Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Sugar AcidsMonosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.PolysaccharidesCarbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Nitrous Acid: Nitrous acid (HNO2). A weak acid that exists only in solution. It can form water-soluble nitrites and stable esters. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.HexosaminesChondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Iduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Heparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.HexosesSulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chromatography, Paper: An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).Alginates: Salts of alginic acid that are extracted from marine kelp and used to make dental impressions and as absorbent material for surgical dressings.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.GlucosaminePectins: High molecular weight polysaccharides present in the cell walls of all plants. Pectins cement cell walls together. They are used as emulsifiers and stabilizers in the food industry. They have been tried for a variety of therapeutic uses including as antidiarrheals, where they are now generally considered ineffective, and in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.Rhamnose: A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Electrophoresis, Paper: Electrophoresis in which paper is used as the diffusion medium. This technique is confined almost entirely to separations of small molecules such as amino acids, peptides, and nucleotides, and relatively high voltages are nearly always used.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Laryngeal Cartilages: The nine cartilages of the larynx, including the cricoid, thyroid and epiglottic, and two each of arytenoid, corniculate and cuneiform.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.Peplomycin: An antineoplastic agent derived from BLEOMYCIN.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.FucoseSugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.GalactosamineMannose-6-Phosphate Isomerase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible isomerization of D-mannose-6-phosphate to form D-fructose-6-phosphate, an important step in glycolysis. EC 5.3.1.8.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Glycoside HydrolasesHydroxyproline: A hydroxylated form of the imino acid proline. A deficiency in ASCORBIC ACID can result in impaired hydroxyproline formation.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Acetylglucosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.XyloseMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.GlucuronidaseSorbose: A ketose sugar that is commonly used in the commercial synthesis of ASCORBIC ACID.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).MethylglycosidesUridine Diphosphate SugarsGlycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Ester linkages arise between oxidized sugars, the uronic acids, and the phenols and phenylpropanols functionalities of the ... and then use acid or enzymatic methods to hydrolyze the newly freed celluloses to break them down into simple monosaccharides. ... These carbohydrate polymers contain different sugar monomers (six and five carbon sugars) and they are tightly bound to lignin ... These sugars can then be fermented, leading to bio-ethanol. Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris (June 2009). "Cellulosic ...
However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.g. uronic acids and ... For example, grape sugar is the monosaccharide glucose, cane sugar is the disaccharide sucrose, and milk sugar is the ... Monosaccharides are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks for nucleic acids. The smallest monosaccharides, for ... carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). Natural saccharides are generally ...
Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C) Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric ... Sugar acids are monosaccharides with a carboxyl group. Main classes of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids, in which the ... Aldonic acids Glyceric acid (3C) Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, unsaturated lactone) Ulosonic acids ... Uronic acids, in which the terminal hydroxyl group of an aldose or ketose is oxidized Aldaric acids, in which both ends of an ...
... enzymatic digestion to monosaccharides, active transmembrane transport of these sugars to cell sap, phosphorylation of GlcNAc ... and uronic acid because it was first isolated from the vitreous humour and possesses a high uronic acid content. The term ... Hyaluronic acid has been used in various formulations to create artificial tears to treat dry eye. Hyaluronic acid is a common ... Properties of hyaluronic acid were first determined in the 1930s in the laboratory of Karl Meyer. Hyaluronic acid is a polymer ...
To determine the sugars within root mucilage, monosaccharide analysis and monosaccharide linkage analysis are undertaken. ... and lower levels of uronic acid, mannose, fucose, and glucuronic acid. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) root mucilage also contains ... For monosaccharide analysis, which reveals the sugars that make root mucilage, scientists hydrolyse the root mucilage using ... The root mucilage is hydrolysed using acid to break down the polysaccharides into their monosaccharide components. The ...
... along with a uronic sugar (glucuronic acid or iduronic acid) or galactose.[3] Glycosaminoglycans are highly polar and attract ... Distinguished from chondroitin sulfate by the presence of iduronic acid, although some hexuronic acid monosaccharides may be ... Next, C-5 uronyl epimerase coverts d-GlcA to l-IdoA followed by 2-O sulfation of the uronic acid sugar by 2-O sulfotransferase ... Three sulfation events of the CSGAG chains occur: 4-O and/or 6-O sulfation of GalNAc and 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. Four ...
