Sugar AcidsCarbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Amino Sugars: SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.Sugar Alcohols: Polyhydric alcohols having no more than one hydroxy group attached to each carbon atom. They are formed by the reduction of the carbonyl group of a sugar to a hydroxyl group.(From Dorland, 28th ed)Deoxy SugarsDietary Sucrose: Sucrose present in the diet. It is added to food and drinks as a sweetener.Monosaccharides: Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Phosphoenolpyruvate Sugar Phosphotransferase System: The bacterial sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) that catalyzes the transfer of the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate to its sugar substrates (the PTS sugars) concomitant with the translocation of these sugars across the bacterial membrane. The phosphorylation of a given sugar requires four proteins, two general proteins, Enzyme I and HPr and a pair of sugar-specific proteins designated as the Enzyme II complex. The PTS has also been implicated in the induction of synthesis of some catabolic enzyme systems required for the utilization of sugars that are not substrates of the PTS as well as the regulation of the activity of ADENYLYL CYCLASES. EC 2.7.1.-.Galactose: An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Uridine Diphosphate Sugars

Bordetella pertussis waaA encodes a monofunctional 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid transferase that can complement an Escherichia coli waaA mutation. (1/386)

Bordetella pertussis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contains a single 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonic acid (Kdo) residue, whereas LPS from Escherichia coli contains at least two. Here we report that B. pertussis waaA encodes an enzyme capable of transferring only a single Kdo during the biosynthesis of LPS and that this activity is sufficient to complement an E. coli waaA mutation.  (+info)

Uptake of 99mTc(5+)-complexes in ischemic myocardial slices and their dissociable ability. (2/386)

AIM: To find how some technetium-complexes to deliver the active species, TcO4(3-), to the target tissue from a dissociable polynuclear Tc5+ species in preserved states in vivo. METHODS: Effect of dissociation ability of the polynuclear Tc5+ complexes on their accumulation in ischemic myocardium was tested. Ability of dissociation as having an appropriate conformation to become biologically functional after entering the blood circulation was tested using a simple dilution method by thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis. Various degree of ischemic myocardium slices of rat were incubated with 1/100 diluted 99mTc(5+)-succimer, 99mTc(5+)-GH and 99mTc(5+)-PPi. RESULTS: The TLC patterns of 99mTc(5+)-GH and 99mTc(5+)-PPi showed the presence of a fast increasing of free Tc-species as dilution degree increased. The relative radioactivity of peak of free pertechnetate (Rf = 0.85-1.0) with 1:500 dilution was: 99mTc(5+)-succimer 0%, 99mTc(5+)-GH 28.1% +/- 1.3%, and 99mTc(5+)-PPi 46.0% +/- 2.9% respectively. The uptake of the myocardium after ischemia for 3 h was 99mTc(5+)-succimer 420% +/- 110% dose/g tissue, 99mTc(5+)-GH 710% +/- 180% dose/g tissue, and 99mTc(5+)-PPi 1295% +/- 390% dose/g tissue respectively. CONCLUSION: The dissociation and myocardial uptake showed: 99mTc(5+)-succimer < 99mTc(5+)-GH < 99mTc(5+)-PPi, the uptake by the ischemic myocardium is positively correlated to their dissociation.  (+info)

Rat liver contains age-regulated cytosolic 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdn). (3/386)

Kdn (3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulopyranosonic acid), a unique deaminated member of the sialic acid family, has emerged as a new building block of glycoconjugates from a wide variety of organisms, ranging from bacteria to mammals. In particular, the presence of Kdn has been demonstrated in different rat organs and tissues, but not in liver. Here we report on the detection and quantitation of Kdn in rat liver and on its variations with postnatal development and aging. We have previously established the optimal conditions for derivatization of Kdn with 1,2-diamino-4, 5-methylene-dioxybenzene (DMB), and detection by reverse-phase HPLC. Analysis of whole liver homogenates and different subcellular fractions reveals that Kdn is fundamentally present in the cytosolic fraction as nucleotide precursor. The expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac changes unevenly with age. While the content of Neu5Ac, the major species, and Neu5Gc decreases to a different extent from newborn to old animals, Kdn content decreases from newborn to trace amounts in adult rats and increases again with aging. Thus, expression of Kdn, Neu5Gc, and Neu5Ac appears to be independently regulated.  (+info)

Structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide from Chlamydia trachomatis serotype L2. (4/386)

The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Chlamydia trachomatis L2 was isolated from tissue culture-grown elementary bodies using a modified phenol/water procedure followed by extraction with phenol/chloroform/light petroleum. From a total of 5 x 10(4) cm2 of infected monolayers, 22.3 mg of LPS were obtained. Compositional analysis indicated the presence of 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulopyranosonic acid (Kdo), GlcN, phosphorus, and fatty acids in a molar ratio of 2.8:2:2.1:4.5. Matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization mass spectrometry performed on the de-O-acylated LPS gave a major molecular ion peak at m/z 1781.1 corresponding to a molecule of 3 Kdo, 2 GlcN, 2 phosphates, and two 3-hydroxyeicosanoic acid residues. The structure of deacylated LPS obtained after successive treatment with hydrazine and potassium hydroxide was determined by 600 MHz NMR spectroscopy as Kdoalpha2-->8Kdoalpha2-->4Kdoalpha2-->6D-GlcpNbeta1 -->6D-GlcpNalpha 1,4'-bisphosphate. These data, together with those published recently on the acylation pattern of chlamydial lipid A (Qureshi, N., Kaltashov, I., Walker, K., Doroshenko, V., Cotter, R. J., Takayama, K, Sievert, T. R., Rice, P. A., Lin, J.-S. L., and Golenbock, D. T. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 10594-10600) allow us to present for the first time the complete structure of a major molecular species of a chlamydial LPS.  (+info)

Biosynthesis of KDN (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid). Identification and characterization of a KDN-9-phosphate synthetase activity from trout testis. (5/386)

Although the deaminoneuraminic acid or KDN glycotope (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid) is expressed in glycoconjugates that range in evolutionary diversity from bacteria to man, there is little information as to how this novel sugar is synthesized. Accordingly, biosynthetic studies were initiated in trout testis, an organ rich in KDN, to determine how this sialic acid is formed. These studies have shown that the pathway consists of the following three sequential reactions: 1) Man + ATP --> Man-6-P + ADP; 2) Man-6-P + PEP --> KDN-9-P + P(i); 3) KDN-9-P --> KDN + P(i). Reaction 1, catalyzed by a hexokinase, is the 6-O-phosphorylation of mannose to form D-mannose 6-phosphate (Man-6-P). Reaction 2, catalyzed by KDN-9-phosphate (KDN-9-P) synthetase, condenses Man-6-P and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to form KDN-9-P. Reaction 3, catalyzed by a phosphatase, is the dephosphorylation of KDN-9-P to yield free KDN. It is not known if a kinase specific for Man (Reaction 1) and a phosphatase specific for KDN-9-P (Reaction 3) may exist in tissues actively synthesizing KDN. In this study, the KDN-9-P synthetase, an enzyme that has not been previously described, was identified as at least one key enzyme that is specific for the KDN biosynthetic pathway. This enzyme was purified 50-fold from rainbow trout testis and characterized. The molecular weight of the enzyme was estimated to be about 80,000, and activity was maximum at neutral pH in the presence of Mn(2+). N-Acetylneuraminic acid 9-phosphate (Neu5Ac-9-P) synthetase, which catalyzes the condensation of N-acetyl-D-mannosamine 6-phosphate and phosphoenol-pyruvate to produce Neu5Ac-9-P, was co-purified with the KDN-9-P synthetase. Substrate competition experiments revealed, however, that syntheses of KDN-9-P and Neu5Ac-9-P were catalyzed by two separate synthetase activities. The significance of these studies takes on added importance with the recent discovery that the level of free KDN is elevated in human fetal cord but not matched adult red blood cells and in ovarian cancer cells (Inoue, S., Lin, S-L., Chang, T., Wu, S-H., Yao, C-W., Chu, T-Y., Troy, F. A., II, and Inoue, Y. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 27199-27204). This unexpected finding emphasizes the need to understand more fully the role that free KDN and KDN-glycoconjugates may play in normal hematopoiesis and malignancy.  (+info)

The reactivity of the 2-deoxyribonolactone lesion in single-stranded DNA and its implication in reaction mechanisms of DNA damage and repair. (6/386)

