Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Deep Brain Stimulation: Therapy for MOVEMENT DISORDERS, especially PARKINSON DISEASE, that applies electricity via stereotactic implantation of ELECTRODES in specific areas of the BRAIN such as the THALAMUS. The electrodes are attached to a neurostimulator placed subcutaneously.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Nerve Tissue ProteinsHippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Cerebellum: The part of brain that lies behind the BRAIN STEM in the posterior base of skull (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR). It is also known as the "little brain" with convolutions similar to those of CEREBRAL CORTEX, inner white matter, and deep cerebellar nuclei. Its function is to coordinate voluntary movements, maintain balance, and learn motor skills.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Inbred C57BLImmunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Encephalitis: Inflammation of the BRAIN due to infection, autoimmune processes, toxins, and other conditions. Viral infections (see ENCEPHALITIS, VIRAL) are a relatively frequent cause of this condition.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Brain Diseases, Metabolic: Acquired or inborn metabolic diseases that produce brain dysfunction or damage. These include primary (i.e., disorders intrinsic to the brain) and secondary (i.e., extracranial) metabolic conditions that adversely affect cerebral function.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Central Nervous System: The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Brain Tissue Transplantation: Transference of brain tissue, either from a fetus or from a born individual, between individuals of the same species or between individuals of different species.Astrocytoma: Neoplasms of the brain and spinal cord derived from glial cells which vary from histologically benign forms to highly anaplastic and malignant tumors. Fibrillary astrocytomas are the most common type and may be classified in order of increasing malignancy (grades I through IV). In the first two decades of life, astrocytomas tend to originate in the cerebellar hemispheres; in adults, they most frequently arise in the cerebrum and frequently undergo malignant transformation. (From Devita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2013-7; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1082)Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Septum of Brain: GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Telencephalon: The anterior subdivision of the embryonic PROSENCEPHALON or the corresponding part of the adult prosencephalon that includes the cerebrum and associated structures.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Caudate Nucleus: Elongated gray mass of the neostriatum located adjacent to the lateral ventricle of the brain.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Postmortem Changes: Physiological changes that occur in bodies after death.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Amygdala: Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Carbon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Mesencephalon: The middle of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain. Without further subdivision, midbrain develops into a short, constricted portion connecting the PONS and the DIENCEPHALON. Midbrain contains two major parts, the dorsal TECTUM MESENCEPHALI and the ventral TEGMENTUM MESENCEPHALI, housing components of auditory, visual, and other sensorimoter systems.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the PROSENCEPHALON from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.tau Proteins: Microtubule-associated proteins that are mainly expressed in neurons. Tau proteins constitute several isoforms and play an important role in the assembly of tubulin monomers into microtubules and in maintaining the cytoskeleton and axonal transport. Aggregation of specific sets of tau proteins in filamentous inclusions is the common feature of intraneuronal and glial fibrillar lesions (NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; NEUROPIL THREADS) in numerous neurodegenerative disorders (ALZHEIMER DISEASE; TAUOPATHIES).Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, (September 2, 1998)).Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Hydroxyindoleacetic AcidNeurotransmitter Agents: Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Connectome: A comprehensive map of the physical interconnections of an organism's neural networks. This modular organization of neuronal architecture is believed to underlie disease mechanisms and the biological development of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Gerbillinae: A subfamily of the Muridae consisting of several genera including Gerbillus, Rhombomys, Tatera, Meriones, and Psammomys.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Putamen: The largest and most lateral of the BASAL GANGLIA lying between the lateral medullary lamina of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and the EXTERNAL CAPSULE. It is part of the neostriatum and forms part of the LENTIFORM NUCLEUS along with the GLOBUS PALLIDUS.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Oximes: Compounds that contain the radical R2C=N.OH derived from condensation of ALDEHYDES or KETONES with HYDROXYLAMINE. Members of this group are CHOLINESTERASE REACTIVATORS.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Rats, Inbred F344Lateral Ventricles: Cavity in each of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES derived from the cavity of the embryonic NEURAL TUBE. They are separated from each other by the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM, and each communicates with the THIRD VENTRICLE by the foramen of Monro, through which also the choroid plexuses (CHOROID PLEXUS) of the lateral ventricles become continuous with that of the third ventricle.Memory Disorders: Disturbances in registering an impression, in the retention of an acquired impression, or in the recall of an impression. Memory impairments are associated with DEMENTIA; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ENCEPHALITIS; ALCOHOLISM (see also ALCOHOL AMNESTIC DISORDER); SCHIZOPHRENIA; and other conditions.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Myelin Sheath: The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Ependyma: A thin membrane that lines the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES and the central canal of the SPINAL CORD.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
House suggests checking his brain for clots. When the team suggests he is too heavy for both the MRI and CT scanner, he ... he suggests brain surgery. During the procedure, the patient becomes blind. The team suggest this could be MS, while House ... During the differential diagnosis, Foreman suggests the problem is hormonal while Cameron suggests the problem is STD-related. ... House suggests getting a full medical history and checking out his home looking for environmental stimuli that might have ...
scientists study of brain gene sparks a backlash Balter, M. (2006). "BRUCE LAHN PROFILE: Brain Man Makes Waves with Claims of ... While Neanderthals have been suggested as the possible source of this haplotype, the haplotype was not found in the individuals ... Neanderthal Brains - a lecture by Bruce Lahn - from the NYAS podcasts. Passemard, Sandrine; Kaindl, Angela M; Titomanlio, Luigi ... Hence it has been assumed that variants have a role in brain development, but in normal individuals no effect on mental ability ...
Philosophers, he suggests, may have made the error of hypostatizing simplicity (i.e., endowed it with a sui generis existence ... Smart, J. J. C. (1959). "Sensations and Brain Processes". The Philosophical Review. 68 (2): 141-156. doi:10.2307/2182164. JSTOR ... It has been suggested that Occam's razor is a widely accepted example of extraevidential consideration, even though it is ... In his article "Sensations and Brain Processes" (1959), J. J. C. Smart invoked Occam's razor with the aim to justify his ...
"Brain disorder suggests common mechanism may underlie many neurodegenerative diseases". 11 January 2009. This article ... Arp1 has been suggested as the domain for dynactin binding to membrane vesicles (such as Golgi or late endosome) through its ... suggesting that dynactin contributes to the recruitment of important cell cycle regulators to centrosomes. In addition to ... is also involved in anchoring microtubules to centrosomes and may play a role in synapse formation during brain development. ...