However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.g. uronic acids and ... as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) ... Sugars appear in human diet mainly as table sugar (sucrose, extracted from sugarcane or sugar beets), lactose (abundant in milk ... Monosaccharides are important fuel molecules as well as building blocks for nucleic acids. The smallest monosaccharides, for ...
Each GAG chain consists of a linear pattern of alternating monosaccharide units: uronic acid and either N-acetylglucosamine or ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a core protein and a sugar side chain. The core protein is generally a ... glycoprotein, and the side chains are glycosaminoglycan (GAG) sugar chains attached through a covalent bond. The GAG side ...
Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyl uronic acid residues. They are present ... Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, ... When all the monosaccharides in a polysaccharide are the same type, the polysaccharide is called a homopolysaccharide or ... The exopolysaccharide alginate is a linear copolymer of β-1,4-linked D-mannuronic acid and L-guluronic acid residues, and is ...
These comprise 2-aminosugars linked in an alternating fashion with uronic acids, and include polymers such as heparin, heparan ... and other monosaccharides. In eukaryotes, N-linked glycans are derived from a core 14-sugar unit assembled in the cytoplasm and ... Modification reactions may involve the addition of a phosphate or acetyl group onto the sugars, or the addition of new sugars, ... The sequon is an Asn-X-Ser or Asn-X-Thr sequence, where X is any amino acid except proline and the glycan may be composed of N- ...
... and a uronic acid residue, connected via 1,4 linkages to form the polymer. DS is composed of three possible uronic acid (GlcA, ... The deamination reaction, and therefore chain cleavage, is regardless of O-sulfation carried by either monosaccharide unit. At ... The conformational equilibrium is influenced by sulfation state of adjacent glucosamine sugars. Nevertheless, the solution ... β-D-glucuronic acid IdoA = α-L-iduronic acid IdoA(2S) = 2-O-sulfo-α-L-iduronic acid GlcNAc = 2-deoxy-2-acetamido-α-D- ...
... enzymatic digestion to monosaccharides, active transmembrane transport of these sugars to cell sap, phosphorylation of GlcNAc ... and uronic acid because it was first isolated from the vitreous humour and possesses a high uronic acid content. ... Abbreviations: hyaluronic acid (HA), hyaluronic acid synthase (HAS), hyaluronic acid receptor (HAR), hyaluronidase (HAase)[ ... Hyaluronic acid is a common ingredient in skin-care products. Hyaluronic acid is used as a dermal filler in cosmetic surgery.[ ...
... quinic acid MeSH D02.241.511.852 --- shikimic acid MeSH D02.241.511.902 --- sugar acids MeSH D02.241.511.902.107 --- ascorbic ... oxamic acid MeSH D02.241.152.811 --- uronic acids MeSH D02.241.152.811.325 --- glucuronic acids MeSH D02.241.152.811.325.300 ... polyisoprenyl phosphate sugars MeSH D02.455.849.690.700.700 --- polyisoprenyl phosphate monosaccharides MeSH D02.455.849.690. ... uronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.325 --- glucuronic acids MeSH D02.241.081.844.915.325.300 --- glucuronic acid MeSH ...
... (EC 2.3.1.201, WbpD, WlbB) is an enzyme with systematic name acetyl-CoA:UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate N-acetyltransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction acetyl-CoA + UDP-2-acetamido-3-amino-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } CoA + UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-glucuronate This enzyme participates in the biosynthetic pathway for UDP-alpha-D-ManNAc3NAcA (UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-alpha-D-mannuronic acid). Westman, E.L.; McNally, D.J.; Charchoglyan, A.; Brewer, D.; Field, R.A.; Lam, J.S. (2009). "Characterization of WbpB, WbpE, and WbpD and reconstitution of a pathway for the biosynthesis of UDP-2,3-diacetamido-2,3-dideoxy-D-mannuronic acid in Pseudomonas aeruginosa". J. Biol. Chem. 284: 11854-11862. doi:10.1074/jbc.M808583200. PMC 2673254 . PMID 19282284. Larkin, A.; Imperiali, B. (2009). "Biosynthesis of UDP-GlcNAc(3NAc)A by ...
... , also called algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributed widely in the cell walls of brown algae, where through binding with water it forms a viscous gum. It is also a significant component of the biofilms produced by the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the major pathogen in cystic fibrosis, that confer it a high resistance to antibiotics and killing by macrophages. Its colour ranges from white to yellowish-brown. It is sold in filamentous, granular or powdered forms. Alginic acid is a linear copolymer with homopolymeric blocks of (1-4)-linked β-D-mannuronate (M) and its C-5 epimer α-L-guluronate (G) residues, respectively, covalently linked together in different sequences or blocks. The monomers can appear in homopolymeric blocks of consecutive G-residues (G-blocks), consecutive M-residues (M-blocks) or alternating M and G-residues (MG-blocks). Alginates are refined from brown seaweeds. A wide variety of brown seaweeds of the phylum Phaeophyceae are harvested ...