The formal C1'-oxidation product, 2-deoxyribonolactone, is formed as a result of DNA damage induced via a variety of agents, including gamma-radiolysis and the enediyne antitumor antibiotics. This alkaline labile lesion may also be an intermediate during DNA damage induced by copper-phenanthroline. Oligo-nucleotides containing this lesion at a defined site were formed via aerobic photolysis of oligonucleotides containing a photolabile ketone, and were characterized by gel electrophoresis and electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Treatment of oligo-nucleotides containing the lesion with secondary amines produces strand breaks consisting of 3'-phosphate termini, and products which migrate more slowly in polyacrylamide gels. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis indicates that the slower moving products are formal adducts of the beta-elimination product resulting from 2-deoxyribonolactone and one molecule of amine. The addition of beta-mercapto-ethanol to the reaction mixture produces thiol adducts as well. The stability of these adducts suggests that they cannot be the labile species characterized by gel electrophoresis in copper-phenanthroline-mediated strand scission. The characterization of these adducts by mass spectrometry also provides, by analogy, affirmation of proposals regarding the reactivity of nucleophiles with the beta-elimination product of abasic sites. Finally, the effects of this lesion and the various adducts on DNA repair enzymes are unknown, but their facile generation from oligonucleotides containing a photolabile ketone suggests that such issues could be addressed.  (+info)

2-Keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN)- and N-acetylneuraminic acid-cleaving sialidase (KDN-sialidase) and KDN-cleaving hydrolase (KDNase) from the hepatopancreas of oyster, Crassostrea virginica. (7/386)

KDN (2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid), a sialic acid analog, has been found to be widely distributed in nature. Despite the structural similarity between KDN and Neu5Ac, alpha-ketosides of KDN are refractory to conventional sialidases. We found that the hepatopancreas of the oyster, Crassostrea virginica, contains two KDN-cleaving sialidases but is devoid of conventional sialidase. The major sialidase, KDN-sialidase, effectively cleaves alpha-ketosidically linked KDN and also slowly cleaves the alpha-ketosides of Neu5Ac. The minor sialidase, KDNase, is specific for alpha-ketosides of KDN. We were able to separate these two KDN-cleaving enzymes using hydrophobic interaction and cation-exchange chromatographies. The rate of hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferyl-alpha-KDN (MU-KDN) by KDN-sialidase is 30 times faster than that of MU-Neu5Ac in the presence of 0.2 M NaCl, whereas in the absence of NaCl this ratio is only 8. KDNase hydrolyzes MU-KDN over 500 times faster than MU-Neu5Ac and is not affected by NaCl. KDN-sialidase purified to electrophoretically homogeneous form was found to have a molecular mass of 25 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.4. One of the three tryptic peptides derived from KDN-sialidase contains the consensus motif, SXDXGXTW, that has been found in all conventional sialidases. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of the hydrolysis of MU-KDN and MU-Neu5Ac by 2, 3-dehydro-2-deoxy-KDN (KDN2-en) and 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-(Neu5Ac2-en) suggests that KDN-sialidase contains two separate active sites for the hydrolysis of KDN and Neu5Ac. Both KDN-sialidase and KDNase effectively hydrolyze KDN-G(M3), KDNalpha2-->3Gal beta1-->4Glc, KDNalpha2-->6Galbeta1-->4Glc, KDNalpha2-->6-N-acetylgalactosaminitol, KDNalpha2-->6(KDNalpha2-->3)N-acetylgalactosaminitol, and KDNalpha2-->6(GlcNAcbeta1-->3)N-acetylgalactosaminitol. However, only KDN-sialidase also slowly hydrolyzes G(M3), Neu5Acalpha2-->3Galbeta1-->4Glc, and Neu5Acalpha2-->6Galbeta1-->4Glc. These two KDN-cleaving sialidases should be useful for studying the structure and function of KDN-containing glycoconjugates.  (+info)

Separation of inner and outer membranes of Rickettsia prowazeki and characterization of their polypeptide compositions. (8/386)

Rickettsia prowazeki were disrupted in a French pressure cell and fractionated into soluble (cytoplasm) and envelope fractions. The envelope contained 25% of the cell protein, with the cytoplasm containing 75%. Upon density gradient centrifugation, the envelope fraction separated into a heavy band (1.23 g/cm3) and a lighter band (1.19 g/cm3). The heavy band had a high content of 2-keto-3-deoxyoctulosonic acid, a marker for bacterial lipopolysaccharide, but had no succinic dehydrogenase, a marker for cytoplasmic membrane activity, and therefore represented outer membrane. The lighter band exhibited a high succinate dehydrogenase activity, and thus contained inner (cytoplasmic) membrane. Outer membrane purified by this method was less than 5% contaiminated by cytoplasmic membrane; however, inner membrane from the gradient was as much as 30% contaminated by outer membrane. The protein composition of each cellular fraction was characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate--polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The outer membrane contained four major proteins, which were also major proteins of the whole cell. The cytoplasmic membrane and soluble cytoplasm exhibited a more complex pattern on gels.  (+info)

*Sugar acid

Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric acid (Mucic acid) (6C) D-Glucaric acid (Saccharic acid) (6C ... Aldonic acids Glyceric acid (3C) Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, unsaturated lactone) Ulosonic acids ... Sugar acids are monosaccharides with a carboxyl group. Main classes of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids, in which the ... Ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO or 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C ...

*Boronic acid

Their unique feature is that they are capable of forming reversible covalent complexes with sugars, amino acids, hydroxamic ... A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl ... In the Liebeskind-Srogl coupling a thiol ester is coupled with a boronic acid to produce a ketone. The boronic acid organic ... In 1860, Edward Frankland was the first to report the preparation and isolation of a boronic acid. Ethylboronic acid was ...

*Muramic acid

... is an amino sugar acid. In terms of chemical composition, it is the ether of lactic acid and glucosamine. It ... Chlamydia bacterial species notably lack muramic acid in their cell wall, thus do not gram stain. Muramic acid - Compound ... occurs naturally as N-acetylmuramic acid in peptidoglycan, whose primary function is a structural component of many typical ...

*Threonic acid

... is a sugar acid derived from threose. The L-isomer is a metabolite of ascorbic acid (vitamin C). One study ... S Englard and S Seifter (1986). "The Biochemical Functions of Ascorbic Acid". Annual Review of Nutrition. 6: 365-406. doi: ...

*Vitamin C

Ascorbic acid is a weak sugar acid structurally related to glucose. In biological systems, ascorbic acid can be found only at ... Haworth and Szent-Györgyi proposed that L-hexuronic acid be named a-scorbic acid, and chemically L-ascorbic acid, in honor of ... or start with inositol and get to ascorbic acid via L-galactonic acid to L-galactonolactone. Ascorbic acid is a common ... Uric acid and ascorbate are both strong reducing agents. This has led to the suggestion that, in higher primates, uric acid has ...

*Oxalic acid

Scheele called the acid that resulted socker-syra or såcker-syra (sugar acid). By 1784, Scheele had shown that "sugar acid" and ... Vaporized oxalic acid, or a 3.2% solution of oxalic acid in sugar syrup, is used by some beekeepers as a miticide against the ... Its acid strength is much greater than that of acetic acid. Oxalic acid is a reducing agent and its conjugate base, known as ... Oxalic acid is a relatively strong acid, despite being a carboxylic acid: C2O4H2 ⇌ C2O4H− + H+ pKa = 1.27 C2O4H− ⇌ C 2O2− 4 + ...

*D-Galacturonic acid

... is a sugar acid, an oxidized form of D-galactose. It is the main component of pectin, in which it exists as ... Naturally occurring uronic acids are D-glucuronic acid, D-galacturonic acid, L-iduronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. Debra ... and meso-galactaric acid (mucic acid) (carboxylic groups at C1 and C6). It is also a uronic acid or hexuronic acid. ... In its open form, it has an aldehyde group at C1 and a carboxylic acid group at C6. Other oxidized forms of D-galactose are D- ...

*Papilio protenor

There are various oviposition stimulants discovered, including sugar acid, amino acid, alkaloid and flavonoid. Flavanone ... 5th larvae secretion is mainly aliphatic acid and their esters, while the previous instars contain primarily mono- and ...

*Glyceric acid

... is a natural three-carbon sugar acid obtained from the oxidation of glycerol. CH2OH-CHOH-CH2OH+[O]→CH2OH-CHOH- ... including 2-phosphoglyceric acid, 3-phosphoglyceric acid, 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid, and 1,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid, are ... 3-phospho-Glyceric acid is an important molecule for the biosynthesis of a certain amino acid, Serine (Ser,S) which can ... COOH+H2O Salts and esters of glyceric acid are known as glycerates. Several phosphate derivatives of glyceric acid, ...

*Uronic acid

Uronic acids (/ʊˈrɒnɪk/) are a class of sugar acids with both carbonyl and carboxylic acid functional groups. They are sugars ... the uronic acid analog of glucose is glucuronic acid. Uronic acids derived from hexoses are known as hexuronic acids and uronic ... The names of uronic acids are generally based on their parent sugars, for example, ... "Hexuronic acid". encyclopedia.com. Uronic Acids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...

*Johann Christian Wiegleb

The name of Wiegleb is associated with the discovery of oxalic acid in 1779. It turned out that it was identical with sugar ... the formation of saltpetre on walls and the formation of silicic acid from the reaction of hydrofluoric acid and glass. He ... acid, which was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1784. Wiegleb analyzed minerals, ...