Research suggests that reading on paper still boasts unique advantages. "Student response to digital textbooks climbs, says new ... Jabr, Ferris (11 April 2013). "The reading brain in the digital age: the science of paper vs. screens". Scientific American. ... However, students are growing more exposed to digital textbooks, and new research suggests that student performance is about ...
2003-11-24). "First dinosaur brain tumor found, experts suggest". National Geographic News. Retrieved 2008-02-07. "Meet the ... Gregory S. Paul has suggested that Gorgosaurus libratus is ancestral to Albertosaurus sarcophagus. Below is the cladogram of ... Holtz has suggested this pattern indicates shared ecological preferences between tyrannosaurines, chasmosaurines and ... Differences in the shape of bones surrounding the brain set Gorgosaurus apart from Albertosaurus. Gorgosaurus teeth were ...
Jonny suggests activating Gargantuan, but it lacks protocols. Buzz comes to the solution of inputting Frankenstein Jr.'s brain ... They merge the brain and body, and take off for California. At the F.E.A.R. base, Doctor Quest is being held as a prisoner, but ...
Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to be associated with depression. Research suggests that increasing ... This is thought to be a way for the body to try to deal with the depressed state, and suggests that expression of HDAC2, and ... Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophic growth factor that is important for the growth and survival of ... This suggests that long-term treatment of HDAC inhibitors help in the treatment of depression. Some studies show that ...
This suggests that the PIM enzymes are important for body growth. Experiments have implicated that PIM1 and PIM2 are necessary ... PIM2 is expressed with high levels in the brain and lymphoid cells. PIM1-3 compound knockout mice that survived the perinatal ... The SAR suggests that the addition of potential hydrogen bonding groups at the R1 and R2 positions dramatically increases ...
... which resulted in an increase in brain size, decreased temporal muscle mass. The decrease in muscle allowed for the brain to ... A second hypothesis suggests that the SRGAP2 gene is responsible instead. The inhibition of this gene allows for an increase in ... Research suggests that homeobox genes are mainly responsible for much of the variance in tooth morphogenesis observed in ... Another theory suggests that post-canine megadontia resulted from the spatial reassignment by homeobox genes that increased ...
... affect dopamine levels in the brain. A 2005 study suggested that up to 44% of people with ADHD had comorbid (i.e. coexisting) ... "Neuropathological examination suggests impaired brain iron acquisition in restless legs syndrome". Neurology. 61 (3): 304-9. ... a prodrug of dopamine that can cross the blood-brain barrier and is metabolized in the brain into dopamine (as well as other ... Research and brain autopsies have implicated both dopaminergic system and iron insufficiency in the substantia nigra. Iron is ...
Experimental research suggests that adolescent nicotine use may harm brain development. Children exposed to nicotine may have a ... Nicotine also has been shown to have significant deleterious effects on brain development, including alterations in brain ... it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and crosses the blood-brain barrier reaching the brain within 10-20 seconds ... A 2016 review suggests that "the risks of nicotine without tobacco combustion products (cigarette smoke) are low compared to ...
Some research suggests that lamivudine can cross the blood-brain barrier. Lamivudine is often given in combination with ... The COLATE study has suggested that there is no benefit to continuing lamivudine treatment in patients with lamivudine ...
For Huxley (1825-1895) the conscious mind was a by-product of the brain that has no influence upon the brain, a so-called ... He suggests that circular causation is a more relevant concept in this regard than linear causation. Consciousness and neural ... The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2009 ed.). Georg Northoff (2004). Philosophy of the Brain: The Brain Problem ( ... Zeman, A. (2001). "Consciousness". Brain. 124 (7): 1263-1289. doi:10.1093/brain/124.7.1263. PMID 11408323. Schiff, Nicholas D ...
That is, neural representations across the brain may be centered on specific actions. This view on neural representations puts ... This parcellation of the systems appear intuitive and clear, but recent studies [beginning with Taine 1870!] … suggest that ... Ostrovsky, et al., "Vision following extended congenital blindness", Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences Massachusetts ... but since Molyneux does not suggest any action, his 'problem' may be better viewed as an ill-posed question-at least from a ...
Several studies suggest that TDCPP may be carcinogenic. Rodents that were fed TDCPP over two years showed increased tumor ... TDCPP may affect brain development and function via the thyroid system. Thyroid hormones are critical for normal growth and ... The developing brain in particular is highly sensitive to thyroid hormone disruptions. Disruptions to the thyroid system of ... In a developing organism, these effects could change the way the brain cells communicate and function, resulting in permanent ...
Studies suggest that specific areas of the brain are known to either elicit (or inhibit in the case of lesions) freezing ... It can be suggested from these results that inhibition of serotonin can decrease freezing behavior and, also, anxiety. Not only ... This suggests that antipsychotic drugs alter freezing behavior, making the rats more sensitive to fear stimulus, for example. ... That suggests that neurotransmitters, in general, play a role in freezing behavior. Several investigations show that freezing ...
This suggests that astrocytes have an executive-coordinating role in the brain. Nervous system repair: Upon injury to nerve ... Astrocytomas are brain tumors that develop from astrocytes. They may occur in many parts of the brain and sometimes in the ... are characteristic star-shaped glial cells in the brain and spinal cord. The proportion of astrocytes in the brain is not well ... Brain Res. Dev. Brain Res. 44 (1): 95-108. doi:10.1016/0165-3806(88)90121-6. PMID 3069243. Voigt T (November 1989). " ...
In the case where infectious agents are directly introduced to the brain or cross the blood-brain barrier, microglial cells ... This suggests that the sensome not only plays a role in various developmental disorders, but also requires tight regulation in ... Davis EJ, Foster TD, Thomas WE (1994). "Cellular forms and functions of brain microglia". Brain Research Bulletin. 34 (1): 73-8 ... Gehrmann J, Matsumoto Y, Kreutzberg GW (March 1995). "Microglia: intrinsic immuneffector cell of the brain". Brain Research. ...
Mole, Beth (June 20, 2016). "Billion-dollar brain training industry a sham - nothing but placebo, study suggests". Ars Technica ... Gunter, Tracy D. (2014). "Can We Trust Consumers With Their Brains? Popular Cognitive Neuroscience, Brain Images, Self-Help And ... The launch of Brain Age in 2005 marked a change in the field, as prior to this products or services were marketed to fairly ... By 2012, "brain training" was a $1 billion industry, and was projected to reach $6B by 2020. In 2013 the market was $1.3 ...