... is a water-insoluble, gelatinous, cream-coloured substance that can be created through the addition of aqueous calcium chloride to aqueous sodium alginate. Calcium alginate is also used for entrapment of enzymes and forming artificial seeds in plant tissue culture. "Alginate" is usually the salts of alginic acid, but it can also refer to derivatives of alginic acid and alginic acid itself; in some publications the term "algin" is used instead of alginate. Alginate is present in the cell walls of brown algae, as the calcium, magnesium and sodium salts of alginic acid. To extract the alginate, the seaweed is broken into pieces and stirred with a hot solution of an alkali, usually sodium carbonate. Over a period of about two hours, the alginate dissolves as sodium alginate to give a very thick slurry. This slurry also contains the part of the seaweed that does not dissolve, mainly cellulose. This insoluble residue must be removed from the solution. The solution is too thick ...
... , an aa cried algin or alginate, is an anionic polysaccharide distributit widely in the cell walls o broun algae, whaur through bindin wi watter it furms a viscous gum. In extractit furm it absorbs watter quickly; it is capable o absorbin 200-300 times its ain wicht in watter.[1] Its colour ranges frae white tae yellaeish-broun. It is sauld in filamentous, granular or poudered furms.. ...
... s are proteins that are heavily glycosylated. The basic proteoglycan unit consists of a "core protein" with one or more covalently attached glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain(s). The point of attachment is a serine (Ser) residue to which the glycosaminoglycan is joined through a tetrasaccharide bridge (e.g. chondroitin sulfate-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl-PROTEIN). The Ser residue is generally in the sequence -Ser-Gly-X-Gly- (where X can be any amino acid residue but proline), although not every protein with this sequence has an attached glycosaminoglycan. The chains are long, linear carbohydrate polymers that are negatively charged under physiological conditions due to the occurrence of sulfate and uronic acid groups. Proteoglycans occur in the connective tissue. Proteoglycans are categorized by their relative size (large and small) and the nature of their glycosaminoglycan chains. Types include: Certain members are considered members of the "small leucine-rich proteoglycan family" (SLRP). These ...
HSGAG and CSGAG modified proteoglycans first begin with a consensus Ser-Gly/Ala-X-Gly motif in the core protein. Construction of a tetrasaccharide linker that consists of -GlcAβ1-3Galβ1-3Galβ1-4Xylβ1-O-(Ser)-, where xylosyltransferase, β4-galactosyl transferase (GalTI),β3-galactosyl transferase (GalT-II), and β3-GlcA transferase (GlcAT-I) transfer the four monosaccharides, begins synthesis of the GAG modified protein. The first modification of the tetrasaccharide linker determines whether the HSGAGs or CSGAGs will be added. Addition of a GlcNAc promotes the addition of HSGAGs while addition of GalNAc to the tetrasaccharide linker promotes CSGAG development.[5] GlcNAcT-I transfers GlcNAc to the tetrasaccahride linker, which is distinct from glycosyltransferase GlcNAcT-II, the enzyme that is utilized to build HSGAGs. EXTL2 and EXTL3, two genes in the EXT tumor suppressor family, have been shown to have GlcNAcT-I activity. Conversely, GalNAc is transferred to the linker by the enzyme GalNAcT ...
... (EC 3.2.1.15), also known as pectin depolymerase, PG, pectolase, pectin hydrolase, and poly-alpha-1,4-galacturonide glycanohydrolase, is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the alpha-1,4 glycosidic bonds between galacturonic acid residues. Polygalacturonan, whose major component is galacturonic acid, is a significant carbohydrate component of the pectin network that comprises plant cell walls. Therefore, the activity of the endogenous plant PGs works to soften and sweeten fruit during the ripening process. Similarly, phytopathogens use PGs as a means to weaken the pectin network, so that digestive enzymes can be excreted into the plant host to acquire nutrients. This enzyme's multiple parallel beta sheets form a helical shape that is called a beta helix. This highly stable structure, thanks to numerous hydrogen bonds and disulfide bonds between strands, is a common characteristic of enzymes involved in the degradation of pectin. The interior of the beta helix is hydrophobic. ...
