Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Organic esters of sulfuric acid.
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)
Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.
An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.
A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.
An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.
Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.
Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.
Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.
Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.
Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.
The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC
A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.
The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.
Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.
3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.
Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.
A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).
Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).
A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).
Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.
A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Agents that prevent clotting.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.

Variations in 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans along canine coronary arteries. A possible index of artery wall stress. (1/3500)

Focal areas of accentuated wall stress along the course of canine coronary arteries may be revealed by the level of 35SO4 incorporation into glycosaminoglycans (GAG). In the anterior descending artery, 35SO4 incorporation in higher in the proximal than in the distal region and may be extraordinarily high as the vessel enters a proximally located muscle bridge and at the takeoff region of multidirectional branches. In the circumflex artery, the incorporation also is higher in the proximal than in the distal region and is high at the genu where the posterior descending artery forms. There are differences in uptake of 35SO4 in vessels even when the arteries arise from the same vascular bed.this was shown by the higher incorporation in the left coronary artery than in the right coronary artery. A general anatomical agreement exists between these sites of high 35SO4 incorporation and previously described locations of interval elastic disruption ans proliferation of intimal connective tissue in the dog.  (+info)

Sulphated and unsulphated bile acids in serum, bile, and urine of patients with cholestasis. (2/3500)

Samples of serum, bile, and urine were collected simultaneously from patients with cholestasis of varying aetiology and from patients with cirrhosis; their bile acid composition was determined by gas/liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In cholestasis, the patterns in all three body fluids differed consistently and strikingly. In serum, cholic acid was the major bile acid and most bile acids (greater than 93%) were unsulphated, whereas, in urine, chenodeoxycholic was the major bile acid, and the majority of bile acids (greater than 60%) were sulphated. Secondary bile acids were virtually absent in bile, serum, and urine. The total amount of bile acids excreted for 24 hours correlated highly with the concentration of serum bile acids; in patients with complete obstruction, urinary excretion averaged 71-6 mg/24 h. In cirrhotic patients, serum bile acids were less raised, and chenodeoxycholic acid was the predominant acid. In healthy controls, serum bile acids were consistently richer in chenodeoxycholic acid than biliary bile acids, and no bile acids were present in urine. No unusual monohydroxy bile acids were present in patients with primary biliary cirrhosis, but, in several patients, there was a considerable amount of hyocholic acid present in the urinary bile acids. The analyses of individual bile acids in serum and urine did not appear to provide helpful information in the differential diagnosis of cholestasis. Thus, in cholestasis, conjugation of chenodeoxycholic acid with sulphate becomes a major biochemical pathway, urine becomes a major route of bile acid excretion, and abnormal bile acids are formed.  (+info)

The sialylation of bronchial mucins secreted by patients suffering from cystic fibrosis or from chronic bronchitis is related to the severity of airway infection. (3/3500)

Bronchial mucins were purified from the sputum of 14 patients suffering from cystic fibrosis and 24 patients suffering from chronic bronchitis, using two CsBr density-gradient centrifugations. The presence of DNA in each secretion was used as an index to estimate the severity of infection and allowed to subdivide the mucins into four groups corresponding to infected or noninfected patients with cystic fibrosis, and to infected or noninfected patients with chronic bronchitis. All infected patients suffering from cystic fibrosis were colonized by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. As already observed, the mucins from the patients with cystic fibrosis had a higher sulfate content than the mucins from the patients with chronic bronchitis. However, there was a striking increase in the sialic acid content of the mucins secreted by severely infected patients as compared to noninfected patients. Thirty-six bronchial mucins out of 38 contained the sialyl-Lewis x epitope which was even expressed by subjects phenotyped as Lewis negative, indicating that at least one alpha1,3 fucosyltransferase different from the Lewis enzyme was involved in the biosynthesis of this epitope. Finally, the sialyl-Lewis x determinant was also overexpressed in the mucins from severely infected patients. Altogether these differences in the glycosylation process of mucins from infected and noninfected patients suggest that bacterial infection influences the expression of sialyltransferases and alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases in the human bronchial mucosa.  (+info)

Anticoagulant heparan sulfate precursor structures in F9 embryonal carcinoma cells. (4/3500)

To understand the mechanisms that control anticoagulant heparan sulfate (HSact) biosynthesis, we previously showed that HSact production in the F9 system is determined by the abundance of 3-O-sulfotransferase-1 as well as the size of the HSact precursor pool. In this study, HSact precursor structures have been studied by characterizing [6-3H]GlcN metabolically labeled F9 HS tagged with 3-O-sulfates in vitro by 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho-35S and purified 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. This later in vitro labeling allows the regions of HS destined to become the antithrombin (AT)-binding sites to be tagged for subsequent structural studies. It was shown that six 3-O-sulfation sites exist per HSact precursor chain. At least five out of six 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides in HSact precursors bind AT, whereas none of 3-O-sulfate-tagged oligosaccharides from HSinact precursors bind AT. When treated with low pH nitrous or heparitinase, 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact and HSinact precursors exhibit clearly different structural features. 3-O-Sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides were AT affinity purified and sequenced by chemical and enzymatic degradations. The 3-O-sulfate-tagged HSact hexasaccharides exhibited the following structures, DeltaUA-[6-3H]GlcNAc6S-GlcUA-[6-3H]GlcNS3(35)S+/-6S-++ +IdceA2S-[6-3H]Glc NS6S. The underlined 6- and 3-O-sulfates constitute the most critical groups for AT binding in view of the fact that the precursor hexasaccharides possess all the elements for AT binding except for the 3-O-sulfate moiety. The presence of five potential AT-binding precursor hexasaccharides in all HSact precursor chains demonstrates for the first time the processive assembly of specific sequence in HS. The difference in structures around potential 3-O-sulfate acceptor sites in HSact and HSinact precursors suggests that these precursors might be generated by different concerted assembly mechanisms in the same cell. This study permits us to understand better the nature of the HS biosynthetic pathway that leads to the generation of specific saccharide sequences.  (+info)

Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov., a halophilic, fatty-acid-oxidizing, sulfate-reducing bacterium isolated from sediments of the Great Salt Lake. (5/3500)

A new halophilic sulfate-reducing bacterium, strain GSL-But2T, was isolated from surface sediment of the Southern arm of the Great Salt Lake, UT, USA. The organism grew with a number of straight-chain fatty acids (C4-C16), 2-methylbutyrate, L-alanine and pyruvate as electron donors. Butyrate was oxidized incompletely to acetate. Sulfate, but not sulfite or thiosulfate, served as an electron acceptor. Growth was observed between 2 and 19% (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 4-5% (w/v) NaCl. The optimal temperature and pH for growth were around 34 degrees C and pH 6.5-7.3, respectively. The generation time under optimal conditions in defined medium was around 28 h, compared to 20 h in complex medium containing yeast extract. The G+C content was 35.0 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that strain GSL-But2T belongs to the family Desulfobacteriaceae within the delta-subclass of the Proteobacteria and suggested that strain GSL-But2T represents a member of a new genus. The name Desulfocella halophila gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for this organism. The type strain of D. halophila is strain GSL-But2T (= DSM 11763T = ATCC 700426T).  (+info)

Improved antibody detection by the use of range expansion and longer filter wavelength in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate Auto-Analyzer system. (6/3500)

Range expansion, achieved by insertion of a variable resistance between the colorimeter and the recorder together with the use of 550 nm colorimeter filters, has resulted in markedly improved sensitivity for antibody detection, and improved sample identification, in a low ionic strength-protamine sulphate (LISPS) system. Range expansion also permits a lower concentration of red cells to be used, thus economizing on fully typed cells. Glycerol stored frozen cells were found to be only slightly less sensitive than fresh cells in this system.  (+info)

The localisation of 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate and inhibition of Rubisco in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris L. (7/3500)

A recent controversial report suggests that the nocturnal inhibitor of Rubisco, 2-carboxy-D-arabinitol 1-phosphate (CAIP), does not bind to Rubisco in vivo and therefore that CA1P has no physiological relevance to photosynthetic regulation. It is now proved that a direct rapid assay can be used to distinguish between Rubisco-bound and free CA1P, as postulated in the controversial report. Application of this direct assay demonstrates that CA1P is bound to Rubisco in vivo in dark-adapted leaves. Furthermore, CA1P is shown to be in the chloroplasts of mesophyll cells. Thus, CA1P does play a physiological role in the regulation of Rubisco.  (+info)

Anaerobic oxidation of o-xylene, m-xylene, and homologous alkylbenzenes by new types of sulfate-reducing bacteria. (8/3500)

Various alkylbenzenes were depleted during growth of an anaerobic, sulfate-reducing enrichment culture with crude oil as the only source of organic substrates. From this culture, two new types of mesophilic, rod-shaped sulfate-reducing bacteria, strains oXyS1 and mXyS1, were isolated with o-xylene and m-xylene, respectively, as organic substrates. Sequence analyses of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the isolates affiliated with known completely oxidizing sulfate-reducing bacteria of the delta subclass of the class Proteobacteria. Strain oXyS1 showed the highest similarities to Desulfobacterium cetonicum and Desulfosarcina variabilis (similarity values, 98.4 and 98.7%, respectively). Strain mXyS1 was less closely related to known species, the closest relative being Desulfococcus multivorans (similarity value, 86.9%). Complete mineralization of o-xylene and m-xylene was demonstrated in quantitative growth experiments. Strain oXyS1 was able to utilize toluene, o-ethyltoluene, benzoate, and o-methylbenzoate in addition to o-xylene. Strain mXyS1 oxidized toluene, m-ethyltoluene, m-isoproyltoluene, benzoate, and m-methylbenzoate in addition to m-xylene. Strain oXyS1 did not utilize m-alkyltoluenes, whereas strain mXyS1 did not utilize o-alkyltoluenes. Like the enrichment culture, both isolates grew anaerobically on crude oil with concomitant reduction of sulfate to sulfide.  (+info)