Changes in brain structure were also found. The researchers concluded that "[t]he experiences of a parent, even before ... Neuroscientific research on mice suggests that some experiences can influence subsequent generations. In a study, mice trained ...
Virtual Fly Brain Pigment dispersing factor Ganglion mother cell Alivisatos, A Paul; Chun, Miyoung; Church, George M; Greenspan ... "A visual motion detection circuit suggested by Drosophila connectomics". Nature. 500 (7461): 175-181. doi:10.1038/nature12450. ... The Drosophila connectome, once completed, will be a complete list of the roughly 135,000 neurons in the brain of the fruit fly ... Drosophila looks very good on these counts: The brain contains about 135,000 neurons, small enough to be reconstructed in the ...
More recent research suggests that the contaminator was Griaule himself. Astronomer Carl Sagan touched upon the issue in his ... CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) , Fall 1978 Sagan, Carl (1986-02-12) [1979]. Broca's Brain: Reflections on ... An apparent "third star" observed in the 1920s is now confirmed as a background object, something previously suggested by ... book Broca's Brain (1979), seeing problems in Temple's hypothesis. As an example, Sagan believes that because the Dogon seem to ...
This suggests that IRX3 influences obesity. Manipulation of IRX3 and IRX5 pathways has also been shown to decrease obesity ... Obesity-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms are related to the expression of IRX3 (not FTO) in the human brain. A direct ...
Recent evidence suggests that immune molecules modulate brain systems differently across the lifespan. Cytokines and chemokines ... is critically involved in neuroinflammation and T cell recruitment in the brain, contributing to exacerbation of brain injury. ... Other studies suggest that eventual seminal regulator targets may be identified allowing with alterations to the massive ... For example, brain cytokine levels increase following stress exposure, while treatments designed to alleviate stress reverse ...
Current models of perception have suggested that the brain performs some form of Bayesian inference and integration of ... The brain seems to be able to discriminate and adapt particularly well in certain contexts. For instance, human beings seem to ... Michael A. Arbib; Shun-ichi Amari; Prudence H. Arbib (2002). The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Cambridge, ... Blue Brain, a project founded by Henry Markram from the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, aims to construct a ...
Major surgery was also found to age the brain by an average of four months and three days Credit: Getty ... Brain implants could allow companies and politicians to access thoughts and mood, Royal Society warns ... Doctors and scientists have long feared that general anaesthetic, mini-strokes or inflammation may damage the brain during ... Exercising for 30 minutes four times a week may delay brain deterioration in pre-Alzheimers patients ...
John McCains brain tumor and the after-midnight timing of the vote were factors in the Arizona lawmakers decisive vote ... Ron Johnson suggested that fellow Republican Sen. John McCains brain tumor and the after-midnight timing of the vote were ... Johnson suggested that John McCains brain tumor and the after-midnight timing of the vote were factors in the Arizona ... He has a brain tumor right now. That vote occurred at 1:30 in the morning. Some of that might have factored in, Wisconsins ...
Following a Mediterranean diet could prevent the brain shrinking in old age and help prevent cognitive decline, a new study ... "Our brains shrink by 1-2 per cent per year in old age and this study suggests that a Mediterranean-style diet could also ... "While the evidence suggests a Mediterranean diet can help keep your brain healthy as you age, we cant yet say that it prevents ... This study adds to the body of evidence that suggests the Mediterranean diet has a positive impact on brain health… and may be ...
... thats if the drug causes the same chemical and structural changes in human brains as it does in mice ... Mouse brains suggest Ritalin is addictive. Life 4 February 2009 TAKE Ritalin for fun and you run the risk of addiction. Thats ... a brain region stimulated by all addictive drugs (Proceedings of the National Academy of … ... if the drug causes the same chemical and structural changes in human brains as it does in mice. ...
New imaging technology suggests an experimental drug for Alzheimers reduces clumps of plaque in the brain by around 25 percent ... LONDON (Reuters) - New imaging technology suggests an experimental drug for Alzheimers reduces clumps of plaque in the brain ... The treatment was generally well tolerated, although two patients on the highest dose had transient brain swelling. The drugs ... Most advanced drugs, like bapineuzumab, have focused on removing clumps of amyloid plaques, which are thought to stop brain ...
"These findings suggest that trafficking of specific cargoes inside brain cells may be a general problem in a variety of ... Brain Disorder Suggests Common Mechanism May Underlie Neurodegenerative Diseases. by Sam Savage ... "Understanding why distinct neurons are selectively vulnerable to neurodegeneration in different brain disorders is one of the ... And because Perry syndrome resembles many other neurodegenerative diseases, the findings suggest breakdowns along the cells ...
... February 14, 2017. February 14, 2017. SEAN DUFFY ... brains - which revealed that four of the six brains examined had chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or CTE. All of the brains ... brain, Inter1, soccer. (CN) - The risk of developing serious brain diseases among athletes of sports other than football could ... The rate of CTE identified in the subjects brains far exceeds the 12 percent average found in a previous survey of 268 brains ...
... a doctor who studied Benoits brain said Wednesday. ... Pro wrestler Chris Benoit suffered brain damage from his years ... Benoits brain showed the same degenerative processes that doctors working for the institute found in the brains of four men ... killing brain and nerve cells. Tangles throughout Benoits brain were telltale signals to doctors that he suffered from ... Indeed, by the time the 40-year-old Benoit killed himself, he had the brain of a man aged 80 or older with "very severe" ...
Being trained in music before age 7 could hold major brain benefits, acc... ... The study suggested that children who practiced music at a young age tended to have more white matter in a part of the brain ... Being trained in music before age 7 could hold major brain benefits, according to a new study published in the Journal of ... Even though evidence is thin that listening to classical music at a young age really does anything for the brain, learning to ...
If multitasking does indeed damage the anterior cingulate cortex (a key brain region for EQ) as current research suggests, it ... If multitasking does indeed damage the anterior cingulate cortex (a key brain region for EQ) as current research suggests, it ... While more research is needed to determine if multitasking is physically damaging the brain (versus existing brain damage that ... While more research is needed to determine if multitasking is physically damaging the brain (versus existing brain damage that ...