In enzymology, a 2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase (EC 2.7.1.45) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + 6-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, whereas its two products are ADP and 6-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 6-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid kinase, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase (phosphorylating), 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate kinase, and ketodeoxygluconokinase. This enzyme participates in pentose phosphate pathway and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, only one structure ...
A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms. They have either an aldehyde functional group in position 1 (aldoheptoses) or a ketone functional group in position 2 (ketoheptoses). There are few examples of C-7 sugars in nature, among which are: Sedoheptulose or D-altro-heptulose (a ketose), an early intermediate in lipid A biosynthesis Mannoheptulose, found in avocados L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (an aldose), a late intermediate in lipid A biosynthesis. Ketoheptoses have 4 chiral centers, whereas aldoheptoses have 5 ...
Remiks utworu „Light It Up" został wydany jako singel 6 listopada 2015. Oprócz Nyli gościnie wystąpił w nim ghańsko-brytyjski muzyk Fuse ODG[2]. 27 listopada ukazała rozszerzona wersja albumu studyjnego Major Lazer pt. Peace Is the Mission o nazwie Peace is the Mission Extended[3]. Był on notowany wielu europejskich m.in. w Wielkiej Brytanii, Polsce, Holandii, Szwecji i Niemczech. Singel zyskał status złotej płyty w Niemczech[4] i w Wielkiej Brytanii[5] oraz platynowej w Nowej Zelandii[6] i we Włoszech[7]. 1 marca 2016 roku w serwisie YouTube został opublikowany teledysk w reżyserii Sama Pillinga[8]. 18 marca 2016 r. ukazała się włoskojęzyczna wersja „Light It Up" nagrana wspólnie z włoską piosenkarką i raperką Baby K[9]. ...
Monosaccharides are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of one sugar and are usually colorless, water-soluble, crystalline solids. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste. Examples of monosaccharides include glucose (dextrose), fructose, galactose, and ribose. Monosaccharides are the building blocks of disaccharides like sucrose (common sugar) and polysaccharides (such as cellulose and starch). Further, each carbon atom that supports a hydroxyl group (except for the first and last) is chiral, giving rise to a number of isomeric forms all with the same chemical formula. For instance, galactose and glucose are both aldohexoses, but they have different chemical and physical properties. ...
... is a sub-field of organic chemistry concerned specifically with the generation of natural and unnatural carbohydrate structures. This can include the synthesis of monosaccharide residues or structures containing more than one monosaccharide, known as oligosaccharides. Generally speaking, carbohydrates can be classified into two groups, simple sugars and complex carbohydrates. Simple sugars, also called monosaccharides, are carbohydrates which can not be converted into smaller sugars by hydrolysis. When two or more monosaccharide units are connected to one another via a glycoside linkage, complex carbohydrates are formed. Complex carbohydrates, according to the different number of monosaccharide units, can be classed into three groups, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. A disaccharide is formed from two monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides can be formed by a small number of ...
A tetrasaccharide is a carbohydrate which gives upon hydrolysis four molecules of the same or different monosaccharides. For example, stachyose upon hydrolysis gives one molecule each of glucose and fructose and two molecules of galactose. The general formula of a tetrasaccharide is typically C24H42O21 ...
total sugars and uronic acids using colorimetric analysis. *monosaccharide, disaccharide and oligosaccharide analysis ... constituent sugar composition after acid hydrolysis of polysaccharides to their constituent sugars ...
The polysaccharide HP was composed predominantly of galacturonic acid, galactose, glucose, and xylose in a molar ratio of 1.56: ... The total carbohydrate content (38.01%) of HWE was calculated by adding neutral sugar and uronic acid values. Purified ... The total carbohydrate content of HP was 81.12%. Monosaccharides in HP were mainly galacturonic acid (GlaUA), xylose (Xyl), ... Uronic acid was measured by the m-hydroxydiphenyl method using galacturonic acid as the standard [38]. Total flavonoids were ...
... simple sugars), Chain and Ring forms, Stereochemistry. The structure of Sugar Alcohols, Amino Sugars, and Uronic Acids. ... Their names retain the root of the monosaccharides, but the -ose sugar suffix is changed to -uronic acid. For example, galact ... Sugar Alcohols, Amino Sugars, and Uronic Acids. Sugars may be modified by natural or laboratory processes into compounds that ... Glucosamine is an amino sugar used to treat cartilage damage and reduce the pain and progression of arthritis.. Uronic acids ...
