The uncritical acceptance of an idea or plan of action.
A state of increased receptivity to suggestion and direction, initially induced by the influence of another person.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Text editing and storage functions using computer software.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
The educational process of instructing.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Recording of information on magnetic or punched paper tape.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The right of the patient or the patient's representative to make decisions with regard to the patient's dying.
An effect usually, but not necessarily, beneficial that is attributable to an expectation that the regimen will have an effect, i.e., the effect is due to the power of suggestion.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.
The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Adjunctive computer programs in providing drug treatment to patients.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Use for general articles concerning medical education.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A course of study offered by an educational institution.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Instructional materials used in teaching.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
An organized procedure carried out by a select committee of professionals in evaluating the performance of other professionals in meeting the standards of their specialty. Review by peers is used by editors in the evaluation of articles and other papers submitted for publication. Peer review is used also in the evaluation of grant applications. It is applied also in evaluating the quality of health care provided to patients.
Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.
Evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.
Presentation of pertinent data by one with special skill or knowledge representing mastery of a particular subject.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
The expected function of a member of the medical profession.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A system for verifying and maintaining a desired level of quality in a product or process by careful planning, use of proper equipment, continued inspection, and corrective action as required. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.
General agreement or collective opinion; the judgment arrived at by most of those concerned.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
An iterative questionnaire designed to measure consensus among individual responses. In the classic Delphi approach, there is no interaction between responder and interviewer.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A branch of biology dealing with the structure of organisms.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The science that investigates the principles governing correct or reliable inference and deals with the canons and criteria of validity in thought and demonstration. This system of reasoning is applicable to any branch of knowledge or study. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Freedom from exposure to danger and protection from the occurrence or risk of injury or loss. It suggests optimal precautions in the workplace, on the street, in the home, etc., and includes personal safety as well as the safety of property.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Computer-based information systems used to integrate clinical and patient information and provide support for decision-making in patient care.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A medical specialty concerned with the skin, its structure, functions, diseases, and treatment.
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a dental school.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Remains, impressions, or traces of animals or plants of past geological times which have been preserved in the earth's crust.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Financial support of research activities.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
A medical specialty concerned with the study of the structures, functions, and diseases of the nervous system.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The process by which the employer promotes staff performance and efficiency consistent with management goals and objectives.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Systems used to prompt or aid the memory. The systems can be computerized reminders, color coding, telephone calls, or devices such as letters and postcards.
Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.

Intraoperative therapeutic suggestions in day-case surgery: are there benefits for postoperative outcome? (1/50)

To determine if improved postoperative recovery in surgical inpatients receiving intraoperative therapeutic suggestions are applicable in an outpatient population, 70 consenting, unpremedicated adults undergoing elective outpatient hernia repair under general anaesthesia were allocated randomly to either a therapeutic tape (TT) or a comparison tape (CT) group. A standardized general anaesthetic technique was used with propofol, fentanyl or alfentanil, isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Pain, and nausea and vomiting were assessed after operation at 30, 60 and 90 min and at 2, 6 and 24 h. The presence of other side effects, such as headache and muscular discomfort, in addition to recall of tape contents, were also evaluated after operation. Absorption ability was measured before operation. The groups were similar in patient characteristics, preoperative, surgical and anaesthetic characteristics, and level of absorption. There were no differences in pain ratings or need for analgesics administered at any time after operation. Nausea/vomiting was experienced significantly fewer times by patients in group TT compared with group CT over the first 90 min (group CT 15%, group TT 4%; P < 0.02), but not over the last three assessment times (group CT 10%, group TT 14%; P < 0.25). The therapeutic tape group experienced fewer side effects over the entire postoperative assessment period (P = 0.03), in particular less headaches (P = 0.03) and less muscular discomfort (P < 0.02). Use of intraoperative therapeutic suggestions could present mildly significant postoperative benefits in outpatients.  (+info)

Outpatient video EEG recording in the diagnosis of non-epileptic seizures: a randomised controlled trial of simple suggestion techniques. (2/50)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the yield of recorded habitual non-epileptic seizures during outpatient video EEG, using simple suggestion techniques based on hyperventilation and photic stimulation. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial of "suggestion" v "no suggestion" during outpatient video EEG recording. SETTING: Regional epilepsy service (tertiary care; single centre). PARTICIPANTS: 30 patients (22 female, 8 male), aged over 16 years, with a probable clinical diagnosis of non-epileptic seizures; 15 were randomised to each group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Yield of habitual non-epileptic seizures recorded, and requirement for additional inpatient video EEG. RESULTS: 10/15 patients had habitual non-epileptic seizures with suggestion; 5/15 had non-epileptic seizures with no suggestion (p = 0.058; NS); 8/9 patients with a history of previous events in medical settings had non-epileptic seizures recorded during study. Logistic regression analysis with an interaction clause showed a significant effect of suggestion in patients with a history of previous events in medical settings (p = 0.003). An additional inpatient video-EEG was avoided in 14 of the 30 patients (47%). CONCLUSIONS: Habitual non-epileptic seizures can be recorded reliably during short outpatient video EEG in selected patients. Simple (non-invasive) suggestion techniques increase the yield at least in the subgroup with a history of previous events in medical settings. Inpatient video EEG can be avoided in some patients.  (+info)