Traumatic brain injury raises dementia risk, large study suggests BMJ 2018; 361 :k1597 ... Traumatic brain injury raises dementia risk, large study suggests. BMJ 2018; 361 doi: ( ... People who have sustained a traumatic brain injury have a higher risk of developing dementia and Alzheimers disease, a ... 1 the study is one of the first to have a sufficient sample size and follow-up time to assess the effects of traumatic brain ...
Traumatic brain injury raises dementia risk, large study suggests BMJ 2018; 361 :k1597 ... Traumatic brain injury raises dementia risk, large study suggests. BMJ 2018; 361 doi: ( ...
Differences in brain connectivity may help explain the social impairments common in those who have autism spectrum disorders, ... Study Suggests Key Brain "Networks" May Differ in Autism. Differences in brain connectivity may help explain the social ... Study Suggests Key Brain "Networks" May Differ in Autism Differences in brain connectivity may help explain the social ... Study Suggests Key Brain Networks May Differ in Autism. Kathleen Doheny, HealthDay Published 11:15 a.m. MT April 24, 2014 , ...
People who exercise later in life may better protect their brain from age-related changes than those who do not, a study ... Greater brain shrinkage is linked to problems with memory and thinking and the researchers say their findings suggest that ... The Edinburgh team used MRI scans to measure the volume of brain tissue and the volume and health of the brains white matter ... The researchers also examined the brains white matter - the wiring that transmits messages round the brain. They found that ...
In fact, a new study suggests the genre has tremendous effects on brain function. According to researchers at Cambridge ... The researchers reportedly discovered that freestyling put the brain in a unique "flow state" that triggers "parts of the brain ... This type of stimulation can reportedly impact the lives of those seriously coping with brain damage and illness, DM reports. ... University, hip-hop can treat neurological illness and improve all-around brain function. ...
By Elizabeth Norton The ability to recognize faces is so important in humans that the brain appears to have an area solely ... Facial Recognition: Fusiform Gyrus Brain Region Solely Devoted To Faces, Study Suggests. ... Stanford neurologist Josef Parvizi suggested some tests to locate the source of the seizures-and also suggested that it might ... Facial Recognition: Fusiform Gyrus Brain Region Solely Devoted To Faces, Study Suggests ...
... and the brain area that mediates their negative emotions is under better control ... The exact cause of this difference between young and old brains remains unclear, but experiments in rodents have suggested that ... Genetic studies suggest alcohol isnt linked to breast cancer afterall * What if there was no big bang and we live in an ever- ... The brain recordings also found that a region associated with emotion control - called the medial prefrontal cortex - was more ...
People who believe they can learn from their mistakes have a different brain reaction to errors than those who dont, new ... Learning from mistakes is hardwired in brain, MSU study suggests. Updated Oct 4, 2011. ; Posted Oct 4, 2011. ... "This finding is exciting in that it suggests people who think they can learn from mistakes have brains that are more tuned to ... The participant wore a cap that records electrical activity in the brain. When someone makes a mistake, their brain makes two ...
Tweaking dietary fat intake could help slow brain aging, study suggests. Dina Rudick/Globe Staff. ... "Our analysis suggests if you substitute out 5 percent of your saturated fat calories with 5 percent monounsaturated fats, you ... Something as simple as replacing a pat of butter on your bread with a drizzle of olive oil could help protect your brain health ... Women who had a high intake of saturated fat had brains that appeared 5 or 6 years older than their biological age, according ...
... is associated with the delayed development of five brain regions and should be considered a brain disorder, according to a ... Based on this, the researchers propose that ADHD is a disorder of the brain, and suggest that delays in the development of ... ADHD linked to delayed development of five brain regions, study suggests. *Download PDF Copy ... "The results from our study confirm that people with ADHD have differences in their brain structure and therefore suggest that ...
In fact, a clinical trial of the anti-PD-1 drug nivolumab recently opened to treat pediatric brain tumors. In early-phase ... The current study may hint at which pediatric brain cancer patients are most likely to see benefit from nivolumab or other anti ... The tumor, which occurs in the upper part of the brain, namely the cerebral hemisphere, has two common genetic causes. The ... Cancer lays the scientific groundwork for the use of PD-1 inhibitors with an aggressive form of brain cancer, namely ...
Research suggests vitamin D could affect brain function By Jeremy C. Fox Globe Correspondent,January 5, 2015, 12:00 a.m. ... go in the brain and how they shape the structure and the wiring of the brain," said researcher Rhonda P. Patrick. "Without ... A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D - present in some foods and produced naturally when skin is exposed to ... In successive experiments using synthesized DNA, then cells from human kidneys, then cells from the brains of rats and of ...
New research suggests that our ancestors traded physical strength for brainpower. ... New research suggests that humans ancestors diverted energy away from their muscles to create more powerful and complex brains ... How the brain evolved. To gain insights into how the human brain evolved, scientists compared the metabolisms of humans and ... The most powerful computer known is the brain. The human brain possesses about 100 billion neurons with about 1 quadrillion - 1 ...
... meekerdb Thu, 23 May 2013 10:44:52 -0700 ... But then, the whole point Im making is that the information in your brain that makes you feel something comes not out of thin ... Re: That the mind works even after the brain ceases to fu... Russell Standish ... Re: That the mind works even after the brain ceases ... Richard Ruquist ...
Yale researchers found that the coronavirus can directly infect brain cells, potentially eliciting neurological symptoms - such ... post-mortem brain tissue from COVID-19 patients and brain organoids -- artificially-grown mini brains. ... suggesting that brain-specific treatments might be warranted for diseases like COVID-19. ... Post-mortem brain tissue of patients who died due to COVID-19 served as a way to verify whether observations from the other ...
