Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)
A five-carbon sugar alcohol derived from XYLOSE by reduction of the carbonyl group. It is as sweet as sucrose and used as a noncariogenic sweetener.
Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.; EC 1.1.2. and EC 1.1.99.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A polyhydric alcohol with about half the sweetness of sucrose. Sorbitol occurs naturally and is also produced synthetically from glucose. It was formerly used as a diuretic and may still be used as a laxative and in irrigating solutions for some surgical procedures. It is also used in many manufacturing processes, as a pharmaceutical aid, and in several research applications.
A sugar alcohol formed by the reduction of ribose.
Agents that produce a soft formed stool, and relax and loosen the bowels, typically used over a protracted period, to relieve CONSTIPATION.
A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.
A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped to ellipsoidal bacteria occurring singly or in pairs and found in flowers, soil, honey bees, fruits, cider, beer, wine, and vinegar. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.
A class of carbohydrates that contains five carbon atoms.
Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases that have specificity for MANNITOL. Enzymes in this category are generally classified according to their preference for a specific reducing cofactor.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Infrequent or difficult evacuation of FECES. These symptoms are associated with a variety of causes, including low DIETARY FIBER intake, emotional or nervous disturbances, systemic and structural disorders, drug-induced aggravation, and infections.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.
An acute brain syndrome which results from the excessive ingestion of ETHANOL or ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Alcohols derived from the aryl radical (C6H5CH2-) and defined by C6H5CHOH. The concept includes derivatives with any substituents on the benzene ring.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A colorless liquid with a sharp burning taste and slight odor. It is used as a local anesthetic and to reduce pain associated with LIDOCAINE injection. Also, it is used in the manufacture of other benzyl compounds, as a pharmaceutic aid, and in perfumery and flavoring.
Disorders related to or resulting from abuse or mis-use of alcohol.
Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)

Base pairing of anhydrohexitol nucleosides with 2,6-diaminopurine, 5-methylcytosine and uracil asbase moiety. (1/423)

Hexitol nucleic acids (HNAs) with modified bases (5-methylcytosine, 2,6-diaminopurine or uracil) were synthesized. The introduction of the 5-methylcytosine base demonstrates that N -benzoylated 5-methylcytosyl-hexitol occurs as the imino tautomer. The base pairing systems (G:CMe, U:D, T:D and U:A) obey Watson-Crick rules. Substituting hT for hU, hCMefor hC and hD for hA generally leads to increased duplex stability. In a single case, replacement of hC by hCMedid not result in duplex stabilization. This sequence-specific effect could be explained by the geometry of the model duplex used for carrying out the thermal stability study. Generally, polypurine HNA sequences give more stable duplexes with their RNA complement than polypyrimidine HNA sequences. This observation supports the hypothesis that, besides changes in stacking pattern, the difference in conformational stress between purine and pyrimidine nucleosides may contribute to duplex stability. Introduction of hCMeand hD in HNA sequences further increases the potential of HNA to function as a steric blocking agent.  (+info)

Enantioselective inhibition of the biotransformation and pharmacological actions of isoidide dinitrate by diphenyleneiodonium sulphate. (2/423)

1. We have shown previously that the D- and L- enantiomers of isoidide dinitrate (D-IIDN and L-IIDN) exhibit a potency difference for relaxation and cyclic GMP accumulation in isolated rat aorta and that this is related to preferential biotransformation of the more potent enantiomer (D-IIDN). The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of the flavoprotein inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium sulphate (DPI), on the enantioselectivity of IIDN action. 2. In isolated rat aortic strip preparations, exposure to 0.3 microM DPI resulted in a 3.6 fold increase in the EC50 value for D-IIDN-induced relaxation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced relaxation. 3. Incubation of aortic strips with 2 microM D- or L-IIDN for 5 min resulted in significantly more D-isoidide mononitrate formed (5.0 +/- 1.5 pmol mg protein(-1)) than L-isoidide mononitrate (2.1 +/- 0.7 pmol mg protein(-1)) and this difference was abolished by pretreatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI. DPI had no effect on glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity or GSH-dependent biotransformation of D- or L-IIDN in the 105,000 x g supernatant fraction of rat aorta. 4. Consistent with both the relaxation and biotransformation data, treatment of tissues with 0.3 microM DPI significantly inhibited D-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation, but had no effect on L-IIDN-induced cyclic GMP accumulation. 5. In the intact animal, 2 mg kg(-1) DPI significantly inhibited the pharmacokinetic and haemodynamic properties of D-IIDN, but had no effect L-IIDN. 6. These data suggest that the basis for the potency difference for relaxation by the two enantiomers is preferential biotransformation of D-IIDN to NO, by an enzyme that is inhibited by DPI. Given that DPI binds to and inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, the data are consistent with a role for the cytochromes P450-NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase system in this enantioselective biotransformation process.  (+info)

Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on GSH and NAD(P)-redox status, lipid peroxidation, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lens. (3/423)

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in glutathione and NAD(P)-redox status, taurine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glucose utilization, and energy metabolism in diabetic precataractous lenses and to assess whether these changes can be prevented with dietary taurine supplementation. METHODS: The experimental groups included control and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with a 3-week duration of diabetes fed unsupplemented or taurine (1% or 5%)-supplemented diets. The levels of glucose, sorbitol, fructose, myo-inositol, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), glycolytic intermediates, malate, alpha-glycerophosphate, and adenine nucleotides were assayed in individual lenses spectrofluorometrically by enzymatic methods, reduced glutathione (GSH) spectrofluorometrically with O-phthaldialdehyde, MDA colorimetrically with N-methyl-2-phenylindole, and taurine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH and NADP+/NADPH ratios were calculated from the lactate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme systems. RESULTS: Sorbitol pathway metabolites and MDA were increased, and GSH and taurine levels were reduced in diabetic rats versus controls. The profile of glycolytic intermediates (an increase in glucose 6-phosphate, no change in fructose 6-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate, an increase in dihydroxyacetone phosphate, a decrease in 3-phosphoglycerate, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate, and no change in lactate), and a 9.2-fold increase in alpha-glycerophosphate suggest diabetes-induced inhibition of glycolysis. Free cytosolic NAD+/NADH ratios, ATP levels, ATP/ADP, and adenylate charge were reduced, whereas free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH ratios were elevated. Lens taurine levels in diabetic rats were not affected by supplementation with 1% taurine. With 5% taurine supplementation, they were increased approximately 2.2-fold higher than those in untreated diabetics but remained 3.4-fold lower than in controls. Lens GSH levels were similar in diabetic rats fed unsupplemented and 5% taurine-supplemented diets, whereas GSSG and MDA levels and GSSG/GSH ratios were reduced by 5% taurine supplementation. The decrease in free cytosolic NAD+/NADH, ATP/ADP, and adenylate energy charge were ameliorated by 5% taurine supplementation, whereas accumulation of sorbitol pathway intermediates, depletion of myoinositol, inhibition of glycolysis, a decrease in ATP and total adenine nucleotide, and an increase in free cytosolic NADP+/NADPH were not prevented. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary taurine supplementation ameliorates MDA levels, GSSG/GSH, and NAD+/NADH and fails to prevent the osmotically mediated depletion of GSH and taurine and the decrease in glucose utilization and ATP levels in diabetic precataractous lens. Dietary taurine supplementation cannot be regarded as an alternative to aldose reductase inhibition in eliminating antioxidant and metabolic deficits contributing to diabetes-associated cataractogenesis.  (+info)

Polyol formation and NADPH-dependent reductases in dog retinal capillary pericytes and endothelial cells. (4/423)

PURPOSE: Dogs fed a diet containing 30% galactose experience retinal vascular changes similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy, with selective pericyte loss as an initial lesion. In the present study the relationship among reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent reductases, polyol formation, and flux through the polyol pathway in cultured dog retinal capillary cells were investigated. METHODS: Pericytes and endothelial cells were cultured from retina of beagle dogs. NADPH-dependent reductases were characterized by chromatofocusing after gel filtration. Sugars in cultured cells were analyzed by gas chromatography, and flux through the polyol pathway was investigated by 19F nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with 3-fluoro-3-deoxy-D-glucose (3FG) as a substrate. The presence of aldose reductase and sorbitol dehydrogenase in these cells was examined by northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Two distinct peaks corresponding to aldose reductase and aldehyde reductase, the latter being dominant, were observed in pericytes by chromatofocusing. Culture in medium containing either 10 mM D-galactose or 30 mM D-glucose resulted in the accumulation of sugar alcohol in pericytes that was markedly reduced by aldose reductase inhibitors. 19F NMR spectra obtained from pericytes cultured for 5 days in medium containing 2 mM 3FG displayed the marked accumulation of 3-fluoro-deoxysorbitol but not 3-fluoro-deoxyfructose. No 3FG metabolism was observed in similarly cultured endothelial cells. With northern blot analysis, aldose reductase was detected in pericytes but not in endothelial cells. Sorbitol dehydrogenase was below the detectable limit in pericytes and endothelial cells. CONCLUSIONS: Aldose, aldehyde, and glyceraldehyde reductases are present in dog retinal capillary pericytes, with aldehyde reductase being the major reductase present. Polyol accumulation easily occurs in pericytes but not in endothelial cells.  (+info)

Crystal structure of carboxylase reaction-oriented ribulose 1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from a thermophilic red alga, Galdieria partita. (5/423)

Ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1. 39) obtained from a thermophilic red alga Galdieria partita has the highest specificity factor of 238 among the Rubiscos hitherto reported. Crystal structure of activated Rubisco from G. partita complexed with the reaction intermediate analogue, 2-carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate (2-CABP) has been determined at 2.4-A resolution. Compared with other Rubiscos, different amino residues bring the structural differences in active site, which are marked around the binding sites of P-2 phosphate of 2-CABP. Especially, side chains of His-327 and Arg-295 show the significant differences from those of spinach Rubisco. Moreover, the side chains of Asn-123 and His-294 which are reported to bind the substrate, ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, form hydrogen bonds characteristic of Galdieria Rubisco. Small subunits of Galdieria Rubisco have more than 30 extra amino acid residues on the C terminus, which make up a hairpin-loop structure to form many interactions with the neighboring small subunits. When the structures of Galdieria and spinach Rubiscos are superimposed, the hairpin region of the neighboring small subunit in Galdieria enzyme and apical portion of insertion residues 52-63 characteristic of small subunits in higher plant enzymes are almost overlapped to each other.  (+info)

Inhibition of glycogenolysis in primary rat hepatocytes by 1, 4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol. (6/423)

1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol (DAB) was identified previously as a potent inhibitor of both the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of glycogen phosphorylase (EC In the present study, the effects of DAB were investigated in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The transport of DAB into hepatocytes was dependent on time and DAB concentration. The rate of DAB transport was 192 pmol/min per mg of protein per mM DAB(medium-concentration). In hepatocytes, DAB inhibited basal and glucagon-stimulated glycogenolysis with IC(50) values of 1.0+/-0.3 and 1.1+/-0.2 microM, respectively. The primary inhibitory effect of DAB on glycogenolysis was shown to be due to inhibition of glycogen phosphorylase but, at higher concentrations of DAB, inhibition of the debranching enzyme (4-alpha-glucanotransferase, EC may have an effect. No effects on glycogen synthesis were observed, demonstrating that glycogen recycling does not occur in cultured hepatocytes under the conditions tested. Furthermore, DAB had no effects on phosphorylase kinase, the enzyme responsible for phosphorylation and thereby activation of glycogen phosphorylase, or on protein phosphatase 1, the enzyme responsible for inactivation of glycogen phosphorylase through dephosphorylation.  (+info)

Stable five- and six-coordinated silicate anions in aqueous solution. (7/423)

Addition of aliphatic polyols to aqueous silicate solutions is shown to yield high concentrations of stable polyolate complexes containing five- or six-coordinated silicon. Coordinating polyols require at least four hydroxy groups, two of which must be in threo configuration, and coordinate to silicon via hydroxy oxygens at chain positions on either side of the threo pair. The remarkable ease by which these simple sugar-like molecules react to form hypervalent silicon complexes in aqueous solution supports a long-standing supposition that such species play a significant role in the biological uptake and transport of silicon and in mineral diagenesis.  (+info)

Roles of sugar alcohols in osmotic stress adaptation. Replacement of glycerol by mannitol and sorbitol in yeast. (8/423)

For many organisms there is a correlation between increases of metabolites and osmotic stress tolerance, but the mechanisms that cause this protection are not clear. To understand the role of polyols, genes for bacterial mannitol-1-P dehydrogenase and apple sorbitol-6-P dehydrogenase were introduced into a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant deficient in glycerol synthesis. Sorbitol and mannitol provided some protection, but less than that generated by a similar concentration of glycerol generated by glycerol-3-P dehydrogenase (GPD1). Reduced protection by polyols suggested that glycerol had specific functions for which mannitol and sorbitol could not substitute, and that the absolute amount of the accumulating osmoticum might not be crucial. The retention of glycerol and mannitol/sorbitol, respectively, was a major difference. During salt stress, cells retained more of the six-carbon polyols than glycerol. We suggest that the loss of >98% of the glycerol synthesized could provide a safety valve that dissipates reducing power, while a similar high intracellular concentration of retained polyols would be less protective. To understand the role of glycerol in salt tolerance, salt-tolerant suppressor mutants were isolated from the glycerol-deficient strain. One mutant, sr13, partially suppressed the salt-sensitive phenotype of the glycerol-deficient line, probably due to a doubling of [K(+)] accumulating during stress. We compare these results to the "osmotic adjustment" concept typically applied to accumulating metabolites in plants. The accumulation of polyols may have dual functions: facilitating osmotic adjustment and supporting redox control.  (+info)

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are carbohydrates that are chemically similar to sugar but have a different molecular structure. They occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most sugar alcohols used in food products are manufactured.