*Glucuronic acid

... is a sugar acid derived from glucose, with its sixth carbon atom oxidized to a carboxylic acid. In living ... Glucuronic acid and gluconic acid are fermentation products in Kombucha tea. Glucuronic acid is a precursor of ascorbic acid ( ... Glucuronic acid (from Ancient Greek γλυκύς "sweet" + οὖρον "urine") is a uronic acid that was first isolated from urine (hence ... Glucuronic acid, like its precursor glucose, can exist as a linear (carboxo-)aldohexose (. 60,000 are too large for renal ...

*Glucarate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase

"Enzymatic-synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid-esters of sugar acids and hydroaromatic acids by protein preparations from rye ( ...

*Quinate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase

"Enzymatic-synthesis of hydroxycinnamic acid-esters of sugar acids and hydroaromatic acids by protein preparations from rye ( ... "Enzymic Synthesis of Caffeoylglucaric Acid from Chlorogenic Acid and Glucaric Acid by a Protein Preparation from Tomato ...

*Capsulan

Sugar acids are common in plant and algal polysacchride but there is disagreement in the literature concerning capsulan's sugar ... The main sugars making up the carbohydrate are galactose and glucose while other sugars such as xylose, arabinose and mannose ... Kurano claims that capsulan contains none, while Myklestad maintains that both galacturonic and glucuronic acids are present. ...

*Lactobionic acid

... (4-O-β-galactopyranosyl-D-gluconic acid) is a sugar acid. It is a disaccharide formed from gluconic acid and ... The carboxylate anion of lactobionic acid is known as lactobionate. As an acid, lactobionic acid can form salts with mineral ... Mineral salts of lactobionic acid are also used for mineral supplementation. Lactobionic acid is also used in the cosmetics ...

*Loquat

The loquat has a high sugar, acid, and pectin content. It is eaten as a fresh fruit and mixes well with other fruits in fresh ... It is fermented into a fruit wine, sometimes using just the crystal sugar and white liquor. In Italy nespolino liqueur is made ... The succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar. Each fruit ...

*Traditional Balsamic Vinegar

Bacteria involved in alcoholic dehydrogenation produce a wide range of compounds other than acetic acid, such as sugar acids ... The acetification process and the growth of relevant bacteria are mainly affected by the alcohol, sugar, and acetic acid ... The classes of the major components are the sugars (mainly glucose and fructose) and organic acids (mainly acetic, gluconic, ... In TBV, the oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid in fermented cooked must is carried out by indigenous acetic acid bacteria ...

*Isosaccharinic acid

... (ISA) is a six-carbon sugar acid which is formed by the action of calcium hydroxide on lactose and other ... The first step is likely to be a rearrangement of the reducing sugar end of the cellulose (or lactose) into a keto sugar, the ... 9. Warwick P, Evans N, Hall T, Vines S (2003) Complexation of Ni(II) by α-isosaccharinic acid and gluconic acid from pH 7 to pH ... Tits J, Wieland E, Bradbury M (2005) The effect of isosaccharinic acid and gluconic acid on the retention of Eu (III), Am (III ...

*Verbascoside

... caffeic acid sugar esters from Orobanche rapum-genistae". Phytochemistry. 21 (5): 1123-7. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(00)82429-2. ... Verbascoside is a caffeoyl phenylethanoid glycoside in which the phenylpropanoid caffeic acid and the phenylethanoid ... caffeic acid, decreases the spontaneous mutation rate in the ST cross". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 50 (3-4): 1082-90. doi: ... "Phenylethanoids in the Herb of Plantago lanceolataand Inhibitory Effect on Arachidonic Acid-Induced Mouse Ear Edema1". Planta ...

*Structure validation

"Geometric parameters in Nucleic Acids:Sugar and Phosphate Constituents". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 118 (3): 519 ... Proteins and nucleic acids are the workhorses of biology, providing the necessary chemical reactions, structural organization, ... Zemla, A. (2003). "LGA: a method for finding 3D similarities in protein structures". Nucleic Acids Research. 31 (13): 3370-4. ... Schultze P, Feigon J (1997). "Chirality errors in nucleic acid structures". Nature. 387 (6634): 668. doi:10.1038/42632. PMID ...

*1780 in science

... milk-sugar, … ); "Om Mjölk-Såcker-Syra" (On milk-sugar acid), Kongliga Vetenskaps Academiens Nya Handlingar (New Proceedings of ... Lactose is identified as a sugar by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Jean-Paul Marat publishes Recherches physiques sur le feu (Research ... Milk sugar is an essential salt, which is found dissolved in milk, and which, on account of its sweet taste, has the name of " ... "sugar".) Wolfe, John J. (1999). Brandy, Balloons, & Lamps: Ami Argand, 1750-1803. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University ...

*8,5'-Diferulic acid

... is a non cyclic type of diferulic acid. It is the predominant diferulic acid in sugar beet pulp. It is also ... Andreasen, MF; Christensen, LP; Meyer, AS; Hansen, A (2000). "Content of phenolic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in 17 ... "Dehydrodiferulic acids from sugar-beet pulp". Phytochemistry. 44 (7): 1365-1368. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(96)00699-1. Hernanz, D ... "Hydroxycinnamic acids and ferulic acid dehydrodimers in barley and processed barley". Journal of Agricultural and Food ...

*Diferulic acids

... and sugar beet the predominant diferulic acids are 8-O-4'-DiFA and 8,5'-DiFA respectively. 8-5' Non cyclic diferulic acid has ... diferulic acid, and for a while this was thought to be the only one. Sinapic acid Coumaric acid M.Bunzel, J.Ralph and H. ... Micard, V.; Grabber, J.H.; Ralph, J.; Renard, C.M.G.C.; Thibault, J.-F. (1997). "Dehydrodiferulic acids from sugar-beet pulp". ... Just as ferulic acid is not the proper IUPAC name, the diferulic acids also tend to have trivial names that are more commonly ...

*Sugar substitute

The bacteria convert the sugar to acids that decay the teeth. Sugar substitutes, unlike sugar, do not erode teeth as they are ... Sugar substitutes are used instead of sugar for a number of reasons, including: Dental care - Carbohydrates and sugars usually ... Cost and shelf life - Many sugar substitutes are cheaper than sugar in the final food formulation. Sugar substitutes are often ... so it tastes like sugar." Sucralose is prepared from either of two sugars, sucrose or raffinose. With either base sugar, ...