  • While organoids have the limitation of not accounting for all cell types found in the brain, the mouse model is more physiologically representative. (
  • In cerebral organoids generated from stem cells of patients with schizophrenia, (image on the right), disruption in the layers of stem cell (red) surrounding the brain-like ventricles was evident as early as two weeks into the development of the organoids - roughly comparable to the first trimester of pregnancy. (
  • To find out, Stachowiak and colleague and spouse, Ewa Stachowiak, PhD, assistant professor of pathology and anatomical sciences, adapted mini-brain technology, growing in vitro miniature brain structures called cerebral organoids. (
  • We mimic this process in the laboratory with stem cells, focused specifically on developing the cerebral organoids that resemble the developing human brain in its earliest stages of growth," he said. (
  • To find out if it was having an impact on the brain scientists gathered dietary information for 401 70-year-olds and then scanned their brains at the age of 73 and 76, measuring brain volume and the thickness of the cerebral cortex. (
  • They found that high multitaskers had less brain density in the anterior cingulate cortex, a region responsible for empathy as well as cognitive and emotional control. (
  • The brain recordings also found that a region associated with emotion control - called the medial prefrontal cortex - was more active in elderly people when they saw fearful faces than in younger people. (
  • The exact cause of this difference between young and old brains remains unclear, but experiments in rodents have suggested that chronically high levels of stress hormones called glucocorticoids can reduce medial prefrontal cortex activity. (
  • In typical kids, the cortex is "like a layer cake," he says "There are six layers, one on top of the other and in each layer there are different types of brain cells. (
  • In the brain tissue from typical children, the cortex had six distinct layers, each made up of a specific type of cell. (
  • These patches of disorganized cortex would have different effects on the brain depending on where they occur and how many there are, Courchesne says. (
  • Thus far, cross-sectional analyses indicate that tau filaments build up in the brain in much the same order as reported from neuropathology studies, only appearing in the cortex if Aβ plaques are present (see Mar 2016 news ). (
  • But shrinkage of the brain and its memory centers becomes particularly pronounced in dementia, and thinning of the cortex probably contributes to that. (
  • Imagine that you are removing the cortex of the brain, smoothing out its many folds (or sulci) and laying it flat on a table to measure its depth (which, in the medial temporal lobe, typically ranges from 2 to 3 millimeters, about the thickness of a pencil lead). (
  • Cortical refers to the cortex, or outer layer of the brain. (
  • They also cautiously suggest that the cortex might regain some thickness once smokers quit, but that this was not seen in all regions of the brain. (
  • But compelling evidence for brain regeneration began to surface in the 1960's with a report by MIT scientist Joseph Altman that the hippocampus of adult rats and guinea pigs and the cortex of cats indeed underwent a process termed neurogenesis, 1 i.e. the growth and development of nervous tissue. (
  • That made sense, he added, since increasing evidence has recently linked schizophrenia to abnormal functioning in the cortex, the largest part of the brain, which is responsible for such critical functions as memory, attention, cognition, language and consciousness. (
  • These brain areas are the thalamus and the insular cortex - both areas which analyze information that indicates a threat to the organism, such as pain or hunger. (
  • Doctors and scientists have long feared that general anaesthetic, mini-strokes or inflammation may damage the brain during surgery, but there has been little evidence to show a long-term impact. (
  • Scientists have known for some time that eating healthily can help stave off dementia but did not know how it protected the brain. (
  • To gain insights into how the human brain evolved, scientists compared the metabolisms of humans and animals such as chimpanzees , mice and rhesus monkeys. (
  • Until recently, anything scientists knew about tau filaments in the human brain came from postmortem analyses. (
  • Now that we know dinosaur brains can be preserved in this way, it might lead to further discoveries as scientists look back through museum collections to search for other specimens that could be studied in a similar way. (
  • The diplomats' brains were not scanned before they went to Cuba or even before they started reporting hearing bizarre noises, so scientists can't tell if anything changed in their brains after these events. (
  • Scientists have discovered a new form of brain activity related to how cells process information. (
  • Scientists discovered that an extra letter or "sixth nucleotide" was surprisingly abundant in DNA from stem cells and brain cells. (
  • The interaction along these lines is said to be two-way, with the gut microbiota playing an active role in processes linked to brain development and physiology, psychology and behaviour. (
  • First author Liang Wang and colleagues sought to fill in that gap by investigating the relationship between tau deposition, Aβ, and brain atrophy. (
  • Now we're finding it in brain atrophy," she added. (
  • Previous research on migraine patients has shown atrophy of cortical regions in the brain related to pain processing, possibly due to chronic stimulation of those areas. (
  • The significant difference in reduction of brain atrophy for Aubagio vs. placebo was maintained at month 24. (
  • Brain atrophy is the result of the destructive pathological processes that occur in MS. It is seen from the earliest stages of disease and leads to irreversible neurological and cognitive impairment. (
  • Their post-mortem diagnosis: Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE), a form of brain damage that is associated with blows to the head and was found in former NFLers Mike Webster, Terry Long, Andre Waters and Justin Strzelczyk. (
  • Power-laws have also been observed for neural activity, and so it has been proposed that SOC underlies brain organization as well. (
  • Our results suggest that neural activity in vivo shows a mélange of avalanches, and not temporally separated ones, and that their global activity propagation can be approximated by the principle that one spike on average triggers a little less than one spike in the next step. (
  • The ability to recognize faces is so important in humans that the brain appears to have an area solely devoted to the task: the fusiform gyrus. (
  • In successive experiments using synthesized DNA, then cells from human kidneys, then cells from the brains of rats and of humans, Haussler and Jurutka established that vitamin D produced effects consistent with Patrick and Ames's hypothesis: It enhanced the ability of the brain cells to produce serotonin by anywhere from double to 30 times as much, Haussler said. (
  • Humans possess more complex, powerful brains than humanity's closest living relatives, such as monkeys and apes. (
  • -Figuring out how to survive on a lean-season diet of hard-to-reach ants, slugs and other bugs may have spurred the development of bigger brains and higher-level cognitive functions in the ancestors of humans and other primates, suggests research from Washington University in St. Louis. (
  • Recent brain imaging studies in humans have tried to pinpoint the areas involved in this willful inhibition of the impulse to eat something highly desirable, with the goal of identifying targets for interventions that might somehow pump up the ability to resist yummy foods. (
  • Their finding that human rates were the slowest of the group led them to suggest that such a slow rate may account for a larger brain size in humans and possibly increased rates of cancer. (
  • He adds that slower rates of apoptosis in humans may account for longer life spans, which he says is also likely partly responsible for larger brains as it allows more time for learning and teaching offspring. (