The chemical structure of sugar alcohols contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) instead of a hydrogen and a ketone or aldehyde group, which makes them less sweet than sugar and have fewer calories. They are not completely absorbed by the body, so they do not cause a rapid increase in blood glucose levels, making them a popular sweetener for people with diabetes.

Common sugar alcohols used in food products include xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, erythritol, and maltitol. They are often used as sweeteners in sugar-free and low-sugar foods such as candy, chewing gum, baked goods, and beverages.

However, consuming large amounts of sugar alcohols can cause digestive symptoms such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea, due to their partial absorption in the gut. Therefore, it is recommended to consume them in moderation.

Xylitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sugar substitute in various food and dental products. It has a sweet taste similar to sugar but with fewer calories and less impact on blood sugar levels, making it a popular choice for people with diabetes or those looking to reduce their sugar intake. Xylitol is also known to have dental benefits, as it can help prevent tooth decay by reducing the amount of bacteria in the mouth that cause cavities.

Medically speaking, xylitol is classified as a carbohydrate and has a chemical formula of C5H12O5. It occurs naturally in some fruits and vegetables, but most commercial xylitol is produced from corn cobs or other plant materials through a process called hydrogenation. While generally considered safe for human consumption, it can have a laxative effect in large amounts and may be harmful to dogs, so it's important to keep it out of reach of pets.

Sugar alcohol dehydrogenases (SADHs) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion between sugar alcohols and sugars, which involves the gain or loss of a pair of electrons, typically in the form of NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of sugar alcohols, which are commonly found in various plants and some microorganisms.

Sugar alcohols, also known as polyols, are reduced forms of sugars that contain one or more hydroxyl groups instead of aldehyde or ketone groups. Examples of sugar alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, and erythritol. SADHs can interconvert these sugar alcohols to their corresponding sugars through a redox reaction that involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms.

The reaction catalyzed by SADHs is typically represented as follows:

R-CH(OH)-CH2OH + NAD(P)+ ↔ R-CO-CH2OH + NAD(P)H + H+

where R represents a carbon chain, and CH(OH)-CH2OH and CO-CH2OH represent the sugar alcohol and sugar forms, respectively.

SADHs are widely distributed in nature and have been found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. These enzymes have attracted significant interest in biotechnology due to their potential applications in the production of sugar alcohols and other value-added products. Additionally, SADHs have been studied as targets for developing novel antimicrobial agents, as inhibiting these enzymes can disrupt the metabolism of certain pathogens that rely on sugar alcohols for growth and survival.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

Sorbitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener in food and drinks, with about half the calories of table sugar. In a medical context, sorbitol is often used as a laxative to treat constipation, or as a sugar substitute for people with diabetes. It's also used as a bulk sweetener and humectant (a substance that helps retain moisture) in various pharmaceutical and cosmetic products.

When consumed in large amounts, sorbitol can have a laxative effect because it's not fully absorbed by the body and draws water into the intestines, which can lead to diarrhea. It's important for people with certain digestive disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome or fructose intolerance, to avoid sorbitol and other sugar alcohols, as they can cause gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Ribitol is a sugar alcohol, specifically a pentitol, that is a reduced form of the pentose sugar ribose. It is found in some fruits and vegetables, and it can also be produced synthetically. In biochemistry, ribitol plays a role as a component of certain coenzymes and as a constituent of the structural polysaccharides in the cell walls of some bacteria. It has been used in research and medical applications, such as in the study of bacterial metabolism and in the development of potential drugs.

Laxatives are substances or medications that are used to promote bowel movements or loosen the stools, thereby helping in the treatment of constipation. They work by increasing the amount of water in the stool or stimulating the muscles in the intestines to contract and push the stool through. Laxatives can be categorized into several types based on their mechanism of action, including bulk-forming laxatives, lubricant laxatives, osmotic laxatives, saline laxatives, stimulant laxatives, and stool softeners. It is important to use laxatives only as directed by a healthcare professional, as overuse or misuse can lead to serious health complications.

"Plantago" is the genus name for a group of plants commonly known as plantains. There are several species within this genus, including Plantago major (common plantain) and Plantago lanceolata (narrow-leaved plantain), which are found in many parts of the world. These plants have been used in traditional medicine for their alleged healing properties, such as soothing skin irritations, reducing inflammation, and promoting wound healing. However, it is important to note that the medical community's scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited, and further research is needed before any definitive health benefits can be attributed to Plantago species.

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol (a sugar substitute) used primarily as a diuretic to reduce brain swelling caused by traumatic brain injury or other causes that induce increased pressure in the brain. It works by drawing water out of the body through the urine. It's also used before surgeries in the heart, lungs, and kidneys to prevent fluid buildup.

In addition, mannitol is used in medical laboratories as a medium for growing bacteria and other microorganisms, and in some types of chemical research. In the clinic, it is also used as an osmotic agent in eye drops to reduce the pressure inside the eye in conditions such as glaucoma.

It's important to note that mannitol should be used with caution in patients with heart or kidney disease, as well as those who are dehydrated, because it can lead to electrolyte imbalances and other complications.

In chemistry, an alcohol is a broad term that refers to any organic compound characterized by the presence of a hydroxyl (-OH) functional group attached to a carbon atom. This means that alcohols are essentially hydrocarbons with a hydroxyl group. The simplest alcohol is methanol (CH3OH), and ethanol (C2H5OH), also known as ethyl alcohol, is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages.

In the context of medical definitions, alcohol primarily refers to ethanol, which has significant effects on the human body when consumed. Ethanol can act as a central nervous system depressant, leading to various physiological and psychological changes depending on the dose and frequency of consumption. Excessive or prolonged use of ethanol can result in various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, neurological damage, and increased risk of injuries due to impaired judgment and motor skills.

It is important to note that there are other types of alcohols (e.g., methanol, isopropyl alcohol) with different chemical structures and properties, but they are not typically consumed by humans and can be toxic or even lethal in high concentrations.

Monosaccharides are simple sugars that cannot be broken down into simpler units by hydrolysis. They are the most basic unit of carbohydrates and are often referred to as "simple sugars." Monosaccharides typically contain three to seven atoms of carbon, but the most common monosaccharides contain five or six carbon atoms.

The general formula for a monosaccharide is (CH2O)n, where n is the number of carbon atoms in the molecule. The majority of monosaccharides have a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and multiple hydroxyl groups. These functional groups give monosaccharides their characteristic sweet taste and chemical properties.

The most common monosaccharides include glucose, fructose, and galactose, all of which contain six carbon atoms and are known as hexoses. Other important monosaccharides include pentoses (five-carbon sugars) such as ribose and deoxyribose, which play crucial roles in the structure and function of nucleic acids (DNA and RNA).

Monosaccharides can exist in various forms, including linear and cyclic structures. In aqueous solutions, monosaccharides often form cyclic structures through a reaction between the carbonyl group and a hydroxyl group, creating a hemiacetal or hemiketal linkage. These cyclic structures can adopt different conformations, known as anomers, depending on the orientation of the hydroxyl group attached to the anomeric carbon atom.

Monosaccharides serve as essential building blocks for complex carbohydrates, such as disaccharides (e.g., sucrose, lactose, and maltose) and polysaccharides (e.g., starch, cellulose, and glycogen). They also participate in various biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell recognition, and protein glycosylation.

"Gluconobacter" is a genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that are capable of oxidizing various alcohols and sugars into their corresponding acids. These bacteria are often found in fruit, flowers, and sap, as well as in fermented foods and beverages. They are known for their ability to rapidly and efficiently oxidize glucose into gluconic acid, which gives them their name. Some species of Gluconobacter can also cause disease in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. In medical contexts, Gluconobacter species may be associated with infections such as bacteremia, endocarditis, and peritonitis.

Phloem is the living tissue in vascular plants that transports organic nutrients, particularly sucrose, a sugar, from leaves, where they are produced in photosynthesis, to other parts of the plant such as roots and stems. It also transports amino acids and other substances. Phloem is one of the two types of vascular tissue, the other being xylem; both are found in the vascular bundles of stems and roots. The term "phloem" comes from the Greek word for bark, as it often lies beneath the bark in trees and shrubs.

'Apium graveolens' is the scientific name for a plant species that includes both cultivated celery and wild celery. Here is the medical/botanical definition:

Common Name: Celery (Cultivated)
Scientific Name: Apium graveolens L. var. dulce
Family: Apiaceae (Carrot family)

Description: A biennial or sometimes perennial herb, cultivated for its fleshy leafstalks, which are eaten raw or cooked. The leaves and seeds are also used as flavorings and in traditional medicine.

Cultivated celery has been selected for its enlarged leafstalks, while wild celery (Apium graveolens var. graveolens) is a marshland plant with aromatic, hollow stems, feathery leaves, and small, whitish flowers in umbels.

Native Range: Originally from the Mediterranean region, but now widely cultivated throughout the world.

Medicinal Uses: Celery seeds and extracts have been used in traditional medicine for various purposes, including as a diuretic, an anti-inflammatory agent, and to treat kidney problems, arthritis, and gout. Some studies suggest that celery seeds may help lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels, but more research is needed to confirm these potential benefits and understand the risks.

Precautions: Celery can cause allergic reactions in some people, especially those with existing allergies to birch pollen or mugwort. Ingesting large amounts of celery seeds may have hormone-like effects due to a compound called apigenin, which could potentially interfere with certain medications and medical conditions. Pregnant women should avoid consuming excessive amounts of celery seeds, as they might stimulate the uterus and lead to premature labor or miscarriage.

A pentose is a monosaccharide (simple sugar) that contains five carbon atoms. The name "pentose" comes from the Greek word "pente," meaning five, and "ose," meaning sugar. Pentoses play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as building blocks for nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and other biomolecules.

Some common pentoses include:

1. D-Ribose - A naturally occurring pentose found in ribonucleic acid (RNA), certain coenzymes, and energy-carrying molecules like adenosine triphosphate (ATP).
2. D-Deoxyribose - A pentose that lacks a hydroxyl (-OH) group on the 2' carbon atom, making it a key component of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA).
3. Xylose - A naturally occurring pentose found in various plants and woody materials; it is used as a sweetener and food additive.
4. Arabinose - Another plant-derived pentose, arabinose can be found in various fruits, vegetables, and grains. It has potential applications in the production of biofuels and other bioproducts.
5. Lyxose - A less common pentose that can be found in some polysaccharides and glycoproteins.

Pentoses are typically less sweet than hexoses (six-carbon sugars) like glucose or fructose, but they still contribute to the overall sweetness of many foods and beverages.

Mannitol dehydrogenases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of mannitol to mannose or the reverse reduction reaction, depending on the cofactor used. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism of mannitol, a sugar alcohol found in various organisms, including bacteria, fungi, and plants.