Over-emphasis on physical factors in asthma probably has come about because psychological factors have seemed elusive, difficult to define and often misleading. Several concepts of classic causes of emotional disturbances that abet asthmatic attacks in children may be helpful in management of the patient and his environs. The first concept has to do with feelings of inadequacy in the mother which lead her to place the burden of decision-making upon the child. She is thus able to give the child very little support and communicates to him her anxiety. Often encouragement to the mother, through the physician's pointing out her very real capacities and achievements can be helpful to the child. The second concept has to do with the asthmatic child's character structure and his assumption of a pseudo-mature position. Among the things the physician can do is to advise the parents as to what is age-appropriate behavior for the child and instruct them in ways to make the child recognize his position of dependence. The third concept concerns threat of separation as a precipitant to the asthma attack. To deal with such a situation the physician may make a number of recommendations of methods for alleviating such a threat. In some families, the degree of disturbance is so great that the parents cannot respond to the physician's advice and may need psychiatric referral. Clues for recognizing such a situation are given along with recommendations on how to make a successful referral.  (+info)

Social antecedents of children's eyewtness testimony a single-subject experimental analysis. (4/50)

In a laboratory simulation, a single-subject design was used to examine the effects of two types of social influence on children's eyewitness testimony, which has not been the subject of systematic behavioral analyses. This study replicates and extends findings from group-comparison studies, and shows that a topic of pressing social importance is amenable to analysis at the individual level, and therefore, potentially, to a behavioral analysis.  (+info)

The role of personality factors and suggestion in placebo effect during mental stress test. (5/50)

The aims of this study were first of all to document a placebo effect on systolic blood pressure and heart rate during mental arithmetic induced stress and secondly to assess the role of suggestion in producing this effect. Two types of placebo were used, a simple placebo and a placebo with an implied therapeutic action. Both were compared with alprazolam. A placebo response was seen in just over half of the volunteers when the cardiovascular changes to mental arithmetic induced stress in healthy volunteers were measured. This response appeared to be unaffected by the suggested therapeutic effect. Dominant, independent subjects, identified using the Cattell 16 PF personality test were less likely to respond to placebo. Alprazolam (0.5 mg) did not prevent, to a significantly greater degree than placebo, the systolic blood pressure or heart rate increases provoked by the mental stress.  (+info)

Suggestibility, social support, and memory for a novel experience in young children. (6/50)

This study examined 5- and 6-year-olds' suggestibility and interviewer demeanor as joint predictors of their memory for a novel experience. Session 1 consisted of children taking part in a novel laboratory event. Session 2 took place after approximately a 1-week delay and consisted of children completing both a memory test concerning what happened during the prior event and the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC). During the second session, the interviewer behaved either supportively or nonsupportively. Greater acquiescence on the VSSC was associated with fewer correct responses to misleading questions about the laboratory event in the supportive and nonsupportive conditions and with more errors in response to specific questions in the nonsupportive condition. Results indicate that individual differences in children's suggestibility are related to the accuracy of their memory for separate events, although some of these relations may vary depending on the context in which children are interviewed.  (+info)

Hypnotic suggestion reduces conflict in the human brain. (7/50)

Many studies have suggested that conflict monitoring involves the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). We previously showed that a specific hypnotic suggestion reduces involuntary conflict and alters information processing in highly hypnotizable individuals. Hypothesizing that such conflict reduction would be associated with decreased ACC activation, we combined neuroimaging methods to provide high temporal and spatial resolution and studied highly and less-hypnotizable participants both with and without a suggestion to interpret visual words as nonsense strings. Functional MRI data revealed that under posthypnotic suggestion, both ACC and visual areas presented reduced activity in highly hypnotizable persons compared with either no-suggestion or less-hypnotizable controls. Scalp electrode recordings in highly hypnotizable subjects also showed reductions in posterior activation under suggestion, indicating visual system alterations. Our findings illuminate how suggestion affects cognitive control by modulating activity in specific brain areas, including early visual modules, and provide a more scientific account relating the neural effects of suggestion to placebo.  (+info)

False beliefs about fattening foods can have healthy consequences. (8/50)

We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ice cream as children, and these subjects were more likely to indicate not wanting to eat strawberry ice cream now. In contrast, we were unable to obtain these effects when the critical item was a more commonly eaten treat (chocolate chip cookie). In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended the strawberry ice cream results. Two different ways of processing the false suggestion succeeded in planting the false belief and producing avoidance of the food. These findings show that it is possible to convince people that, as children, they experienced a negative event involving a fattening food and that this false belief results in avoidance of that food in adulthood. More broadly, these results indicate that we can, through suggestion, manipulate nutritional selection and possibly even improve health.  (+info)

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

1. Muscular dystrophy: A group of genetic disorders that cause progressive muscle weakness and degeneration.
2. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A progressive neurological disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, leading to muscle weakness, paralysis, and eventually death.
3. Spinal muscular atrophy: A genetic disorder that affects the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movement.
4. Peripheral neuropathy: A condition that causes damage to the peripheral nerves, leading to weakness, numbness, and pain in the hands and feet.
5. Myasthenia gravis: An autoimmune disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, causing muscle weakness and fatigue.
6. Neuropathy: A term used to describe damage to the nerves, which can cause a range of symptoms including numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet.
7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: A group of inherited disorders that affect the peripheral nerves, leading to muscle weakness and wasting.
8. Guillain-Barré syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation and damage to the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
9. Botulism: A bacterial infection that can cause muscle weakness and paralysis by blocking the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
10. Myotonia congenita: A genetic disorder that affects the nerve-muscle connection, causing muscle stiffness and rigidity.