  • Previously published gene expression analyses suggested that apoptotic function may be reduced in humans relative to chimpanzees and led to the hypothesis that this difference may contribute to the relatively larger size of the human brain and the increased propensity of humans to develop cancer. (
  • Are the cognitively superior brains of humans, in part, responsible for our higher rates of cancer? (
  • Haussler speculated that regulating serotonin in developing brains could potentially affect the development of autism or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Since these procedures are unavoidable in most cases, it's important to understand the mechanisms associated with the potentially toxic effects of anesthetics on the developing brain, and on the adult brain as well," said Shelley Halpain, a professor of biology at UC San Diego and the Sanford Consortium for Regenerative Medicine, who co-headed the investigation. (
  • We now have a strong indication they can carry on taking these potentially life-saving medicines after the brain hemorrhage without increasing the risk of another one, which is crucial new information for both patients and doctors. (
  • New research from the University of Michigan Medical School suggests that it might be possible to create a growth chart of brain networks that could identify early signs of attention difficulties and, potentially, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • Moreover, he says, the discovery suggests that p14 ARF could potentially become a therapeutic target in itself. (
  • we finally now have evidence that schizophrenia is a disorder that results from a fundamental alteration in the formation and structure of the brain. (
  • BUFFALO, N.Y . - Symptoms of schizophrenia usually appear in adolescence or young adulthood, but new research reveals that the brain disease likely begins very early in development, toward the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. (
  • After centuries of horrendous treatment, including even the jailing of patients, and after it has been characterized as everything from a disease of the spirit or moral values or caused by bad parental influence (a concept that appeared in psychiatric textbooks as recently as 1975) we finally now have evidence that schizophrenia is a disorder that results from a fundamental alteration in the formation and structure of the brain," Stachowiak said. (
  • This enabled the team to assess the processes that occur during early brain development in people with schizophrenia. (
  • According to the authors, these findings provide proof of concept that schizophrenia may be caused by a dysregulated genomic pathway that influences the brain before birth. (
  • New research shows that the schizophrenia risk gene ZNF804A influences brain structure and function during the early development of the fetus' brain. (
  • Ever since Santiago Ramón y Cajal, the father of neuroscience, declared "nothing may be regenerated" in the adult brain, the idea that you can repair or regenerate damaged brain tissue was precluded by this central dogma. (
  • Glioblastoma is a highly aggressive form of brain cancer with a survival rate generally less than 16 months. (
  • Glioblastoma multiforme is one of the most common and fatal types of primary brain cancer. (
  • Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a type of brain tumour. (
  • Our findings of CTE in retired footballers suggest a potential link between playing football and the development of degenerative brain pathologies in later life. (
  • The results suggest that heading the ball over many years, a form of repetitive sub-concussive head injury, can result in the development of CTE and dementia. (
  • The finding should bolster efforts to understand how genes control brain development and lead to autism. (
  • The overwhelming set of data is that the problems are existing during brain development, probably as an embryo or fetus," he says. (
  • That's not what you would expect with a disorder known to involve many different genes, presumably affecting many different aspects of brain development. (
  • The results, published in the July 16 online issue of Oncotarget , focus on a transcription factor called OLIG2 (Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor), known to play a critical role in brain tumor development. (
  • The results suggest that drug development efforts should be looked at from the perspective of signaling networks including critical hubs and identifying combination therapies to overcome resistance mechanisms," said Santosh Kesari, the study's senior author and the Chair of Translational Neuro-Oncology and Neurotherapeutics at the John Wayne Cancer Institute and the Pacific Neuroscience Institute, both located in Santa Monica. (
  • But when and how dysregulation of that pathway occurred and how it affected brain development was unknown. (
  • The new research may help lead to the development of a 'neuromarker' -- a way to use brain imaging to improve diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. (
  • The team created the experimental growth chart by mapping the development of brain networks in more than 500 children and teens. (
  • Growth charts enable a family and their physician to quickly spot problematic development, and when necessary, intervene appropriately," said team leader and U-M psychiatrist Chandra Sripada, M.D., Ph.D. "In the future, we want to provide clinicians with the same sort of guidance about brain development that we can about things like height and weight. (
  • The dynamic changes in cortical morphology across adolescence highlight the extraordinary plasticity of the brain during this period of development. (
  • Microcephaly is a typically rare birth defect marked by unusually small head size, signaling a problem with brain development. (
  • The paper is the first report on how the patterns of 5-hmC's distribution change in mouse brain during development, and also contains data on 5-hmC in DNA samples from human brain. (
  • The team explains that just one of these gene mutations can impact brain development. (
  • Rethinking The Brain Drain ," Discussion Papers 18770, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF). (
  • DCTN2 (dynamitin) is also involved in anchoring microtubules to centrosomes and may play a role in synapse formation during brain development. (
  • It also allowed the Iwasaki and Bilguvar group to see that the virus is able to use ACE2 receptors -- surface proteins that serve as the coronavirus's molecular gateway into human cells -- to infect brain cells and co-opt their reproductive machinery to multiply itself. (
  • Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanism behind the positive effects of an hypocaloric diet on the brain remained unknown till now. (
  • Sadly, this inoperable tumor of the brain stem, little known by the public, is almost always fatal, and efforts to develop life-saving treatments have been hampered by a lack of molecular data to identify agents that might specifically target DIPG. (
  • Now, using cell lines and mouse models created with tumor tissue donated by 16 DIPG patients, an international research coalition has gained a deeper understanding of this childhood brain cancer at the molecular level. (
  • While more research is needed to determine if multitasking is physically damaging the brain (versus existing brain damage that predisposes people to multitask), it's clear that multitasking has negative effects. (
  • In the last seven to 10 years, people began to understand that we shouldn't be searching for answers in any individual brain area, but looking at the brain as a collection of networks," she said. (
  • Brain imaging studies consistently find that this region of the temporal lobe becomes active when people look at faces. (
  • Previous behavioural studies have suggested that the elderly are more emotionally stable than younger people. (
  • This finding is exciting in that it suggests people who think they can learn from mistakes have brains that are more tuned to pick up on mistakes very quickly," said Jason Moser, assistant professor of clinical psychology at MSU and lead researcher on the project. (
  • Instead of just asking people whether they think they can learn from their mistakes or not, we'd use their brain activity to decide who needs the 'I think I can' training," Moser said. (