There are two main types of mannitol dehydrogenases:

1. Mannitol-2-dehydrogenase (MT-2DH; EC This enzyme oxidizes mannitol to fructose, using NAD+ as a cofactor. It is widely distributed in bacteria and fungi, contributing to their metabolic versatility.
2. Mannitol-1-dehydrogenase (MT-1DH; EC This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of mannitol to mannose, using NADP+ as a cofactor. It is primarily found in plants and some bacteria, where it plays a role in osmoregulation and stress response.

In summary, mannitol dehydrogenases are enzymes that facilitate the interconversion of mannitol and its corresponding sugars (mannose or fructose) through oxidation-reduction reactions.

Sweetening agents are substances that are added to foods or drinks to give them a sweet taste. They can be natural, like sugar (sucrose), honey, and maple syrup, or artificial, like saccharin, aspartame, and sucralose. Artificial sweeteners are often used by people who want to reduce their calorie intake or control their blood sugar levels. However, it's important to note that some sweetening agents may have potential health concerns when consumed in large amounts.

Carbohydrate metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, which is then used for energy or stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. This process involves several enzymes and chemical reactions that convert carbohydrates from food into glucose, fructose, or galactose, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body.

The hormones insulin and glucagon regulate carbohydrate metabolism by controlling the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Insulin is released from the pancreas when blood sugar levels are high, such as after a meal, and promotes the uptake and storage of glucose in cells. Glucagon, on the other hand, is released when blood sugar levels are low and signals the liver to convert stored glycogen back into glucose and release it into the bloodstream.

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism can result from genetic defects or acquired conditions that affect the enzymes or hormones involved in this process. Examples include diabetes, hypoglycemia, and galactosemia. Proper management of these disorders typically involves dietary modifications, medication, and regular monitoring of blood sugar levels.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

Fermentation is a metabolic process in which an organism converts carbohydrates into alcohol or organic acids using enzymes. In the absence of oxygen, certain bacteria, yeasts, and fungi convert sugars into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and various end products, such as alcohol, lactic acid, or acetic acid. This process is commonly used in food production, such as in making bread, wine, and beer, as well as in industrial applications for the production of biofuels and chemicals.

Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is a group of enzymes responsible for catalyzing the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, and reducing equivalents such as NAD+ to NADH. In humans, ADH plays a crucial role in the metabolism of ethanol, converting it into acetaldehyde, which is then further metabolized by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) into acetate. This process helps to detoxify and eliminate ethanol from the body. Additionally, ADH enzymes are also involved in the metabolism of other alcohols, such as methanol and ethylene glycol, which can be toxic if allowed to accumulate in the body.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Constipation is a condition characterized by infrequent bowel movements or difficulty in passing stools that are often hard and dry. The medical definition of constipation varies, but it is generally defined as having fewer than three bowel movements in a week. In addition to infrequent bowel movements, other symptoms of constipation can include straining during bowel movements, feeling like you haven't completely evacuated your bowels, and experiencing hard or lumpy stools.

Constipation can have many causes, including a low-fiber diet, dehydration, certain medications, lack of physical activity, and underlying medical conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome or hypothyroidism. In most cases, constipation can be treated with lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake, drinking more water, and getting regular exercise. However, if constipation is severe, persistent, or accompanied by other symptoms, it's important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require treatment.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Body water refers to the total amount of water present in the human body. It is an essential component of life and makes up about 60-70% of an adult's body weight. Body water is distributed throughout various fluid compartments within the body, including intracellular fluid (water inside cells), extracellular fluid (water outside cells), and transcellular fluid (water found in specific bodily spaces such as the digestive tract, eyes, and joints). Maintaining proper hydration and balance of body water is crucial for various physiological processes, including temperature regulation, nutrient transportation, waste elimination, and overall health.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a term used to describe a range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects may include physical, mental, and behavioral abnormalities, and can vary in severity and combination from one individual to another.

The four diagnostic categories within FASD are:

1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): This is the most severe form of FASD and is characterized by a specific pattern of facial features, growth deficiencies, and central nervous system dysfunction.
2. Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (pFAS): This category includes individuals who have some, but not all, of the features of FAS.
3. Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND): This category includes individuals who have functional or cognitive impairments due to prenatal alcohol exposure, but do not meet the criteria for FAS or pFAS.
4. Alcohol-Related Birth Defects (ARBD): This category includes individuals who have physical birth defects due to prenatal alcohol exposure.

It is important to note that FASD is a completely preventable condition, and there is no known safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy.

Alcoholic beverages are drinks that contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is produced by the fermentation of yeast, sugars, and starches. The amount of alcohol in a drink is measured in terms of "alcohol content" or "alcohol by volume" (ABV). Different types of alcoholic beverages include:

1. Beer: A fermented beverage made from grains, such as barley, wheat, or rye. The alcohol content of beer typically ranges from 3-6% ABV.
2. Wine: A fermented beverage made from grapes or other fruits. The alcohol content of wine usually falls between 10-15% ABV.
3. Spirits (or liquors): Distilled beverages with higher alcohol content, typically ranging from 40-50% ABV. Examples include vodka, whiskey, rum, gin, and tequila.
4. Fortified wines: Wines that have had a distilled spirit added to them, increasing their alcohol content. Examples include port, sherry, and madeira, which typically contain 17-20% ABV.
5. Malt beverages: Fermented beverages made from malted barley or other grains, with additional flavorings or sweeteners. These can range in alcohol content from around 4-8% ABV.

It is important to note that excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages can lead to various health issues, including addiction, liver disease, and an increased risk of accidents and injuries. Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, although individual tolerance and sensitivity to alcohol may vary.

Alcoholic intoxication, also known as alcohol poisoning, is a condition that occurs when a person consumes a large amount of alcohol in a short period of time. This can lead to an increase in the concentration of alcohol in the blood, which can affect the normal functioning of the body's organs and systems.

The symptoms of alcoholic intoxication can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:

* Confusion or disorientation
* Slurred speech
* Poor coordination
* Staggering or difficulty walking
* Vomiting
* Seizures
* Slow or irregular breathing
* Low body temperature (hypothermia)
* Pale or blue-tinged skin
* Unconsciousness or coma

Alcoholic intoxication can be a medical emergency and requires immediate treatment. If you suspect that someone has alcohol poisoning, it is important to seek medical help right away. Treatment may include supportive care, such as providing fluids and oxygen, and monitoring the person's vital signs. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary.

It is important to note that alcoholic intoxication can occur even at relatively low levels of alcohol consumption, especially in people who are not used to drinking or who have certain medical conditions. It is always best to drink in moderation and to be aware of the potential risks associated with alcohol consumption.

Benzyl alcohol is an aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a mild, pleasant odor and is used as a solvent and preservative in cosmetics, medications, and other products. Benzyl alcohol can also be found as a natural component of some essential oils, fruits, and teas.

Benzyl alcohol is not typically considered a "drug" or a medication, but it may have various pharmacological effects when used in certain medical contexts. For example, it has antimicrobial properties and is sometimes used as a preservative in injectable medications to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi. It can also be used as a local anesthetic or analgesic in some topical creams and ointments.

It's important to note that benzyl alcohol can be harmful or fatal to infants and young children, especially when it is used in high concentrations or when it is introduced into the body through intravenous (IV) routes. Therefore, it should be used with caution in these populations and only under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Alcohol oxidoreductases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of alcohols to aldehydes or ketones, while reducing nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) to NADH. These enzymes play an important role in the metabolism of alcohols and other organic compounds in living organisms.

The most well-known example of an alcohol oxidoreductase is alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), which is responsible for the oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde in the liver during the metabolism of alcoholic beverages. Other examples include aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH).

These enzymes are important targets for the development of drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder, as inhibiting their activity can help to reduce the rate of ethanol metabolism and the severity of its effects on the body.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Benzyl alcohol is a aromatic alcohol with the chemical formula C6H5CH2OH. It is a colorless liquid with a characteristic, mildly unpleasant odor. Benzyl alcohol is used as a solvent and as an intermediate in the production of other chemicals. In medicine, it is used as a local anesthetic and antimicrobial agent. It can be found in some personal care products, such as cosmetics, shampoos, and sunscreens, as well as in topical medications and intravenous medications.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), alcohol-related disorders are a category of mental disorders defined by a problematic pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. The disorders include:

1. Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD): A chronic relapsing brain disorder characterized by an impaired ability to stop or control alcohol use despite adverse social, occupational, or health consequences. AUD can be mild, moderate, or severe, and recovery is possible regardless of severity. The symptoms include problems controlling intake of alcohol, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky situations, or withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.
2. Alcohol Intoxication: A state of acute impairment in mental and motor function caused by the recent consumption of alcohol. The symptoms include slurred speech, unsteady gait, nystagmus, impaired attention or memory, stupor, or coma. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory depression, hypothermia, or even death.
3. Alcohol Withdrawal: A syndrome that occurs when alcohol use is heavily reduced or stopped after prolonged and heavy use. The symptoms include autonomic hyperactivity, increased hand tremor, insomnia, nausea or vomiting, transient visual, tactile, or auditory hallucinations or illusions, psychomotor agitation, anxiety, and grand mal seizures.
4. Other Alcohol-Induced Disorders: These include alcohol-induced sleep disorder, alcohol-induced sexual dysfunction, and alcohol-induced major neurocognitive disorder.

It is important to note that alcohol use disorders are complex conditions that can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, environment, and personal behavior. If you or someone you know is struggling with alcohol use, it is recommended to seek professional help.

Fatty alcohols, also known as long-chain alcohols or long-chain fatty alcohols, are a type of fatty compound that contains a hydroxyl group (-OH) and a long alkyl chain. They are typically derived from natural sources such as plant and animal fats and oils, and can also be synthetically produced.

Fatty alcohols can vary in chain length, typically containing between 8 and 30 carbon atoms. They are commonly used in a variety of industrial and consumer products, including detergents, emulsifiers, lubricants, and personal care products. In the medical field, fatty alcohols may be used as ingredients in certain medications or topical treatments.

Central Nervous System (CNS) depressants are a class of drugs that slow down the activity of the CNS, leading to decreased arousal and decreased level of consciousness. They work by increasing the inhibitory effects of the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedation, relaxation, reduced anxiety, and in some cases, respiratory depression.

Examples of CNS depressants include benzodiazepines, barbiturates, non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, and certain types of pain medications such as opioids. These drugs are often used medically to treat conditions such as anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and chronic pain, but they can also be misused or abused for their sedative effects.