MicroRNAs play a key role in the control of plant development and response to adverse environmental conditions. For example, microRNA395 (miR395), which targets three out of four isoforms of ATP sulfurylase, the first enzyme of sulfate assimilation, as well as a low-affinity sulfate transporter, SULTR2;1, is strongly induced by sulfate deficiency. However, other components of sulfate assimilation are induced by sulfate starvation, so that the role of miR395 is counterintuitive. Here, we describe the regulation of miR395 and its targets by sulfate starvation. We show that miR395 is important for the increased translocation of sulfate to the shoots during sulfate starvation. MiR395 together with the SULFUR LIMITATION 1 transcription factor maintain optimal levels of ATP sulfurylase transcripts to enable increased flux through the sulfate assimilation pathway in sulfate-deficient plants. Reduced expression of ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) alone affects both sulfate translocation and flux, but SULTR2;1 is ...
This investigation was designed to determine if sulfate metabolism is the function of a particular cell organelle, or whether the site of sulfation varies, depending upon the type of cell and the class of sulfated compound. Rats and mice were injected intravenously with inorganic sulfate labeled with 35S (H235SO4), and were then killed by vascular perfusion of fixative 5-30 min later. Several tissues were prepared for electron microscope autoradiography. 14 different types of specialized cells which incorporated the labeled sulfate were analyzed. In every case, the sulfate was initially detected in the smooth membranes and vesicles of the Golgi complex. Available evidence indicates that these cells were engaged in the synthesis of several different sulfated compounds, including mucopolysaccharides, glycoproteins, lipids, and steroids. These results lead to the generalization that the enzymes required for the transfer of inorganic sulfate to a variety of acceptor molecules are located in the ...
Measurements of bacterial sulfate reduction and dissolved oxygen (O2) in hypersaline bacterial mats from Baja California, Mexico, revealed that sulfate reduction occurred consistently within the well-oxygenated photosynthetic zone of the mats. This evidence that dissimilatory sulfate reduction can occur in the presence of O2 challenges the conventional view that sulfate reduction is a strictly anaerobic process. At constant temperature, the rates of sulfate reduction in oxygenated mats during daytime were similar to rates in anoxic mats at night: thus, during a 24-hour cycle, variations in light and O2 have little effect on rates of sulfate reduction in these mats. ...
We assessed the relative merits of two approaches for including polarization effects in classical force fields for the sulfate anion. One of the approaches is the explicit shell model for atomic polarization and the other is an implicit dielectric continuum representation of the electronic polarization, wherein the polarizability density is spatially uniform. Both the solvation and ion association properties of sulfate were considered. We carried out an ab initio molecular dynamics simulation for a single sulfate anion in aqueous solution to obtain a benchmark for the solvation structure. For the ion-pairing properties, the models were compared to experimental thermodynamic data through Kirkwood-Buff theory, which relates the integrals of the pair correlation functions to measurable properties. While deficiencies were found for both of the approaches, the continuum polarization model was not systematically worse than the shell model. The shell model was found to give a more structured solution ...
More than 500 sulfated compounds have been isolated from marine organisms so far but most of them originate from two phyla only, Spongia and Echinodermata. The sulfated compounds are presented according to the phyla they have been identified from and to their chemical structures. Biological activiti …
Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and dissimilatory sulfate reduction, two of the oldest energy conserving respiratory systems on Earth, apparently could not have evolved in the same host, as sulfite, an intermediate of sulfate reduction, inhibits methanogenesis. However, certain methanogenic archaea metabolize sulfite employing a deazaflavin cofactor (F420)-dependent sulfite reductase (Fsr) where N- and C-terminal halves (Fsr-N and Fsr-C) are homologs of F420H2 dehydrogenase and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (Dsr), respectively. From genome analysis we found that Fsr was likely assembled from freestanding Fsr-N homologs and Dsr-like proteins (Dsr-LP), both being abundant in methanogens. Dsr-LPs fell into two groups defined by following sequence features: Group I (simplest), carrying a coupled siroheme-[Fe4-S4] cluster and sulfite-binding Arg/Lys residues; Group III (most complex), with group I features, a Dsr-type peripheral [Fe4-S4] cluster and an additional [Fe4-S4] cluster. Group II Dsr-LPs ...
The viability of low-temperature sulfate reduction with hydrogen as electron donor was studied with a bench-scale gas-lift bioreactor (GLB) operated at 9 degrees C. Prior to the GLB experiment, the temperature range of sulfate reduction of the inoculum was assayed. The results of the temperature gradient assay indicated that the inoculum was a psychrotolerant mesophilic enrichment culture that had an optimal temperature for sulfate reduction of 31 degrees C, and minimum and maximum temperatures of 7 degrees C and 41 degrees C, respectively. In the GLB experiment at 9 degrees C, a sulfate reduction rate of 500-600 mg l(-1) d(-1), corresponding to a specific activity of 173 mg SO42- g VSS-1 d(-1), was obtained. The electron flow from the consumed H-2-gas to sulfate reduction varied between 27% and 52%, whereas the electron flow to acetate production decreased steadily from 15% to 5%. No methane was produced. Acetate was produced from CO2 and H-2 by homoacetogenic bacteria. Acetate supported the ...
General Information: Lithotrophic sulfur-oxidizing. Denitrification, Dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Moderately halophilic, obligately alkaliphilic and chemolithoautotrophic, Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a mixed culture capable of complete autotrophic denitrification with thiosulfate as electron donor at pH 10; the mixed culture was enriched from sediment from Lake Fazda (Wadi Natrun, Egypt), a hypersaline alkaline lake. ...
Although controversial, the idea that hydrothermal systems may have been the site for prebiotic synthesis of organic molecules and origin of life is widely supported. For the nascent life to survive, it must have had some sort of metabolic mechanism for generating energy. However, little is known of the specific metabolic pathways utilized by the early life forms or the effect of high temperatures on their activity. Recent research on natural high temperature aquatic environments, though limited because of difficult field logistics and experimental problems, is revolutionizing our understanding of possible energy-generating redox pathways, such as sulphate reduction. An abridged review of research on thermophilic sulphate reduction is presented here. Because of a complex interplay between microbiological and geochemical entities involved, and the uncertainties that modern hydrothermal systems are proxy for biogeochemical conditions on early Earth, great caution is required for interpretation and ...
Geochemical data from ancient sedimentary successions provide evidence for the progressive evolution of Earths atmosphere and oceans1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7. Key stages in increasing oxygenation are postulated for the Palaeoproterozoic era (~2.3 billion years ago, Gyr ago) and the late Proterozoic eon (about 0.8 Gyr ago), with the latter implicated in the subsequent metazoan evolutionary expansion8. In support of this rise in oxygen concentrations, a large database1, 2, 3, 9 shows a marked change in the bacterially mediated fractionation of seawater sulphate to sulphide of Δ34S , 25‰ before 1 Gyr to ≥50‰ after 0.64 Gyr. This change in Δ34S has been interpreted to represent the evolution from single-step bacterial sulphate reduction to a combination of bacterial sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation, largely bacterially mediated3, 7, 9. This evolution is seen as marking the rise in atmospheric oxygen concentrations and the evolution of non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidizing bacteria3, 7, ...
Control of S flux from sulphate to cysteine appears to be controlled in several ways (Figure 4). The first concerns the transcriptional control over the
Sulfated Peptide Standards are lyophilized peptides that are useful for the standardization and method development of sulfoproteomic analyses. Each Peptide Standard is Certified Mass Spec Grade and provided in convenient, lyophilized vials for easy reconstitution and usage.
SULFATEQ™ removes sulphate to less than 300 mg/l and converts it into hydrophilic (non-clogging) elemental sulphur. In addition, it recovers valuable metals such as copper, nickel and zinc as marketable metal sulphides. Lime treatment for sulphate removal no longer meets the authorities requirements for sulphate concentrations or total dissolved solids. Reverse osmosis and ion exchange do not completely solve the problem either. They merely concentrate the pollutants, whereas SULFATEQ™ converts the pollutants into a valuable product. The typical range for the application of SULFATEQ™ is an influent sulphate concentration of 1,000-25,000 mg/l and a pH level of 2-8. SULFATEQ™ is used as a standalone installation or as the final treatment at a lime-gypsum plant. The power of this technology lies in its ability to solve multiple problems with one installation: sulphate removal and simultaneous metal recovery.
Our flexible sulfate removal process consists of a sulfate precipitation stage at pH 11-13 using lime milk and aluminum, followed by a final neutralization stage using carbon dioxide. Gypsum precipitation can be included before the sulfate removal stage when required.. The process, built on easy-to-understand chemistry, can be applied to sulfate removal from gypsum saturated waters. Importantly, sulfate can be precipitated even when it is associated with highly soluble sodium and potassium sulfates. The sulfate concentration after treatment is typically 200-1000 mg/L. A level below 200 mg/L can be achieved with enhanced precipitation chemistry.. In addition to sulfate removal, the process includes advanced removal of metal impurities such as Ni, Cd, Cu, and Zn as metal hydroxides. The final product includes treated water with a low sulfate concentration for discharge or re-use, and stable, solid precipitate with a high buffer capacity.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
How do you test for sulfate levels? Is the sulfate level likely to get high using dry acid to decrease pH using liquid chlorine following TFP guidelines?
The metabolic fate of potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was studied in rats. Intraperitoneal and oral administration of the ester into free-ranging animals were followed by the excretion of the bulk of the radioactivity in the urine within 12hr., approximately 17% being eliminated as inorganic [35S]sulphate. Similar results were obtained in experiments in which potassium dodecyl [35S]sulphate was injected intravenously into anaesthetized rats with bile-duct and ureter cannulae. Analysis of urinary radioactivity revealed the presence of a new ester sulphate (metabolite A). This metabolite was isolated, purified and subsequently identified as the sulphate ester of 4-hydroxybutyric acid by paper, thin-layer and gas chromatography, by paper electrophoresis and by comparison of its properties with those of authentic butyric acid 4-sulphate. The identity of the metabolite was confirmed by isotope-dilution experiments. When either purified metabolite A or authentic potassium butyric acid 4[35S]-sulphate ...
Hey, guys! Im gettin up on my little blogger soap box to tell you youre caring for yourself in a harmful way. That is, if you use products with sulfates. Say naahhhh to sulfates.. Check the ingredients on the back of your face wash and your shampoo. If anything listing ingredients that sound like sulfate- is toward the top of the list, its bad news.. Why? Soaps strip your skin and hair; its just the facts. Sulfates are soaps. Find out more details by clicking here.. So do you have to go high-end and spend lotsa dollars to get sulfate-free cleansers? Not exactly. Even expensive cleansers can have sulfates! For example, this: ...