  • All 3242 people had an MRI scan to measure their overall brain volume, and the size of seven regions of the brain that were thought to be linked to ADHD - the pallidum, thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala and hippocampus. (
  • The different volumes of the five brain regions involved in ADHD were present whether or not people had taken medication, suggesting the differences in brain volumes are not a result of psychostimulants. (
  • Therefore, longitudinal studies tracking people with ADHD from childhood to adulthood to see how the brain differences change over time will be an important next step in the research. (
  • At least, this is the hypothesis that gains support from the use of brain imaging to estimate tau accumulation and neurodegeneration in people with or without Aβ deposits in the brain. (
  • A fraction of cognitively normal people who tested positive for Aβ had SUVRs above the cutoff, suggesting they might be on the verge of conversion to AD, Ances said. (
  • Around a third of people who suffer a brain hemorrhage, also known as hemorrhagic stroke, do so when they are taking an antiplatelet medicine such as aspirin to reduce the risk of a heart attack or an ischemic stroke," explained Metin Avrikan, MD, the associate medical director at the British Heart Foundation. (
  • Even for people who are physically active, sitting a lot seems to be bad for your brain. (
  • It's no surprise that we are starting to see commonalities in the areas of the brain and the neural systems that are disrupted in these people compared to individuals who are addicted to drugs. (
  • Understanding the basic physiology of brain injury and repair is the key to enhancing recovery for our young people after concussion. (
  • A place for people affected by brain tumours or brain cancer to support one another, ask questions, and share their experiences. (
  • Past studies of brain structure have typically focused on people with one condition, comparing them to healthy controls. (
  • When people suffer heart attacks and strokes, depriving their brains of oxygen-rich blood, one way doctors mitigate long-term brain damage is by artificially chilling the head, neck and spine. (
  • We still don't yet understand what causes autism, nor do we have a great handle on how the brain of those with autism differs," he explained. (
  • Courchesne suspected that these layers might be altered in the brains of children with autism. (
  • The reason is that parents of children who die - with and without autism - rarely agree to donate their child's brain to science. (
  • ATLANTA -- Pro wrestler Chris Benoit suffered brain damage from his years in the ring that could help explain why he killed his wife, son and himself, a doctor who studied Benoit's brain said Wednesday. (
  • The level of brain damage Benoit had can cause cognitive impairment, dementia, depression and irrational behavior, according to Cantu. (
  • You've likely heard that multitasking is problematic, but new studies show that it kills your performance and may even damage your brain. (
  • Even if it doesn't cause brain damage, allowing yourself to multitask will fuel any existing difficulties you have with concentration, organization, and attention to detail. (
  • This type of stimulation can reportedly impact the lives of those seriously coping with brain damage and illness, DM reports. (
  • And finding that the damage isn't everywhere suggests how a child's brain might compensate by rewiring to avoid the trouhle spots, Courchesne says. (
  • Indeed, it suggests that for inveterate sitters, even regular bouts of intensive exercise will not undo the damage. (
  • These details can help quantify the risk of mental health problems and increase awareness on the type of damage these substances can do to the brain. (
  • So the neutrophils go to the brain and try to clean up the damage that happens. (
  • But there's too much in the brain and those same neutrophils release MMP-9, which then exacerbates the damage. (
  • By the time the ambulance got there, because the lack of oxygen from that period of the heart attack through first treatment, he's suffered some significant brain damage. (
  • Accessing hidden and well-protected insects living in tree branches and under bark is a cognitively demanding task, but provides a high-quality reward: fat and protein, which is needed to fuel big brains. (
  • The treatment was generally well tolerated, although two patients on the highest dose had transient brain swelling. (
  • Post-mortem brain tissue of patients who died due to COVID-19 served as a way to verify whether observations from the other models made sense - but only provided insight into the brains of critically ill patients at the moment of death. (
  • Doctors activate their own brain regions for expectation of pain relief when they treat patients in pain," she concluded. (
  • The objective is to analyze what happens in the brains of bilinguals, in those who are learning a new language or in patients with brain injuries," he stated. (
  • Dr. Filippi and colleagues used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to acquire T2-weighted and 3-D T1-weighted brain images from 63 migraine patients and 18 healthy controls. (
  • Currently, guidelines recommend that traumatic brain injury patients get plenty of rest and avoid physical and cognitive activity until symptoms subside. (
  • This type of research will change fundamentally the way that patients with sports and other concussions are treated," said Bell, who works with brain injury patients and is Chair of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation at UT Southwestern. (
  • Change in brain volume from baseline was assessed in patients treated with Aubagio 14 mg or 7 mg, or placebo. (
  • LOS ANGELES-A team of physicians and neuroscientists on Wednesday reported the successful use of ultrasound waves to "jump start" the brain of a 25-year-old man recovering from coma-and plan to launch a much broader test of the technique, in hopes of finding a way to help at least some of the tens of thousands of patients in vegetative states. (
  • However, they also suggest that many unanswered questions remain in the field of exercise neuroscience-including how various aspects of exercise influence brain physiology and function and how human and animal studies relate to each other-and issue the call for further research to fill in these gaps. (
  • Head trauma can cause substances called tau proteins to build up in the brain, which in turn can trigger a toxic release of phosphorous, killing brain and nerve cells. (
  • The corpus callosum is actually made up of nerve fibers, and is responsible for serving as a connector between the motor regions in the right side of the brain with those in the left side. (
  • Many of the babies had other abnormalities, including brain swelling, disruptions in brain folds, underdeveloped brain structures and abnormalities in myelin, which forms protective sheaths on nerve fibers. (
  • For example, exercise appears to change brain structure, prompting the growth of new nerve cells and blood vessels. (
  • Teaming up with Stanford neuroscientist Kalanit Grill-Spector, who studies the brain areas important in facial recognition, he scanned Blackwell's brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and confirmed that the two electrodes that influenced Blackwell's perception of faces were at points in the fusiform gyrus implicated by Grill-Spector's previous research. (
  • As they viewed these images their brain activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). (
  • With the expanding knowledge of neuropsychology, what was previously speculation is now being confirmed through the use of imaging studies such as functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) to track brain changes while experimental subjects perform specific cognitive activities. (
  • The tumor, which occurs in the upper part of the brain, namely the cerebral hemisphere, has two common genetic causes. (
  • After further refinement of genetic signaling networks with other software, the results showed that families of molecules interacting with OLIG2 in brain cancer form eight CGMs. (