It is important to use CNS depressants only under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as they can have serious side effects, including addiction, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms. Overdose of CNS depressants can lead to coma, respiratory failure, and even death.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Sugar alcohols are absorbed at 50% of the rate of sugars, resulting in less of an effect on blood sugar levels as measured by ... Sugar alcohols are used widely in the food industry as thickeners and sweeteners. In commercial foodstuffs, sugar alcohols are ... Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. Sugar alcohols have the general formula HOCH2(CHOH)nCH2OH ... In contrast, sugars have two fewer hydrogen atoms, for example HOCH2(CHOH)nCHO or HOCH2(CHOH)n−1C(O)CH2OH. The sugar alcohols ...
Sugar alcohols are carbohydrates with a biochemical structure partially matching the structures of sugar and alcohol, although ... Additionally, sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol are derived from sugars. In the United States, six high- ... Additionally, sugar alcohols such as erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol are derived from sugars. Approved artificial sweeteners ... Many sugar substitutes are cheaper than sugar in the final food formulation. Sugar substitutes are often lower in total cost ...
... is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute and laxative. It has 75-90% of the sweetness of sucrose ( ... Its food energy value is 2.1 kcal/g (8.8 kJ/g); (sucrose is 3.9 kcal/g (16.2 kJ/g)). Like other sugar alcohols (with the ... It exhibits a negligible cooling effect (positive heat of solution) in comparison with other sugar alcohols, and is very ... Mäkinen, K. K. (2016). "Gastrointestinal Disturbances Associated with the Consumption of Sugar Alcohols with Special ...
... is classified as a sugar alcohol; that is, it can be derived from a sugar (mannose) by reduction. Other sugar alcohols ... another sugar alcohol; the two differ only in the orientation of the hydroxyl group on carbon 2. While similar, the two sugar ... Sugar alcohols, Sugar substitutes, World Anti-Doping Agency prohibited substances, World Health Organization essential ... Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol used as a sweetener and medication. It is used as a low calorie sweetener as it is poorly ...
Sugar alcohols, a class of low molecular weight polyols, are commonly obtained by hydrogenation of sugars.: 363 They have the ... Sugar alcohols are added to foods because of their lower caloric content than sugars; however, they are also, in general, less ... 2012). "Sugar Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_413.pub3 ... Maltitol, sorbitol, xylitol, erythritol, and isomalt are common sugar alcohols. The term polyol is used for various chemistries ...
... since they contain one intact sugar). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies sugar alcohols as "generally ... and maltitol are all classified sugar alcohols (lactitol and maltitol are in fact disaccharide alcohols, ... Lactitol is a disaccharide sugar alcohol produced from lactose. It is used as a replacement bulk sweetener for low calorie ... 2012). "Sugar Alcohols". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_413.pub3. ISBN 9783527303854 ...
... sugar'). Like most sugar alcohols (including the chemically similar maltitol), isomalt carries a risk of intestinal distress ... Isomalt is a sugar substitute, a mixture of the two disaccharide alcohols 1,6-GPS and 1,1-GPM. It is used primarily for its ... Isomalt has a minimal cooling effect (positive heat of solution), lower than many other sugar alcohols, in particular, xylitol ... Its energy value is 2 kcal per gram, half that of sugars. It is less sweet than sugar, but can be blended with high-intensity ...
These three compounds differ in the stereochemistry of the three secondary alcohol groups. 5-carbon sugar alcohols Arabitol ... itol used to denote sugar alcohols. Xylitol is used as a food additive and sugar substitute. Its European Union code number is ... Unlike most sugar alcohols, xylitol is achiral. Most other isomers of pentane-1,2,3,4,5-pentol are chiral, but xylitol has a ... Xylitol, a sugar alcohol containing 5 carbon-polyol, is metabolized via the phospho-enolpyruvate-phospho-transferase pathway in ...
... polysaccharides/simple sugars: alginic acid, fucoidan, and laminarin; protein; sugar alcohol: mannitol; and vitamins: folic and ...
... simple sugars: alginic acid, laminarin; Sugar alcohol: mannitol. In addition Lobophora may have contributions in medicinal ...
"Sugar, syrups, and alcohol". Ledesma. Archived from the original on 2012-09-03. Retrieved 2011-08-13. "Empresa sospechada de ... Sugar, cellulose, and paper mills. Alcohol and bioethanol facilities. Installed electricity generation capacity of over 51 ... He fostered the growth of the company's sugar business by increasing land area under production and adding two sugar mills. ... The company originated in 1830, when the first sugar cane fields were planted by José Ramírez Ovejero González in Ledesma - a ...
... the yeasts consume the sugars and produce alcohol. The density of sugar in water is greater than the density of alcohol in ... Another way of specifying the amount of alcohol content is alcohol proof, which in the United States is twice the alcohol-by- ... "Alcohol Strength and Density". sugartech.co.za. The Sugar Engineers. (Articles with short description, Short description ... Alcohol by volume (abbreviated as ABV, abv, or alc/vol) is a standard measure of how much alcohol (ethanol) is contained in a ...
Sugar alcohols such as xylitol, sorbitol or mannitol; Protein: gelatin; Synthetic polymers: polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), ... Sugar can be used to mask unpleasant tastes or smells, but artificial sweeteners tend to be preferred, as natural ones tend to ... For most coated tablets, a cellulose ether hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) film coating is used which is free of sugar and ... "Protein formulations containing amino acids". Lesney, Mark S. (January 2001). "More than just the sugar in the pill". Today's ...
General references The Sugar Association Inc. "Sugar - Sweet By Nature: Sugar Alcohols" Science Toys. Ingredients. " ... are mixtures of several sugar alcohols (a type of sugar substitute). Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates were developed by the ... Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates are used commercially in the same way as other common sugar alcohols. They are often used as ... "Hydrogenated Starch Hydrosylate" (Organic compounds, Starch, Polyols, Sugar alcohols). ...
It contains twelve units of gum in each pack (box). It contains sugar alcohols Maltitol, Mannitol, Erythritol and also ...
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The content was 47% alcohol with sugar. He was also a co-founder of the Fort Pitt National Bank, where he served as President ...
Sugar alcohol Sugar substitute E. Bourquelot, Bull. Soc. Mycol. Fr., 5 (1889) 132. Media related to Volemitol at Wikimedia ... Volemitol is a naturally occurring seven-carbon sugar alcohol. It is a substance widely distributed in plants, red algae, fungi ... Sugar alcohols, Sugar substitutes). ...
While a sufficient amount of YAN is good for the yeast and ensures fermentation of the sugars in the juice to alcohol, some ... Most of the natural sugar in apples are used up in the fermentation process and are converted into alcohol, and carbon dioxide ... This can be desirable if cider makers prefer their cider to have some more sugar than alcohol in their cider. However, limiting ... Malnick, Edward (29 March 2014). "Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on ...
... , or arabinitol, is a sugar alcohol. It can be formed by the reduction of either arabinose or lyxose. Some organic acid ... Sugar alcohols, All stub articles, Alcohol stubs). ...
Malnick, Edward (29 March 2014). "Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed". The Telegraph. Retrieved 20 July 2014. Thring, ... nearly as much as the WHO recommends as an adult's daily allowance of added sugar, and 5-10 times the sugar of lager or ale. By ... In 2014, a study by The Daily Telegraph found that a pint of Bulmers cider contained five teaspoons (20.5g) of sugar, ... In March 2014, two lower-alcohol flavours were added: Bulmers Cider Five Fruit Harvest and Bulmers Cider Indian Summer, number- ...
Xylitol is a sugar alcohol which provides the sensation of tasting sweetness in foods, particularly chewing gum, without ... It is classified as a sugar alcohol. Xylitol inhibits acid production by oral bacteria and promotes remineralization of the ... Increased sugar consumption in the means of foods and drinks containing high levels of sugar are known to be associated with ... When food or drinks containing fermentable sugars enter the mouth, the bacteria in dental plaque rapidly feed on the sugars and ...
Sugar and alcohol production are of note. The town has a wide variety of commercial establishments and provides services to ...
Neutral agents include water, EG electrolyte solution, sugar alcohols, and methylcellulose. Patients are usually able to drink ...
... from carbohydrates and sugar alcohols to platform chemicals". Angewandte Chemie International Edition. 51 (11): 2564-2601. doi: ...
Roquette is world leader in polyols (sugar alcohols) such as Lycasin. In November 2010, Roquette Freres SA joined with Solazyme ...
Hydrocarbons, primarily paraffins (CnH2n+2) and lipids but also sugar alcohols. Advantages Freeze without much supercooling ...
Reducing intake of poorly absorbed sugar alcohols may be of benefit. Referral to an accredited dietitian is recommended. If ...
... duties on alcohol, petrol and sugar were hiked; and a 60% tax on excess profits was introduced. Simon's political position ... In the spring 1939 budget, income tax was unchanged, and the surtax was increased, as were indirect taxes on cars, sugar and ... Postal charges were increased, as were charges on tobacco, matches and alcohol. The purchase tax, an ancestor of today's value- ...
"Renewed calls for sugar, tobacco and alcohol taxes". medicalxpress.com. "Medical experts push for sugar tax". 1 April 2016 - ... She has argued in favour of a greater contribution of multinational alcohol companies to the costs of alcohol-related harms. ... "Alcohol law changes ineffective at reducing harm - study". Newshub. 10 May 2018 - via www.newshub.co.nz. Casswell, Sally (21 ... "Reducing harm from alcohol: call to action." The Lancet 373, no. 9682 (2009): 2247-2257. Connolly, Gary M., Sally Casswell, JIA ...
Sugar alcohols are absorbed at 50% of the rate of sugars, resulting in less of an effect on blood sugar levels as measured by ... Sugar alcohols are used widely in the food industry as thickeners and sweeteners. In commercial foodstuffs, sugar alcohols are ... Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. Sugar alcohols have the general formula HOCH2(CHOH)nCH2OH ... In contrast, sugars have two fewer hydrogen atoms, for example HOCH2(CHOH)nCHO or HOCH2(CHOH)n−1C(O)CH2OH. The sugar alcohols ...
Study by The Telegraph finds a single pint of cider contains almost as much sugar as the World Health Organisation recommends ... Hidden levels of sugar in alcohol revealed. Study by The Telegraph finds a single pint of cider contains almost as much sugar ... A study carried out by experts for The Telegraph found that many alcohols contain significant amounts of sugar in a single ... An analysis of sugar levels in cider, sherry and spirits found that some drinks contained as many as five teaspoons of sugar in ...
Popular sugar alcohols include: glycerol, maltitol, xylitol, sorbitol, and mannitol. Sugar alcohols do not have 4 calories per ... However, sugar alcohols, have a minimal impact on blood-sugar levels. Currently, the FDA has not focused on these important ... Sugar alcohols are carbohydrate derivatives of sugar, which are commonly used to sweeten products like chewing gum, and more ...
An background on sugar alcohols and recent changes in the industry that have interesting ramifications in the world of kashrus. ... One of these processes involves converting the sugar into sugar alcohols. The term alcohol connotes a category of chemicals ... Lactitol is used to replace lactose in sugar-free chocolate.. Historically, sorbitol and other sugar alcohols were considered ... common table sugar), glucose and galactose create lactose (milk sugar). You will notice that the names of all sugars end with ...
Sugar & Artificial Sweeteners What do you think about sugar-free hard candy and breath mints?. Joanne Larsen - September 25, ...
... By Yoni Heisler ... In addition to alcohol, scientists discovered that the comet is also spewing out 21 different organic molecules along with the ... While The Martian might have made made space travel seem less than appealing, something tells us that free alcohol by the ton ... "We found that comet Lovejoy was releasing as much alcohol as in at least 500 bottles of wine every second during its peak ...
New research showing that a liver hormone regulates certain food and alcohol preferences raises the possibility of new ways to ... Sugar, Alcohol Preferences Regulated by Hormone in Liver. New research showing that a liver hormone regulates certain food and ... New research showing that a liver hormone regulates certain food and alcohol preferences raises the possibility of new ways to ... alcohol preferences raises the possibility of new ways to eventually treat diet imbalances and alcoholism. ...
Like all sugar alcohols, overuse can cause GI problems (bloating, gas, diarrhea, etc.) but my level of use has been so small ... Im pretty sure that all of the "tols" are very similar and just another form of (or identical to) the other sugar alcohols. ... Just wondering about maltitol, its probably similar to these other alcohol sugars I guess. I occasionally buy a block of ... I also use raw sugar, maple syrup and honey. I have been attempting to limit sugar intake recently and it seems to work best to ...
Alcohol can have a confusing effect on blood sugar levels because it prevents the liver from producing glucose. One consequence ... Alcohol can have a confusing effect on blood sugar levels because it prevents the liver from producing glucose. One consequence ... However, it is advisable to test blood sugar levels whenever possible to get an idea of how different drinks affect your sugar ... Alcohol does affect different people in different ways so, if in doubt, test your blood glucose to see how alcohol affects you ...
... alcohol can affect blood sugar levels and pose a health risk. Planet Ayurveda offers best quality herbal remedies for natural ... This can lead to decrease in blood sugar level, especially if you are drinking alcohol on an empty stomach. ... When you drink alcohol, your liver instead of releasing glucose remains busy in breaking the alcohol down and hence releasing ... Regular exercise is also needed to control the blood sugar. But if you are an insulin dependent, or you are taking certain oral ...
We will examine the 6 key differences between sugar alcohol vs. sugar. ... Is sugar alcohol a better sweetener than sugar? ... Sugar: Which Is Better for Your Blood Sugar?. Published: ... Cane Sugar vs. Sugar: What are the Differences & Which is Healthier?. Published: September 12, 2023. by Jenna Jury ... Sugar has become quite a hot topic for good reason. Consuming too much sugar can lead to many health problems. […] ...