These are just a few examples of neuromuscular diseases, and there are many more conditions that can cause muscle weakness and fatigue. It's important to see a doctor if you experience persistent or severe symptoms to receive an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

1. Asbestosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos fibers.
2. Carpal tunnel syndrome: a nerve disorder caused by repetitive motion and pressure on the wrist.
3. Mesothelioma: a type of cancer caused by exposure to asbestos.
4. Pneumoconiosis: a lung disease caused by inhaling dust from mining or other heavy industries.
5. Repetitive strain injuries: injuries caused by repetitive motions, such as typing or using vibrating tools.
6. Skin conditions: such as skin irritation and dermatitis caused by exposure to chemicals or other substances in the workplace.
7. Hearing loss: caused by loud noises in the workplace.
8. Back injuries: caused by lifting, bending, or twisting.
9. Respiratory problems: such as asthma and other breathing difficulties caused by exposure to chemicals or dust in the workplace.
10. Cancer: caused by exposure to carcinogens such as radiation, certain chemicals, or heavy metals in the workplace.

Occupational diseases can be difficult to diagnose and treat, as they often develop gradually over time and may not be immediately attributed to the work environment. In some cases, these diseases may not appear until years after exposure has ended. It is important for workers to be aware of the potential health risks associated with their job and take steps to protect themselves, such as wearing protective gear, following safety protocols, and seeking regular medical check-ups. Employers also have a responsibility to provide a safe work environment and follow strict regulations to prevent the spread of occupational diseases.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Delirium is a sudden change in mental status that can be caused by a variety of factors such as infection, medication, or surgery. It is characterized by confusion, disorientation, and a decreased level of consciousness. Dementia, on the other hand, is a gradual decline in mental abilities that can be caused by various underlying diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, or frontotemporal dementia.

Amnestic disorders refer specifically to conditions that affect memory, such as amnesia, which is the inability to form new memories. Cognitive disorders are more general term that includes a wide range of conditions that affect cognitive functions such as attention, perception, language, and problem-solving abilities.

These conditions can be caused by various factors such as genetics, head trauma, infections, or diseases such as stroke or brain tumors. Diagnosis is typically made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and neuropsychological evaluations.

Treatment for delirium, dementia, amnestic, and cognitive disorders can vary depending on the underlying cause but may include medication, therapy, and lifestyle changes. In some cases, these conditions may be reversible with appropriate treatment, while in others, they may be irreversible.

It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time as early diagnosis and intervention can improve outcomes for individuals with these conditions.

Some common types of mental disorders include:

1. Anxiety disorders: These conditions cause excessive worry, fear, or anxiety that interferes with daily life. Examples include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and social anxiety disorder.
2. Mood disorders: These conditions affect a person's mood, causing feelings of sadness, hopelessness, or anger that persist for weeks or months. Examples include depression, bipolar disorder, and seasonal affective disorder.
3. Personality disorders: These conditions involve patterns of thought and behavior that deviate from the norm of the average person. Examples include borderline personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.
4. Psychotic disorders: These conditions cause a person to lose touch with reality, resulting in delusions, hallucinations, or disorganized thinking. Examples include schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and brief psychotic disorder.
5. Trauma and stressor-related disorders: These conditions develop after a person experiences a traumatic event, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
6. Dissociative disorders: These conditions involve a disconnection or separation from one's body, thoughts, or emotions. Examples include dissociative identity disorder (formerly known as multiple personality disorder) and depersonalization disorder.
7. Neurodevelopmental disorders: These conditions affect the development of the brain and nervous system, leading to symptoms such as difficulty with social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors. Examples include autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and Rett syndrome.

Mental disorders can be diagnosed by a mental health professional using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which provides criteria for each condition. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication and therapy, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy or psychodynamic therapy, depending on the specific disorder and individual needs.

There are different types of amnesia, including:

1. Retrograde amnesia: loss of memory of events that occurred before the onset of amnesia.
2. Anterograde amnesia: inability to form new memories after the onset of amnesia.
3. Transient global amnesia: temporary and reversible loss of memory due to a specific cause, such as a stroke or a head injury.
4. Korsakoff's syndrome: a condition caused by alcoholism and malnutrition that affects the hippocampus and the ability to form new memories.
5. Dissociative amnesia: loss of memory due to psychological trauma or stress, often accompanied by dissociation from reality.

The symptoms of amnesia can vary depending on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include:

1. Difficulty learning new information
2. Forgetting recent events or conversations
3. Inability to recall past events or experiences
4. Confusion and disorientation
5. Difficulty with problem-solving and decision-making

The diagnosis of amnesia is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and neuropsychological tests. Imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans may also be used to rule out other causes of memory loss.

Treatment for amnesia depends on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Medications to manage symptoms such as anxiety, depression, or cognitive impairment.
2. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy to improve memory and problem-solving skills.
3. Behavioral interventions to help the individual adapt to their condition.
4. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause of amnesia, such as a tumor or a blood clot.

Overall, amnesia can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, but with proper diagnosis and treatment, many people are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

There are several different types of pain, including:

1. Acute pain: This type of pain is sudden and severe, and it usually lasts for a short period of time. It can be caused by injuries, surgery, or other forms of tissue damage.
2. Chronic pain: This type of pain persists over a long period of time, often lasting more than 3 months. It can be caused by conditions such as arthritis, fibromyalgia, or nerve damage.
3. Neuropathic pain: This type of pain results from damage to the nervous system, and it can be characterized by burning, shooting, or stabbing sensations.
4. Visceral pain: This type of pain originates in the internal organs, and it can be difficult to localize.
5. Psychogenic pain: This type of pain is caused by psychological factors such as stress, anxiety, or depression.

