussed before,, expression of these proteins is linked to low concentrations of cysteine, glutathione and sulphate though there are reasons for suspecting that glutathione serves as the long distance signal and that cysteine acts as the principal direct sensor for initiating transcription. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • Conversely, high concentrations of OAS appear to enhance the expression of the sulphate transporting proteins. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • 1998) have proposed a model for the control of sulphate assimilation by glutathione in which glu-tathione blocks the transduction into the nucleus of an unidentified factor which controls the expression of the proteins of the sulphate assimilation pathway. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • They also possessed homologs of sulfate activation and reduction enzymes. (vt.edu)
  • The activities of various enzymes of the sulphate assimilation pathway are also influenced by factors that affect glutathione synthesis. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • However, of the enzymes of sulphate assimilation, APS sulphotransferase seems to be especially responsive. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • MiR395 together with the SULFUR LIMITATION 1 transcription factor maintain optimal levels of ATP sulfurylase transcripts to enable increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway in sulfate-deficient plants. (uea.ac.uk)
  • It's a broader term for other synthetic sulfate-based chemicals you may be concerned about, such as sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and sodium laureth sulfate (SLES). (healthline.com)
  • Importantly, sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. (outotec.com)
  • 1980). These responses provide conditions for enhancing S flux under conditions where there is an increased demand for glu-tathione synthesis and suggest that control of APS sulphotransferase activity is important in assimilatory sulphate reduction. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • A novel, high-yielding method for sulfation of alcohols proceeds via sulfite- and sulfate diester intermediates. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Sulfite diesters serve as versatile sulfate monoester precursors, that allow interesting transformations. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. (vt.edu)
  • This suggested a shared evolutionary history for methanogenesis and sulfate reduction, and Dsr-LPs could have been the source of the oldest (3.47-Gyr ago) biologically produced sulfide deposit. (vt.edu)
  • The sulfate concentration after treatment is typically 200-1000 mg/L. A level below 200 mg/L can be achieved with enhanced precipitation chemistry. (outotec.com)
  • The final product includes treated water with a low sulfate concentration for discharge or re-use, and stable, solid precipitate with a high buffer capacity. (outotec.com)
  • The typical range for the application of SULFATEQ™ is an influent sulphate concentration of 1,000-25,000 mg/l and a pH level of 2-8. (paques.nl)
  • The first step reduces biological sulphate by converting it into dissolved sulphide in high-rate bioreactors. (paques.nl)
  • The aniline degradation and sulfate reducing produce some intermediates, some of which are harmful to sulfate-reducing microorganisms. (witpress.com)
  • We assessed the relative merits of two approaches for including polarization effects in classical force fields for the sulfate anion. (tut.fi)
  • We carried out an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation for a single sulfate anion in aqueous solution to obtain a benchmark for the solvation structure. (tut.fi)
  • The results show that most aniline could be degraded, even be mineralized by the indigenous microbes under sulfate-reducing conditions, but had a long lag period. (witpress.com)
  • Glucosamine Sulfate-1500 also provides bonus levels of Potassium, which is essential for heart, nervous system and brain function. (procapslabs.com)
  • Perhaps this model might also be applicable to regulation of the sulphate transporter. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • For example, microRNA395 (miR395), which targets three out of four isoforms of ATP sulfurylase, the first enzyme of sulfate assimilation, as well as a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, is strongly induced by sulfate deficiency. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Gypsum precipitation can be included before the sulfate removal stage when required. (outotec.com)
  • The process, built on easy-to-understand chemistry, can be applied to sulfate removal from gypsum saturated waters. (outotec.com)
  • Lime treatment for sulphate removal no longer meets the authorities' requirements for sulphate concentrations or total dissolved solids. (paques.nl)
  • To achieve the optimum levels of Glucosamine Sulfate established by the clinical research on joint health, consume three capsules daily with food or as recommended by a health care professional. (procapslabs.com)
  • 1996). This implies that the synthesis of cysteine from sulphate is responsive to increased demand for cysteine for glutathione synthesis. (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • Control of S flux from sulphate to cysteine appears to be controlled in several ways (Figure 4). (medicinalplantsarchive.us)
  • Reduced expression of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) alone affects both sulfate translocation and flux, but SULTR2;1 is important for the full rate of sulfate translocation to the shoots. (uea.ac.uk)
  • How sulfate affects your skin may also depend on the brand and manufacturer. (healthline.com)
  • This solution ensures the efficient management of sulfate and calcium in process streams for the production of water that meets discharge water quality requirements and allows for the recycling of treated water for reuse. (outotec.com)
  • Every day, we place enormous demands on our joints and just as Calcium is essential for bones, it only makes sense to provide the same basic structural requirements to our joints with our gentle, yet ultra-high potency Glucosamine Sulfate-1500. (procapslabs.com)
  • Sulfates can also be found in some plant products. (healthline.com)
  • Thus, miR395 is an integral part of the regulatory circuit controlling plant sulfate assimilation with a complex mechanism of action. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Glucosamine Sulfate-1500 provides the most important structural molecule required for our body to combat the normal erosion of these vital tissues over time. (procapslabs.com)
  • Here, we describe the regulation of miR395 and its targets by sulfate starvation. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, followed by a final neutralization stage using carbon dioxide. (outotec.com)
  • The biggest concern is the long-term side effects of sulfate production. (healthline.com)
  • In addition to sulfate removal, the process includes advanced removal of metal impurities such as Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn as metal hydroxides. (outotec.com)
  • Streamline your sulfate treatment process and water recycling with the Outotec sulfate removal process system. (outotec.com)
  • Provides the optimum potency and the ideal form (All Sulfate) of the most important ingredient for the maintenance and repair of healthy joint tissue. (procapslabs.com)
  • Andrew Lessman's Glucosamine Sulfate-1500 provides the optimum potency and the ideal form (All Sulfate) of the most important ingredient for the maintenance and repair of healthy joint tissue. (procapslabs.com)
  • We show that miR395 is important for the increased translocation of sulfate to the shoots during sulfate starvation. (uea.ac.uk)
  • Many products with sulfates are tested on animals to measure the level of irritation to people's skin, lungs, and eyes. (healthline.com)
  • For people with sensitive skin, sulfates may also clog pores and cause acne. (healthline.com)
  • If you're worried about skin irritation and know that sulfate products are the cause, you can look for products that say sulfate-free or don't list SLS or SLES in their ingredients. (healthline.com)
  • Lather and foam aren't crucial to cleaning skin or hair -sulfate-free products can also do the job. (healthline.com)