*Fermented tea

Other fermented teas, called pickled teas, are fermented in a wet process with lactic acid bacteria. Pickled teas include miang ... Utilization of Tropical Foods: Sugars, Spices and Stimulants:. Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations. 1989. ... sugar and salt to make yak butter tea. Post-fermented tea usually gets more valuable with age. Dark tea is often aged in bamboo ...
The C1-oxidized lesion 2-deoxyribonolactone (L) is induced by free radical attack of DNA. This lesion is mutagenic, inhibits base excision repair, and can lead to strand scission. In double-stranded DNA L is repaired by long-patch base excision repair, but it induces replication fork arrest in a single-strand template. Translesion synthesis requires a specialized DNA polymerase (Pol). In E. coli, Pol V is responsible for bypassing L, whereas in yeast Pol ζ has been shown to be required for efficient bypass. Very little is known about the identity of human Pols capable of bypassing L. For instance, the activity of family X enzymes has never been investigated. We examined the ability of different family X Pols: Pols β, λ, and TdT from human cells and Pol IV from S. cerevisiae to act on DNA containing an isolated 2-deoxyribonolactone, as well as when the lesion comprises the 5-component of a tandem lesion. We show that Pol β, but not Pol λ, can bypass a single L lesion in the template, and ...
Looking for online definition of 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate or what 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate stands for? 3-Deoxy-D-Manno-Octulosonate is listed in the Worlds largest and most authoritative dictionary database of abbreviations and acronyms
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So Ive been struggling with GHA for a while. My nitrates and phosphates are zero. I have a DSB, algae scrubber, and am dosing VSV. Once GHA takes hold its a bear to get rid of. Sea hares helped, but they dont live long after they eat all the algae, and it came back. So Itook to the Internet for help. Magnesium works for bryopsis, but no guarantees for GHA. I found a couple threads where people used hydrogen peroxide. Seemed extreme, so I continued researching. I found even more peroxide
Cell structureCell envelopeBiosynthesis and degradation of surface polysaccharides and lipopolysaccharides3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate phosphatase, YrbI family (TIGR01670; EC 3.1.3.45; HMM-score: 18.2) ...
Galactarate can act as acceptor, more slowly. Involved with EC 2.3.1.99 quinate O-hydroxycinnamoyltransferase in the formation of caffeoylglucarate in tomato ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 1419478-52-6, D-Glucaric acid 2,3,4,5-tetrakis[(2E)-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-2-propenoate], molecular formula: C42H34O20.
From NCBI Gene:. This gene encodes an enzyme that functions in the biosynthetic pathways of sialic acids. In vitro, the encoded protein uses N-acetylmannosamine 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate as substrates to generate phosphorylated forms of N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN), respectively; however, it exhibits much higher activity toward the Neu5Ac phosphate product. In insect cells, expression of this gene results in Neu5Ac and KDN production. This gene is related to the E. coli sialic acid synthase gene neuB, and it can partially restore sialic acid synthase activity in an E. coli neuB-negative mutant. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]. From UniProt: ...
Calcium D-glucarate is a nutritional supplement that helps the body eliminate excess hormones and harmful chemicals for effective detoxification and hormonal balance. It benefits liver & detox, prostate, liver, breast, and colon health.
Calcium D-Glucarate is the calcium salt of D-Glucaric acid, a natural substance present in small amounts in our bodies and found in fruits and vegetables.. Natrol Calcium D-Glucarate is a robust nutrient with the potential to support the bodys natural ability to detoxify endogenous and environmental compounds. It is also useful to promote cellular health for tissues including the liver, prostate, lung, breast and colon.† Calcium D-Glucarate has also been shown to support hormonal balance.†. ...
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Calcium-D-Glucarate is calcium bound to d-glucaric acid, which is a natural compound produced in small amounts by the human body and is abundantly found in various plant foods such as [...] ...
Shop D-gluconate/D-galactonate dehydratase ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and D-gluconate/D-galactonate dehydratase Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Investigating the physiological roles of low-efficiency D-mannonate and D-gluconate dehydratases in the enolase superfamily: pathways for the catabolism of L-gulonate and L-idonate ...
Product Number , 78809650. CAS Number , 299-28-5. EC , 206-075-8. Molecular Formula , C12H22CaO14. Molecular Weight , 430.37. Storage Temp , +20°C. Harmonized Tariff code , 29181600. Signal Word , ...
Glycoside hyrdolase, family 28. The glycosyl hydrolase family 28 contains important cell wall metabolism enzymes such as polygalacturnose and rhamnogalacturonase. These enzymes hydrolyse the glycosidic bonds between carbohydrates or a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. Other members of the glycoside hydrolase family 28 include Rhamnogalacturonan is one of the fundamental components of pectin of cell walls. Two forms of Rhamnogalacturonan have been identified: RG I and RG II. The highly conserved RG II is characterized by its diversity of sugars and linage structures such as apiose, aceric acid, 2-O-methyl fucose, 2-O-methyl xylose, 3-deoxy-D-manno-2-octulosonic acid, and 3-deoxy-D-lyxo-2-heptulosaric acid. RG I is characterized by its rod-like heteropolymer of repeating (1--,2) alpha-L-rhamnose-(1--,4) alpha-D-galacturonic acid disaccharide units and is digested by polygalacturonase. Polygalacturonase is involved in two pathways, pentose and glucuronate interconversions and starch and ...
Sialic acids, or the more broad term nonulosonic acids, comprise a family of nine-carbon keto-sugars ubiquitous on mammalian mucous membranes as terminal modifications of mucin glycoproteins. Sialic acids have a limited distribution among bacteria, and the ability to catabolize sialic acids is mainly confined to pathogenic and commensal species. This ability to utilize sialic acid as a carbon source is correlated with bacterial virulence, especially, in the sialic acid rich environment of the oral cavity, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital tracts. This chapter discusses the distribution of sialic acid catabolizers among the sequenced bacterial genomes and examines the studies that have linked sialic acid catabolism with increased in vivo fitness in a number of species using several animal models. This chapter presents the most recent findings in sialobiology with a focus on sialic acid catabolism, which demonstrates an important relationship between the catabolism of sialic acid and bacterial
Find Calcium D-Glucarate. Calcium D-Glucarate includes the patented compound glucarate which has been shown to enhance the major detoxification pathways in the body.
Discussion with Anna on the probability of the above enzymes working for our system led to the suggestion of using the following reaction: L-galactono-1,4-lactone + O2 = L-ascorbate + H2O2, instead of L-gulonolactone oxidase. L-galactono-1,4-lactone is similar in structure to HSL and has a higher probability of breaking down HSL in our reaction. However, the reaction may still be too specific to use. The acylase, however, should work. The failure to find appropriate enzymes to make the tri-enzyme approach work means well have to use a different approach. Originally, we hoped to use a sensor that could directly measure [AHL] within the liquid medium containing our oscillator system. There have been various method discussed for achieving this such as a bio-luminescent sensor or a tri-enzyme electrode. Unfortunately they all seem a little too complicated considering our time constraints. As a practical alternative, we discussed transferring samples of [AHL] from our medium into another medium ...
Discussion with Anna on the probability of the above enzymes working for our system led to the suggestion of using the following reaction: L-galactono-1,4-lactone + O2 = L-ascorbate + H2O2, instead of L-gulonolactone oxidase. L-galactono-1,4-lactone is similar in structure to HSL and has a higher probability of breaking down HSL in our reaction. However, the reaction may still be too specific to use. The acylase, however, should work. The failure to find appropriate enzymes to make the tri-enzyme approach work means well have to use a different approach. Originally, we hoped to use a sensor that could directly measure [AHL] within the liquid medium containing our oscillator system. There have been various method discussed for achieving this such as a bio-luminescent sensor or a tri-enzyme electrode. Unfortunately they all seem a little too complicated considering our time constraints. As a practical alternative, we discussed transferring samples of [AHL] from our medium into another medium ...
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Information on EC 5.3.2.3 - TDP-4-oxo-6-deoxy-alpha-D-glucose-3,4-oxoisomerase (dTDP-3-dehydro-6-deoxy-alpha-D-galactopyranose-forming)
In this study, we observed that exposure of human intestinal epithelial T84 cells to heat stress increases HSP-70i levels in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Like other cells, the increase occurs at the mRNA level and is regulated by [Ca2+]i(5, 6, 18). Furthermore, we also found that the NOS inhibitor l-NNA blocked HSP-70i production at the mRNA level. The IC50 of l-NNA was 0.0471 ± 0.0007 μM, which is similar to that reported (27) in the nervous system, suggesting that l-NNA exerts its action on cNOS. Data from the experiments in which l-NAME andl-NIL were used further reinforce the view that cNOS regulates HSP-70i expression. In addition, the results from the experiments involving treatment with NO donors strongly suggest that NO production is involved in HSP-70i expression.. l-NNA downregulates HSP-70i overexpression, which has been associated with protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury (3, 40). It is known (18, 35, 36) that the increase in [Ca2+]i promotes the ...
1EC8: Evolution of enzymatic activities in the enolase superfamily: crystallographic and mutagenesis studies of the reaction catalyzed by D-glucarate dehydratase from Escherichia coli.
1EC7: Evolution of enzymatic activities in the enolase superfamily: crystallographic and mutagenesis studies of the reaction catalyzed by D-glucarate dehydratase from Escherichia coli.
Looking for online definition of d-galacturonic acid in the Medical Dictionary? d-galacturonic acid explanation free. What is d-galacturonic acid? Meaning of d-galacturonic acid medical term. What does d-galacturonic acid mean?
Despite the fact that blowing pipes - a fairly simple manipulation, non-compliance with aseptic measures, contraindications, and errors in the conduct of its serious complications are possible.If there is continuity, the air introduced into the uterus begins to flow into the abdominal cavity.This is evidenced by a number of symptoms, followed by a doctor.. Yet today women with infertility often assigned GHA fallopian tubes, and when it is doubtful or disappointing results - laparoscopy.When injected into the uterus hysterosalpingography substance which should ideally then pour out into the abdominal cavity.The study made a series of X-rays.They must be visible and two triangular uterus extending from her strings that end cloud resembling cigarette smoke.If the pipe is impassable, then the photographs can not see it, or only partially, and the outpouring of the contrast of it will not.. GHA should be carried out only in the absence of inflammation in the genitals.To avoid this, be sure to give up ...