The medical field uses a range of methods to assess and manage pain, including:

1. Pain rating scales: These are numerical scales that patients use to rate the intensity of their pain.
2. Pain diaries: These are records that patients keep to track their pain over time.
3. Clinical interviews: Healthcare providers use these to gather information about the patient's pain experience and other relevant symptoms.
4. Physical examination: This can help healthcare providers identify any underlying causes of pain, such as injuries or inflammation.
5. Imaging studies: These can be used to visualize the body and identify any structural abnormalities that may be contributing to the patient's pain.
6. Medications: There are a wide range of medications available to treat pain, including analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and muscle relaxants.
7. Alternative therapies: These can include acupuncture, massage, and physical therapy.
8. Interventional procedures: These are minimally invasive procedures that can be used to treat pain, such as nerve blocks and spinal cord stimulation.

It is important for healthcare providers to approach pain management with a multi-modal approach, using a combination of these methods to address the physical, emotional, and social aspects of pain. By doing so, they can help improve the patient's quality of life and reduce their suffering.

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

Types of Substance-Related Disorders:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive consumption of alcohol, leading to impaired control over drinking, social or personal problems, and increased risk of health issues.
2. Opioid Use Disorder (OUD): A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of opioids, such as prescription painkillers or heroin, leading to withdrawal symptoms when the substance is not available.
3. Stimulant Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of stimulants, such as cocaine or amphetamines, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
4. Cannabis Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of cannabis, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.
5. Hallucinogen Use Disorder: A chronic disease characterized by the excessive use of hallucinogens, such as LSD or psilocybin mushrooms, leading to impaired control over use and increased risk of adverse effects.

Causes and Risk Factors:

1. Genetics: Individuals with a family history of substance-related disorders are more likely to develop these conditions.
2. Mental health: Individuals with mental health conditions, such as depression or anxiety, may be more likely to use substances as a form of self-medication.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to substances at an early age, peer pressure, and social environment can increase the risk of developing a substance-related disorder.
4. Brain chemistry: Substance use can alter brain chemistry, leading to dependence and addiction.


1. Increased tolerance: The need to use more of the substance to achieve the desired effect.
2. Withdrawal: Experiencing symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, or nausea when the substance is not present.
3. Loss of control: Using more substance than intended or for longer than intended.
4. Neglecting responsibilities: Neglecting responsibilities at home, work, or school due to substance use.
5. Continued use despite negative consequences: Continuing to use the substance despite physical, emotional, or financial consequences.


1. Physical examination: A doctor may perform a physical examination to look for signs of substance use, such as track marks or changes in heart rate and blood pressure.
2. Laboratory tests: Blood or urine tests can confirm the presence of substances in the body.
3. Psychological evaluation: A mental health professional may conduct a psychological evaluation to assess symptoms of substance-related disorders and determine the presence of co-occurring conditions.


1. Detoxification: A medically-supervised detox program can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.
2. Medications: Medications such as methadone or buprenorphine may be prescribed to manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.
3. Behavioral therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and contingency management are effective behavioral therapies for treating substance use disorders.
4. Support groups: Joining a support group such as Narcotics Anonymous can provide a sense of community and support for individuals in recovery.
5. Lifestyle changes: Making healthy lifestyle changes such as regular exercise, healthy eating, and getting enough sleep can help manage withdrawal symptoms and reduce cravings.

It's important to note that diagnosis and treatment of substance-related disorders is a complex process and should be individualized based on the specific needs and circumstances of each patient.

Examples of syndromes include:

1. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21 that affects intellectual and physical development.
2. Turner syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a missing or partially deleted X chromosome that affects physical growth and development in females.
3. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder affecting the body's connective tissue, causing tall stature, long limbs, and cardiovascular problems.
4. Alzheimer's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and changes in personality and behavior.
5. Parkinson's disease: A neurological disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, and difficulty with movement.
6. Klinefelter syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra X chromosome in males, leading to infertility and other physical characteristics.
7. Williams syndrome: A rare genetic disorder caused by a deletion of genetic material on chromosome 7, characterized by cardiovascular problems, developmental delays, and a distinctive facial appearance.
8. Fragile X syndrome: The most common form of inherited intellectual disability, caused by an expansion of a specific gene on the X chromosome.
9. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by a defect in the hypothalamus, leading to problems with appetite regulation and obesity.
10. Sjogren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the glands that produce tears and saliva, causing dry eyes and mouth.

Syndromes can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment for a syndrome depends on the underlying cause and the specific symptoms and signs presented by the patient.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Types of Cognition Disorders: There are several types of cognitive disorders that affect different aspects of cognitive functioning. Some common types include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Characterized by symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity.
2. Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI): Caused by a blow or jolt to the head that disrupts brain function, resulting in cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes.
3. Alzheimer's Disease: A progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by memory loss, confusion, and difficulty with communication.
4. Stroke: A condition where blood flow to the brain is interrupted, leading to cognitive impairment and other symptoms.
5. Parkinson's Disease: A neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement, balance, and cognition.
6. Huntington's Disease: An inherited disorder that causes progressive damage to the brain, leading to cognitive decline and other symptoms.
7. Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD): A group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and language.
8. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD): A condition that develops after a traumatic event, characterized by symptoms such as anxiety, avoidance, and hypervigilance.
9. Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI): A condition characterized by memory loss and other cognitive symptoms that are more severe than normal age-related changes but not severe enough to interfere with daily life.