Isotopic distribution is a function of physical and biological processes. In general, equilibrium-controlled reactions occur at high temperatures among solid phases, whereas low-temperature reactions, especially those mediated by organisms, are kinetically controlled. The solar and stellar abundance of isotopes is poorly known. Knowledge of extra-terrestrial distributions of the isotopes of light elements presently comes from lunar and meteorite measurements. On Earth, the elements associated with biological synthesis which have been studied most intensively, are hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. In general, reduced products of metabolism are enriched in light isotopes. Thus, 1H and 12C are enriched in hydrogen gas and methane, when produced by fermentation or CO2 reduction. Nitrogen gas is enriched in 14N when produced by denitrification, and H2S is highly enriched in 32S when it results from sulphate reduction. A pattern of biological enrichment factors has been recognized on ...
For use with EPA Method 300.0 and ASTM Method D4327; Sulfate anion at 1000μg/mL in aqueous solution of K|sub|2|/sub|SO|sub|4|/sub| Shop Sulfate Standard for Ion Chromatography,
Vald s, Freddy et al. Effect of sulphate concentration and sulphide desorption on the combined removal of organic matter and sulphate from wastewaters using expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactors . Electron. J. Biotechnol., July 2006, vol.9, no.4, p.0-0. ISSN 0717- ...
Skin decorin (DCN) is an antiadhesive dermatan sulfate-rich proteoglycan that interacts with thrombospondin-1 (TSP) and inhibits fibroblast adhesion to TSP [Winnemoller et al., 1992]. Molecular mechanisms by which DCN interacts with TSP and inhibits cell adhesion to TSP are unknown. In the present study, we showed that skin DCN and bone DCN (chondroitin sulfate-rich proteoglycan) were quantitatively identical with respect to their ability to interact with TSP. Using a series of fusion proteins corresponding to the different structural domains of TSP, binding of [125I]DCN to TSP was found to be dependent of the N-terminal domain and, to a lesser extent, of the type 1 repeats and the C-terminal domain of TSP. In addition, heparan sulfate drastically inhibited [125I]DCN binding to solid-phase adsorbed TSP (80% inhibition), suggesting that DCN could bind to the N-terminal domain of TSP through interaction with heparin-binding sequences. To address this question, a series of synthetic peptides, ...
This gene is one member of a family of sulfate/anion transporter genes. Family members are well conserved in their genomic (number and size of exons) and protein (aa length among species) structures yet have markedly different tissue expression patterns. This gene is expressed primarily in spermatocytes. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found.[3] ...
Soil column was equipped with the sediments and aquifer media collected from Weihe Riverbed and its bank, and was used to research the...
Provides the optimum potency and the ideal form (All Sulfate) of the most important ingredient for the maintenance and repair of healthy joint tissue.
Fifth Season Gardening Company offers a 30 day Return Policy on any items that you would like to return or exchange. In order for your return to be accepted we must receive your request within 30 days of your receipt of the item(s) in question. All return items must be in their original packaging and in saleable condition before credit or replacements will be issued. Customers will be required to pay any shipping fees associated with the return. How to Submit a Return. 1. Login to your Account and select the Order to return. 2. Select Return Items from the bottom of the page. 3. Select the Item(s) for Return and specify a Quantity. 4. Specify a Reason for your Return in the fields provided and hit Send. Please not that we do not accept returns on any of the bulbs in our lighting selection or any measured and cut material(s). For any Warranty issues please refer to the Warranty Service section under the Customer Support tab at the bottom of the page. ...
Synthetic sulfates are the ones you should be worried about. Learn the facts about this ingredient and what you should do about it.
Abstract. A novel, high-yielding method for sulfation of alcohols proceeds via sulfite- and sulfate diester intermediates. Sulfite diesters serve as versatile sulfate monoester precursors, that allow interesting transformations.. ...
All pieces are sold with a full description of the fossil and its origins, and comes with a money-back, lifetime guarantee of authenticity ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - High rates of anaerobic methanotrophy at low sulfate concentrations with implications for past and present methane levels. AU - Beal, EJ. AU - Claire, MW. AU - House, CH. PY - 2011/3. Y1 - 2011/3. N2 - Despite the importance of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) to global biogeochemical cycles, the relationship between sulfate concentration and the rate of AOM has not been previously experimentally constrained. Here, we present measurements showing substantial methane oxidation at low sulfate concentrations, with no significant decrease in the rate of AOM until sulfate levels are well below 1 mm. At sulfate levels below 1 mm, there appears to be a strong decoupling of AOM and sulfate reduction, with a 13C-label transferred from methane to carbon dioxide occurring at a rate almost an order of magnitude faster than the observed rate of sulfate reduction. These results allow for the possibility that high rates of AOM occurred in the Archean oceans and that high rates of AOM ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain BSC154, isolated from biological soil crust of Moab, Utah. AU - Bailey, Alexis C.. AU - Kellom, Matthew. AU - Poret-Peterson, Amisha T.. AU - Noonan, Kathryn. AU - Hartnettc, Hilairy E.. AU - Raymond, Jason. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.. AB - Bacillus sp. BSC154 was isolated from a biological soil crust near Moab, Utah. The strain appears to be capable of chemotaxis and biofilm production. The BSC154 genome contains iron siderophore production, nitrate reduction, mixed acid-butanediol fermentation, and assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate metabolism pathways.. UR - ...
Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate - Select 2017 high quality Wholesale Feed Manganese Sulfate products in best price from certified Chinese Sodium Acid Sulfate manufacturers, Manganese Sulfate suppliers, wholesalers and factory on
We studied the annual variability of the concentration and isotopic composition of main sulfur species and sulfide oxidation intermediates in the water column of monomictic fresh-water Lake Kinneret. Sulfate concentrations in the lake are |1 mM and similar to concentrations that are proposed to have existed in the Paleoproterozoic ocean. The main goal of this research was to explore biogeochemical constrains of sulfur cycling in the modern low-sulfate fresh-water lake and to identify which processes may be responsible for the isotopic composition of sulfur species in the Precambrian sedimentary rocks. At the deepest point of the lake, the sulfate inventory decreases by more than 20% between March and December due to microbial sulfate reduction leading to the buildup of hydrogen sulfide. During the initial stages of stratification, sulfur isotope fractionation between sulfate and hydrogen sulfide is low (11.6 ‰) and sulfur oxyanions (e.g. thiosulfate and sulfite) are the main products of the incomplete
Article Photocatalysis assisted by peroxymonosulfate and persulfate for benzotriazole degradation: effect of pH on sulfate and hydroxyl radicals. Recently, notable attempts have been devoted to removing emerging pollutants from water resources. Benzo...
Three decades of study of laminated mats in low-sulfate thermal springs have provided a better understanding of the microbial diversity of these communities and highlighted the importance of a number of metabolic processes, including oxygenic photosynthesis by the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechococcus lividus (31), cross-feeding between cyanobacteria and photoheterotrophic Chloroflexus-type filaments (2), nitrogen fixation (34), methanogenesis (40, 47), and acetogenesis, and the importance of anaerobic processes in decomposition and mineralization (1, 12, 34). Although the contribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria to processes in photosynthetic mats in high-sulfate hypersaline environments is well documented (11, 24, 25, 29, 30, 32), their contributions to processes in mats that develop in low-sulfate environments are less well studied. However, the study of sulfate respiration in microbial mats in low-sulfate environments is especially relevant to understanding the evolution of these ...
Mechanisms for inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production in the zone of Fe(III) reduction in sediments were investigated. Addition of amorphic iron(III) oxyhydroxide to sediments in which sulfate reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process inhibited sulfate reduction 86 to 100%. The decrease in electron flow to sulfate reduction was accompanied by a corresponding increase in electron flow to Fe(III) reduction. In a similar manner, Fe(III) additions also inhibited methane production in sulfate-depleted sediments. The inhibition of sulfate reduction and methane production was the result of substrate limitation, because the sediments retained the potential for sulfate reduction and methane production in the presence of excess hydrogen and acetate. Sediments in which Fe(III) reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process had much lower concentrations of hydrogen and acetate than sediments in which sulfate reduction or methane production was the ...
A simple, sensitive and environmentally friendly capillary electrophoresis method for the determination of free sulfate anions in heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin with indirect UV detection is reported. The background electrolyte consists of 20 mM nitrate (pH 5.5) containing 0.2 mM CTAB. The use of nitrate as the probe anion is based on the consideration that nitrate has a very close electrophoretic mobility to that of sulfate, leading to a very narrow peak shape. Moreover, the apparent molar absorptivity of nitrate at 202 nm (8413 L mol(-1) cm(-1)) is much higher than that of the commonly used probe anion chromate at 254 nm (2400 L mol(-1) cm(-1)). The combination of the narrow peak shape with the high apparent molar absorptivity of the probe ion improved the limit of detection by 2.4 times and the limit of quantitation by 3.2 times. The effect of various CE parameters on the separation of sulfate from chloride was investigated and optimized. The method displays linearity in the range ...
Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate Granular/Powder DESCRIPTION: Chemical Formula: MnSO 4 H 2 O CA S No.:10034-96-5 SPECIFICATION: Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate Granular Items Specification Purity 98% min Mn 31.5% min As 5ppm max Pb 10ppm max Cd
Mine wastewaters generated during active mining operations or resulting from groundwater rebound at abandoned sites will have major environmental and economic implications for South Africa in the medium and longer term, particularly as active dewatering of some underground basins ceases. Active chemical treatment of the wastewaters, involving oxidation, neutralisation and sedimentation, is the most widely employed technology. Recently there has been increasing interest in passive biological treatment processes. Biological sulphate reduction is a well understood and efficient process and has been incorporated into a number of full scale treatment systems. Sulphate in acid mine drainage (AMD) streams is typically derived from the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) resulting in a stoichiometric excess of sulphate relative to metals. As a result, even if the biological treatment system incorporates a metal sulphide precipitation step there will be a surplus of sulphide, from the sulphate reduction step. ...