... sugar and uronic acid content), lipids and proteins have to be removed beforehand from the sample. Usually this is performed ... monosaccharide composition and charge [77]. Once in solution, the polysaccharides can swell and/or interact with each other to ... phenolic acids (in particular ferulic acid), minerals and, in some specialized cell-types, lignin [10,12]. This structure has ... Besten, G.D.; Van Eunen, K.; Groen, A.K.; Venema, K.; Reijngoud, D.-J.; Bakker, B. The role of short-chain fatty acids in the ...
... and different sulfations of both the uronic acid and the amino sugar moieties (Figure 1) (11, 12). In HS, chain modification ... mainly uronic. Differences in the type of monosaccharide in the repeating unit, as well as their sulfation, result in the ... GAGs are linear anionic polysaccharides made up of repeating disaccharides containing acetylated amino sugar moieties and acid ... the addition of sulfate groups of uronic acid residues, catalyzed by chondroitin UST at C2 increased sevenfold. ...
Ester linkages arise between oxidized sugars, the uronic acids, and the phenols and phenylpropanols functionalities of the ... and then use acid or enzymatic methods to hydrolyze the newly freed celluloses to break them down into simple monosaccharides. ... These carbohydrate polymers contain different sugar monomers (six and five carbon sugars) and they are tightly bound to lignin ... These sugars can then be fermented, leading to bio-ethanol. Carroll, Andrew; Somerville, Chris (June 2009). "Cellulosic ...
Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C) Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric ... Sugar acids are monosaccharides with a carboxyl group. Main classes of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids, in which the ... Aldonic acids Glyceric acid (3C) Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, unsaturated lactone) Ulosonic acids ... Uronic acids, in which the terminal hydroxyl group of an aldose or ketose is oxidized Aldaric acids, in which both ends of an ...
The polysaccharides can contain substituents such as amino sugar units, pentose sugar units, uronic sugar units, sugar groups ... polyesters derived from polybasic acids and polyols wherein the polybasic acids are adipic acid, succinic acid, sebacatic acid ... Included are polysaccharides containing repeating units of a single monosaccharide (homoglycans) or mixtured monosaccharide ... sulfuric acid, phosphates, phosphoric acid, silica, silicates, boron trifluorides and the like. such additives are disclosed in ...
1991) Measurement of uronic acids without interference from neutral sugars. Anal Biochem 197: 157-162. ... we determined the cellulose and uronic acid contents, as well as the noncellulosic neutral monosaccharide composition, in ... salicylic acid. ET. ethylene. JA. jasmonic acid. ABA. abscisic acid. ROS. reactive oxygen species. SAR. systemic acquired ... total uronic acid content (g mg−1 dry weight; D), and individual neutral sugars (mol %) from the noncellulosic carbohydrate ...
biological substances commonly called monosaccharides do not conform to this formula (e.g. uronic acids and deoxy-sugars such ...
... provides information about sugar levels per se. Even though underrepresentation of uronic acids has been reported (Manns et al ... Unlike CoMPP, monosaccharide composition analysis provides information about amounts of specific sugars between samples; but ... Monosaccharide composition determination was performed with HPAEC-PAD with monosaccharide standards of l-Fuc, l-Rha, l-Ara, d- ... 1,2-diaminocyclohexanetetraacetic acid. RGI. rhamnogalacturonan I. TFA. trifluoroacetic acid. HPAEC-PAD. high-performance anion ...
amino sugars such as galactosamine, glucosamine and chitobiose • sugar acids such as aldonic acids, uronic acids and aldaric ... sugar alcohols (such as arabitol, xylitol, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol, isomalt, lactitol, polyglicitol), monosaccharides ( ... amino sugars (such as galactosamine, glucosamine and chitobiose), sugar acids (such as aldonic acids, uronic acids and aldaric ... mono or polycarboxylic organic acids and inorganic acids such as phosphoric acid or citric acid; urea; inorganic bases such as ...
... amino sugar 7 and uronic acid 10. All thioglycosides reacted equally well, irrespective of their aglycons (SEt or STol). This ... The DBDMH/TfOH system activates glycosyl donors including neutral monosaccharides of different configurations (D-gluco 5 and 6 ... Excellent yields were obtained when triflic acid (TfOH) or trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) were employed as ...