... health consciousness regarding food and beverages from consumers across the globe are expected to promote the sugar alcohol ... The global sugar alcohol market size was estimated at USD 3.42 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual ... Sugar alcohol is an organic molecule produced from sugars with a hydroxyl group with carbon. Majorly used sugar alcohols are ... Global Sugar Alcohol Market Size & Share Report, 2028 GVR Report cover Sugar Alcohol Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis ...
Sugar alcohols can be a trigger food for diabetics.. The downside of the sugar alcohols is that some of the sugar/alcohol may ... may not respond well to the sugar alcohols in place of other more natural forms of sugar. Sugar alcohols can act as "trigger ... Are the sugar alcohols, like Xylitol, a better choice?. I am asked a lot if the sugar alcohols are safe sweeteners. Well, I am ... The sugar alcohols are becoming more popular in gum today.. Please keep in mind, these "grey area" sugar alcohols can give you ...
Red Wine and Tea May Reduce Blood Sugar Levels If you start your day with a cup of tea and end it with a glass of red wine, ... Small amounts of alcohol will not hinder your control over diabetes but there are some precautions that diabetics should take ... Many of the early warning signs of hypoglycemia are mimicked by alcohol and friends may not seek help for you until you lose ... If you are diabetic and are currently treated with either tablets or insulin the main risk of consuming alcohol is hypoglycemia ...
... no alcohol, no dairy and no wheat. It had its ups and downs, but it was also totally do-able, and Im so happy I made the time ... no alcohol, no dairy and no wheat. It had its ups and downs, but it was also totally do-able, and Im so happy I made the time ... My no-sugar, no-wheat, no-dairy, no-alcohol Challenge - DAY FOURTEEN - last day!. 4 March 2010. by Tania McCartney ... Two weeks of no sugar, no alcohol, no dairy and no wheat. It had its ups and downs, but it was also totally do-able, and Im so ...
Sugar alcohols are low digestible carbohydrates which help in controlling blood sugar levels. The growing concern among ... Also, there is growing demand for low calorie-foods worldwide, which supported the growth of sugar alcohols market. ... They are considered to be safer substitutes for sugar as they are calorie-free and help in weight loss. According to World ... consumers regarding obesity and diabetes accelerated the demand for sugar alcohols. ...
The first two drinks contain no additional sugar and have only an ounce of alcohol per serving. ... Weve received a lot of requests to post cocktails which are lower in sugar and more conducive to someone trying to balance ... Belvedere Vodka Advocates Mindful Drinking and Its Time For Nutritional Information on Alcohol Labels has been overwhelming. ... holds BAR certification from the Beverage Alcohol Resource Group, is a Certified Cognac Educator, and a Kentucky Colonel ...
The potential global gains in health and revenue from increased taxation of tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages: A ... The potential global gains in health and revenue from increased taxation of tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages: A ... alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). In low-income and middle-income countries, this increased disease burden falls on ... Methods We simulated the health and economic effects of taxing cigarettes, alcohol and SSB over 50 years for 30-79 years old ...
Add sugar if you want more alcohol, but I prefer it on day 2. Tastes little bit like fruity beer or radler, it is very ... Alcohol Content [%] = Sugar Content per Liter [g] / 20. Last edited by ramon2 on May 27th, 2020 9:01 pm, edited 1 time in total ... Homemade hard apple cider - estimating alcohol content from starting sugar weight. I make simple and cheap home made hard cider ... so 124g sugar per kg of juice =, half mass of sugar becomes ethanol, so 62g of ethanol per 1kg of drink, i.e. 6.2% when fully ...
Calories in Sugar Alcohols. Sugar alcohols provide fewer calories per gram compared to regular carbohydrates. Sugar alcohols ... sugar alcohol Sugar Alcohols: Are They Compatible with the Medical Ketogenic Diet?. January 14, 2019. dannonuser 3 Comments ... Sugar Alcohols, Erythritol, and the Ketogenic Diet. So, are sugar alcohols allowed on the medical ketogenic diet and modified ... When other sugar alcohols are used in addition to erythritol, the sugar alcohol content cannot be deducted, so I tell my ...
Sugar Alcohols from Atkins Diet & Low Carbohydrate Support: Atkins diet and low carbohydrate diet resources for all low carb ... Sugar Alcohols by Doreen ALL ABOUT SUGAR ALCOHOLS (MALTITOL, SORBITOL, ISOMALT , etc..) These sweeteners are neither sugars, ... Sugar alcohols do have carbs, and approx. 1/2 to 3/4 the calories of regular sugar. They are more slowly and incompletely ... sugar alcohols ARE safe for children, and pregnant/nursing mothers ... just keep an eye on the dose. There are some newer sugar ...
Sugar Alcohol; Dehydrogenases, Sugar Alcohol; Alcohol Oxidoreductases, Sugar; Alcohol Dehydrogenases, Sugar ... Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. D-. ribose reductase EC 1.1.- *Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. Biochim Biophys Acta 385(1):51;1975 ... Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. Yeast 2005 Sep;22(12):957-69 2,3-. diketo-. L-. gulonate reductase EC 1.1.1.- *Sugar Alcohol ... Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. 1,5-. anhydro-. fructose reductase EC 1.1.1.- *Sugar Alcohol Dehydrogenases. J Biochem (Tokyo) ...
... impact on blood sugar, insulin, managing diabetes, sugar alcohol The CRAP they put in our food!. Im mad as hell and Im not ... Tag Archives: sugar alcohol. Deception - What foods I cheat for. We deceive others every day, but in doing so we know that the ... Posted in Diabetes Blog , Tagged blood glucose, blood sugar, diabetes, diabetes and diet, diabetes and food, diabetic food, ... Posted in Diabetes Blog , Tagged blood glucose, blood sugar, brown rice syrup, diabetes, diabetic food, food for diabetics, ...
Purchase our assay kits for the measurement of organic and sugar alcohols. ... Alcohols. View our extensive range of assay kits for the measurement of organic and sugar alcohols. Browse our full range of ... Alcohols. View our extensive range of assay kits for the measurement of organic and sugar alcohols. Browse our full range of ... View our extensive range of assay kits for the measurement of organic and sugar alcohols. Browse our full range of assay kits ...
While lower in alcohol, these wines are also winning fans for their low cost. ... so sugar concentrations are lower. And since its the sugar that converts to alcohol, as a result theres less alcohol. ... For instance, they can halt the conversion of sugar in the grapes to alcohol, keeping more sugar in the wine. Moscato wines, ... The lower-alcohol trend goes beyond just vino. Beer-wine crossovers are starting to catch on. For instance, Odell Brewing in ...
In the modern fitness-conscious global about Sugar Alcohol, human beings are continuously seeking options for traditional ... Is sugar liquor worse than sugar?. No, sugar alcohol is not necessarily worse than sugar. While both sugar and sugar alcohol ... Is sugar alcohol better than sugar?. Whether sugar alcohol is higher than sugar relies upon on persons fitness dreams and ... The History of Sugar Alcohol. The use of sugar alcohol can be traced back to ancient instances. It become first found in the ...
Sugar alcohols are becoming more and more popular as a sugar substitute in products labeled as ... Lets first dive into what sugar alcohols actually are.. 1) What are sugar alcohols? Sugar alcohols are derived from natural ... Sugar alcohols are becoming more and more popular as a sugar substitute in products labeled as "sugar free" or "no sugar added ... sugar alcohols do provide a small amount of calories but about half of that of real sugar. On average, sugar alcohols have ...
Sneaky Sugars: Sugar Alcohols. We see "no sugar" and "sugar free" on labels a lot, but many brands will use that label when in ... In relation to our blood sugar levels, most sugar alcohols have little to no effect on blood sugar and insulin levels - with ... fact, they are still using sneaky sugars in their products, better known as sugar alcohols. Sugar alcohols are sweeteners that ... https://www.webmd.com/diet/what-are-sugar-alcohols#1. https://www.ynhh.org/services/nutrition/sugar-alcohol.aspx. https://www. ...
There is no sugar or alcohol in a single part of sugar alcohols themselves. Is Sugar Alcohol Good For Type 2 Diabetes (ð ´ ... Unlike regular sugar, sugar alcohols do not promote cavities. Alcohol breaks down in the liver, where the bodyâ s blood sugar ... We now understand how diabetes and alcohol interact and how alcohol and blood sugar affect diabetics. However, sugar alcohols ... Alcohol in moderation of sugar alcohols blood sugar free alcohol medications, this can lead to dangerously blood... You need ...
Youll be left with veggies - but can you enjoy delicious sweet foods on keto? Sweeteners and other forms of sugar substitutes ... Sugar alcohols: what are they?. Sugar alcohols are a form of a mostly-indigestible compound that tends to be far sweeter than ... Types of sugar alcohols and their benefits/side effects. The type of sugar alcohol youre exposed to will naturally affect the ... As a sugar alcohol, this compound actively decreases blood sugar levels with a GI of -1. This is the first time weve discussed ...
  • Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike sugars, which tend to exist as rings, sugar alcohols do not-although they can be dehydrated to give cyclic ethers (e.g. sorbitol can be dehydrated to isosorbide). (wikipedia.org)
  • currently, sorbitol and mannitol are obtained by hydrogenation of sugars, using Raney nickel catalysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Historically, sorbitol and other sugar alcohols were considered relatively innocuous from a kosher perspective-they posed no greater kashrus concerns than the base sugar from which they were produced. (oukosher.org)
  • Sorbitol was the primary sugar alcohol used in the food industry, with mannitol, maltitol, and xylitol having very specific uses. (oukosher.org)
  • Sorbitol is one of the most popular sugar alternatives and is used for preparing sweets, oral products, and medicines. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Sixty percent as sweet as sugar, sorbitol is found naturally in berries and fruits but is also commercially produced. (barimelts.com)
  • Many people trying to reduce their refined sugar intake have turned to sugar alcohols like erythritol and sorbitol as alternatives. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Some of the more popular sugar alcohols like erythritol and sorbitol are actually naturally occurring in certain fruits and vegetables. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • That's why the FDA requires products that add more than 50 grams (or nearly 2 ounces) of sorbitol - a sugar alcohol in a variety of products including candies, jam and baked goods - to a person's ​diet to print a warning saying, "Excess consumption may have a laxative effect. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • The influence of substrate chirality was studied in the aqueous phase reforming (APR) over Pt/Al 2 O 3 in a continuous fixed-bed reactor at 225 °C. Two epimeric sugar alcohols, namely sorbitol and galactitol, were used for performance comparison. (abo.fi)
  • Xylitol, the alcohol of the wood sugar xylose, is often used in chewing gum because of tis refreshing flavor and its ability (according to some studies) to inhibit the growth of caries-causing bacteria. (oukosher.org)
  • The thing I thought most useful about xylitol is that it really seemed to curb my sugar cravings. (kellythekitchenkop.com)
  • Minimizing sugars seems best, choosing less refined/more nutrient dense ones when you do have it, and use xylitol, erythritol and/or stevia to boost the sweetness a little, is working pretty well for me. (kellythekitchenkop.com)
  • Are the sugar alcohols, like Xylitol, a better choice? (janethull.com)
  • Xylitol is a famous sugar liquor got from birch bark, cornstarch, or other plant materials. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Xylitol is by and large used in sugar-loosened gums, treats, and oral consideration items as a result of its valuable outcomes on dental wellness. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • This cooling impact is, in particular, noticeable with sugar liquor like xylitol and erythritol. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • In Health and Fitness benefits, One of the giant advantages of sugar alcohol, specifically xylitol, is its nice impact on dental fitness. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Additionally, xylitol is less likely to affect blood glucose than some of the other sugar alcohols. (barimelts.com)
  • As a matter of fact, xylitol, a type of sugar alcohol seen in sugar-free chewing gum, may help prevent cavities. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • When it comes to processed foods, xylitol, erythritol, and maltitol are the most commonly used sugar alcohols. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides (e.g. maltitol and lactitol) are not entirely hydrogenated because only one aldehyde group is available for reduction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Just wondering about maltitol, it's probably similar to these other alcohol sugars I guess. (kellythekitchenkop.com)
  • However, a few sugar liquors, along with maltitol, will have a slightly grainy texture. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • In relation to our blood sugar levels, most sugar alcohols have little to no effect on blood sugar and insulin levels - with the exception of maltitol. (sweetkick.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are used widely in the food industry as thickeners and sweeteners. (wikipedia.org)
  • In commercial foodstuffs, sugar alcohols are commonly used in place of table sugar (sucrose), often in combination with high-intensity artificial sweeteners, in order to offset their low sweetness. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maple syrup and sugar are two commonly used sweeteners in our daily lives. (momswhothink.com)
  • I am asked a lot if the sugar alcohols are safe sweeteners. (janethull.com)
  • To complicate matters more, these sweeteners are neither sugars nor alcohols. (janethull.com)
  • These sweeteners are neither sugars, nor alcohols, but they are carbohydrates nonetheless. (lowcarb.ca)
  • In the modern fitness-conscious global about Sugar Alcohol, human beings are continuously seeking options for traditional sweeteners. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Unlike artificial sweeteners like Splenda, Sweet 'n Low, or Equal that have no nutritional value or calories, sugar alcohols do provide a small amount of calories but about half of that of real sugar. (barimelts.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are sweeteners that can occur naturally in certain fruits and vegetables, but are more often man-made and added to processed foods. (sweetkick.com)