Mine wastewaters generated during active mining operations or resulting from groundwater rebound at abandoned sites will have major environmental and economic implications for South Africa in the medium and longer term, particularly as active dewatering of some underground basins ceases. Active chemical treatment of the wastewaters, involving oxidation, neutralisation and sedimentation, is the most widely employed technology. Recently there has been increasing interest in passive biological treatment processes. Biological sulphate reduction is a well understood and efficient process and has been incorporated into a number of full scale treatment systems. Sulphate in acid mine drainage (AMD) streams is typically derived from the oxidation of pyrite (FeS2) resulting in a stoichiometric excess of sulphate relative to metals. As a result, even if the biological treatment system incorporates a metal sulphide precipitation step there will be a surplus of sulphide, from the sulphate reduction step. ...
Shop a large selection of Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate, (Crystalline),MP Biomedicals products and learn more about Manganese Sulfate Monohydrate, (Crystalline),MP Biomedicals
Sulfur is an essential nutrient for plant growth and development. Sulfur is a constituent of proteins, the plasma membrane and cell walls, among other important cellular components. To obtain new insights into the gene regulatory networks underlying the sulfate response, we performed an integrative meta-analysis of transcriptomic data from five different sulfate experiments available in public databases. This bioinformatic approach allowed us to identify a robust set of genes whose expression depends only on sulfate availability, indicating that those genes play an important role in the sulfate response. In relation to sulfate metabolism, the biological function of approximately 45% of these genes is currently unknown. Moreover, we found several consistent Gene Ontology terms related to biological processes that have not been extensively studied in the context of the sulfate response; these processes include cell wall organization, carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen compound transport, and the regulation
Genes whose expression is regulated by sulfate starvation in Escherichia coli were identified by generating random translational lacZ fusions in the chromosome with the lambda placMu9 system. Nine lacZ fusion strains which expressed beta-galactosidase after growth under sulfate starvation conditions but not after growth in the presence of sulfate were found. These included two strains with insertions in the dmsA and rhsD genes, respectively, and seven strains in which the insertions were located within a 1.8-kb region downstream of hemB at 8.5 minutes on the E. coli chromosome. Analysis of the nucleotide sequence of this region indicated the presence of four open reading frames designated tauABCD. Disruption of these genes resulted in the loss of the ability to utilize taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonate) as a source of sulfur but did not affect the utilization of a range of other aliphatic sulfonates as sulfur sources. The TauA protein contained a putative signal peptide for transport into the ...
In inland areas of northwest central Florida, sulfate concentrations in the Upper Floridan aquifer are extremely variable and sometimes exceed drinking water standards (250 milligrams per liter). This is unusual because the aquifer is unconfined and near the surface, allowing for active recharge. The sources of sulfate and geochemical processes controlling ground-water composition were evaluated in this area. Water was sampled from thirty-three wells in parts of Marion, Sumter, and Citrus Counties, within the Southwest Florida Water Management District; these included at least a shallow and a deep well at fifteen separate locations. Ground water was analyzed for major ions, selected trace constituents, dissolved organic carbon, and stable isotopes (sulfur-34 of sulfate and sulfide, carbon-13 of inorganic carbon, deuterium, and oxygen-18). Sulfate concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 1,400 milligrams per liter, with higher sulfate concentrations usually in water from deeper wells. The ...
The demonstration of CDO and SO protein and mRNA in human alveolar epithelial cells suggests that these enzymes are responsible for the production of sulfate in situ, which can then be converted to the substrate for phase II sulfotransferases or be used for the sulfation of structural components of the alveolus. Sulfate is present within the alveolus,13 as demonstrated by the expression of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate proteoglycans within the human alveoli,14,15 but there has been no direct measurement of sulfate production to date. The presence of the metabolic machinery for sulfate production in the epithelial cells of the alveolus, as shown in our study, does not prove conclusively that sulfate production actually occurs here. It is possible that PAPS, the sulfate carrier for sulfation reactions, may be transported to the lung after synthesis elsewhere in the body, but no evidence for this has yet been provided. However, the presence of sulfated proteins within the alveolus suggests ...
Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. ...
Sulfate-reducing bacteria comprise a diverse and ecologically interactive group of anaerobic prokaryotes which share an extraordinary trait: growth by sulfate respiration with hydrogen sulfide as a major end-product. Sulfate-reducers are found in diverse environments ranging from estuaries to geological oil-bearing formations.
Place of Origin:ChinaBrand Name:RECHModel Number:RECH03Certification:ISO9001/ FAMIQSFor soils deficient in Manganese (Mn), apply this fast-acting source of Mn to the soil. Can be broadcast, side banded or foliar sprayed. Apply according to soil test resul...
Manganese sulfate tetrahydrate | H8MnO8S | CID 22572548 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Squaramide-based tripodal anion receptors 1-3 have been prepared and their anion binding properties with various inorganic anions were investigated. Receptor 1 formed a dimeric complex in solid state and a 1 : 1 complex in solution with SO42−. All receptors 1-3 could selectively encapsulate SO42−via hydrogen
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Sulfate is essential for normal physiology. The kidney plays a major role in sulfate homeostasis. Sulfate is freely filtered and strongly reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. The apical membrane Na+-sulfate cotransporter NaS1 (SLC13A1) mediates sulfate (re)absorption across renal proximal tubule and small intestinal epithelia. NaS1 encodes a 595-amino acid (≈66 kDa) protein with 13 putative transmembrane domains. Its substrate preferences are sodium and sulfate, thiosulfate, and selenate, and its activity is inhibited by molybdate, selenate, tungstate, thiosulfate, succinate, and citrate. NaS1 is primarily expressed in the kidney (proximal tubule) and intestine (duodenum to colon). NaS1 expression is down-regulated in the renal cortex by high sulfate diet, hypothyroidism, vitamin D depletion, glucocorticoids, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis, and NSAIDs and up-regulated by low sulfate diet, thyroid hormone, vitamin D supplementation, growth hormone, chronic renal failure, and during post-natal ...
The effects of Na2S04 addition to cement pastes containing PNS superplasticizer with different molecular weight were investigated in different parameters of cem
The corresponding metal sulfate would be MSO_4........... Why? We gots M_3(PO_4)_2; now phosphate anion is formally PO_4^(3-), i.e. a salt of phosphoric acid, H_3PO_4. And in the given formula we have 2xxPO_4^(3-), a formal electronic charge of -6. Clearly, to form a neutral salt, the three metal ions must have a combined formal charge of +6, and given this we have M^(2+) ions....... And thus the salt the metal forms with sulfate anion would be 1:1, i.e. M^(2+)SO_4^(2-).
|img src=q.gif>|br>Sodium sulfate is added to glass formulas as a source of sodium and to prevent scumming. Sodium sulfate glasses are harder, stronger and have a higher softening point than soda-lime glasses without the sulfate addition.
Hanford low-activity waste solutions contain sulfate, which can cause accelerated corrosion of the vitrification melter and unacceptable operating conditions. A method is needed to selectively separate sulfate from the waste. An experiment was conducted to evaluate evaporation for removing sulfate ion from Tank AN-107 low-activity waste. Two evaporation steps were performed. In the first step, the volume was reduced by 55% while in the second step, the liquid volume was reduced another 22%. Analysis of the solids precipitated during these evaporations revealed that large amounts of sodium nitrate and nitrite co-precipitated with sodium sulfate. Many other waste components precipitated as well. It can be concluded that sulfate removal by precipitation is not selective, and thus, evaporation is not a viable option for removing sulfate from the AN-107 liquid.
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
Direct road mortality and the barrier effect of roads are typically identified as one of the greatest threats to wildlife. In addition, collisions with large mammals are also a threat to human safety and represent an ...
Grade: Biotech Appearance Fine, white homogeneous powder Moisture content ≤10% Gel Strength 1.5% ≥1,120 g/cm2 Gelling Point 34.5 - 37.5°C Electroendosmosis-Mr 0.09-0.13 Sulfate ≤0.15% DNase , RNase and protease None detected ...
Properties: Pale red, slightly efflorescent crystals; loses all water at 400-450°. Sol in about 1 part cold, 0.6 part boiling water; insol in alcohol. ...
Tyrosine sulfation Tyrosine sulfation is a posttranslational modification where a sulfate group is added to a tyrosine residue of a protein molecule. Secreted
I have always been interested in the sulphation pathway as addition of a sulphate group can make dramatic changes to the properties of both drugs and tissue components. Our group first started working in the field of autism about 15 years ago, when we were asked to measure the metabolism of paracetamol in an autistic child. At the time, I had only heard the orthodox medical view that autism was all in the mind and had no biochemical basis. To our great surprise, we found that children with autism, unlike the age-matched controls, were much less able to form the sulphate conjugate of paracetamol, although the other metabolic pathways were normal. We went on to look at the levels of sulphate in the blood plasma, because sulphation capacity depends on both the amount of sulphate available and also the activity of the enzyme that carries out the reaction. We found that autistic children generally had low sulphate levels, typically about 10-15% of the control values. Sulphate is produced in vivo by ...
Alternative Description: Manganous sulfate. Formula: MnSO₄.H₂O. M.W. 169.01. CAS No: 10034-96-5. EEC No: 232-089-9. Warning. Hazard: H373, H411. Precaution: P273. The National Counter Terrorism Security Office seeks to restrict the supply of certain chemicals. Philip Harris have a duty to control the supply for these chemicals and any private individual attempting to purchase these chemicals may have their details passed to the police in their area. If you require waste disposal within the UK, please contact All Waste Matters Ltd on [email protected] for a quote.. ...
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Current methods to recover sulfates from wastewater streams are limited in their capability to work in challenging industrial conditions and/or to generate a new revenue stream from the recovered sulfates. Hence, SUEZ is looking for a solution to solve these two limitations.  This Theoretical Challenge requires only a written proposal.
Limit test for sulfates is based on precipitation of sulfate ions by barium chloride reagent. The test samples turbidity is compared with the standard.
Sulfate Contents In Fine Aggregate Fo ConcreteSulfate Contents In Fine Aggregate Fo Concrete. We are a large-scale manufacturer specializing in producing variou
sulphate greenPlochere sulphate greenColor Standards & Nomenclature sulphate greenMaerz & Paul dark sulphate greenColor Standards & Nomenclature pale sulphate greenColor Standards & Nomenclature light sulphate greenColor Standards & Nomenclature sulphate greenISCC via dark sulphate greenISCC via pale sulphate greenISCC via light sulphate greenISCC via sulphurPlochere ...
Note: Compound that is a salt with the sulfate ion SO4 2-, or an ester of sulfuric acid. Sulfates comprise an enormous group of chemicals that contain the element sulfur. Sulfates are used in a variety of common products and processes ...
Sulfates: it turns out theyre all around us, in our air, water, food, medications and hygiene products -- its true for us and also true for our beloved pooches. The name