The application of PGRs produced shifts of uronic acid and neutral sugars between fractions. Arabinose was the neutral sugar ... with high proportions of uronic acids, arabinose and galactose as the main monosaccharides, and a significant proportion of ... Picloram and abscisic acid produced an increase of the uronic acid contents of the cell walls. The AIRs obtained from calluses ... α-naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, picloram (Pic and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. The highest ...
However, some biological substances commonly called "monosaccharides" do not conform to this formula (e.g., uronic acids and ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, ... Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple monosaccharide found in many plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, ...
Uronic acids have been identified in most EPSs, indicating their ionic nature. Monosaccharide compositions revealed the ... Monosaccharide compositions revealed a high number of sugar units (6-8) in all EPSs. Besides, hexoses were found as the ... Blumenkrantz N, Asboe-Hansen G (1973) New method for quantitative determination of uronic acids. Anal Biochem 54(2):484-489 ... Innis SM (2007) Dietary (n-3) fatty acids and brain development. J Nutr 137(4):855-859CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ...
... aldaric and/or uronic acids such as, for example, gluconic acid or glucuronic acid. Monosaccharides also include ascorbic acid ... Examples of monosaccharides also include those monosaccharide deoxy sugars, such as, for example, fucose, rhamnose, and ... acrylic acid, N-alkyl amides of (meth)acrylic acid, salts and acids of N-alkyl amides of (meth)acrylic acid, itaconic acid, 2- ... acrylic acid, esters of (meth)acrylic acid, salts and acids of esters of (meth)acrylic acid, amides of (meth)acrylic acid, N- ...
Halophiles synthesize molecules containing different monosaccharides, aminosugars, sulphates, uronic acids. Investigations into ... Most of them require sugar and organic nitrogen for high yield synthesis. ... The microbial exopolysaccharides that have a wide variety of applications are predominantly produced by Lactic acid bacteria ( ... The amino acid sequence alignment of DSR-V with other dextransucrases demonstrated that it shares a 94% identity with the DSR-D ...
aldonic acid the oxidized form of a monosaccharide where the aldehyde group is oxidized to a carboxylic acid ... uronic acid. the product formed when carbon 6 is oxidized by enzymes to the carboxylic acid ... reducing sugar. any carbohydrate that reacts with an oxidizing agent to form an aldonic acid ... Sucrose or table sugar is made up of the two monosaccharides ____ and ___.. glucose and fructose. ...
Uronic acids are the negatively charged sugars which are found in pectins. The uronic acid content was determined by the ... for monosaccharide analysis in Brummer et al. [9]. Standard curves were prepared with rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, glucose, ... The rhamnose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids are derived mainly from the pectins. The sum of these four sugars was 10.8 ... The peas had the highest uronic acid content suggesting that the pectin in peas is more negatively charged than in other pulse ...
... a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar ... by phenol-sulfuric-acid-method. In addition, recently ... and amino-sugars, uronic acids as well as different sugar ... and a detailed monosaccharide analysis for 17 selected strains was performed. However, one drawback of this method is that not ... However, screening for novel polymers containing different sugars, uronic acids as well as deoxy-and amino-sugars cannot be ...
... have been oxidised to form uronic acid, for example D-glucuronic acid formed by the oxidation of the primary alcohol groups of ... or other polysaccharides containing different sugar monosaccharides where some of the primary alcohol groups of the ... Other examples include D-mannuronic acid and D-galacturonic acid. Such polysaccharides and their derivatives include Pectins, ... alpha-sulphonates of fatty acids and of fatty acid esters, alkyl betaines, and alkyl polyglycosides all known in the detergent ...
Examples of monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde. conform to this formula (e.g., uronic acids and deoxy- ... For example; milk sugar (lactose) is made from glucose and galactose whereas the sugar from sugar cane and sugar beets (sucrose ... Disaccharides These sugars are hydrolyzed into monosaccharides in the digestive tract by specific enzymes and each of these ... Gastric Acid Molecular Formula For Sucrose And Maltose Difference. Are Apples Good For Acid Reflux Oct 2, 2018. Heartburn is a ...
1.6. Deoxy sugars *1.7. Amino sugars *1.8. Alditols *1.9. Aldonic acids *1.10. Ketoaldonic acids *1.11. Uronic acids *1.12. ... Deoxy sugars. Monosaccharides in which an alcoholic hydroxy group has been replaced by a hydrogen atom are called deoxy sugars ... Uronic acids. Monocarboxylic acids formally derived from aldoses by replacement of the CH2OH group with a carboxy group are ... termed uronic acids (see 2-Carb-22).. 2-Carb-1.12. Aldaric acids. The dicarboxylic acids formed from aldoses by replacement of ...