Information for Muramic acid 1114-41-6 including Muramic acid CAS NO 1114-41-6, Muramic acid Suppliers, Muramic acid Manufacturers, related products of Muramic acid.
SAN RAMON, Calif., Dec. 23, 2013 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ -- PSEG Acquires Two Power Plants from Canadian Solar. New solar installations will be nestled...
Creative Proteomics offer D-Gluconate (D-Gluconic Acid) Assay Kit (Colorimetric). We are specialized in manufacturing Assay Kits.
AASraw adalah pengilang untuk pengeluaran pukal (17183-98-1) di bawah peraturan CGMP, dan menyediakan jualan dalam talian, kimia sintetik dan disesuaikan,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Disorders of biotransformation during the progression of alcoholic liver disease.. AU - Horváth, T.. AU - Pár, A.. AU - Past, T.. AU - Beró, T.. AU - Tapsonyi, Z.. AU - Kádas, I.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - Biotransformation capacity was investigated in patients with various degrees of alcoholic liver damage. Aim of the investigation was to study the impairment of biotransformating ability during progression of liver damage. Four groups of patients with various liver diseases (alcoholic fatty liver, chronic persistent hepatitis, chronic active hepatitis, alcoholic cirrhosis) and two groups as controls were studied. The investigations were carried out with exogenous test substances (antipyrine, menthol and sulphadimidine) and by determination of D-glucaric acid excretion. It has been concluded that the depression of biotransformating ability in patients with alcoholic liver diseases is progressing during development of diseases. The changes in various metabolic pathways are ...
In enzymology, a 2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase (EC 2.7.1.45) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + 6-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and 2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate, whereas its two products are ADP and 6-phospho-2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate. This enzyme belongs to the family of transferases, specifically those transferring phosphorus-containing groups (phosphotransferases) with an alcohol group as acceptor. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP:2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate 6-phosphotransferase. Other names in common use include 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase, 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-gluconic acid kinase, 2-keto-3-deoxygluconokinase (phosphorylating), 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate kinase, and ketodeoxygluconokinase. This enzyme participates in pentose phosphate pathway and pentose and glucuronate interconversions. As of late 2007, only one structure ...
By the way, after the procedure GHA tubal ligation (female responses confirm this), many pregnant soon.This is indeed possible, because during the investigation into the uterine cavity is introduced contrast agent, which enters the pressure tubes and abdominal cavity.It is likely that the liquid removes a small spikes, which increases the chances of conceiving a baby.At this time, the doctor on the X-ray machine takes a series of pictures that will allow us to estimate the internal contours of the uterus, noted in its various educational cavity identify endometriosis, check the degree of tubal patency.. Despite the high diagnostic value, not all are resolved to carry it out, as a result of the GHA fallopian tubes consequences can complicate the life of the patient.Thus, among the problems encountered distinguished: vascular and lymphatic reflux (due to penetration of the contrast agent used in the capillaries, veins and lymphatic vessels), allergic reactions, some perforation of the uterine wall ...
The oral pathogen Tannerella forsythia possesses a unique surface (S-) layer with a complex O-glycan containing a bacterial sialic acid mimic in the form of either pseudaminic acid or legionaminic acid at its terminal position. We hypothesize that different T. forsythia strains employ these stereoisomeric sugar acids for interacting with the immune system and resident host tissues in the periodontium. Here, we show how T. forsythia strains ATCC 43037 and UB4, displaying pseudaminic acid and legionaminic acid, respectively, and selected cell surface mutants of these strains, modulate the immune response in monocytes and human oral keratinocytes (HOK) using a multiplex immunoassay ...
The report generally describes copper d-gluconate, examines its uses, production methods, patents. Copper D-gluconate market situation is overviewed;
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Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular bacteria that infect a broad range of mammalian hosts. Members of related genera are pathogens of a variety of vertebrate and invertebrate species. Despite the diversity of Chlamydia, all species contain an outer membrane lipooligosaccharide (LOS) that is comprised of a genus-conserved, and genus-defining, trisaccharide 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid Kdo region. Recent studies with lipopolysaccharide inhibitors demonstrate that LOS is important for the C. trachomatis developmental cycle during RB- > EB differentiation. Here, we explore the effects of one of these inhibitors, LPC-011, on the developmental cycle of five chlamydial species. Sensitivity to the drug varied in some of the species and was conserved between others. We observed that inhibition of LOS biosynthesis in some chlamydial species induced formation of aberrant reticulate bodies, while in other species, no change was observed to the
Home » Galacturonic acid. D-Galacturonic acid is a sugar acid, an oxidized form of D-galactose. It is the main component of pectin, in which it exists as the polymer polygalacturonic acid. It has an aldehyde group at C1 and a carboxylic acid group at C6. Other oxidized forms of D-galactose are D-galactonic acid (carboxylic group at C1) and meso-galactaric acid (mucic acid) (carboxylic groups at C1 and C6). It is also a uronic acid or hexuronic acid. Naturally occurring uronic acids are D-glucuronic acid, D-galacturonic acid, L-iduronic acid and D-mannuronic acid. ...
DEHYDRO-2(S)-AMINO-6-BORONOHEXANOIC ACID | C6H13BNO5- | CID 657085 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
Polyhydroxylated compounds such as sugars, sugar alcohols and sugar acids. They are components of nucleic acids, cell membranes and also act as energy sources. Polyols are vital to all known terragen and most xenobiont carbon-based lifeforms. They are occasionally present in some meteors, comets, and Kuiper bodies, in amounts comparable to amino acids. Extraterrestrial processes including photolysis and formaldehyde chemistry account for their origin. It has been shown that these compounds seed EoGaian worlds through asteroid and comet impacts, where they play a role in the origin of life ...
Both Wednesday and Thursday groups will meet at 8:00am during each visit. Please allow yourself time to get to each location early. Students are expected to return to Galileo right after each visit.. Click here for Wednesday Group Schedule Click here for Thursday Group Schedule. ...
According to National Geographic, the inner core of the Earth ranges between 9,000 and 13,000 degrees Fahrenheit. This is approximately as high as the temperature of the suns...
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Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) refers to a heterogeneous group of congenital, non-sex-linked, genetic disorders of collagen type I production, involving connective tissues and bones. The hallmark feature of osteogenesis imperfecta is osteoporosis...
Galactokinase; Sugar-1-kinase with a strict substrate specificity for the alpha-anomeric configuration of D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA) and ATP. Involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA) from the salvaged GalA that is released during growth- dependent cell wall restructuring (424 aa ...
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This narrative by Nigel Pearson, Ted Pearsons son. I remember the incident well. Ted was actually the pilot of the Glider (STD Cirrus ZS -GHA # 66) and was on tow behind a Piper Super Cub at the Salisbury gliding club in the 1970s. I do not remember who the tug pilot was but think it may have been one of the McGeorge brothers. Ted told us that at about 800ft the tug started weaving all over the sky but he stoically held station and then the door/window of the cub flew open and what he at the time thought was a length of rope about a meter long was thrown out of the cub and flashed past his canopy, thereafter the tow settled down to normal. Later after landing he found out that just after take-off the tug pilot glanced up at the fuel gauge and saw the head of a snake appearing out of the wing root. He calmly took of his hat and stuffed it in the hole. Minutes later the snake reappeared this time slithering up his leg from the rudder pedal area. He then unlatched the door/window and when the ...
Towards the synthesis of a Yersinia pestis cell wall polysaccharide: enantioselective synthesis of an L-glycero-D-manno-heptose building block ...
A series of diethyltin(IV) complexes with carbohydrate ligands (aldoses, polyalcohols, sugar acids, sugar amines, and di- and trisaccharides] was prepared. The compositions of the complexes were...
An educational session on diabetes was held this week in a bid to help people better understand the illness, its symptoms and causes. Diabetes Specialist Nurse Practitioners Julie Parker and Susan Edwards held a two-day course aimed at educating p...
A heptose is a monosaccharide with seven carbon atoms. They have either an aldehyde functional group in position 1 (aldoheptoses) or a ketone functional group in position 2 (ketoheptoses). There are few examples of C-7 sugars in nature, among which are: Sedoheptulose or D-altro-heptulose (a ketose), an early intermediate in lipid A biosynthesis Mannoheptulose, found in avocados L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (an aldose), a late intermediate in lipid A biosynthesis. Ketoheptoses have 4 chiral centers, whereas aldoheptoses have 5 ...
The Ca(ii)-complexation and acid-base properties of l-gulonic acid (HGul), a diastereomer of d-gluconic acid (HGluc) differing only in the configurations of C2 and C5 have been investigated via1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies, Ca-ISE- and pH-potentiometry, polarimetry and freezing point depression. Data obtaine
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With thousands of dietary supplements on the market and more emerging every day, there are a growing number of similar-sounding products making it all too easy to buy the wrong product for your needs. For example, theres calcium ascorbate, calcium pyruvate and calcium d-glucarate, but none of these is actually a calcium supplement. Heres a guide to help you sort out the most commonly-confused supplements.. ...
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Ecocentric | High Fructose Corn Syrup: If This Doesnt Convince You, Nothing WillEcocentric | High Fructose Corn Syrup: If This Doesn't Convince You, Nothing Will