  • Genetic analysis of mitochondial chromosomes suggests that the Sapajus-Cebus diversification occurred millions of years ago in the late Miocene epoch. (
  • Tangles throughout Benoit's brain were telltale signals to doctors that he suffered from abnormal and dangerous tau protein deposits. (
  • When someone makes a mistake, their brain makes two quick signals: an initial response that indicates something has gone awry -- dubbed the "Oh crap! (
  • Both the brain and the body get signals that something's going on in the brain and as the immune system responds to try to help, it actually worsens the outcome. (
  • The vast majority of the different cell types in the brain require lipids for correct transmission of signals, providing energy and structural support to our cell membranes. (
  • Right now, if you have a concussion the directive is to have complete physical and cognitive rest, no activities, no social interaction, to let your brain rest and recover from the energy crisis as a result of the injury," said SMU physiologist Sushmita Purkayastha , who led the research, which was funded by the Texas Institute for Brain Injury and Repair at UT Southwestern Medical Center , Dallas. (
  • The disruption also led to persistent changes in behavior of the flies beyond the social interaction itself, suggesting a brief sensory error can have long-lasting consequences on behavior. (
  • We came up with the idea of growth charting as a way to test if these two patterns were related: Would children with underdeveloped brain networks also have more difficulty with attention? (
  • Currently the children with breathing and heartbeat exists in brain-dead state. (
  • Most advanced drugs, like bapineuzumab, have focused on removing clumps of amyloid plaques, which are thought to stop brain cells from functioning properly. (
  • So instead of distinct layers, there are disorganized collections of brain cells. (
  • For example, it's odd that only certain bits of brain tissue contain these disorganized cells. (
  • That will help you appreciate that a 10% increase in thickness will translate into a structure that's more densely packed with brain cells and the connections that lash them together. (
  • In the developing embryo, Stachowiak explained, surface cells develop tissues and organs such as skin and brain structures. (
  • Our results suggest a window in which damaged connections between brain cells could recover under the right conditions. (
  • It looks like it has specific functions in stem cells and brain. (
  • In contrast to 5-mC, 5-hmC appears to be enriched on active genes, especially in brain cells. (
  • When stem cells change into the cells that make up blood, muscle or brain, 5-mC helps shut off genes that aren't supposed to be turned on. (
  • It also increases the production of neurochemicals, such as BDNF and IGF-1, that promote growth, differentiation, survival, and repair of brain cells. (
  • BOCA RATON, FL / ACCESSWIRE / August 18, 2015 / Earth Science Tech, Inc. ("ETST" or "the Company"), a unique biotechnology company focused on nutraceuticals, bioceuticals and dietary supplements, announced today that DV Biologics, a leading biological company, has confirmed ETST High Grade Hemp CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil deterred the formation of reactive oxygen species and cell death in human brain cells in vitro . (
  • Recently, independent studies demonstrated that ETST High Grade Hemp CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil can reduce lipid peroxidation (oxidative stress) on human brain cells following the addition of hydrogen peroxide. (
  • The DV Biologics Report and data below is encouraging and clearly demonstrates that Earth Science Technology ( ETST ) High Grade HEMP CBD (Cannabidiol) Oil is protective against lipid peroxidation in human brain cells in vitro . (
  • The brain contains trillions of cells. (
  • Cells in the body and particularly in the brain are under constant attack by free radicals and oxidative stress. (
  • These extreme changes throughout Chris Benoit's brain are enough to explain aberrant behavior, including suicide and even homicide," said Julian Bailes, chairman of neurosurgery at West Virginia University and a founding member of the Sports Legacy Institute. (
  • In this regard, aerobic exercise is one environmental factor that may influence the developing adolescent brain, as it has been previously linked to brain and behavior improvements. (
  • Want to know if your child's brain is on track for healthy attention abilities? (
  • I think all these structural changes in the [human] brain are an impact of these hormones over time," says Jason Radley at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, US. (
  • Brain-derived and synthetic oligomers show structural equivalence with respect to mass, isoelectric point, and recognition by conformation-sensitive antibodies. (
  • One reason behind this jump in brainpower may lie in how much of the human metabolism is devoted to the human brain - it consumes a whopping 20 percent of the body's total energy. (
  • She noted that a potential mismatch was happening between our contemporary diet and the evolved human brain, which is disturbing the normal functionality of certain systems in the brain. (
  • Human Brain Mapping , Dec 10, 2010. (
  • A medication that boosts the body's own cannabis-like substances, endocannabinoids, shows promise to help the brain un-learn fear memories when these are no longer meaningful. (
  • The direction of brain tumor research over the past several years reflects some of those data-driven advances, says Adam C. Resnick , Ph.D., the senior author of the current paper and principal investigator of the astrocytoma research team in the Division of Neurosurgery at Children's Hospital. (
  • In the brain of an individual with generalized anxiety disorder, for example, the anxiety processor (the amygdala) is disrupted . (
  • A type of white blood cell that helps lead the immune system's response, known as Neutrophils, play a role in increasing the levels of an enzyme called MMP-9, which can lead to blood-brain barrier leakage and degeneration in brain tissue. (
  • Further investigations extend this role to the regulation of intestinal epithelium and blood-brain barrier permeability as well as the production and degradation of neuroactive compounds. (
  • The goal was to, in a sense, recapitulate important stages in brain formation that take place in the womb," said Stachowiak. (
  • Penhune cautioned that "it's important to remember that what we are showing is that early starters have some specific skills and differences in the brain that go along with that. (
  • Dr. Walter Willett, chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard School of Public Health, said that the hypothesis suggests many avenues for further research. (
  • Bapineuzumab -- being developed by Pfizer Inc, Irish drugmaker Elan Corp and Johnson & Johnson -- is a potential game-changer because it could be the first drug to treat the underlying cause of the degenerative brain disease. (
  • The discovery is challenging the previously held view of how the brain responds to repeated exposure to cocaine. (
  • This finding is important because it helps us better understand the circuit remodeling that takes place in the brain as a result of exposure to cocaine, and in turn this brings us closer to understanding the nature of addiction. (
  • Research published this week in Pediatrics takes a newly rigorous approach to investigating whether anesthesia exposure harms young children's developing brains. (
  • Like most nutrition studies, this one can't prove that dietary fat has a direct effect on brain function because it didn't randomly assign women one diet or the other to follow. (
  • Because the clinical studies haven't been completed, preclinical studies, such as ours, are needed to define the effects of various anesthetics on brain structure and function. (
  • Dr Anne Corbett, from the University of Exeter, said: "Previous research has shown that hearing loss is linked to a loss of brain function, memory and an increased risk of dementia. (
  • The reviewed studies suggest that both aerobic exercise and strength training can have significant positive effects on brain health and function, but more research is needed to better elucidate these effects. (