  • Sweeteners and other forms of sugar substitutes provide a way of increasing your satisfaction with the diet, with minimal changes to your carb count! (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Sugar alcohols aren't necessarily artificial sweeteners, however. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • The insulin response to non-nutritive sweeteners, of which sugar alcohols are a group, is reduced compared to sugar but it still exists. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • A new brand of naturally-sourced sweeteners is popping up in foods that can soothe your sweet tooth without causing surges to your blood sugar. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Popular non-alcohol sweeteners like stevia and monk fruit are often still mixed with erythritol and listed as secondary ingredients, meaning erythritol is still the primary sweetener. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are commonly used for replacing sucrose (sugar) in foodstuffs, often in combination with high intensity artificial sweeteners to counter the low sweetness. (eathalal.ca)
  • Unlike artificial sweeteners, sugar alcohols are a kind of carb and can raise blood sugar levels, though not as much as sugar. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Sugar alcohols occur naturally, and are usually used in combination with other sweeteners in sugar free candies and gums. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • More than 140 million Americans use artificial sweeteners , a habit driven by the irrefutable fact that excess sugar is harmful. (medscape.com)
  • In May, the World Health Organization (WHO) released a report to support its "conditional recommendation" against the use of non-sugar sweeteners (NSS) for weight control. (medscape.com)
  • Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, containing one hydroxyl group (-OH) attached to each carbon atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar alcohol is an organic molecule produced from sugars with a hydroxyl group with carbon. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of a hydroxyl group of sugar alcohols to form a keto sugar, aldehyde or lactone. (reference.md)
  • Sugar alcohols (also known as a polyol, polyhydric alcohol, or polyalcohol) are carbohydrates (sugar or starch), that have been modified to contain a hydroxyl group. (eathalal.ca)
  • It is this hydroxyl group that classifies it, chemically , as an alcohol. (eathalal.ca)
  • Yet they all fall into the chemical class 'alcohol' because like all compounds of its class, they contain a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom of an alkyl or substituted alkyl group. (eathalal.ca)
  • Sugar alcohols do have carbs, and approx. (lowcarb.ca)
  • This is why sugar alcohols are classified as low-digestible carbs. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • However, most beans contain sugars called alpha-galactosides, which belong to a group of carbs called FODMAPs ( 3 ). (healthline.com)
  • You'll need to count carbs and calories from sugar alcohols in your overall meal plan. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Does sugar alcohol count as carbs? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • This is because the sugar has been turned into alcohol and alcohol has zero carbs. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • If you pair a clear spirit with a sugar free coke or club soda youâll keep it to 0 net carbs. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • Its the same message youve heard your whole life, but take this seriously although I havent been able to find any definitive research, common sense and personal experience have lead me to believe that my body reacts differently to alcohol when I eat less carbs. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • Lactitol is used to replace lactose in sugar-free chocolate. (oukosher.org)
  • Recently, however, the use of lactitol was approved for use in sugar-free chocolate and demand for the product has increased substantially. (oukosher.org)
  • The various sugar alcohols are typically used cup-for-cup (the same amount) as refined sugar is used, but they each vary in sweetness, ranging from half as sweet to as sweet as sugar. (janethull.com)
  • This table provides regulatory information for various sugar alcohols for the countries of Qatar and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. (eathalal.ca)
  • This table presents the relative sweetness and food energy of the most widely used sugar alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to their sweetness, some sugar alcohols can produce a noticeable cooling sensation in the mouth when highly concentrated, for instance in sugar-free hard candy or chewing gum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently I use sweet and low not because I am diabetic but because I have to use way too much sugar for the sweetness I like. (kellythekitchenkop.com)
  • With its ability to offer sweetness without the high caloric content material of sugar, sugar liquorhas turned out to be a popular choice for the ones trying to indulge their sweet teeth whilst maintaining a healthy lifestyle. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • There are several styles of sugar liquor to be had, every with its precise properties and sweetness stages. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • It has a sweetness just like sugar and is often used in sugar-loose candies, sweets, and diabetic-pleasant products. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • There are different types of sugar alcohols that have similar uses but vary in sweetness levels. (barimelts.com)
  • It has around 50-70 percent of the relative sweetness of sugar and has been shown to hang around in the intestines for longer compared to other sugar alcohols. (barimelts.com)
  • It has the same relative sweetness of sugar which is why it has gained so much popularity in food products as well. (barimelts.com)
  • Often found in similar products as the other sugar alcohols, it has about 30-40 percent of the sweetness of sugar. (barimelts.com)
  • Well, many food companies use them to give you the "lower sugar" you seek, without sacrificing the sweetness, while others have realized that sugar alcohols don't cause cavities - which is why they're often used in gum, beverages, ice creams and granola bars. (sweetkick.com)
  • To calculate the amount of carbohydrate in a product containing sugar alcohols, the America Diabetes Association recommends the following: If a food has more than 5 grams of sugar alcohols, subtract 1/2 the grams of sugar alcohol from the amount of total carbohydrate, then count the remaining grams of carbohydrate. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • How many grams of sugar alcohols cause diarrhea? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • The American Diabetes Association claims that sugar alcohols are acceptable in a moderate amount but should not be eaten in excess. (sweetkick.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are usually incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestine which generally results in a smaller change in blood glucose than "regular" sugar (sucrose). (wikipedia.org)
  • Like many other incompletely digestible substances, overconsumption of sugar alcohols can lead to bloating, diarrhea and flatulence because they are not fully absorbed in the small intestine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interestingly, most sugar alcohols are incompletely absorbed in the small intestine, so they do not raise blood sugar the same way as sucrose (table sugar). (myketocal.com)
  • Erythritol is fully absorbed in the small intestine and excreted in the urine unchanged, so it does not affect blood glucose levels like other sugar alcohols. (myketocal.com)
  • Well, first and foremost, it's important to understand that the small intestine, which breaks down food from the stomach and absorbs many nutrients, doesn't absorb sugar alcohols well, so fewer calories get into your body. (sweetkick.com)
  • When you consume sugar alcohols, your small intestine is not able to completely absorb them. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Since our bodies don't fully digest sugar alcohols, it's not uncommon to experience some unpleasant GI symptoms soon after consuming them. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Conversely, your body does not digest sugar alcohols efficiently. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • As a result, people with diabetes are often advised to eat something to compensate for the expected drop in blood sugar levels Alcohol does affect different people in different ways so, if in doubt, test your blood glucose to see how alcohol affects you. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Some people may find it all too easy to let diabetes drift out of their mind when having alcohol and not worry too much about sugar levels. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Does Alcohol Affect Blood Sugar Levels in Diabetes? (planetayurveda.com)
  • But if you are an insulin dependent, or you are taking certain oral medications for diabetes, this alcohol consumption can worsen the symptoms of this condition. (planetayurveda.com)
  • It contains the best quality herbs for diabetes which improve the functional capacity of pancreas as well as controlling blood sugar levels naturally. (planetayurveda.com)
  • People on low-carbohydrate diets, or those who have diabetes, may not respond well to the sugar alcohols in place of other more natural forms of sugar. (janethull.com)
  • How Does Drinking Alcohol Affect Diabetes and Raising Blood Sugars? (battlediabetes.com)
  • Small amounts of alcohol will not hinder your control over diabetes but there are some precautions that diabetics should take to make sure that alcohol can be safely enjoyed. (battlediabetes.com)
  • For decades people with type-1 and advanced type-2 diabetes relied on painful and often flawed insulin injections to regulate blood sugar. (battlediabetes.com)
  • The growing concern among consumers regarding obesity and diabetes accelerated the demand for sugar alcohols. (sbwire.com)
  • Increasing incidences of obesity and diabetes encouraged the growth of sugar alcohol industry, globally. (sbwire.com)
  • This makes sugar alcohol an appropriate preference for human beings with diabetes or those following a low-glycemic eating regimen. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • This sugar alcohol can still affect blood glucose but not at the same level as sugar as it causes a slower rise and fall of blood sugar and is still considered a better option compared to sugar for weight control and for those with diabetes. (barimelts.com)
  • They reduce the intake of sugar when used in reasonable amounts and can significantly reduce the overall risk of diabetes when used responsibly. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • The key impact of sugar alcohols that increases diabetes and metabolic risks are associated with their psychological effects. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Alcohol can also make hypoglycemic medications less effective, meaning those with diabetes need to take extra care when drinking. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • The effects of alcohol on blood sugar, in particular hypoglycemia, can make excessive drinking very dangerous for anyone with diabetes. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Alcohol can also affect other medical conditions you may have, like diabetic nerve damage, â ¦ Diabetes management includes keeping your blood sugar level within a healthy range. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • These misleadingly named "sugar alcohols" WHen you have type-2 diabetes take into considerations the amount of calories you are taking form alcohol to â ¦ Although sugar alcohols sound very self-explanatory, they really are not. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • WHen you have type-1 diabetes, regularly test your blood sugar levels before, during and after drinking as insulin combined with alcohol are likely to cause hypoglycemia. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • There are certain tips to sip by when it comes to diabetes and alcohol consumption. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Excess alcohol intake is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but the relationship between alcohol and risk of type 2 diabetes can be a little bit complicated and staying within government guidelines is the safest way to drink alcohol. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • The type of alcohol that you choose to drink can influence how your night turns out if you have diabetes. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • We now understand how diabetes and alcohol interact and how alcohol and blood sugar affect diabetics. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • However, sugar alcohols are otherwise safe for people with diabetes. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Alcohol abuse in people with diabetes increases the risk for high blood pressure, heart disease, eye problems, and nerve damage. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Key Tips When Drinking Alcohol With Diabetes. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • How Alcohol Impacts the Liver When You Have Diabetes Although many people consider drinking alcohol to be enjoyable, your liver does not have the same perspective. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Sugar alcohols are often put in products marketed towards people with diabetes stating they are sugar free foods. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • A moderate amount of alcohol is known to be beneficial for the heart and can reduce the risk of â ¦ However, scepticism about alcohol consumption may stem when dealing with any chronic diseases, such as diabetes. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • You Herb For Diabetes Type 2 can drinking alcohol lower your blood sugar immortal, how can you let him occupy our resources You are not qualified to do such a thing The black wolf lay on the ground with serious injuries, but shouted with difficulty. (alleyanenergy.com)
  • Auspicious clouds were rolling under his feet, and temples in the distance stood above the clouds, and several sacred mountains were located in the void, one after another turbulent waterfalls, rushing from can drinking alcohol lower your blood sugar Med Diabetes the fairy mist. (alleyanenergy.com)
  • And even one of the top three in the Star Dou Academy was folded by himself.After talking with Wei Jun, Herb For Diabetes Type 2 can drinking alcohol lower your blood sugar he told Bai Qing what he was going to do next.Bai Qing also followed him to the Star Dou Academy, and he also wanted to ask if Bai Qing had any will in this regard. (alleyanenergy.com)
  • Sugar alcohols can be part of a healthy eating plan when you need to manage diabetes. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Sugar is linked to inflammation, obesity, diabetes and chronic diseases. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Certain diabetes drugs, such as insulin and sulfonylureas, can raise your risk of hypoglycemia, which is amplified by alcohol. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • The effect of alcohol on diabetes can be extremely dangerous. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • If you have diabetes, however, your blood sugar levels may have to be specially managed. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • If your blood sugar is always high, you have hyperglycemia, which can happen in people who dont have a good handle on their diabetes. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • These facts dont take alcohol or sugar completely off the table when it comes to a diabetes diet. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • That the guidance does not apply to patients with diabetes was easily lost in the repeated mentions of the perceived dangers of these sugar alternatives. (medscape.com)