Sugar as we know it traditionally came from sugar cane and later from sugar beets. HFCS was developed from corn in the late ... Sugar as we know it traditionally came from sugar cane and later from sugar beets. HFCS was developed from corn in the late ... and can increase the concentration of uric acid, slow down the immune system, among other notable side effects in the body. ... HFCS has replaced sugar in many processed foods mostly due to the fact that it is cheaper than sugar. It is cheaper than sugar ...
more infohttp://www.sustainabletable.org/blog/704/www.nytimes.com/2013/09/19/world/europe/germanys-effort-at-clean-energy-proves-complex.html

high fructose corn syrup to be renamed corn sugar?high fructose corn syrup to be renamed corn sugar?

... to have the name high fructose corn syrup changed to corn sugar. This is a potentially brilliant endeavor. When low erucic acid ... Sugar is sugar is sugar and well, too much sugar in any form, even from natural honey, is too much sugar and the calories are ... Sugar is sugar is sugar. Its all bad for you, I think. Things like molasses and maple syrup have more minerals, but are still ... just like sugar. HFCS comprises just over half of the added sugars in our food supply but Americans consumption of sugar is up ...
more infohttps://preventionrd.com/2010/09/high-fructose-corn-syrup-to-be-renamed-corn-sugar/?replytocom=9678

Dangers of High Fructose Corn Syrup - HFCSDangers of High Fructose Corn Syrup - HFCS

Whats important about this is that omega-6 fatty acids are found in corn oil and most of the oils used in bakery goods, which ... The temporary spike of HFCS blocks the action of insulin, which typically regulates how body cells use and store sugar and ... A study at the San Francisco VA Medical Center demonstrates that omega-6 fatty acids such as the fat found in corn oil promote ... The study points out that 60 years ago in the United States, the dietary ratio of omega-6 to omega-3, a beneficial fatty acid, ...
more infohttp://ciacanadaforyou.com/DangersofHFCS.html

The Natural Blog: High Fructose Corn SyrupThe Natural Blog: High Fructose Corn Syrup

Then, in the 1970s, sugar prices rose so the food industry started replacing table sugar with HFCS in processed food. Humans ... An overworked liver produces significantly more uric acid, multiplying the risk for heart disease.". High Fructose Corn Syrup ... It is important to limit your intake of any kind of sugar but HFCS is something that really raises some eyebrows. Anything that ... "Its prudent to consume any added sugar only in moderation. Consider these tips to cut back: *Avoid sugary ... sodas. Drink ...
more infohttp://anaturalblog.blogspot.com/2011/11/high-fructose-corn-syrup.html

Everything You Need To Know About Liver - Health NipEverything You Need To Know About Liver - Health Nip

Most notably are the roles of processed sugars and starches such as sugar, wheat flour, and high fructose corn syrup. ... The liver also can regulate fats by the synthesis of both fatty acids and cholesterol. The fate of new fats are regulated by ... sugar and flour ) are risky with respect to NAFLD, high fructose corn syrup seems to be more dangerous. ... The liver plays a role in blood sugar dynamics. The liver can store glucose and can produce new glucose from various metabolic ...
more infohttps://healthnip.com/body/everything-you-need-to-know-about-liver/

Sugar acid - WikipediaSugar acid - Wikipedia

Iduronic acid (6C) Aldaric acids Tartaric acid (4C) meso-Galactaric acid (Mucic acid) (6C) D-Glucaric acid (Saccharic acid) (6C ... Aldonic acids Glyceric acid (3C) Xylonic acid (5C) Gluconic acid (6C) Ascorbic acid (6C, unsaturated lactone) Ulosonic acids ... Sugar acids are monosaccharides with a carboxyl group. Main classes of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids, in which the ... Ketodeoxyoctulosonic acid (KDO or 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) Uronic acids Glucuronic acid (6C) Galacturonic acid (6C ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sugar_acid

CN105669419B -   The method of sequential simulated moving bed separation corn stalk acidolysis liquid sugar acids   - Google...CN105669419B - The method of sequential simulated moving bed separation corn stalk acidolysis liquid sugar acids - Google...

... a sugar, acetic acid as the slow component, does not completely separate the acetic acid and sugar, and in particular of a ... Yu formula simulated moving bed separation corn stalk acid solution and sulfuric acid solution of sugar A method for the acid ... obtained after separation of sulfuric acid concentration up to 7% sugar concentration up to 2%, sulfuric acid and sugar purity ... 0034]这种顺序式模拟移动床分离玉米猜杆酸解液中糖酸的方法如下: [0034] The method of acid hydrolysis of corn
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/CN105669419B/en

Sugar Acids - Phenotypes | CTDSugar Acids - Phenotypes | CTD

Ascorbic Acid membrane lipid catabolic process alpha-Linolenic Acid , Paraquat Ascorbic Acid promotes the reaction [alpha- ... Ascorbic Acid membrane lipid catabolic process alpha-Linolenic Acid , ferrous sulfate Ascorbic Acid promotes the reaction [[ ... Ascorbic Acid apoptotic process Ascorbic Acid results in decreased apoptotic process. 1: Homo sapiens. HL-60 Cells. 80 genes: ... Ascorbic Acid cell death 2,3,2-tetramine [2,3,2-. tetramine co-treated with Ascorbic Acid] results in increased cell death. 1: ...
more infohttp://ctdbase.org/detail.go?type=chem&acc=D013400&view=phenotype

Lac- l-TTA, a nove l lactose-based amino acid-sugar conjugate for anti-metastatic app lications | SpringerLinkLac- l-TTA, a nove l lactose-based amino acid-sugar conjugate for anti-metastatic app lications | SpringerLink

This amino acid-sugar conjugate was prepared by solution synthesis in analogy to the natural fructosyl-amino acids. Furthermore ... Risseeuw MD, Overhand M, Fleet GW, Simone MI (2007) A compendium of sugar amino acids (SAA): scaffolds, peptide- and glyco- ... Gruner SAW, Locardi E, Lohof E, Kessler H (2002) Carbohydrate-based mimetics in drug design: sugar amino acids and carbohydrate ... Lac-l-TTA, a novel lactose-based amino acid-sugar conjugate for anti-metastatic applications. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00726-017-2433-2

INTERCHIM: Sugars & Organic acids AnalysisINTERCHIM: Sugars & Organic acids Analysis

Laboratory equipment supplier for research and industry needs. Access now to the largest scientific products database in our online store.
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Method for producing sialic-acid-containing sugar chain - GLYTECH, INC.Method for producing sialic-acid-containing sugar chain - GLYTECH, INC.

6-linked sialic acid at their non-reducing ends is known. Industrial production has been demanded for these sugar chain comp ... Problem to be Solved] ,p,The importance of sugar chains having α2,3- or α2, ... N-acetylneuraminic acid (sialic acid) and N-acetylmuramic acid), deoxidized sugars (e.g., 2-deoxy-D-ribose), sulfated sugars ... sugar chains such as sugar chains constituted by sugars having a carboxyl group (e.g., aldonic acid (e.g., D-gluconic acid, an ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/9376506.html

Structural Biochemistry/Nucleic Acid/Sugars/Deoxyribose Sugar - Wikibooks, open books for an open worldStructural Biochemistry/Nucleic Acid/Sugars/Deoxyribose Sugar - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Deoxyribose Sugar[edit]. Typically, deoxyribonucleic acid is depicted as the nucleic acid that serves as the template for the ... Structural Biochemistry/Nucleic Acid/Sugars/Deoxyribose Sugar. From Wikibooks, open books for an open world ... Structural Biochemistry‎ , Nucleic Acid‎ , Sugars. The latest reviewed version was checked on 21 September 2016. There are 2 ... Essentially, the deoxy sugar is just a pentose sugar ribose, with the hydroxyl group at position 2 replaced with a hydrogen ...
more infohttps://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Structural_Biochemistry/Nucleic_Acid/Sugars/Deoxyribose_Sugar

Reliable Assays for Sugars in Acid-Hydrolyzed WoodReliable Assays for Sugars in Acid-Hydrolyzed Wood

... Product News Jul 25, 2014 ... methods for the accurate determination of common sugars in acid-hydrolyzed wood samples. ... in Acid Hydrolysates of Wood demonstrates that this approach achieves high-resolution separation of even the sugar pair ... and can be routinely used to determine sugars in wood samples. ...
more infohttps://www.technologynetworks.com/analysis/product-news/reliable-assays-for-sugars-in-acidhydrolyzed-wood-222434

Science of Tooth Decay- sugar, bacteria, acid, demineralizationScience of Tooth Decay- sugar, bacteria, acid, demineralization

... sugar and acid play? , How to use this info to prevent decay. ... 2) Where do the attacking acids come from?. The acids that ... The less sugar you consume, or the fewer number of times you eat sugary foods, or the less time you allow sugars to remain in ... When acid production is active (like after a sugary treat), the acid thats formed can seep out of the plaque in one of two ... Studies suggest that dental biofilm must be 2 days old before its acid-response to an exposure to sucrose (sugar) is ...
more infohttps://www.animated-teeth.com/tooth_decay/t2_tooth_decay_caries.htm

Anthocyanin pigment, nonvolatile acid and sugar composition of red raspberry juiceAnthocyanin pigment, nonvolatile acid and sugar composition of red raspberry juice