Causes and Risk Factors: The causes of cognition disorders can vary depending on the specific disorder, but some common risk factors include:

1. Genetics: Many cognitive disorders have a genetic component, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
2. Age: As people age, their risk of developing cognitive disorders increases, such as Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and frontotemporal dementia.
3. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as physical inactivity, smoking, and poor diet can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
4. Traumatic brain injury: A severe blow to the head or a traumatic brain injury can increase the risk of developing cognitive disorders, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).
5. Infections: Certain infections, such as meningitis and encephalitis, can cause cognitive disorders if they damage the brain tissue.
6. Stroke or other cardiovascular conditions: A stroke or other cardiovascular conditions can cause cognitive disorders by damaging the blood vessels in the brain.
7. Chronic substance abuse: Long-term use of drugs or alcohol can damage the brain and increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
8. Sleep disorders: Sleep disorders, such as sleep apnea, can increase the risk of cognitive disorders, such as dementia.
9. Depression and anxiety: Mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, can increase the risk of cognitive decline and dementia.
10. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as pesticides and heavy metals, has been linked to an increased risk of cognitive disorders.

It's important to note that not everyone with these risk factors will develop a cognitive disorder, and some people without any known risk factors can still develop a cognitive disorder. If you have concerns about your cognitive health, it's important to speak with a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and diagnosis.

There are several different types of obesity, including:

1. Central obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the waistline, which can increase the risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
2. Peripheral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat in the hips, thighs, and arms.
3. Visceral obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by excess fat around the internal organs in the abdominal cavity.
4. Mixed obesity: This type of obesity is characterized by both central and peripheral obesity.

Obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lack of physical activity, poor diet, sleep deprivation, and certain medications. Treatment for obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, such as increased physical activity and a healthy diet, and in some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to achieve weight loss.

Preventing obesity is important for overall health and well-being, and can be achieved through a variety of strategies, including:

1. Eating a healthy, balanced diet that is low in added sugars, saturated fats, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Engaging in regular physical activity, such as walking, jogging, or swimming.
3. Getting enough sleep each night.
4. Managing stress levels through relaxation techniques, such as meditation or deep breathing.
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and quitting smoking.
6. Monitoring weight and body mass index (BMI) on a regular basis to identify any changes or potential health risks.
7. Seeking professional help from a healthcare provider or registered dietitian for personalized guidance on weight management and healthy lifestyle choices.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Addressing Chronic Diseases

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.


Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

There are many different types of epilepsy, each with its own unique set of symptoms and characteristics. Some common forms of epilepsy include:

1. Generalized Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects both sides of the brain and can cause a range of seizure types, including absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures, and atypical absence seizures.
2. Focal Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy affects only one part of the brain and can cause seizures that are localized to that area. There are several subtypes of focal epilepsy, including partial seizures with complex symptoms and simple partial seizures.
3. Tonic-Clonic Epilepsy: This type of epilepsy is also known as grand mal seizures and can cause a loss of consciousness, convulsions, and muscle stiffness.
4. Lennox-Gastaut Syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that typically develops in early childhood and can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.
5. Dravet Syndrome: This is a rare genetic form of epilepsy that typically develops in infancy and can cause severe, frequent seizures.
6. Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome: This is a rare genetic disorder that can cause intellectual disability, developmental delays, and various types of seizures.
7. Other forms of epilepsy include Absence Epilepsy, Myoclonic Epilepsy, and Atonic Epilepsy.

The symptoms of epilepsy can vary widely depending on the type of seizure disorder and the individual affected. Some common symptoms of epilepsy include:

1. Seizures: This is the most obvious symptom of epilepsy and can range from mild to severe.
2. Loss of consciousness: Some people with epilepsy may experience a loss of consciousness during a seizure, while others may remain aware of their surroundings.
3. Confusion and disorientation: After a seizure, some people with epilepsy may feel confused and disoriented.
4. Memory loss: Seizures can cause short-term or long-term memory loss.
5. Fatigue: Epilepsy can cause extreme fatigue, both during and after a seizure.
6. Emotional changes: Some people with epilepsy may experience emotional changes, such as anxiety, depression, or mood swings.
7. Cognitive changes: Epilepsy can affect cognitive function, including attention, memory, and learning.
8. Sleep disturbances: Some people with epilepsy may experience sleep disturbances, such as insomnia or sleepiness.
9. Physical symptoms: Depending on the type of seizure, people with epilepsy may experience physical symptoms such as muscle weakness, numbness or tingling, and sensory changes.
10. Social isolation: Epilepsy can cause social isolation due to fear of having a seizure in public or stigma associated with the condition.

It's important to note that not everyone with epilepsy will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may have different symptoms depending on the type of seizure they experience. Additionally, some people with epilepsy may experience additional symptoms not listed here.

There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:

1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.

Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.

Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

There are various causes of intellectual disability, including:

1. Genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, and Turner syndrome.
2. Congenital conditions, such as microcephaly and hydrocephalus.
3. Brain injuries, such as traumatic brain injury or hypoxic-ischemic injury.
4. Infections, such as meningitis or encephalitis.
5. Nutritional deficiencies, such as iron deficiency or iodine deficiency.