Did you know that the really foamy lather produced by your shampoo is due to sulfates within the ingredients of the Shampoo and could actually be damaging you
Sulfate, any of numerous chemical compounds related to sulfuric acid, H2SO4. One group of these derivatives is composed of salts containing the sulfate ion, SO42-, and positively charged ions such as those of sodium, magnesium, or ammonium; a second group is composed of esters, in which the
To Determine the amount of Sulfate by Gravimetric Method This method is valid for 20-100mg/l Principle: sulfate ion is precipitated and weighed as BaSO4. The solution is first acidified with HCL to prevent the precipitation of BaCO3 and Ba(OH)2 and it also aids the larger precipitate crystals. Procedure: Take 200ml …. Read More » ...
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Hi, just to add on, if you look at the example we did in lecture where we assigned formal charged to a sulfate ion (SO4^2-) we see that two of the oxygen atoms had a -1 charge while all the other atoms had 0 charge. Because two atoms had a -1 charge, the total charge for the molecule was -2 ...
... strontium sulfate, lead(II) sulfate, and barium sulfate, which are poorly soluble. Radium sulfate is the most insoluble sulfate ... Sulfates occur widely in everyday life. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. "Sulfate" is ... sulfate pentahydrate, CuSO4·5H2O and white vitriol is zinc sulfate heptahydrate, ZnSO4·7H2O. Alum, a double sulfate of ... Copper sulfate, a common algaecide, the more stable form (CuSO4) is used for galvanic cells as electrolyte Iron(II) sulfate, a ...
"Structure of Anhydrous Titanyl Sulfate, Titanyl Sulfate Monohydrate and Prediction of a New Structure". Acta Crystallographica ... Titanyl sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula TiOSO4. It is a white solid that forms by treatment of titanium ... The six ligands attached to titanium are derived from four different sulfate moieties and a bridging oxide. A monohydrate is ... Portions of the structure of titanyl sulfate Heinz Sibum, Volker Günther, Oskar Roidl, Fathi Habashi, Hans Uwe Wolf (2005). " ...
"Chondroitin sulfate B" is an old name for dermatan sulfate, and it is no longer classified as a form of chondroitin sulfate. ... Although the name "chondroitin sulfate" suggests a salt with a sulfate counter-anion, this is not the case, as sulfate is ... Furthermore, marine chondroitin sulfate chains tend to be longer, with molecular weight of up to 70 kDa in chondroitin sulfate ... Chondroitin sulfate is not metabolized by cytochrome P450. The effect of chondroitin sulfate in people with osteoarthritis is ...
... , like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs. Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement ... Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed ... "Zinc Sulphate Zinc Sulfate MSDS Sheet of Manufacturers". 5 May 2013. Retrieved 8 June 2013. (CS1 maint: url- ... Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound. It is used as a dietary supplement to treat zinc deficiency and to prevent the condition ...
In solution, the sulfate ion dissociates rapidly. Being widely available, vanadyl sulfate is a common precursor to other ... Vanadyl sulfate exhibits insulin-like effects. Vanadyl sulfate has been extensively studied in the field of diabetes research ... Like most water-soluble sulfates, vanadyl sulfate is only rarely found in nature. Anhydrous form is pauflerite, a mineral of ... "Liaisons hydrogene dans les cristaux de sulfate de vanadyle trihydrate VOSO4(H2O)3: Comparaison structurale de quatre sulfates ...
... and anhydrous sodium sulfate adopt the same structure. The synthesis of silver(II) sulfate (AgSO4) with a ... "MSDS of Silver sulfate". Fisher Scientific, Inc. Retrieved 2014-07-19. Sigma-Aldrich Co., Silver sulfate. Retrieved on 2014-07- ... Silver sulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula Ag2SO4. It is a white solid with low solubility in water. Silver ... "silver sulfate". Retrieved 2014-07-19. Morris, Marlene C.; McMurdie, Howard F.; Evans, Eloise H.; Paretzkin, Boris; Groot, ...
the hydrogen sulfate. potassium uranyl sulfate, K2UO2(SO4)2, is a double salt used by Henri Becquerel in his discovery of ... Uranyl sulfate describes a family of inorganic compounds with the formula UO2SO4(H2O)n. These salts consist of sulfate, the ... in the form of uranyl sulfate. The acid process of milling uranium ores involves precipitating uranyl sulfate from the pregnant ... Uranyl sulfates are intermediates in some extraction methods used for uranium ores. These compounds can also take the form of ...
... (NH3OH)2SO4, is the sulfuric acid salt of hydroxylamine. It is primarily used as an easily handled ... Hydroxylammonium sulfate can be obtained by the acid-base reaction of hydroxylamine with sulfuric acid: 2NH2OH(aq) + H2SO4(aq ... Hydroxylammonium sulfate is also used to generate hydroxylamine-O-sulfonic acid from oleum or chlorosulfuric acid. ... Hydroxylammonium sulfate is used in the production of anti-skinning agents, pharmaceuticals, rubber, textiles, plastics and ...
... may be used as a deodorant, an astringent, or as a styptic for superficial shaving wounds. Aluminium sulfate ... This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulfate and basic iron(III) sulfate may separate), ... Aluminium sulfate is a salt with the formula Al2(SO4)3. It is soluble in water and is mainly used as a coagulating agent ( ... Aluminium sulfate is sometimes used in the human food industry as a firming agent, where it takes on E number E520, and in ...
... (or calcium sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the formula CaSO4 and related hydrates. In the form of γ- ... from anhydrous calcium sulfate. Upon being mixed with shale or marl, and roasted, the sulfate liberates sulfur dioxide gas, a ... The calcium sulfate hydrates are used as a coagulant in products such as tofu. For the FDA, it is permitted in Cheese and ... Calcium sulfate has a long history of use in dentistry. It has been used in bone regeneration as a graft material and graft ...
An acid sulfate of rubidium (rubidium hydrogen sulfate) can be formed. It is soluble in water and is an aqueous solution. Y2( ... Rubidium sulfate is a sulfate of rubidium. The molecular formula of the compound is Rb2SO4. The molecular weight of this ... SO4)3 + Rb2SO4 → Rb3[Y(SO4)3] Rb2SO4 + H2SO4 → 2 RbHSO4 "Rubidium sulfate". "Y2(SO4)3 + Rb2SO4 + H2O = RbY(SO4)2•H2O , Chemical ... Sulfates, Rubidium compounds, All stub articles, Inorganic compound stubs). ...
Estrone sulfate is the most abundant of all the estrogens in the human body. Estrone sulfate is synthesized by the enzyme ... Quercetin 3-O-sulfate Pang, K; Schwab, A; Goresky, C; Chiba, M (1994). "Transport, binding, and metabolism of sulfate ... Sulfate conjugates commonly result from the metabolic conjugation of endogenous and exogenous compounds with sulfate (-OSO3−). ... Sulfate esters may be hydrolyzed by sulfatase enzyme to release the parent alcohol and a sulfate ion. Steroid sulfation is one ...
"Indoxyl sulfate". Human Metabolome Database - Version 4.0. 23 October 2017. Retrieved 15 November 2017. "Indoxyl sulfate". ... Indoxyl sulfate, also known as 3-indoxylsulfate and 3-indoxylsulfuric acid, is a metabolite of dietary L-tryptophan that acts ... Indoxyl sulfate is also a product of indole metabolism, which is produced from tryptophan by intestinal flora, such as ... Indoxyl sulfate is a metabolite of dietary L-tryptophan that is synthesized through the following metabolic pathway: L- ...
... can exist in salt forms, such as sodium ethyl sulfate, potassium ethyl sulfate, and calcium ethyl sulfate. The ... Ethyl sulfate (IUPAC name: ethyl hydrogen sulfate), also known as sulfovinic acid, is an organic chemical compound used as an ... CH3-CH2-O-SO3H + K2CO3 → CH3-CH2-O-SO3K + KHCO3 Methyl sulfate Diethyl sulfate Dr. Frobenius (1730) "An account of a spiritus ... As an example, ethyl sulfate and potassium carbonate forms potassium ethyl sulfate and potassium bicarbonate. ...
... can be used as a fungicide and antiseptic. Hydrazine sulfate has been used as an alternative medical ... 19-21 Hydrazine sulfate / Hydrazine sulphate Archived 2009-09-19 at the Wayback Machine from the British Columbia Cancer Agency ... Hydrazine sulphate British Columbia Cancer Agency What is rocket fuel treatment? Cancer Research UK Hydrazine Sulfate American ... Hydrazine sulfate was first proposed as an anti-cancer agent by U.S. physician Joseph Gold in the mid-1970s. Gold's arguments ...
Galante LL, Schwarzbauer JE (December 2007). "Requirements for sulfate transport and the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate ... The sulfate transporter is a solute carrier family protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A2 gene. SLC26A2 is also ... A defect in sulfate activation described by Superti-Furga in achondrogenesis type 1B was subsequently also found to be caused ... This sulfate (SO42−) transporter also accepts chloride, hydroxyl ions (OH−), and oxalate as substrates. SLC26A2 is expressed at ...
The sulfate carbonates are a compound carbonates, or mixed anion compounds that contain sulfate and carbonate ions. Sulfate ... Silvialite can substitute about half its sulfate with carbonate and the high temperature hexagonal form of sodium sulfate (I) ... Sulfates, Sulfate minerals, Carbonate minerals, Carbonates, Mixed anion compounds). ... In some structures carbonate and sulfate can substitute for each other. For example a range from 1.4 to 2.2 Na2SO4•Na2CO3 is ...
As a cyclic sulfate ester, it is an alkylating agent. Hydrolysis affords ethionic acid, which retains one sulfate ester group. ... Carbyl sulfate is an organosulfur compound. The white solid is the product of the reaction of sulfur trioxide and ethylene. It ... Carbyl sulfate is produced in the highly exothermic (about 800 kcal/kg) reaction of ethylene and sulfur trioxide in the vapor ... Carbyl sulfate is a colorless, crystalline, hygroscopic substance although commercial product can appear as a liquid. Because ...
The sulfate fluorides are double salts that contain both sulfate and fluoride anions. They are in the class of mixed anion ... Fluoride sulfates were first discovered by Jean Charles de Marignac in 1859. Some elements such as cobalt or uranium can form ... Gong, Ya-Ping; Ma, Yun-Xiang; Ying, Shao-Ming; Mao, Jiang-Gao; Kong, Fang (2019-08-19). "Two Indium Sulfate Tellurites: ... Wang, Xiqu; Liu, Lumei; Ross, Kent; Jacobson, Allan J. (January 2000). "Synthesis and crystal structures of yttrium sulfates Y( ...
The term sulfate aerosols is used for a suspension of fine solid particles of a sulfate or tiny droplets of a solution of a ... However the UNFCCC has noted that sulfate aerosols remain in the atmosphere for only a short amount of time in comparison to ... Other side effects of sulfate aerosols in the environment include poor air quality. CLAW hypothesis Cloud condensation nuclei ... sulfate or of sulfuric acid (hydrogen sulfate). They are produced by chemical reactions in the atmosphere from gaseous ...
... (EE sulfate), also known as 17α-ethynylestradiol 3-sulfate, is an estrogen ester - specifically, the ... the EE sulfate pool with EE is far smaller than the pool of estrone sulfate that occurs with estradiol (with estrone sulfate ... EE sulfate can be transformed back into EE (14-21%) via steroid sulfatase, and it has been suggested that EE sulfate may serve ... in contrast to the case of estrone sulfate and estrone, the conversion rate of EE sulfate back into EE is relatively low, and ...
Mo uptake by MOT1 in yeast is not affected by the presence of sulfate. MOT1 did not complement a sulfate transporter-deficient ... The sulfate permease (SulP) family (TC# 2.A.53) is a member of the large APC superfamily of secondary carriers. The SulP family ... Maeda S, Sugita C, Sugita M, Omata T (March 2006). "Latent nitrate transport activity of a novel sulfate permease-like protein ... Another has SulP fused to Rhodanese, a sulfate:cyanide sulfotransferase (TC# 2.A.53.9.1). This SulP homologue is presumably a ...
... (US) or potassium sulphate (UK), also called sulphate of potash (SOP), arcanite, or archaically potash of ... The mineral form of potassium sulfate, arcanite, is relatively rare. Natural resources of potassium sulfate are minerals ... For information about other salts that contain sulfate, see sulfate. Patnaik, Pradyot (2002). Handbook of Inorganic Chemicals. ... These are cocrystallizations of potassium sulfate and sulfates of magnesium, calcium, and sodium. Relevant minerals are: ...