  • This month, the WHO said a person's daily intake of added sugar should be halved to six teaspoons to help avoid growing health problems including obesity and tooth decay. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • I have been attempting to limit sugar intake recently and it seems to work best to avoid it all together. (kellythekitchenkop.com)
  • Stevia is popular for being a sugar substitute that can help reduce blood sugar and calorie intake. (momswhothink.com)
  • They help reduce intake of sugar and also act as anti-bacterial and prevents tooth decay. (sbwire.com)
  • This makes sugar alcohol an appealing alternative for people looking to reduce their normal calorie intake. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • It's the pattern of behavior that is unhealthy - sugar alcohols are totally healthy when you moderate your overall intake. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Sugar intake is limited on a keto diet, as eating it causes your blood sugar levels to rise. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Reduce your intake of processed foods, sweets, and alcohol because these can cause inflammation and intestinal imbalance. (indiatimes.com)
  • Try to minimize your intake of foods with added sugars. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But isn't the desired effect of using an artificial sweetener instead of table sugar that you lower your calorie intake? (medscape.com)
  • Oral diseases and conditions share risk factors common to the leading NCDs, including all forms of tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, high intake of free sugars and lack of exclusive breastfeeding. (who.int)
  • Diabetics have often been incorrectly served full sugar versions despite trying to be clear. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • Sugar alcohols can be a trigger food for diabetics. (janethull.com)
  • Hypoglycemia, which most diabetics already know, is when your blood sugar level drops down to an unsafe level. (battlediabetes.com)
  • Some Type 1 diabetics have reported that they sense an immediate 'sugar rush' from eating even a small amount. (lowcarb.ca)
  • Brown rice syrup is not suitable for consumption by diabetics, as the glucose and maltose cause rapid rise in blood-sugar. (granolagourmet.com)
  • Alcohol with a low sugar or carbohydrate content is the best choice for diabetics. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • If your blood sugar is below normal, its called hypoglycemia, and this can happen in diabetics if they accidentally use too much of their medication. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • Because alcohol is high in carbohydrates and calories, it may negatively impact ketosis. (healthnews.com)
  • Although low-carb alcohol may not break your ketosis, alcohol is high in calories and suppresses fat oxidation. (healthnews.com)
  • There is a lack of studies showing the effects of nutritional ketosis on alcohol metabolism and tolerance. (healthnews.com)
  • Can sugar alcohol kick you out of ketosis? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Though one glass of something strong wont knock your body out of ketosis, drinking alcohol while following a keto diet will affect your progress. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur naturally or be produced industrially by hydrogenating sugars. (wikipedia.org)
  • The limits apply to "free" sugar, which is any sugar that is added to foods by the manufacturer, plus that naturally present in honey, syrups, and fruit juices. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It does not include sugar naturally present in milk or whole fruit and vegetables. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • These herbs act together in a synergistic manner and are effective in lowering the blood sugar levels naturally, without any side effecs. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are naturally occurring in fruits and vegetables and often added to foods as a reduced-calorie alternative to sugar. (myketocal.com)
  • This sugar alcohol occurs naturally in fruits and vegetables like pineapple, sweet potatoes, carrots, and asparagus and is also extracted from seaweed to use for food manufacturing. (barimelts.com)
  • As mentioned above, sugar alcohols do occur naturally in fruits and vegetables. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • This process is similar to natural fermentation, and it ultimately produces sugar alcohols that are chemically identical to naturally occurring sugar alcohols. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • We prefer these naturally sweet options like cocoonut sugar and dates that our bodies recognize and want. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • When your blood sugar is low, your body will naturally crave sweets, whether in the form of alcohol or dessert/candy. (doughp.com)
  • Sugar alcohols do not have 4 calories per gram, like other carbohydrates. (getprograde.com)
  • The term sugar refers to a broad category of carbohydrates, foods which are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. (oukosher.org)
  • Rising demand for low carbohydrates coupled with growing health consciousness regarding food and beverages from consumers across the globe are expected to promote the sugar alcohol market growth over the next few years. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • To me, the sugar alcohols fall into a "grey area" in the sweetener arena because they are actually carbohydrates (starches) more than they are sugars . (janethull.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are low digestible carbohydrates which help in controlling blood sugar levels. (sbwire.com)
  • Sugar alcohols provide fewer calories per gram compared to regular carbohydrates. (myketocal.com)
  • Technically, most sugar alcohols should be counted as regular carbohydrates and kept to a minimum on the medical ketogenic and modified Atkins diets (MAD) . (myketocal.com)
  • Keto dieters worry about alcohol consumption because some alcohol is high in calories and/or carbohydrates. (healthnews.com)
  • Spirits and liqueurs have zero carbohydrates if they're drunk without mixers, such as tonic water, fruit juices, and carbonated drinks, which are high in sugar. (healthnews.com)
  • Alcohol content, carbohydrates, and calories vary from beer to beer. (healthnews.com)
  • Most hard alcohols such as vodka, gin, tequila, rum and whisky contain little carbohydrates and no added sugar and are allowed during the No Sugar Challenge. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • When counting carbohydrates for products made with sugar alcohols, subtract half of the grams of sugar alcohol listed on the food label. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • For example, though sugar can rapidly increase your blood glucose levels, experts now believe the total amount of all carbohydrates you eat affects your overall blood glucose level more than the type of carb you ingest. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • There are three main types of carbohydrates found in foods: sugars, starches, and fiber . (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, sugar alcohols are more often made through chemical modification of glucose and sucrose. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are absorbed at 50% of the rate of sugars, resulting in less of an effect on blood sugar levels as measured by comparing their effect to sucrose using the glycemic index. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as sucrose, and they have slightly less food energy than sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two glucose molecules create a sugar called maltose, glucose and fructose create sucrose (common table sugar), glucose and galactose create lactose (milk sugar). (oukosher.org)
  • The segment has become popular sugar alcohol as it has similarities to sucrose in terms of visually and taste. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • The glycemic index of sucrose (table sugar) is around 65, whereas the glycemic indexes of the main sugar alcohols are between 0 and 45. (myketocal.com)
  • Therefore, sugar alcohols may raise your blood glucose, although not as much as sugars like sucrose and glucose. (myketocal.com)
  • A team of scientists recently discovered that the comet, as it traverses through the galaxy, is emitting ethyl alcohol, the very same kind that can be found in alcoholic beverages. (bgr.com)
  • The product is a low-calorie sweetener used for making sugar-free or low-sugar products such as food additives , toothpaste, medicines, and beverages. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Thus, powder and crystal form of sugar alcohol is widely used in preparing food and beverages products. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Thus, the food and beverages segment is contributing the most to global sugar alcohol market revenue. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Market Research Future, a firm which specializes in market reports related to the Food, Beverages & Nutrition sector among others, recently forecasted in its report on Global Sugar Alcohol Market Research Report- Forecast to 2027 that the market will demonstrate high CAGR while achieving million dollar growth during the forecast period. (sbwire.com)
  • Due to its health benefits, sugar alcohols are widely used in foods, beverages, snacks, and pharmaceutical industries across the world. (sbwire.com)
  • Introduction Globally, a growing burden of morbidity and mortality is attributable to lifestyle behaviours, and in particular to the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). (who.int)
  • They also do not contain ethanol which is found in alcoholic beverages, so there's no alcohol like the name may imply. (barimelts.com)
  • When you have prediabetes, you should be aware of the amount and type of alcoholic beverages you drink.Alcohol can interfere with the actions of insulin and lead to higher blood sugar levels â but sometimes it has the opposite effect and can actually decrease your blood sugar to dangerously low levels. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Sugar Alcohols are not produced using the alcoholic fermentation process in the way that alcoholic beverages such as beer or wine are produced. (eathalal.ca)
  • Nor do they contain the alcohol known as ethanol (ethyl alcohol), which is the type of alcohol that is present in all the alcoholic beverages mentioned above. (eathalal.ca)
  • Alcoholic beverages are typically super high in sugar, so we made sugar free versions of our favourite alcohol substitutions! (nutracelle.com)
  • Limit sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and alcohol. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some interventions can only be implemented through laws, for example, taxes on cigarettes and sugar-sweetened beverages. (who.int)
  • Other products which have high fat, sugar or salt content may also be included, such as fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. (who.int)
  • This includes marketing, advertising and sale of products that cause oral diseases and conditions, such as tobacco products and food and beverages that are high in free sugars. (who.int)
  • The downside of the sugar alcohols is that some of the sugar/alcohol may not be absorbed in the blood or broken down into fatty acids in the large intestine, and this can cause carb cravings, sugar binges, and stomach irritation . (janethull.com)
  • These sugar alternatives are definitely better than the toxic chemical sugars, like aspartame , but use them conservatively , especially if you get stomach cramping, blood sugar spikes, or simple carb cravings. (janethull.com)
  • So, some manufacturers are choosing to omit them from the total carb count in the nutrient data panel of the label (they MUST however declare the amount of sugar alcohol in the ingredient list). (lowcarb.ca)
  • Sugar alcohols do have carb calories, and the body will use these as fuel, or store as fat, whether or not insulin is involved. (lowcarb.ca)
  • They're often used in sugar-free foods to reduce the overall carb burden and insulin-spikes that come from actual sugars. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Low carb, Alcohol, Sugar & Carbsâ¦whatâs worth worrying about? (sugarprotalk.com)
  • The lower carb I eat, the lower my alcohol tolerance becomes. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are carbohydrate derivatives of sugar, which are commonly used to sweeten products like chewing gum, and more recently, food bars. (getprograde.com)
  • Sugar alcohols blend well with other sugars, so they are now commonly added to products such as gums, candies, mints, toothpaste, and mouthwash . (janethull.com)
  • Let's take a more in-depth look at a few commonly used sugar firewaters: Gather more information about Atrius Health . (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are most commonly used in lower calorie and sweet-tasting products like baked goods, confections, hard candies, flavored jams and jellies, and oral care products. (barimelts.com)
  • Commonly found in calorie-reduced foods, candies, or bakery products, erythritol is the only sugar alcohol with no caloric value in comparison to others. (barimelts.com)
  • This sugar alcohol you will find commonly added as an ingredient in chewing gums and other oral care products. (barimelts.com)
  • Yes, and No. Sugar Alcohols are not made with, nor do they contain what we commonly refer to as ALCOHOL (ethanol). (eathalal.ca)
  • Sugar liquor is usually used as a low-calorie sweetener in diverse meal merchandise and is known for its potential to provide a candy flavor without causing a huge growth in blood sugar levels. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • This system transforms the sugars into sugar liquor, resulting in a sweetener with reduced caloric content. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Its Natural Sweetener product has zero calories and is sugar-free. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • At the present time, they have not been legally classified for product labelling purposes, as are sugars, starch and fiber. (lowcarb.ca)
  • After the fermentation has been finalized, the ethanol is recovered by distillation and dehydration as described for sugar and starch ethanol in EVC 3 . (etipbioenergy.eu)
  • On average, sugar alcohols have about 2.6 calories per gram compared to sugar that offers 4 calories per gram. (barimelts.com)
  • If you are diabetic and are currently treated with either tablets or insulin the main risk of consuming alcohol is hypoglycemia . (battlediabetes.com)
  • There are some newer sugar alcohols slowly making their way on the market, which have less laxative effect, and even less blood sugar and insulin consequence. (lowcarb.ca)
  • I always have in the back of my mind that if I take enough insulin or take a walk I'll be keep my sugar from rising uncontrollably. (granolagourmet.com)
  • I took extra insulin, got back under control and keep this as a reminder not to overdo the treats when I do go off the sugar wagon. (granolagourmet.com)
  • If you are on insulin or other anti-hyperglycemic medications, this can lead to dangerously low blood sugar up â ¦ On one hand, alcohol alone inhibits the steady release of glucose from the liver, which can cause low blood sugar. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Throughout the day, its not uncommon for blood sugar levels to go up and down based on when you eat and how your body releases a hormone called insulin. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • Due to product's effectiveness in preventing tooth decay, the American Dental Association awards the ADA Seal to a variety of chewing gums that contain sugar alcohols. (sbwire.com)