Intellectual disability can result in a range of cognitive and functional impairments, including:

1. Delayed language development and difficulty with communication.
2. Difficulty with social interactions and adapting to new situations.
3. Limited problem-solving skills and difficulty with abstract thinking.
4. Slow learning and memory difficulties.
5. Difficulty with fine motor skills and coordination.

There is no cure for intellectual disability, but early identification and intervention can significantly improve outcomes. Treatment options may include:

1. Special education programs tailored to the individual's needs.
2. Behavioral therapies, such as applied behavior analysis (ABA) and positive behavior support (PBS).
3. Speech and language therapy.
4. Occupational therapy to improve daily living skills.
5. Medications to manage associated behaviors or symptoms.

It is essential to recognize that intellectual disability is a lifelong condition, but with appropriate support and resources, individuals with ID can lead fulfilling lives and reach their full potential.

These so-called "waking suggestions" are given in precisely the same way as "hypnotic suggestions" (i.e., suggestions given ... suggestion can produce somatic phenomena; (2) specific suggestions generate specific somatic outcomes; (3) suggestions are just ... Look up suggestion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. "The Power of Suggestion" on YouTube, Chautauqua Institution The Power ... Coué's laws of suggestion. Ideomotor and ideosensory effect. (Suggestion and Autosuggestion, Baudouin, C. 1920: 117). 1. The ...
They had a vested interest in rejecting and marginalizing suggestion theory. According to Jefferson Pooley, suggestion theory " ... reciprocal suggestion and prestige suggestion to describe the role of human communication in consensus formation. During the ... Suggestion theory is the term that was used in the early part of the 20th century to describe how persuasion worked as a ... Suggestion theory drew upon studies of crowd behavior, social movements, public opinion, rumor, and fashion, and it was ...
The serving suggestion may portray the serving size of the food used, but just as often a much larger serving is shown as part ... Serving suggestion is a disclaimer used on food packaging. The phrase is used as legal fine print with a picture of the product ... As a disclaimer a serving suggestion also serves to remove any legal obligation on the part of the manufacturer to provide the ... Gray, Nathan (18 May 2016). "Serving suggestions play important role in consumer expectations and willingness to buy". Food ...
This can be used to sort the spelling suggestions. For example, if there are multiple suggestions of edit distance 1, the words ... Spelling suggestions can also be made more accurate by taking into account more than one word at a time. Multi-word sequences ... Spelling suggestion is a feature of many computer software applications used to suggest plausible replacements for words that ... Data might be included about when people click on a spelling suggestion or make a second, very similar query; this creates a ...
Store the entire history suggestions in a database: each suggestion receives a "ticket number", and a detailed suggestion-form ... The suggestion box for customer comments going beyond an ordinary point of service has several benefits. Suggestion boxes ... "Stock Photo - 750 Heinz plant suggestion box". Alamy. Retrieved 2020-10-04. "Suggestion Box History: The Small Data Before Big ... While some systems keep suggestions private, some systems make suggestions public, allowing other people to endorse the ...
... EP is the second EP by The Apples in Stereo. The record was released in 1994. The EP's four tracks were ... Side One "Running In Circles" - 2:29 "Hypnotic Suggestion" - 2:09 Side Two "Touch The Water" (J. McIntyre) - 2:10 "Glowworm" - ... chorus member Hypnotic Suggestion was produced by Robert Schneider and recorded from December 1993 to February 1994 on four- ...
A suggestion of death, in law, refers to calling the death of a party to the attention of a court and making it a matter of ... P. 25(a); it may be effected using Model Form 9. AMJUR ABATE § 98 - Suggestion of death to court v t e (Legal ...
... is the debut studio album by the stoner rock band Hermano. It was released by Tee Pee Records with a sampler ... Only a Suggestion at AllMusic (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with ...
... is an album by the American jazz saxophonist George Adams recorded in 1979 and released on the ECM label. The ...
Adapted from the Some Cocktail Suggestions liner notes. "Steel Pole Bath Tub: Some Cocktail Suggestions > Overview". Allmusic. ... Some Cocktail Suggestions is an EP by Steel Pole Bath Tub, released on November 8, 1994 by Boner Records. All tracks are ... Some Cocktail Suggestions (booklet). Steel Pole Bath Tub. Berkeley, California: Boner Records. 1994.{{cite AV media notes}}: ... CS1 maint: others in cite AV media (notes) (link) Some Cocktail Suggestions at Discogs (list of releases) (CS1 maint: others in ...
The fifteen suggestions of Dear Ijeawele begin, respectively, with the following prompts: Be a full person. Do it together. ... It is composed of fifteen suggestions on how to raise a feminist daughter, with references to Adichie and Ijeawele's shared ... How Do You Raise A Feminist Daughter? Chimamanda Adichie Has 15 Suggestions on NPR (Articles with short description, Short ... Dear Ijeawele, or A Feminist Manifesto in Fifteen Suggestions is an epistolary form manifesto written by Nigerian author ...
... suggestion; thought; idea; meaning; imagination". Standard Chinese uses ruyi either as a stative verb meaning "as desired; as ...
Suggestion. Mesmerism. Subliminal projection 1161-1171......Telepathy. Mind reading. Thought transference 1228-1389...... ...