EPS can include substances such as, for example, polysaccharides (e.g., monosaccharides, uronic acids, and amino sugars linked ... simple sugars, and amino acids). EPS composition can be evaluated after removing these macromolecules from the microbial cells ... by glycosidic bonds), polypeptides, nucleic acids, lipids/phospholipids (e.g., fatty acids, glycerol phosphate, ethanolamine, ...
  • Very early, consensus was reached that sugars should be named with the ending '-ose', and by combination with the French word 'cellule' for cell the term cellulose was coined, long before the structure was known. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • They are composed of more than ten monosaccharide units e.g. starch, glycogen, cellulose. (slideshare.net)
  • The term is most common in biochemistry , where it is a synonym of 'saccharide', a group that includes sugars , starch , and cellulose . (wikipedia.org)
  • Lignin is mostly insoluble in mineral acids, and therefore can be analyzed gravimetrically after hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose fractions of the biomass with sulfuric acid. (eurelectric.org)
  • Cellulosic and lignocellulosic feedstocks and wastes, composed of cellulose, hemicellulose, pectins and of lignin are generally treated by a variety of chemical, mechanical and enzymatic means to release primarily hexose and pentose sugars, which can then be fermented to useful products. (wipo.int)
  • Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition. (absoluteastronomy.com)
  • Our study included immunocarbohydrate microarray profiling, monosaccharide composition determination, Fourier-transformed infrared microspectroscopy, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR of cell wall biosynthetic genes, analysis of hydrolytic activities, transmission electron microscopy, and immunolocalization of cell wall components. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition, recently a new and reliable method for the detailed analysis of the monomeric composition and the presence of rare sugars and sugar substitutions has become available, which could give a first hint of the polymer structure of unknown EPS. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sugar and lignin composition analyses and saccharification potential of the straw fractions revealed that these industrial by-products could be suitable for second-generation bioethanol prospective. (springer.com)
  • The molecular weight and distribution of SCHE-1 were determined by size exclusion chromatography; the monosaccharide composition of SCHE-1 was determined by HPLC pre-column derivatization. (bvsalud.org)
  • Depending on the monosaccharide composition of the substrate and its conformation in the PL active site, the proton removed from C-5 and the departing oxygen on C-4 may lie either syn or anti to each other. (biochemj.org)
  • However, there have not been any reports concerning the benets, we decided to investigate the triterpenoid composition content of saponins in this plant, although oleanolic acid and of three cultivars of B. vulgaris var. (scribd.com)
  • The presented strategy allows a rapid and complete free acids or more frequently as aglycones of saponins.7,8 They analysis of saponin composition in B. vulgaris and is particularly participate in mechanisms of plant defense and protection as suitable for the screening of extracts designed for pharmaceut- well as in environmental interactions.9 The presence of these icals in agricultural and industrial applications. (scribd.com)
  • 1988. Gas chromatographic determination of the monosaccharide composition of plant cell wall preparations. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). (gob.ar)
  • Glycosaminoglycans have high degrees of heterogeneity with regards to molecular mass, disaccharide construction, and sulfation due to the fact that GAG synthesis, unlike proteins or nucleic acids, is not template driven, and dynamically modulated by processing enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fourth class of GAG, hyaluronic acid , is not synthesized by the Golgi, but rather by integral membrane synthases which immediately secrete the dynamically elongated disaccharide chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1 The HS disaccharide units can be substituted with N -acetyl (Ac) or N -sulfo (S) groups and O -sulfo (S) groups (at the 3- O - and 6- O -positions of the GlcN residue and 2- O -position of the uronic acid residues). (rsc.org)
  • Another challenge to biomass fermentation is the high percentage of pentoses in the hemicellulose, such as xylose, or wood sugar. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials faces more challenges than from starch-based feedstocks as a result of the chemical and physical barriers that block accessibility to the sugars (so-called recalcitrance) within the biomass. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In plants, the amylase can be found in seeds to break down starch into sugar to be used by the embryo to induce growth. (eurelectric.org)
  • In all these species, the inner core structure contains two residues of 3-deoxy- d - manno -octulopyranosonic acid (Kdo p ) and three residues of l - glycero - d - manno -heptopyranose (Hep p I, Hep p II, and Hep p III). (asm.org)