Protamine+Sulfate at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "Protamine Sulfate". Drug Information ... In large doses, protamine sulfate may also have an independent - however weak - anticoagulant effect. Protamine sulfate ... Protamine sulfate was approved for medical use in the United States in 1969. It is on the World Health Organization's List of ... Protamine sulfate is a medication that is used to reverse the effects of heparin. It is specifically used in heparin overdose, ...
The antibody binds heparan sulfate, not chondroitin sulfate. The binding of HS20 to heparan sulfate requires sulfation at both ... "Biosynthesis of 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate: unique substrate specificity of heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase isoform 5". ... Duncan MB, Chen J, Krise JP, Liu J (March 2004). "The biosynthesis of anticoagulant heparan sulfate by the heparan sulfate 3-O- ... October 1999). "A novel role for 3-O-sulfated heparan sulfate in herpes simplex virus 1 entry". Cell. 99 (1): 13-22. doi: ...
"Dimethyl Sulfate 77-78-1". EPA. "Poison Facts: Low Chemicals: Dimethyl Sulfate". The University of Kansas Hospital. Sartori, ... Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) is a chemical compound with formula (CH3O)2SO2. As the diester of methanol and sulfuric acid, its ... Dimethyl sulfate was discovered in the early 19th century in an impure form. J. P. Claesson later extensively studied its ... Dimethyl sulfate can effect the base-specific cleavage of DNA by attacking the imidazole rings present in guanine. Dimethyl ...
... may refer to: Chromium(II) sulfate Chromium(III) sulfate This set index page lists chemical compounds articles ...
In the laboratory barium sulfate is generated by combining solutions of barium ions and sulfate salts. Because barium sulfate ... Barium sulfate (or sulphate) is the inorganic compound with the chemical formula BaSO4. It is a white crystalline solid that is ... Barium sulfate is commonly used as a component of "strobe" pyrotechnic compositions. As barium sulfate has a high melting point ... Barium sulfate is one of the most insoluble salts of sulfate. Its low solubility is exploited in qualitative inorganic analysis ...
This band is absent in beryllium sulfate, and the sulfate modes are perturbed. The data support the existence of Be(OH2)3OSO3. ... Beryllium sulfate normally encountered as the tetrahydrate, [Be(H2O)4]SO4 is a white crystalline solid. It was first isolated ... Beryllium sulfate may be prepared by treating an aqueous solution of many beryllium salts with sulfuric acid, followed by ... A mixture of beryllium and radium sulfate was used as the neutron source in the discovery of nuclear fission. Weast, Robert C ...
... , abbreviated as DHEA sulfate or DHEA-S, also known as androstenolone sulfate, is an endogenous ... DHEA-S, also known as androst-5-en-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate, is a naturally occurring androstane steroid and the C3β sulfate ... Prasterone sodium sulfate, Teloin Jianqiu Y (1992). "Clinical Application of Prasterone Sodium Sulfate". Chinese Journal of New ... As the sodium salt, prasterone sodium sulfate, DHEA-S is used as a pharmaceutical drug in Japan in the treatment of ...
hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 MG Oral Tablet. SCD. 3. 979092. hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200 MG (as hydroxychloroquine 155 MG ... PLAQUENIL (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) tablets for oral administration contain 200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulfate (equivalent to ... ethanol sulfate (1:1) with the molecular formula C18H26ClN3O•H2SO4. The molecular weight of hydroxychloroquine sulfate is ... PLAQUENIL- hydroxychloroquine sulfate tablet. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS ...
Chondroitin sulfate is a chemical found in human and animal cartilage. It is commonly used by mouth with glucosamine or other ... Chondroïtine Sulfate A, Chondroïtine Sulfate B, Chondroïtine Sulfate C, Chondroïtine 4-Sulfate, Chondroïtine 4- et 6- Sulfate, ... Chondroitin Sulfate A, Chondroitin Sulfates, Chondroitin Sulfate B, Chondroitin Sulfate C, Chondroitin Sulphates, Chondroitin ... Sulfate de Chondroïtine, Sulfate de Galactosaminoglucuronoglycane, Sulfates de Chondroïtine, Sulfato de Condroitina.. ...
Dimethyl sulfate. CAS No: 77-78-1. NOTE:. (1) Efficacy of Medical Tests has not been evaluated.. (2) NIOSH references include ... Dimethyl sulfate. Editor(s). /Author(s). Specific Medical Test(s) or Examination(s). Reference(s). ...
March 26th, 2015 , Tags: clean water, Polluted Water, States Running our ot Water, sulfate standard, Sulfates in Water, Wild ... March 30th, 2011 , Tags: clean water, copper nickel sulfide mining, hazardous chemical processing, sulfate standard, water ... Would you Please Sprinkle a Little Sulfate on my Wild Rice Hot Dish Tommy?. ... a few weeks ago that State Representative Tom Rukavina wanted to increase by five times the legal limit we allow for sulfates ...
Mussett, M. V. & Perry, W. L. M. (‎1956)‎. An international collaborative study of dextran sulfate. Bulletin of the World ...
Sulfated Castor Oil). We offer an impressive range of pure certified organic and conventional vegetable oils for skin and hair ... INCI: Sulfated Ricinus Communis (Castor) Oil. Extraction Method: Sulfation of Castor Oil. Typical Shelf Life*: 2 Years. ... Turkey Red Oil is also widely known as Sulfated Castor Oil. The oil is commonly referred to as Turkey Red Oil because the color ... Turkey Red Oil (Sulfated Castor Oil), 70%. Add to Personalized Shopping List ...
Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) peaks around the third decade and then drop with age. DHEA-S can be measured by ... encoded search term (Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Sulfate) and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Sulfate What to Read Next on ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Sulfate Updated: Sep 25, 2020 * Author: Georges Elhomsy, MD, ECNU, FACE; Chief Editor: Eric B ... Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) peaks around the third decade and then drop with age. ...
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... and sulfate in atmospheric wet deposition (rain, snow, sleet, and hail) by chemically suppressed ion chromatography (1) using a ... Standard Test Method for Determination of Chloride, Nitrate, and Sulfate in Atmospheric Wet Deposition by Chemically Suppressed ... 1.1 This test method is applicable to the determination of chloride, nitrate, and sulfate in atmospheric wet deposition (rain, ... 0.15-4.92 Sulfate 0.03 0.09-8.0 0.15-6.52 1.3 The method detection limit (MDL) is based on single operator precision (2) and ...
Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, and Lewisite). *Toxic Syndrome Description: Vesicant/Blister Agent ... Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, and Lewisite). *Toxic Syndrome Description: Vesicant/Blister Agent ... Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, and Lewisite). *Toxic Syndrome Description: Vesicant/Blister Agent ... Case Definition: Vesicant (Mustards, Dimethyl Sulfate, and Lewisite). *Toxic Syndrome Description: Vesicant/Blister Agent ...
A graphic shows how Rice University chemists used a rare genetic pathway to metabolically engineer cells that serve as drug factories to make thrombin inhibitors that break up blood clots. The study began with a bioinformatic survey that found the key in a crested ibis.. ...
Used in the correct concentrations, copper sulfate prevents damage to plants from mold and fungi. Plants growing in soils that ... Copper sulfate is commonly used in gardening and agriculture as a fungicide and fertilizer. ... are deficient in copper will benefit from the application of a copper sulfate-based fertilizer. ... Copper sulfate is a common ingredient in several fungicides used in gardens and fields. Copper sulfate-based fungicides are ...
... was 8940 Metric Tons. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... Moldova - Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Imports Metric Tons - 2002 to 2019. Since 2014, Moldova Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer ... How does Moldova rank in Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Imports?. #. 155 Countries. Metric Tons. Last. YoY. 5‑years CAGR. ... With 8,940.24 Metric Tons in 2019, the country was ranked number 78 comparing other countries in Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer ...
1969, NMRS 46/TRS 445-JECFA 13/21, FAS 70.37/NMRS 46B-JECFA 13/122, FAS 70.36/NMRS 46A-JECFA 13/148. ADI NOT LIMITED. NL. N ...
Gentamicin sulfate is a mixture of sulfate salts of the antibiotics produced in this fermentation. The salts are weakly acidic ... Each mL of Gentamicin Sulfate Solution contains gentamicin sulfate veterinary equivalent to 100 mg gentamicin base; 2.4 mg ... GENTAMICIN SULFATE solution. To receive this label RSS feed. Copy the URL below and paste it into your RSS Reader application. ... Gentamicin sulfate given to dogs at 6 mg/lb/day, 6 days weekly for 3 weeks, caused no detectable kidney damage. At higher doses ...
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Article Flotation Behaviour of Barium Sulphate was published on December 1, 1976 in the journal Tenside Surfactants Detergents ... Flotation Behaviour of Barium Sulphate. A. A. Yousef and T. A. Bibawy ... Yousef, A. A. and Bibawy, T. A.. "Flotation Behaviour of Barium Sulphate" Tenside Surfactants Detergents, vol. 13, no. 6, 1976 ... Yousef, A. A. and Bibawy, T. A.. "Flotation Behaviour of Barium Sulphate" Tenside Surfactants Detergents 13, no. 6 (1976): 316- ...
Enjoy free Shipping with any all Sulfate-free Lip Balm & Lip Moisturizer purchases! ... Shop Sulfate-free Lip Balm & Lip Moisturizer at Macys. ...
Albuterol Sulfate. Aldactone. Alesse. Aleve. Allegra. Allopurinol. Alora. Alprazolam. Altace. Amaryl. Ambien. Amikacin. ... Albuterol Sulfate. side effects, nutrient depletions, herbal interactions and health notes:. Data provided by Applied Health. • ... Albuterol Sulfate nutritional deficiencies database. Disclaimers. The information in Drug Watch is provided as a courtesy to ...
Select the best sulfate free shampoo for your hair need and discover gentle, non-stripping cleansing for all hair types and ... Sulfate Free Shampoos Shop our variety of salon professional sulfate free shampoos and discover the best sulfate-free shampoo ... Do Kérastase products have sulfates? What is sulfate-free shampoo and why is sulfate free shampoo better for dry hair and for ... However, sulfate-free shampoo formulas may be better for dry, damaged hair and color-treated hair. For dry hair sulfate free ... is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon, the Amazon logo, AmazonSupply, and the AmazonSupply logo are trademarks of, Inc. or its affiliates.. ...
One such agent is chondroitin sulfate-a complex, h … ... Chondroitin sulfate has an excellent safety profile, and ... Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in ... Discrepancies in composition and biological effects of different formulations of chondroitin sulfate Molecules. 2015 Mar 6;20(3 ... This may be due, at least partly, to variations in the quality of the chondroitin sulfate used for a particular study. ...
heparan sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 3A1. heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase 3A1. heparan sulfate D- ... Heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3A sulfates N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues. Liu J, et al. J Biol Chem ... Heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes are key components in generating a myriad of distinct heparan sulfate fine structures that ... heparan sulfate-glucosamine 3-sulfotransferase 3A1provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:5196 See related. Ensembl: ...
Reviews and ratings for Magnesium sulfate/potassium sulfate/sodium sulfate. 1628 reviews submitted with a 7.1 average score. ... Sodium sulfate, potassium sulfate, and magnesium sulfate (Advanced Reading). *Sodium Sulfate, Potassium Sulfate, and Magnesium ... sodium sulfate. Brand names: Suprep Bowel Prep Kit Magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate has an average rating ... Suprep Bowel Prep Kit (magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate) for Bowel Preparation As a patient, who has to ...
The global chondroitin sulfate market size was valued at USD 1.17 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual ... Global Chondroitin Sulfate Market Size Report, 2021-2028 GVR Report cover Chondroitin Sulfate Market Size, Share & Trends ... How big is the chondroitin sulfate market? b. The global chondroitin sulfate market size was estimated at USD 1.17 billion in ... What is the chondroitin sulfate market growth? b. The global chondroitin sulfate market is expected to grow at a compound ...