  • Since the intestine does absorb the sugar alcohols, excessive use can cause gas or laxative effects (cramping and diarrhea) similar to reactions to beans and certain high-fiber foods. (janethull.com)
  • With that said, I favor them over aspartame, Splenda, acesulfame-k, or any of the man-made, chemical, fake sugars proven to cause harm to human health. (janethull.com)
  • Spirits, such as gin, vodka, whiskey and even rum are highly distilled and should not contain sugars. (diabetes.co.uk)
  • This sounds like a good thing, BUT because sugar alcohols aren't completely absorbed, if you consume too many you may experience gas, bloating, and diarrhea. (sweetkick.com)
  • The problem comes when you consume foods with sugar alcohols multiple times throughout a day. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • If you're trying to consume fewer alcohol sugars, pay special attention to the ingredient label on your foods . (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • If youre on medication, check with your doctor to see if and how you can consume alcohol safely. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • Sugar Alcohols: Are They Compatible with the Medical Ketogenic Diet? (myketocal.com)
  • If you are following or considering a medical ketogenic diet or modified Atkins diet (MAD) for the management of intractable epilepsy, you may have heard talk about sugar alcohols and whether they are compatible with the diet. (myketocal.com)
  • So, are sugar alcohols allowed on the medical ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet (MAD) ? (myketocal.com)
  • I generally tell my medical ketogenic diet and modified Atkins diet (MAD) patients that when reading a food label for carbohydrate content, erythritol is the only sugar alcohol that can be deducted from total carbohydrate content. (myketocal.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are well-positioned to really help an individual on the ketogenic diet if they live up to promises, but there are concerns for side effects and how these sweet compounds can be totally calorie-free. (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Can I Drink Alcohol on Ketogenic Diet? (healthnews.com)
  • The global sugar alcohol market size was estimated at USD 3.42 billion in 2021 and is expected to expand at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.0% from 2022 to 2028. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • In general, doctors usually advise a diabetic person that he can drink alcohol safely in moderation. (planetayurveda.com)
  • When you drink alcohol, your liver instead of releasing glucose remains busy in breaking the alcohol down and hence releasing process of glucose gets disturbed. (planetayurveda.com)
  • If you answered â yesâ to all of these questions, it is OK to drink alcohol in moderation. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Can you drink alcohol on Escitaloprám 10 mg? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • However, if you usually drink alcohol, even in small amounts, every night you will have permanent elevation in the blood glucose level. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • However, if you really want to drink alcohol from time to time, you should drink it occasionally and in small amounts. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • Do not drink alcohol. (cdc.gov)
  • We created Sweetkick, products designed to help you manage and satisfy sugar cravings and support a healthier lifestyle. (sweetkick.com)
  • So, let's talk about those sugar cravings you've been having. (doughp.com)
  • But we can assure you, experiencing sugar cravings is completely normal after giving up alcohol. (doughp.com)
  • Another culprit to those pesky sugar cravings? (doughp.com)
  • The good news is you DO have the ability to overcome sugar and alcohol cravings. (doughp.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are derived from natural sources like fruits and vegetables and other sources found in nature. (barimelts.com)
  • Hydrogenation converts sugars to sugar alcohols. (wikipedia.org)
  • The addition of hydrogen to the molecule of sugar is called hydrogenation, and is accomplished by introducing hydrogen gas into the sugar solution in the presence of a nickel/aluminum catalyst (called Raney nickel after its inventor). (oukosher.org)
  • Commercial synthesis, alternatively, entails the hydrogenation of sugars, generally derived from cornstarch or glucose syrup. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Excess alcohol consumption is associated with cardiovascular disease, cancers of the digestive organs, breast cancer, and suicide. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Hence, you should stay on the safe side and avoid alcohol consumption. (planetayurveda.com)
  • Fiscal policies, specifically taxation, can lower consumption of tobacco, alcohol and SSB while raising government revenues. (who.int)
  • Methods We simulated the health and economic effects of taxing cigarettes, alcohol and SSB over 50 years for 30-79 years old populations using separate mathematical models for each commodity that incorporated country-level epidemiological, demographic and consumption data. (who.int)
  • Here is what you need to know about, whether or not, alcohol consumption can affect the blood sugar levels in the body. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • Alcohol consumption can hinder ketogenesis. (healthnews.com)
  • Explore the intriguing connection between alcohol consumption and pupil dilation. (swiftriver.com)
  • Hi Jim, In purpose to understand what alcohol causes to your blood glucose level, we have to divide the alcohol consumption at two stages. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • The first stage will be moderate consumption and the second stage will be excessive alcohol consumption. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • This elevation can be compensated, if this moderate consumption of alcohol is occasional. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • So, you have to avoid the permanent consumption of alcohol and to stick to the occasional one, probably one-two times a month. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • 2. During the second stage, which we named as excessive alcohol consumption, your blood glucose can drop to very dangerous levels . (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • As you can see the moderate and excessive consumption of alcohol are not something good for a diabetic, like you. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • Tobacco use, alcohol consumption, consumed and by the pattern of ability-adjusted life years lost due to and high body mass index (BMI) are drinking, and higher levels of harm cancer, tobacco use was responsible major risk factors for many noncom- are seen in men than in women. (who.int)
  • Alcohol consumption is creasing in LMICs. (who.int)
  • finances are applied to treat illnesses mand for a product to be a function Fig. 11.1 shows the current preva- resulting from the use of tobacco or of price (of the product itself as well lence of smoking of all tobacco prod- consumption of alcohol or SSBs. (who.int)
  • They are considered to be safer substitutes for sugar as they are calorie-free and help in weight loss. (sbwire.com)
  • Also, there is growing demand for low calorie-foods worldwide, which supported the growth of sugar alcohols market. (sbwire.com)
  • Global sugar alcohol market is highly dominated by North America and Europe due to inclination towards low-calorie food products. (sbwire.com)
  • Sugar alcohols are therefore often used as a reduced-calorie alternative to sugar. (myketocal.com)
  • Erythritol is nicely tolerated by maximum people and is frequently utilized in sugar-loose and low-calorie food merchandise. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • Low-calorie sugars and sugar alcohols such as erythritol were excluded. (medscape.com)
  • The applications of sugar alcohol include producing hand sanitizers, medicines for diabetic patients, and protein supplements. (grandviewresearch.com)
  • Sugar alcohols can act as "trigger foods," and this doesn't fare well with a diabetic. (janethull.com)
  • A major problem with drinking alcohol as a diabetic is that other people will have trouble knowing whether you are experiencing hypoglycemia or if you are simply intoxicated. (battlediabetes.com)
  • Another problem with a diabetic consuming alcohol is the potential weight gain. (battlediabetes.com)
  • How much sugar alcohol can a diabetic have? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • As a diabetic, Ive discussed consuming alcohol thoroughly with my doctor. (sugarprotalk.com)
  • Would like to know alcohol content of my drink and do not have hydrometer, so I am going to use fermentation formula. (redflagdeals.com)
  • The cellulose- and hemicellulose-derived C6 sugars are fermented by yeast strains derived from traditional yeasts used for the production of wine, beer or bread, while for the fermentation of C5 sugars genetically modified yeasts have been developed in the recent years. (etipbioenergy.eu)
  • I also tell my patients that sugar alcohol can only be deducted from the total carbohydrate amount if erythritol is the only sugar alcohol used in a product. (myketocal.com)
  • Through the research of alcohol addiction studies and dedicated alcohol treatment & recovery work with our clients, we've identified that many factors can contribute to the negative or unhealthy behaviors associated with alcohol addiction. (ariserecoverycenters.com)
  • The drink with the highest concentration of sugar was Baileys Irish Cream, which was found to contain 19.5g of the ingredient - around five teaspoons - per 100ml. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Sugar has been and is still a common ingredient in kitchens for years. (momswhothink.com)
  • When other sugar alcohols are used in addition to erythritol, the sugar alcohol content cannot be deducted, so I tell my patients to read the food label's ingredient list carefully. (myketocal.com)
  • While sugar includes about 4 energy in line with a gram, maximum sugar drinks offer about 2 energy consistent with a gram or maybe fewer. (carlo-giuliani.com)
  • The amount of calories is dependent on the type of sugar alcohol and can range from 1.5-3 calories per gram. (barimelts.com)
  • First, because the sugar alcohols are not completely absorbed, they hold on to a lot of water in the bowel. (lowcarb.ca)
  • The sugar alcohols travel back up to the large intestine where they are metabolized by your gut bacteria. (sweetkick.com)
  • In order to be metabolized, sugar alcohols must travel to the large intestine and be fermented by the bacteria there. (maxinesheavenly.com)
  • Each dietitian has his/her own protocols, so while I allow my medical keto patients to deduct erythritol but no other sugar alcohols from total carbohydrate content, your provider may have different recommendations. (myketocal.com)
  • A study carried out by experts for The Telegraph found that many alcohols contain significant amounts of sugar in a single serving. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • However, lab tests carried out by experts for this newspaper revealed the total amounts of sugar in a selection of 12 different drinks sold by major supermarkets as well as in bars and other shops. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This amounts to 5g - slightly more than one teaspoon - of sugar per 25ml measure. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • It's important to be aware that some sugar alcohols may cause some people to experience bloating, gas and diarrhea, even when consumed in small amounts. (myketocal.com)
  • In other cases, winemakers use grape varietals that don't concentrate high amounts of sugar. (usf.edu)
  • Many sugar alcohols can cause gas, bloating, and stomach aches, especially when eaten in large amounts, and some people may be more sensitive to this effect than others. (zakopane-cyrhla.pl)
  • The main problem with sugar alcohols is that they can cause digestive problems, especially when consumed in large amounts. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • So, when you drinking alcohol in moderate amounts you are increasing your blood glucose concentration. (all-about-beating-diabetes.com)
  • Avoid alcohol or liquids containing large amounts of sugar. (cdc.gov)
  • These wines typically hover in the 9 percent to 11 percent alcohol range. (usf.edu)
  • Nothing like watching your kid doubled over with cramps and diarrhea because they ate too many 'sugar free' sweets. (lowcarb.ca)
  • Why does sugar alcohol give me diarrhea? (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Undigested sugar alcohols can draw water into the gut through a process called passive diffusion, which causes diarrhea. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • If you eat too much of them, sugar alcohols can cause diarrhea, bloating, and weight gain. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Therefore, drinking alcohol suppresses the liver's glucose production, which may result in low blood glucose levels and hypoglycemia. (healthnews.com)
  • In addition, while your liver metabolizes alcohol, glucose production is suppressed in the liver, which can even lower blood glucose levels. (healthnews.com)
  • Please keep in mind, these "grey area" sugar alcohols can give you gastric distress if consumed in excess. (janethull.com)
  • Stick with us if you're interested in sugar alcohols on keto, whether they're keto-friendly, and what they might be able to do for you! (eatsweetlogic.com)
  • Is alcohol keto-friendly? (healthnews.com)
  • It is based on a numeric scale from zero to 100, where the glycemic index of glucose (a type of sugar you get from foods and the form that your body uses for energy) is 100. (myketocal.com)
  • We're seeing [from our stores] more requests for more balanced, light-bodied, lower-alcohol wines," Devon Broglie , sommelier and global wine buyer for Whole Foods, tells us. (usf.edu)
  • Many foods labeled "sugar free" or "no sugar added'' have sugar alcohols in them. (sweetkick.com)
  • As a result, eating too many foods sweetened with sugar alcohols over a short period of time can cause gas, bloating and stomach pain. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • It's one more reason to limit foods with added sugars, such as soda, pastries, and candy. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • We get sugar from the foods we eat, which is normal, and its the bodys job to regulate blood sugar levels, so they dont go too high or low. (livingwithdiabetes.info)
  • Some foods have added sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Many packaged and refined foods contain added sugar. (medlineplus.gov)
  • They're also low in salt, sugar, alcohol and processed foods. (msdmanuals.com)
  • One specific type of sugar alcohol, Erythritol , is metabolized differently than other sugar alcohols. (myketocal.com)
  • While there aren't specific recommendations for every type of sugar alcohol, a limit of 50 grams is a wise quantity to apply across the board. (disruptedphysician.com)
  • Sugars and most starches are broken down by the body into glucose, which then circulates in the blood to be used as energy. (medlineplus.gov)