Sugar analysis based on a crosslinked cation exchange resin required removal of the acids from the juice via anion exchange. ... Anthocyanin pigment, nonvolatile acid and sugar composition of red raspberry juice Public Deposited ... Resolution of anthocyanin pigments was achieved using as organic modifier 15% acetic acid. Acetic acid (15%) demonstrated high ... for nonvolatile acid, sugar, anthocyanin and anthocyanidin composition. In order to quantitate the compounds of interest, ...
more infohttps://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/concern/graduate_thesis_or_dissertations/cz30pw41p

Acid Blockers and Blood SugarAcid Blockers and Blood Sugar

Does taking an acid blocker increase the blood sugar count? Are there any other side effects from taking this medication? Dr. ... Question: I have been taking omeprazole (20mg a day) for about six years and my blood sugar count has risen to around 109 to ... Omeprazole (Prilosec) is a proton pump inhibitor used to suppress gastric acid for various gastrointestinal conditions such as ... Why sugar is placed in almost everything? also placed in pure honey. This... ...
more infohttps://www.newsmax.com/health/dr-hibberd/article/2011/11/21/id/477698/

Ripening to convert ferment milk sugars to lactic acid : ButterRipening to convert ferment milk sugars to lactic acid : Butter

The colder the temperature during ripening the more the flavor development relative to acid production. Ripened butter is ...
more infohttp://www.webexhibits.org/butter/culturing.html

US20060177560A1 - Process for producing sugars and acids-rich juice and phytochemical-rich juice 
        - Google PatentsUS20060177560A1 - Process for producing sugars and acids-rich juice and phytochemical-rich juice - Google Patents

... fraction that is relatively enriched in sugars and acids to create a juice that has a relatively high level of sugars and acids ... One of the two juices has a relatively high level of phytochemicals and a relatively low level of sugars and acids. The other ... This process creates two juice fractions: a juice fraction that is relatively enriched in sugars and acids and a juice fraction ... sugars and acids, from the relatively higher molecular weight compounds, e.g., phytochemicals. ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US20060177560A1/en

Identification of Sugar, Amino Acids and Minerals from the Pollen of Jandaíra Stingless Bees (Melipona subnitida)Identification of Sugar, Amino Acids and Minerals from the Pollen of Jandaíra Stingless Bees (Melipona subnitida)

Proline and serine are the predominant amino acids. High content of essential amino acids, minerals and the sugar mannitol ... free amino acids and sugars. Palynological analysis showed that the predominant pollen was monofloral from Senna sp. species ( ... Proline and serine are the predominant amino acids. High content of essential amino acids, minerals and the sugar mannitol ... Identification of Sugar, Amino Acids and Minerals from the Pollen of Jandaíra Stingless Bees (Melipona subnitida) ...
more infohttps://scirp.org/journal/paperinformation.aspx?paperid=46901

PCA results on individual sugars, organic acids, titrat | Open-iPCA results on individual sugars, organic acids, titrat | Open-i

... organic acids, titratable acidity, dry matter, phenolics and total soluble solids of the skin. A: Scatter plot of loadings on ... pone.0141916.g003: PCA results on individual sugars, organic acids, titratable acidity, dry matter, phenolics and total soluble ... pone.0141916.g003: PCA results on individual sugars, organic acids, titratable acidity, dry matter, phenolics and total soluble ... individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4664253_pone.0141916.g003&req=4

Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea...Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea...

Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ... Excretion by the Malpighian Tubules of the Stick Insect, Dixippus Morosus (Orthoptera, Phasmidae): Amino Acids, Sugars and Urea ...
more infohttp://jeb.biologists.org/content/35/4/871

Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 | Cancer ResearchAmino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 | Cancer Research

Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40. Michael S. Miller, Lester Kwock and Donald ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ... Amino Acid and Sugar Transport in Cells Permissively Infected with Simian Virus 40 ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/35/7/1826

Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues...Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues...

Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues ... Exploring the conformational and biological versatility of beta-turn-modified gramicidin S by using sugar amino acid homologues ...
more infohttp://www.rivm.nl/en/Documents_and_publications/Scientific/Scientific_Articles/2011/september/Exploring_the_conformational_and_biological_versatility_of_beta_turn_modified_gramicidin_S_by_using_sugar_amino_acid_homologues_that_vary_in_ring_size

Combined Severity Factor for Predicting Sugar Recovery in Acid-Catalyzed Pretreatment Followed by Enzymatic Hydrolysis |...Combined Severity Factor for Predicting Sugar Recovery in Acid-Catalyzed Pretreatment Followed by Enzymatic Hydrolysis |...

... by Chornet and Overend combines the effects of temperature and time in a single function to allow translation of sugar and ... Saeman JF (1945) Kinetics of wood hydrolysis - decomposition of sugars in dilute acid at high temperature. J Ind Eng Chem 37:43 ... Lloyd TA, Wyman CE (2005) Combined sugar yields for dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of corn stover followed by enzymatic ... Shi J, Ebrik MA, Wyman CE (2011) Sugar yields from dilute sulfuric acid and sulfur dioxide pretreatments and subsequent ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-56457-9_6

Leptin regulates sugar and amino acids transport in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.Leptin regulates sugar and amino acids transport in the human intestinal cell line Caco-2.