Deoxycholic acid 3-sulfate *Molecular FormulaC24H40O7S ... sulfate (3A,5B,12A)- 12-HYD. ROXY-CHOLAN-24-OIC ACID-3-( ...
This topic contains 1 study abstract on Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Toxicity indicating that the following substance may be helpful: ... 1 Abstracts with Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Toxicity Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Topical oatmeal has an anti-inflammatory effect on sodium lauryl sulfate induced skin irritation.Mar 01, 2002. ... 1 Substances Researched for Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Toxicity Name. AC. CK. Focus. ...
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... - create acid condition for blueberry plants - water soluble ... Ammonium sulfate is a great option to create an acid condition for blueberry plants. This product is water soluble and also ...
  • Ammonium sulfate is a great option to create an acid condition for blueberry plants. (
  • Ammonium sulfate is produced as secondary product. (
  • Ammonium Sulfate【factory price company】-Inner Mongolia Chengxin Yongan Chemical Co., Ltd. (
  • How do ammonium sulfate and gypsum differ? (
  • Leading Manufacturer of magnesium sulphate anhydrous, ammonium sulfate white (98%), ferrous sulphate powder, zinc sulphate 33% monohydrate, zinc sulphate heptahydrate 21% and tin chloride from Vapi. (
  • Ammonium Sulfate is used most commonly as an artificial fertilizer for alkaline soils . (
  • 1) mainly used as fertilizer ammonium sulfate, applied to a variety of soil and crops. (
  • 3 )consumption from the industrial ammonium sulfate ammonium sulfate dissolved in distilled water, except the addition of arsenic and heavy metals in solution purification agents, filtration, evaporation, cooling crystallization, centrifugal separation, drying. (
  • Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate, also known as Mohr's Salt, is one of the chemicals distributed and supplied by Seidler Chemical. (
  • Ferrous Ammonium Sulfate can affect you when breathed in. (
  • Ferrous ammonium sulfate (anhydrous) is a compound of ammonium, iron and sulfate in which the ratio of ammonium to iron(2+) to sulfate ions is 2:1:2. (
  • A formulation for preparing Zinc Sulfate Heptahydrate 0.1% Solution. (
  • Are you currently using Albuterol Sulfate Vial For Nebulizer Beta-Adrenergic Agents Short-Acting (Inhaled)? (
  • ALBUTEROL SULFATE is part of manufacturing ingredient used in FDA Database. (
  • When you consume you prescription drug make sure that you are not allergic to this ALBUTEROL SULFATE . (
  • ALBUTEROL SULFATE is used in manufacturing process of pharmaceutical products. (
  • List bellow has ALBUTEROL SULFATE as ingredient during manufacturing. (
  • Owing to the high affinity in water, magnesium sulphate is commonly used as a desiccant in organic synthesis. (
  • Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. (
  • Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. (
  • Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. (
  • Case reports supported an association between iatrogenic overdose of magnesium sulphate and life-threatening consequences. (
  • Appropriate administration of antenatal magnesium sulphate was not shown to be associated with serious maternal adverse effects, though an increase in 'minor' adverse effects and treatment cessation was shown. (
  • Vigilance in the use of magnesium sulphate is essential for women's safety. (
  • You may look at the list of ingredients on the shampoo bottle label to see if it features sodium lauryl sulfate and sodium laureth sulfate. (
  • What are Parabens and Sulfates? (
  • When it comes to parabens and sulfates, the truth likely lies somewhere in the middle. (
  • The fact remains that despite scientific evidence that they may cause health problems, parabens and sulfates are both widely used in beauty products today. (
  • To understand this, we will be defining parabens and sulfates, getting to the bottom of health concerns, review some natural alternatives to these ingredients, and go over some frequently asked questions. (
  • Due to the connection between sulfates and parabens, many of the health concerns have been interchanged. (
  • As we have established, parabens are primarily used as preservatives and sulfates are primarily used to strip away unwanted oils and increase skin permeability. (
  • This begs the question: are there natural alternatives to parabens and sulfates? (
  • Are products required to label parabens and sulfates? (
  • However, there is no requirement to specifically state whether or not a product contains parabens and/or sulfates. (
  • Unfortunately, many parabens and sulfates have long, complex names which are not always obvious to spot such as propylparaben, isobutylparaben, sodium lauryl sulfate, etc. (
  • Shop our variety of salon professional sulfate free shampoos and discover the best sulfate-free shampoo for your hair type. (
  • Sulfate-free shampoo for smoothing frizzy hair leaving soft healthy hair. (
  • Sulfate-free shampoo for fine to medium color treated hair. (
  • What is sulfate-free shampoo and why is sulfate free shampoo better for dry hair and for color treated hair? (
  • MOISTURIZES AND STRENGTHENS WEAK STRANDS Paraben Free, No Petrolatum, No Mineral Oil, No Artificial Colors, Vegan Beauty By NatureTM Carol's Daughter Goddess Strength Fortifying Sulfate Free Shampoo for weak hair with Castor Oil cleanses while moisturizing and provides hair that's instantly stronger, less prone to breakage and healthy looking. (
  • Below are our favorite and best sulfate free shampoo and conditioner pairs. (
  • COCOCHOCO Sulphate-Free Shampoo is a pure essentials shampoo formulated for individuals with sensitive scalp, dry, damaged or treated hair. (
  • This paraben- and sulfate-free shampoo penetrates and repairs the cuticle - hydrating, softening, and strengthening your hair and extensions from the inside out and maximizing the life of your hair extensions. (
  • This paraben- and sulfate-free shampoo contains keratin that has been isolated from New Zealand Wool - great for taming frizz, adding shine, and making curly hair more manageable. (
  • For the best possible care of your hair extensions, you should only consider Paraben and Sulfate Free shampoo for hair extensions from Cuticle Lissé. (
  • Iron (Ferrous Sulfate) is used as a mordant, to influence colors and to increase light fastness when used in combination with other natural dyes. (
  • Ferrous sulfate is a blue-green chemical used in many applications including medicine, ink and dye manufacturing, as well as agriculture . (
  • Copper sulfate is a common ingredient in several fungicides used in gardens and fields. (
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate is a major ingredient in engine cleaners, floor cleaners, and car wash soaps. (
  • The sulfuric acid, the major ingredient in a sulfate crystal, can then easily pass into the electrolyte (liquid, gel or absorbed type). (
  • However, sulfates can still be irritating for skin and hair, and are a harsh ingredient for repeated use. (
  • Setting times, volume after setting, injectability and hardness (at 37°C in contact with Ringer's solution) were determined for cements made of mixtures of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a range of compositions. (
  • With 8,940.24 Metric Tons in 2019, the country was ranked number 78 comparing other countries in Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Imports. (
  • Ammonium iron(II) sulfate, or Mohr's salt, is the inorganic compound with the formula (NH4)2Fe(SO4)2·6H2O. (
  • The finished appearance of the copper product is achieved through application of a patina solution (copper sulfate and various inorganic acids), a 2-butoxyethanol (2-BE) lacquer solution, abrasive-blasting (using aluminum oxide or small glass beads), or an acetylene/oxygen flame applied to the surface. (
  • Cobalt Sulphate 1 Kg. (
  • Stellantis and GME announced the signing of a non-binding Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) for the future sale of quantities of battery-grade nickel and cobalt sulphate products from the NiWest Nickel-Cobalt Project in Western Australia. (
  • NiWest is an advanced nickel-cobalt development project and will produce approximately 90,000 tpa (tons per annum) of battery grade nickel and cobalt sulphate for the burgeoning electric vehicle market. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is possibly safe when used together with other ingredients in an eye drop. (
  • In addition, availability of substitutes, such as Ayurvedic or natural ingredients, are hinders the sodium lauryl sulfate market growth. (
  • It is often used in combination with other ingredients, including manganese ascorbate, glucosamine sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, or N-acetyl glucosamine. (
  • The increasing demand for the ingredients for fragrance is projected to drive the growth prospects in the crude sulfate turpentine market in the near future. (
  • Dove understands the value of care that goes further, from your hair strands to your scalp Soothe scalp dryness and treat your hair to the nourishment it deserves with Dove Hair Therapy Dry Scalp Care Shampoo - part of our sulphate-free collection powered by scientifically proven ingredients. (
  • Cuticle Lissé paraben- and sulfate-free shampoos are gentle and safe for your hair extensions, and contain ingredients that will infuse a new life into them. (
  • Copper sulfate is used to supply crops with copper, an essential nutrient. (
  • Copper sulfate is commonly used in gardening and agriculture as a fungicide and fertilizer. (
  • Used in the correct concentrations, copper sulfate prevents damage to plants from mold and fungi. (
  • Plants growing in soils that are deficient in copper will benefit from the application of a copper sulfate-based fertilizer. (
  • However, overuse of copper sulfate -- or other copper-based products -- can cause a toxic buildup of copper in the soil, resulting in a variety of negative effects. (
  • Copper sulfate-based fertilizers and sprays are commonly used to correct copper-deficient soils. (
  • When used in the correct amounts, copper sulfate prevents a variety of problems. (
  • When used in combination with regular soil testing, copper sulfate acts as a preventative deterrent to these problems. (
  • The overapplication of copper sulfate in an area has a lasting negative impact on plants growing there. (
  • One of the potential negative effects of copper sulfate includes leaf discoloration, characterized by dark green leaves followed by white discoloration and resulting from induced iron chlorosis. (
  • The overuse of copper sulfate can also result in root damage, characterized by short, thick, stub-like growths of root. (
  • The root damage caused by the overapplication of copper sulfate can result in overall wilting, reduced growth or death of the plant. (
  • Copper sulfate-based fungicides are typically delivered as foliant sprays that are mixed with water and another chemical-hydrated lime or soda ash. (
  • Used in this fashion, copper sulfate can act as a protective barrier against invasive fungi or a removal agent if used shortly after the initial fungal infection. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Acute copper sulphate poisoning. (
  • Acute copper sulphate poisoning. (
  • Photographed in 1964, in an unidentified location on the Caribbean island of Puerto Rico, this Puerto Rican health care field worker was in the process of applying copper sulfate to this waterway, in order to control the parasitic population of schistosomes, responsible for causing human schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, and bilharzia. (
  • The global chondroitin sulfate market size was valued at USD 1.17 billion in 2020 and is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3.0% from 2020 to 2028. (
  • What does dimethyl sulfate do to DNA? (
  • DNA Footprinting Dimethyl sulfate (DMS) methylates guanine residues at the N7 position (accessible through the major groove of DNA) and, with a reduced efficiency, adenine residues at the N3 position (protruding through the minor groove). (
  • How do you make dimethyl sulfate? (
  • Dimethyl sulfate can be synthesized in the laboratory by many different methods, the simplest being the esterification of sulfuric acid with methanol: 2 CH3OH + H2SO4 → (CH3)2SO4 + 2 H2O. (