  • In the LPS micelles formed in aqueous solutions, lipid And is located inside the micelles, and OPS, built in most cases of hydrophilic monosaccharide residues, as in bacterial cells, pointing towards the aqueous phase. (russianpatents.com)
  • So OPS, part of the FSC can be both neutral and contain acid fragments (residues of uronic acids, phosphate), positively charged components (residues of amino sugars, ethanolamine), as well as to have zwitter-ionic character, i.e. it may bear, for example, alternating carboxyl and amino groups. (russianpatents.com)
  • The present inventors have further found that even a tetraantennary N-type sugar chain having four α2,6-linked sialic acid molecules, which has previously been difficult to synthesize, can be prepared at high yields by one-pot synthesis comprising the elongation reaction of a biantennary sugar chain used as a starting material without performing purification after each enzymatic reaction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • They are made up of monosaccharides (sugar units) glycosidically linked, through water elimination, to yield mixtures of similar but not identical molecules of differing molecular dimensions, with the distribution often dependent on the source, method of extraction and subsequently processing conditions. (readbag.com)
  • The edges on the outer side are formed by alternating phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugar molecules. (essay911.org)
  • This organic matter is soluble in strong acid (pH = 1) and has the average chemical. (britannica.com)
  • Neutral hydrocolloids are less soluble than those which contain uronic acids, which are often in the polyelectrolyte form (charged or ionic). (readbag.com)
  • This lignin fraction is referred to as acid soluble lignin and may be quantified by ultraviolet spectroscopy. (eurelectric.org)
  • Source Ehrman, T. Determination of Acid-Soluble Lignin in Biomass. (eurelectric.org)
  • Soluble fiber also attenuates the absorption of sugar, reduces sugar response after eating, normalizes blood lipid levels and, once fermented in the colon, produces short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities (discussion below). (theinfolist.com)
  • since he used models with flexible bonds between the atoms, he could easily 'stretch' his sugar models into a position suitable for projection. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • Based on the major monosaccharide constituents of their backbone, hemicelluloses can be classified into xylans, mannans, xylogalactans and xyloglucans. (intechopen.com)
  • The solvent extraction processes, developed specifically for these straws, released terpene derivatives (e.g. τ-cadinol, β-caryophyllene), lactones (e.g. coumarin, herniarin) and phenolic compounds of industrial interest, including rosmarinic acid which contributed to the high antioxidant activity of the straw extracts. (springer.com)
  • Derivatives of acetic acid which may be formed by substitution reactions. (eurelectric.org)
  • The importance of sugar chains having α2,3- or α2,6-linked sialic acid at their non-reducing ends is known. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Particularly, the production of glycoprotein drugs or the like inevitably requires producing in quantity sugar chains having homogeneous structures by controlling the linking pattern (α2,6-linkage or α2,3-linkage) of sialic acid. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Particularly, a triantennary or tetraantennary N-type complex sugar chain having sialic acid at each of all non-reducing ends is generally considered difficult to chemically synthesize. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present inventors have newly found the activity of sialyltransferase of degrading sialic acid on a reaction product in the presence of CMP and also found that formed CMP can be degraded enzymatically to thereby efficiently produce a sialic acid-containing sugar chain. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Joziasse et al, "Branch Specificity of Bovine Colostrum CMP-Sialic Acid: Galβ1→4GlcNAc-R α2→6-Sialyltransferase. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • N -acetyl (e.g. chitin), sulphate (e.g. glycosaminoglycans), carboxylic acid (e.g. sialic acid) and deoxy modifications (e.g. fucose and sialic acid). (ipfs.io)
  • Towards the end of the nineteenth century it was realized that the free sugars (not only the glycosides) existed as cyclic hemiacetals or hemiketals. (qmul.ac.uk)
  • The liquid fraction contains some hemicellulose-derived oligomeric and monomeric sugars, while also a part of the lignin can be present in this liquid fraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The chemical analysis of the isolated cell walls showed that although apple and onion cell walls both contained the same seven neutral monosaccharides (Ara, Gal, Glc, Fuc, Man, Rha and Xyl) and uronic acid, the relative proportions of these monosaccharides differed between the two species. (openthesis.org)
  • The generic name for a simple sugar begins with the carbonyl prefix aldo or keto and ends with the term for the number of carbons. (slideserve.com)
  • To extract the fermentable sugars, one must first disconnect the celluloses from the lignin, and then use acid or enzymatic methods to hydrolyze the newly freed celluloses to break them down into simple monosaccharides. (wikipedia.org)