In "The Ethics of Conversation" (1905, Suggestion magazine), Kealing counsels the friends of sick people to avoid expressing " ... Kealing, Ethel Black (November 1905). "The Ethics of Conversation" (PDF). Suggestion. 15: 586-587. Speroy, Robert; Kealing, ...
Mangold, James [@mang0ld] (April 29, 2017). "Suggestion. Hard core B&W loving LOGAN fans should not make any plans on the ...
Neill discarded many kinds of dogma ("discipline, ... direction, ... suggestion, ... moral training, .. religious instruction ...
October 1906). "The international Progressive Thought League" (PDF). Suggestion. Chicago, Illinois. XVII (2): 185-186. "Golden ...
He maintained in this written works that the ability to hypnotize animals suggested that verbal suggestion was not the only ... "WorldCat". Rév, István (2002). "The Suggestion". Representations. 80 (1): 65-67. doi:10.1525/rep.2002.80.1.62. ISSN 0734-6018. ...
They believed that suggestion was a trait that could be measured and varied within the subject. Suggestion explains all. It is ... suggestion, psychothérapie, 1891 (réed. Fayard, 1995) Hippolyte Bernheim, Le docteur Liébeault et la doctrine de la suggestion ... suggestion et psychologie. L'invention de sujet, Paris, PUF, 1991 Daniel Bougnoux (Dir.), La suggestion. Hynose, influence, ... In Bernheim's Latent Memories and Long-Term Suggestions, he proposed that post-hypnotic suggestions were a result of his ...
Examples: Add nekem! - 'Give it to me.' - demand Menjünk! - 'Let's go.' - suggestion Menjek? - 'Shall I go?' - suggestion or ... This mood in Hungarian is generally used to express polite demands and suggestions. The endings are identical between ...
Schorr's suggestion "...taking into consideration the scientific and practical views, the name of the order should be written " ...
2007) suggestion. The cladogram below follows their analysis. In addition to reassigning G. americanus and G. carolinensis to ...
the committee had suggested that the hall should be utilized as a college for training female teachers ... the suggestion ... ... but the Duke of Sutherland was unhappy with this suggestion. As the requirement to open a higher educational establishment ...
8; Suggestion diabolique, Op. 4/4. Scarlatti: Sonata in D minor, L.366/K.1. Hessischer Rundfunk live. 2006 Chopin: Nocturnes, ... 5). Prokofiev: 10 Pieces from Romeo und Juliet; Suggestion diabolique. Prelude, Op 12/7. Ravel: Gaspard de la Nuit; Pavane pour ... Prokofiev: Suggestion diabolique. Liszt: La Campanella. Tchaikovsky: Variations, Op. 19/6. Balakirev: Islamey. Tchaikovsky: ... 2; with Royal Philharmonic Orchestra conducted by Vladimir Ashkenazy (live in Moscow) BBC/EMI VHS 1990 Prokofiev: Suggestion ...
2007) suggestion. Weems (2018) agreed with Piras et al. (2007) and Brochu & Storrs (2012) at americanus and carolinensis are ...
A suggestion". Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine. 31 (5): 253-258. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0714.2002.310501.x. PMID 12110040. de ...
"Capital suggestion". The News. 31 December 2017. "Solar scale-up in Pakistan hits roadblock after payments slashed". The ...
Stokes, Keith (January 1941). "Suggestion dept". Depts. of the interior. Le Zombie. No. 36. p. 9. Retrieved 24 March 2017 - via ...
"Arsinoë IV, a sister of Cleopatra VII, grave owner of the Octagon in Ephesus? A suggestion.") In: Jahreshefte des ...
Healthy Schools, CDC, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, BAM! Body and Mind, Classroom Resources for Teachers
... Your Feedback is Welcome!. The NLM Customer Support Center provides a variety of ... MeSH vocabulary suggestions are reviewed for literary warrant and other criteria of usefulness, for reproducibility in use, and ...
CMPB/NTP Rat Embedding Suggestions *Liver, Lung, Prostrate, Mesenteric Lymph Nodes, Seminal Vesicle, Urinary Bladder, Testis ...
... and well return some suggestions you can choose from. ... and well return some suggestions you can choose from.. Keep in ...
... E [email protected] Mon Nov 5 20:53:00 GMT 2001 *Previous message (by thread): setup.exe suggestions ... Robert Collins write: ,Any alterations/suggestions etc please speak up, Im not intending to be a ,dictator here :]. Okay, ...
Hi, I am wondering if there can be a "warning suppression
Card Suggestion Page. We are happy - indeed, gleefully overjoyed - to accept suggestions for new cards. (Note: We dont buy ... By submitting a suggestion here, you are giving us permission to use it. We will ask for your name and email address. We cant ... If you do not see a link for a particular game, it means we are not looking for card suggestions. Perhaps were sure we wont ...
Various suggestions could be sponsored by companies providing solutions: Mouthwash, etc.. Whats this? I have a suggestion ... Personal Suggestion Box. Designed for constructive criticism. (+14, -2) [vote for,. against] ... Just having a small wooden box on a cord around my neck that says suggestions on it would be pretty funny. Maybe a little box ... Maybe I would get a little paper valentine with a kitty on it in my suggestion box that says So fine.. ...
Suggestion: file:is_directory. Ulf Wiger etxuwig@REDACTED Mon Jun 17 09:37:39 CEST 2002 *Previous message (by thread): ...
I am using DuckDuckGo with Firefox because I do not like auto suggestions filling up the search bar while I type. Its so ... I am using DuckDuckGo with Firefox because I do not like auto suggestions filling up the search bar while I type. Its so ... Open page, scroll to Infinite Scroll & Autocomplete Suggestions, Click to turn both off Restart. ... Open page, scroll to Infinite Scroll & Autocomplete Suggestions, Click to turn both off Restart. ...
Since I dont just want to e.g. fix some typos, I am open to suggestions in order to contribute something useful to SUMO. ...
Location: CTAN Suggestions for makebarcode Suggestions for makebarcode. The following packages have something in common with ...
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The best suggestion Ive heard came from a restaurant owner whose main interest is making State Street a world class ...