  • Methylations are commonly performed using electrophilic methyl sources such as iodomethane, dimethyl sulfate, dimethyl carbonate, or tetramethylammonium chloride. (
  • Human data on the carcinogenic effects of dimethyl sulfate are inadequate. (
  • Tumors have been observed in the nasal passages, lungs, and thorax of animals exposed to dimethyl sulfate by inhalation. (
  • EPA has classified dimethyl sulfate as a Group B2, probable human carcinogen. (
  • Dimethyl sulfate : health and safety guide. (
  • PLAQUENIL (hydroxychloroquine sulfate) tablets contain 200 mg hydroxychloroquine. (
  • HOW SUPPLIED: Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Tablets, USP are available containing 200 mg of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, USP, equivalent to 155 mg of base One tablet of hydroxychloroquine sulfate, 200 mg, is equivalent to 155 mg base. (
  • The molecular weight of hydroxychloroquine sulfate is 433.95, and molecular formula is hydroxychloroquine sulfate class C 18 H 26 ClN 3 O.H 2 SO 4. (
  • Hydroxychloroquine Sulfate Tablets, USP contain 200 mg hydroxychloroquine sulfate, equivalent to 155 mg base, and are for oral administration. (
  • While both materials contain 100% sulfate sulfur, there are key differences: One is largely a fertilizer, and the other is largely a soil amendment. (
  • Sulfates are naturally occurring chemical compounds comprised of sulfur and oxygen molecules. (
  • Sulfates are added to shampoos because of their ability to separate dirt and oil from your hair. (
  • Here are some reasons why you should make the switch to any our paraben- and sulfate-free shampoos today. (
  • Let's explore some paraben- and sulfate-free shampoos! (
  • Since 2014, Moldova Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Imports rose 60.8% year on year. (
  • How does Moldova rank in Ammonium Sulphate Fertilizer Imports? (
  • Aluminum Sulfate Fertilizer - Where to buy Aluminum Sulfate Granules Fertilizer - 5 - 50 Lb - $16.95 for Sale with Fast Free Shipping! (
  • Aluminum Sulfate Granules Fertilizer - 5 - 50 Lb help lower the PH as desired by acid loving plants and turns hydrangea blooms to blue. (
  • Electrolytic solution from electrolysis of zinc sulfate consisting primarily of zinc sulfate, manganese oxides and sulfuric acid. (
  • AMSBIO offers a comprehensive range of high quality Heparan Sulfate (HS) antibodies from F69-3G10, F58-10E4 and JM403 clones, which have been proven ideal for targeted binding of HS in Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPG) research. (
  • Heparan Sulfate is synthesized as the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) component of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans. (
  • We, will ship Southern Ag Brand for 5 lb bag or any kind of aluminum sulfate granular type for 50 lb bag depends on current stock. (
  • With so many choices for hair care today, what's different about sulfate free varieties of shampoo and conditioner? (
  • Living Proof's shampoo and conditioner set is sulfate free, silicone free, and oil free. (
  • In addition to its sulfate free commitment, Pravana's shampoo and conditioner arrive in biodegradable containers. (
  • Moreover, some products contain a negligible amount of chondroitin sulfate and among samples with reasonable amounts, in vitro testing showed widely varying effects. (
  • Sodium chondroitin sulfate is widely used in the nutraceutical industry as a dietary supplement for the treatment of osteoarthritis and joint pain. (
  • Toxicity from sodium lauryl sulfate remains a key hindrance factor for the market growth as it causes skin irritation and eye damage. (
  • There isn't much info about the toxicity of guanidinium sulfate, though it's best to handle it with care. (
  • Zinc Sulphate Monohydrate can be applied to the crops at the time of sowing and in the standing crops. (
  • Stellantis and Element 25 announced today the signing of a binding agreement for Element 25 to supply battery-grade, high-purity manganese sulphate monohydrate to Stellantis for use in electric vehicle (EV) battery packs. (
  • Using just one fixed frequency may remove some, but not all, especially long established-hardened sulfate crystals. (
  • Short UV cutoff edges of 206 nm and below 190 nm are observed for bulk ZFSO and HFSO crystals, respectively, together with the strongest powder SHG responses (3.2 × (ZFSO) and 2.5 × KDP (HFSO)) for solar-blind UV/DUV NLO sulfates , as well as suitable birefringence . (
  • Embolism After Injection of a Calcium Sulfate Bone Graft Sub. (
  • The concentration of Vincristine Sulphate Injection is 1 mg/mL. (
  • Withdraw the solution of Vincristine Sulfate Injection, USP into an accurate dry syringe, measuring the dose carefully. (
  • Purchase paraben- and sulfate-free hair extension shampoo from Cuticle Lissé to maximize the life of your hair extensions by keeping them healthy and beautiful for as long as possible. (
  • Heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes are key components in generating a myriad of distinct heparan sulfate fine structures that carry out multiple biologic activities. (
  • The enzyme encoded by this gene is a member of the heparan sulfate biosynthetic enzyme family. (
  • It is a type II integral membrane protein and possesses heparan sulfate glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase activity. (
  • The sulfotransferase domain of this enzyme is highly similar to the same domain of heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase 3B1, and these two enzymes sulfate an identical disaccharide. (
  • Placental expression of heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase-3A1 in normotensive and pre-eclamptic pregnancies. (
  • Heparan sulfate D-glucosaminyl 3-O-sulfotransferase-3A sulfates N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues. (
  • 3G10 antibody staining (green) for Heparan Sulfate on HUES7 cells following Heparinase III digestion (image courtesy of the Merry Lab, University of Nottingham UK. (
  • To assist researchers, AMSBIO has produced an 'Applications Guide for Heparan Sulfate Antibodies' that brings together a wide range of information including protocols, results, and citations from customers working in this area. (
  • In addition, the guide provides an informative introduction to applications of JM403, 10E4, and 3G10 Heparan Sulfate antibodies, including use of the 10E4 and JM-403 clones together in ELISA to detect or measure HS. (
  • To download the Applications Guide please visit or contact AMSBIO on +44-1235-828200 / +1-617-945-5033 / [email protected] (
  • Heparan Sulfate-Bound Dimeric IL-2: A Potential Mediator of Renal Isch" by Lauren A. Dixon, John D. Miller et al. (
  • Our laboratory has shown that IL-2 is retained in tissues by heparan sulfate (HS). (
  • Topical oatmeal has an anti-inflammatory effect on sodium lauryl sulfate induced skin irritation. (
  • However, sulfates can cause irritation of the eyes, skin and lungs if used improperly or if used in large quantities over a long period of time. (
  • Gentamicin sulfate is a mixture of sulfate salts of the antibiotics produced in this fermentation. (
  • Porcine chondroitin sulfate sodium is powder of white to yellowish clolor, and is extremely hygroscopic once dried. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is available as pharmaceutical- and nutraceutical-grade products, and the latter have great variations in preparation, composition, purity and effects. (
  • It is therefore vitally important that only pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin sulfate be used for treating osteoarthritis patients. (
  • Taking chondroitin sulfate together with glucosamine hydrochloride might reduce blood levels of glucosamine. (
  • It's also not clear if this interaction occurs with other forms of glucosamine, such as glucosamine sulfate. (
  • Experts agree that a daily 1,500 mg dose of glucosamine sulfate is generally safe and well tolerated-the main exception being for pregnant and nursing mothers. (
  • Stick with national brands when selecting a product, and make sure you're buying glucosamine sulfate, rather than glucosamine hydrochloride. (
  • An injectable solution containing chondroitin sulfate and sodium hyaluronate is approved by the FDA to protect the eye during cataract surgery. (
  • Gentamicin Sulfate Solution is recommended for the control of bacterial infections of the uterus (metritis) in horses and as an aid in improving conception in mares with uterine infections caused by bacteria sensitive to gentamicin. (
  • If hypersensitivity to any of the components develops, or if overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria, fungi, or yeasts occurs, treatment with Gentamicin Sulfate Solution should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. (
  • Laboratory analyses of mine samples identify the presence of sulphate, which is a determinant for sulphate reducing bacteria activity. (
  • Identification of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) would provide evidence for microbial influenced corrosion in this mine. (
  • Like all Pureology formulas, Strength Cure Blonde features a 100% vegan formula, and is sulfate-free and mineral oil-free. (
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is an anionic surfactant with the chemical formula C12 (CH2) 11SO4Na, which has a molecule containing 12 carbon atoms attached to a sodium group. (
  • Guanidinium sulfate , incorrectly referred to as guanidine sulfate , is a colorless solid with the chemical formula C 2 H 12 N 6 O 4 S or (C(NH 2 ) 3 ) 2 SO 4 , often shorted to (Gdm) 2 SO 4 . (
  • Hydrate weightlessly with a sulfate free formula from Living Proof. (
  • Sodium chondroitin sulfate is also used in dietary supplements and food products as thickeners, additives, forming agents, preservatives, in health food, and in animal feed. (
  • There is concern that some chondroitin sulfate products are not labeled accurately. (
  • Do Kérastase products have sulfates? (
  • In addition, worldwide policies that restrict human mobility have also led to disruption in the provision of personal care products and reduced the demand for sodium lauryl sulfate. (
  • Moreover, sodium lauryl sulfate acts as an ascending agent, foam agent, conditioning agent, and precipitation agent in cosmetic products. (
  • In practical terms, sulfates are used to strip away unwanted oils and other impurities from hair or to allow products to absorb into the skin more easily. (
  • As for sulfate alternatives, we believe that harsh stripping products are not a necessary component of a healthy beauty regimen. (
  • This is another reason why many consumers opt to choose sulfate-free products. (
  • This rising income further boosts demand for personal care products and thus brings numerous growth opportunities in the crude sulfate turpentine market in the following years. (
  • Should you be worried about sulfates in your hair products? (
  • all their products are free of Sodium Laureth Sulfate and Sodium Laurel Sulfate. (
  • Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4MgSO4) attack is a major problem in geotechnical engineering projects, as exposure to sulfate can affect soil integrity. (
  • In addition, sodium lauryl sulfate is used in cosmetics, industrial cleansers, soaps, and cosmetics to create bubbles and foam. (
  • Shampoo contains no sulphate cleansers, no drying soaps and no scalp irritants. (
  • Magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate has an average rating of 7.1 out of 10 from a total of 1,628 ratings on (
  • Suprep Bowel Prep Kit (magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate) for Bowel Preparation 'Don't get anxiety over the whole colonoscopy and prep! (
  • Suprep Bowel Prep Kit (magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate) for Bowel Preparation '- stop eating seeds, nuts, popcorn, chips a week ahead - reduce veggies and high fiber foods - two days before eat light. (
  • Suprep Bowel Prep Kit (magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate) for Bowel Preparation 'Okay, I rushed over here to assure y'all that it is NOT THAT BAD! (
  • Suprep Bowel Prep Kit (magnesium sulfate / potassium sulfate / sodium sulfate) for Bowel Preparation 'As a patient, who has to have colonoscopies every 2 years, and as an endoscopy nurse , who assists in hundreds of these every year, I have a very helpful suggestion for drinking the prep. (
  • Oral zinc sulphate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception. (
  • Chondroitin sulfate is most commonly used by adults in doses of 800-1200 mg per day, for up to 2 years. (