Here, we have examined the effect of leptin on sugar and amino acids absorption in the human model of intestina ... Studies in rodents have shown that leptin controls sugars and glutamine entry in the enterocytes by regulating membrane ... Here, we have examined the effect of leptin on sugar and amino acids absorption in the human model of intestinal cells Caco-2 ... Previous Document: Amino acids downregulate the expression of several autophagy-related genes in rainbow trout myoblast.... ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Leptin-regulates-sugar-amino-acids/22252010.html
  • This amino acid-sugar conjugate was prepared by solution synthesis in analogy to the natural fructosyl-amino acids. (springer.com)
  • Uptake of 20 μM glutamine and 0.1 mM phenylalanine was also inhibited by leptin, indicating sensitivity to the hormone of the Na(+) -dependent neutral amino acid transporters ASCT2 and B(0) AT1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Leptin also inhibited 1 mM proline and β-alanine uptake in Na(+) medium at pH 6, conditions for optimal activity of the H(+) -dependent neutral amino acid transporter PAT1. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Similarly, amino acid hygroscopicity is under-predicted by UNIFAC predictions, a consequence of the original data used in the parametrisation of the molecular subgroups. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • What's different about cariogenic bacteria is that they're able to take this process one step further, which results in the formation of the very potent compound lactic acid. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Streptococcus mutans is the type of bacteria most associated with lactic acid formation and therefore cavity development. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Research by Stephan published in 1944 included a graph that illustrated the pattern of acidic response that takes place in a person's mouth immediately after their rinsing with a sucrose (table sugar) solution. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Meanwhile, cyanidin 3-galactoside (cy3-gal), fructose, sucrose, glucose and malic acid were the primary organic compounds, and 1-butanol-2-methyl-acetate, 2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were the most abundant aroma components in the skin. (mdpi.com)
  • The adg1suc2 double mutant increases glucose plus sucrose content in leaves 80-fold relative to the wild type, total fatty acid ( FA ) content 1.8-fold to 8.3% dry weight, and TAG more than 10-fold to 1.2% dry weight. (plantphysiol.org)
  • D-Galactose, L-arginine, and their respective actively transported analogs are partially competitive inhibitors of the active transport of neutral amino acids in the small intestine of hamsters. (sciencemag.org)
  • Since the aforesaid classes of compounds are all transported by similar, sodium-ion-dependent mechanisms and elicit countertransport of each other, all may share a common, polyfunctional carrier in which a series of separate binding sites, namely, one each for sugars, neutral amino acids, basic amino acids, and Na + are joined together, as in a mosaic. (sciencemag.org)
  • The importance of sugars, organic acids, phenols, and antioxidants for human health, as well as for plant resilience and health, gained from this explorative study, is discussed and put into perspective. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Campo VL, Carvalho I, Allman S, Davis BG, Field RA (2007) Chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycosyl-amino acids and glycopeptides related to Trypanosoma cruzi mucins. (springer.com)
  • Kumar V, Ramesh NG (2007) A versatile strategy for the synthesis of N-linked glycoamino acids from glycals. (springer.com)
  • The present inventors have further found that even a tetraantennary N-type sugar chain having four α2,6-linked sialic acid molecules, which has previously been difficult to synthesize, can be prepared at high yields by one-pot synthesis comprising the elongation reaction of a biantennary sugar chain used as a starting material without performing purification after each enzymatic reaction. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • CMP substitutions preferentially inhibit polysialic acid synthesis. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • We used mutants of Arabidopsis ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) and the expression of oleogenic factors to investigate relationships among sugar availability, lipid synthesis, and the accumulation of triacylglycerol ( TAG ) in leaf tissue. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Fatty acid ( FA ) synthesis is highly dependent on the supply of photosynthetically derived sugar as a source of carbon skeletons, ATP, and reductant. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Despite the close dependence of FA and TAG synthesis on sugar availability, until recently little was known about the interrelationship between the regulation and coordination of these processes. (plantphysiol.org)
  • In addition to describing hemicellulose sugar yields, it has been shown that the combined severity factor can provide some insights into expected sugar release yields from subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the solids left after dilute acid pretreatment. (springer.com)
  • Main classes of sugar acids include: Aldonic acids, in which the aldehyde functional group of an aldose is oxidized Ulosonic acids, in which the first hydroxyl group of a 2-ketose is oxidised creating an α-ketoacid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since there is no hydroxyl group, DNA can only form phosphodiester linkages with other nucleic acids at the 3' carbon to the 5' carbon of another nucleic acid. (wikibooks.org)
  • Essentially, the deoxy sugar is just a pentose sugar ribose , with the hydroxyl group at position 2 replaced with a hydrogen instead. (wikibooks.org)
  • A boronic acid is a compound related to boric acid in which one of the three hydroxyl groups is replaced by an alkyl or aryl group. (wikipedia.org)
  • 玉米秸杆中含有大量的纤维素和半纤维素,可通过多种途径转化成糖,作为发酵工业低成本原料的来源。 Corn stover contains (google.com)
  • The severity factor concept was subsequently extended to facilitate trading off among temperature, time, and acid concentration for pretreatments that employ dilute acid to hydrolyze hemicellulose. (springer.com)
  • In the fruit studied, the levels of saturated palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), and unsaturated oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (18:3n-3) were most abundant fatty acids detected throughout medlar ripening (pulp softening and darkening). (cas.cz)
  • In addition to these prominent fatty acids, a remarkable decrease was also obtained in the content of some other fatty acids (C10-15, C16:1, C20-24). (cas.cz)
  • Paramás, A.M.G., Bárez, J.A.G., Marcos, C.C., García-Villanova, R.J.G. and Sanchez, J.S. (2006) HPLC-Fluorimetric Method for Analysis of Amino Acids in Products of the Hive (Honey and Bee-Pollen). (scirp.org)
  • Gruner SAW, Locardi E, Lohof E, Kessler H (2002) Carbohydrate-based mimetics in drug design: sugar amino acids and carbohydrate scaffolds. (springer.com)
  • Alpha-lipoic acid recycles and extends the power of other antioxidants like vitamins C, E, CoQ10 and glutathione. (nutritionexpress.com)
  • 本发明分离后的硫酸浓度高,糖溶液浓度高,解决了玉米秸秆再利用中硫酸回收难题,成本低。 High concentration of sulfuric acid after the (google.com)
  • The organoleptic quality of table grapes and the flavor and stability of wine depend strongly on the types of sugars and acids, as well as the total sugar and acid concentration, in the grapes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An explanation of the tooth demineralization process and the role dietary sugars, dental plaque and oral bacteria (and their acidic waste products) have in causing it. (animated-teeth.com)
  • This is because the bacteria in dental plaque feed on the sugar in your mouth to produce acid that attacks tooth enamel. (yourdentalhealth.ca)
  • When sugar and energy are plentiful, anabolic metabolism predominates over catabolism, enabling growth and development. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Conversely, when sugar and energy are limiting, growth slows due to a shift from anabolism to catabolism. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Conversely, when sugar is abundant, SnRK1 becomes inhibited, resulting in a shift from catabolism to anabolism, thereby mediating sugar homeostasis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A significantly higher anticancer effect of Lac-L-TTA with respect to the fructose analogue emerged from our study suggesting that the anti-metastatic potential of fructosyl-amino acids can be enhanced by increasing the polarity of the compounds, for example by introducing disaccharide moieties in place of fructose. (springer.com)
  • Industrial production has been demanded for these sugar chain compounds. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The first juice stream is passed through an ultrafiltration apparatus or some other apparatus that is capable of preferentially separating the relatively lower molecular weight compounds, e.g., sugars and acids, from the relatively higher molecular weight compounds, e.g., phytochemicals. (google.com)
  • The chemical compounds studied include dicarboxylic acids, amino acids, sugars and polyols. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • The primary food source for cariogenic (cavity-causing) bacteria is dietary sugars. (animated-teeth.com)
  • The bacteria digest these sugars via a process called glycolysis, which is the primary means by which all bacteria create the energy they live on. (animated-teeth.com)
  • Thicker plaque helps to protect bacteria and the acids they produce (see diagram below). (animated-teeth.com)
  • Complex starches must be broken down into their component sugars before bacteria can digest them. (animated-teeth.com)
  • In the Liebeskind-Srogl coupling a thiol ester is coupled with a boronic acid to produce a ketone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In one study the pinacol ester of allylboronic acid is reacted with dibenzylidene acetone in such a conjugate addition: The catalyst system in this reaction is tris(dibenzylideneacetone)dipalladium(0) / tricyclohexylphosphine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of industrial and alternative farming systems on contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The contents of sugars, organic acids, total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity were quantified in the flesh of red beet from conventional (CON), integrated (INT), organic (ORG), biodynamic (BD), and control farming systems using established methods. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antioxidant activity was positively correlated with TPC (r2=0.6187) and ranged from 0.823 μM TE g(-1) FW to 1.270 μM TE g(-1) FW in CON and BD samples, respectively, whereas total sugar content ranged from 21.03 g kg(-1) FW (CON) to 31.58 g kg(-1) FW (BD). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Typically, deoxyribonucleic acid is depicted as the nucleic acid that serves as the template for the development of an organism or a double helix. (wikibooks.org)
  • 硫酸水解玉米秸秆在工艺流程、生产成本和总糖收率上都具有明显优势,可大规模应用于玉米秸杆的预 (google.com)
  • Knappert DR, Grethlein HE, Converse AO (1980) Partial acid hydrolysis of cellulosic materials as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis. (springer.com)
  • For example, phenylboronic acid is produced from phenylmagnesium bromide and trimethyl borate followed by hydrolysis PhMgBr + B(OMe)3 → PhB(OMe)2 + MeOMgBr PhB(OMe)2 + H2O → PhB(OH)2 + MeOH Another method is reaction of an arylsilane (RSiR3) with boron tribromide (BBr3) in a transmetallation to RBBr2 followed by acidic hydrolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • 本发明涉及的是玉米秸杆酸解液中硫酸和糖液的分离技术,具体涉及顺序式模拟移动床分离玉米秸秆酸 (google.com)
  • Kobayashi T, Sakai Y 1956 Wood saccharification with strong sulfuric acid. (springer.com)
  • Sugar analysis based on a crosslinked cation exchange resin required removal of the acids from the juice via anion exchange. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This process creates two juice fractions: a juice fraction that is relatively enriched in sugars and acids and a juice fraction that is relatively enriched in phytochemicals. (google.com)
  • Here, we validate and benchmark the CK-EDB for the homologous series of straight-chain dicarboxylic acids (oxalic-pimelic) with measurements in better agreement with Universal Quasichemical Functional Group Activity Coefficients (UNIFAC) predictions than the original data used to parametrise UNIFAC. (atmos-chem-phys.net)
  • Grethlein HE, Converse AO (1991) Common aspects of acid prehydrolysis and steam explosion for pretreating wood. (springer.com)
  • AIM: Studies in rodents have shown that leptin controls sugars and glutamine entry in the enterocytes by regulating membrane transporters. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Boronic acids are used extensively in organic chemistry as chemical building blocks and intermediates predominantly in the Suzuki coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sugar signaling is a highly complex process involving multiple partially redundant regulatory networks that are principally mediated by three multifunctional sensor complexes: hexokinase, a Snf1-related protein kinase (SnRK1), and target of rapamycin ( Li and Sheen, 2016 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Ethylboronic acid was synthesized by a two-stage process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Qian, W.L., Khan, Z., Watson, D.G. and Fearnley, J. (2008) Analysis of Sugars in Bee Pollen and Propolis by Ligand Exchange Chromatography in Combination with Pulsed Amperometric Detection and Mass Spectrometry. (scirp.org)
  • In a recent study, investigators at the Oregon Research Institute (ORI) in Eugene, OR , found that consuming a sweet-taste-suppressing lozenge containing gymnemic acid 'GA' ( Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract ) produced a 31% reduction in desire for candy and a 44% reduction in total candy intake. (prnewswire.com)
  • Particularly, a triantennary or tetraantennary N-type complex sugar chain having sialic acid at each of all non-reducing ends is generally considered difficult to chemically synthesize. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The backbone of the polymer is the sugar-phosphate-sugar chain that is created by the 3'-5'-3'-carbon bonds, which is independent of which base is attached to the sugars. (wikibooks.org)
  • Photosynthetically derived sugar provides carbon skeletons for lipid biosynthesis. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Method performance parameters (precision, accuracy, linearity) demonstrate that the methods are fast, provide good sensitivity and consistent response, and can be routinely used to determine sugars in wood samples. (technologynetworks.com)
  • An alternative to esters in this method is the use of diboronic acid or tetrahydroxydiboron ([B(OH2)]2). (wikipedia.org)