The Advisory Committees evaluate in the first instance suggestions to amend the Federal Rules. ... Rules Suggestions. The Advisory Committees evaluate in the first instance suggestions to amend the Federal Rules. ...
204 Responses to Fun summer book reading suggestions? (Leave a comment). * Lee g. June 9, 2014 at 12:35 pm ... Meanwhile a bizarre suggestion from the same author: Cold Skin - it will scare the shit out of you sometimes… but highly ... Here a random suggestion, towards end of summer: Victus - Albert Sánchez Piñol (Catalan writer), not published in English yet ... Some suggestions:. Cuckoos Calling by JK Rowling (Robert Galbraith) - an excellent detective mystery by Rowling. She turned ...
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The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss. ...
suggestion greg1023. January 06, 2010, 08:16 PM posted in General Discussion ...
... Jan 28, 2008 • 9:23 am , (5) by Tamar Weinberg , Filed Under ... Home , Google News , Google SEO , A Suggestion for a More Scalable Reinclusion Request Procedure ...
Suggestions for Foundation Framer - Page 22 - Post ID 271168 - Any chance we get vmin and vmax added to the unit switcher? ...
Dont want a video card w/ tv out, so I was wondering what I could get to use my tv too.
An article about how the power of suggestion can change your mental mindset. ... The power of suggestion is an extremely powerful tool for those who know how to use it. I have heard a lot of the motivational ... The power of suggestion can work in positive ways also. If you see a coworker who is looking a little on the down side, maybe ... The power of suggestion is highly unlikely to get you out of a speeding ticket, although many people have tried it and a few ...
Im interested to hear peoples suggestions on a good book/books to read. Obviously I love a good conspiracy which is why Im a ... Im always fascinated by 9/11 debates so I chose those 2 for now and Ill try the other suggestions ...
... , Mats Bengtsson ,= *Prev by Date: Re: Postscript has problems ...
Let us know your suggestion by filling out the form below. ...
  • Your content suggestion for the VHL TCIM is welcome! (
  • I am using DuckDuckGo with Firefox because I do not like auto suggestions filling up the search bar while I type. (
  • Disable Auto Complete In Firefox/duckduckgo Go to: Open page, scroll to Infinite Scroll & Autocomplete Suggestions, Click to turn both off Restart. (
  • This Request for Information (RFI) invites comments and suggestions on NIAID's key strategic approaches to advance antibacterial resistance (AR) research. (
  • I therefore hope you will be able to provide suggestions and nominations by Sunday, 9 March 2003. (
  • In this paper, we will summarize current epidemiological, clinical, and EEG knowledge on CSWS and will provide suggestions for treatment. (
  • Open page, scroll to Infinite Scroll & Autocomplete Suggestions, Click to turn both off Restart. (
  • Since I don't just want to e.g. fix some typos, I am open to suggestions in order to contribute something useful to SUMO. (
  • When you add a recipient, Gmail automatically generates suggestions for other recipients based on groups of people you email most often. (
  • The power of suggestion can trigger or completely change a mental mindset in most people. (
  • People who tell lies - pathological, chronic, habitual, or compulsive liars - often reach a point where they have told the lies so well that the power of suggestion takes over and they start believing their own lies. (
  • The power of suggestion is highly unlikely to get you out of a speeding ticket, although many people have tried it and a few have probably gotten away with it. (
  • Simply enter in words below that describe your business, and we'll return some suggestions you can choose from. (
  • Receiving serious anonymous suggestions non-defensively could be quite enlightening and guiding. (
  • The power of suggestion can work in positive ways also. (
  • For the website, maybe you could send your suggestion box to your list with a code. (
  • All members of the mission were given this list of suggestions on what to take along for U.S. mental health missions to the U.S.S.R., which reminded them how differently their Russian counterparts lived. (
  • Is it possible to create a pseudo-cron function (one example is described here Any suggestions on where the call would be made and are there security issues to be aware of? (
  • Google announced two updates to Gmail today - background themes and email recipient suggestions. (
  • A suggestion box on the head of Greatgrandma's bed at the nursing home. (
  • The power of suggestion can be used to create a fantasy world for those who feel that they cannot cope with their reality. (
  • The problem would be malicious suggestions, and I'm not sure how to solve that one. (
  • My challenge to you is to try the power of suggestion (in a positive way) to improve your life and the lives of those around you. (
  • MeSH vocabulary suggestions are reviewed for literary warrant and other criteria of usefulness, for reproducibility in use, and for understandability. (
  • All suggestions will be evaluated considering the selection criteria of the MOSAICO Database and other sources of information, and the editorial policies of the VHL TCIM Americas. (
  • Your content suggestion for the VHL TCIM is welcome! (
  • In contrast to expectations, patients randomized to the verbal-suggestion arm had an increase in diameter stenosis (%) of the index coronary artery, implying vasoconstriction. (
  • Employee Suggestions - The NIH Employee Suggestion Program seeks to motivate employees to increase productivity and creativity by rewarding those whose accomplishments and adopted ideas benefit the Federal Government. (
  • This Request for Information (RFI) invites comments and suggestions on NIAID's key strategic approaches to advance antibacterial resistance (AR) research. (