Dentin SensitivityDentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Bleaching: The use of a chemical oxidizing agent to whiten TEETH. In some procedures the oxidation process is activated by the use of heat or light.Tooth, Deciduous: The teeth of the first dentition, which are shed and replaced by the permanent teeth.Tooth: One of a set of bone-like structures in the mouth used for biting and chewing.Chewing Gum: A preparation of chicle, sometimes mixed with other plastic substances, sweetened and flavored. It is masticated usually for pleasure as a candy substitute but it sometimes acts as a vehicle for the administration of medication.Plant Gums: Polysaccharide gums from PLANTS.Tooth Root: The part of a tooth from the neck to the apex, embedded in the alveolar process and covered with cementum. A root may be single or divided into several branches, usually identified by their relative position, e.g., lingual root or buccal root. Single-rooted teeth include mandibular first and second premolars and the maxillary second premolar teeth. The maxillary first premolar has two roots in most cases. Maxillary molars have three roots. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p690)Tooth Loss: The failure to retain teeth as a result of disease or injury.Tooth Germ: The collective tissues from which an entire tooth is formed, including the DENTAL SAC; ENAMEL ORGAN; and DENTAL PAPILLA. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Crown: The upper part of the tooth, which joins the lower part of the tooth (TOOTH ROOT) at the cervix (TOOTH CERVIX) at a line called the cementoenamel junction. The entire surface of the crown is covered with enamel which is thicker at the extremity and becomes progressively thinner toward the cervix. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p216)Dentin Permeability: The property of dentin that permits passage of light, heat, cold, and chemical substances. It does not include penetration by microorganisms.Gum Arabic: Powdered exudate from various Acacia species, especially A. senegal (Leguminosae). It forms mucilage or syrup in water. Gum arabic is used as a suspending agent, excipient, and emulsifier in foods and pharmaceuticals.Tooth Eruption: The emergence of a tooth from within its follicle in the ALVEOLAR PROCESS of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE into the ORAL CAVITY. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Dentin Desensitizing Agents: Substances which reduce or eliminate dentinal sensitivity or the pain associated with a source of stimulus (such as touch, heat, or cold) at the orifice of exposed dentinal tubules causing the movement of tubular fluid that in turn stimulates tooth nerve receptors.Tooth Wear: Loss of the tooth substance by chemical or mechanical processesMolar: The most posterior teeth on either side of the jaw, totaling eight in the deciduous dentition (2 on each side, upper and lower), and usually 12 in the permanent dentition (three on each side, upper and lower). They are grinding teeth, having large crowns and broad chewing surfaces. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p821)Tooth Abnormalities: Congenital absence of or defects in structures of the teeth.Tooth, Supernumerary: An extra tooth, erupted or unerupted, resembling or unlike the other teeth in the group to which it belongs. Its presence may cause malposition of adjacent teeth or prevent their eruption.Dentin-Bonding Agents: Cements that act through infiltration and polymerization within the dentinal matrix and are used for dental restoration. They can be adhesive resins themselves, adhesion-promoting monomers, or polymerization initiators that act in concert with other agents to form a dentin-bonding system.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Tooth Extraction: The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)Tooth, Nonvital: A tooth from which the dental pulp has been removed or is necrotic. (Boucher, Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Incisor: Any of the eight frontal teeth (four maxillary and four mandibular) having a sharp incisal edge for cutting food and a single root, which occurs in man both as a deciduous and a permanent tooth. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p820)Dentin, Secondary: Dentin formed by normal pulp after completion of root end formation.Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Tooth Cervix: The constricted part of the tooth at the junction of the crown and root or roots. It is often referred to as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), the line at which the cementum covering the root of a tooth and the enamel of the tooth meet. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p530, p433)Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Dental Bonding: An adhesion procedure for orthodontic attachments, such as plastic DENTAL CROWNS. This process usually includes the application of an adhesive material (DENTAL CEMENTS) and letting it harden in-place by light or chemical curing.OdontoblastsOdontogenesis: The process of TOOTH formation. It is divided into several stages including: the dental lamina stage, the bud stage, the cap stage, and the bell stage. Odontogenesis includes the production of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS), dentin (DENTINOGENESIS), and dental cementum (CEMENTOGENESIS).Dental Pulp: A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth, Impacted: A tooth that is prevented from erupting by a physical barrier, usually other teeth. Impaction may also result from orientation of the tooth in an other than vertical position in the periodontal structures.Tooth, Unerupted: A normal developing tooth which has not yet perforated the oral mucosa or one that fails to erupt in the normal sequence or time interval expected for the type of tooth in a given gender, age, or population group.Resin Cements: Dental cements composed either of polymethyl methacrylate or dimethacrylate, produced by mixing an acrylic monomer liquid with acrylic polymers and mineral fillers. The cement is insoluble in water and is thus resistant to fluids in the mouth, but is also irritating to the dental pulp. It is used chiefly as a luting agent for fabricated and temporary restorations. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p159)Tooth Demineralization: A tooth's loss of minerals, such as calcium in hydroxyapatite from the tooth matrix, caused by acidic exposure. An example of the occurrence of demineralization is in the formation of dental caries.Dental Caries: Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Composite Resins: Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.Tooth Erosion: Progressive loss of the hard substance of a tooth by chemical processes that do not involve bacterial action. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p296)Acid Etching, Dental: Preparation of TOOTH surfaces and DENTAL MATERIALS with etching agents, usually phosphoric acid, to roughen the surface to increase adhesion or osteointegration.Tooth Exfoliation: Physiologic loss of the primary dentition. (Zwemer, Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Karaya Gum: Polysaccharide gum from Sterculia urens (STERCULIA). It is used as a suspending or stabilizing agent in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals; a bulk-forming laxative; a surgical lubricant and adhesive; and in the treatment of skin ulcers.Dentin Dysplasia: An apparently hereditary disorder of dentin formation, marked by a normal appearance of coronal dentin associated with pulpal obliteration, faulty root formation, and a tendency for peripheral lesions without obvious cause. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Dental Stress Analysis: The description and measurement of the various factors that produce physical stress upon dental restorations, prostheses, or appliances, materials associated with them, or the natural oral structures.Galactans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Cuspid: The third tooth to the left and to the right of the midline of either jaw, situated between the second INCISOR and the premolar teeth (BICUSPID). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p817)Bicuspid: One of the eight permanent teeth, two on either side in each jaw, between the canines (CUSPID) and the molars (MOLAR), serving for grinding and crushing food. The upper have two cusps (bicuspid) but the lower have one to three. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p822)Dental Restoration, Permanent: A restoration designed to remain in service for not less than 20 to 30 years, usually made of gold casting, cohesive gold, or amalgam. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth Avulsion: Partial or complete displacement of a tooth from its alveolar support. It is commonly the result of trauma. (From Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p312)Fused Teeth: Two teeth united during development by the union of their tooth germs; the teeth may be joined by the enamel of their crowns, by their root dentin, or by both.Dentinogenesis: The formation of dentin. Dentin first appears in the layer between the ameloblasts and odontoblasts and becomes calcified immediately. Formation progresses from the tip of the papilla over its slope to form a calcified cap becoming thicker by the apposition of new layers pulpward. A layer of uncalcified dentin intervenes between the calcified tissue and the odontoblast and its processes. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Tooth DiseasesDental Cavity Preparation: An operation in which carious material is removed from teeth and biomechanically correct forms are established in the teeth to receive and retain restorations. A constant requirement is provision for prevention of failure of the restoration through recurrence of decay or inadequate resistance to applied stresses. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239-40)Tooth Resorption: Resorption of calcified dental tissue, involving demineralization due to reversal of the cation exchange and lacunar resorption by osteoclasts. There are two types: external (as a result of tooth pathology) and internal (apparently initiated by a peculiar inflammatory hyperplasia of the pulp). (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p676)Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Smear Layer: Adherent debris produced when cutting the enamel or dentin in cavity preparation. It is about 1 micron thick and its composition reflects the underlying dentin, although different quantities and qualities of smear layer can be produced by the various instrumentation techniques. Its function is presumed to be protective, as it lowers dentin permeability. However, it masks the underlying dentin and interferes with attempts to bond dental material to the dentin.Tooth Socket: A hollow part of the alveolar process of the MAXILLA or MANDIBLE where each tooth fits and is attached via the periodontal ligament.Tooth Ankylosis: Solid fixation of a tooth resulting from fusion of the cementum and alveolar bone, with obliteration of the periodontal ligament. It is uncommon in the deciduous dentition and very rare in permanent teeth. (Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Phosphoric Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphoric acid (H3PO4). Note that organic derivatives of phosphoric acids are listed under ORGANOPHOSPHATES.Maxilla: One of a pair of irregularly shaped bones that form the upper jaw. A maxillary bone provides tooth sockets for the superior teeth, forms part of the ORBIT, and contains the MAXILLARY SINUS.Dental Pulp Cavity: The space in a tooth bounded by the dentin and containing the dental pulp. The portion of the cavity within the crown of the tooth is the pulp chamber; the portion within the root is the pulp canal or root canal.Root Canal Therapy: A treatment modality in endodontics concerned with the therapy of diseases of the dental pulp. For preparatory procedures, ROOT CANAL PREPARATION is available.Tooth Replantation: Reinsertion of a tooth into the alveolus from which it was removed or otherwise lost.Dentition, Permanent: The 32 teeth of adulthood that either replace or are added to the complement of deciduous teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Bisphenol A-Glycidyl Methacrylate: The reaction product of bisphenol A and glycidyl methacrylate that undergoes polymerization when exposed to ultraviolet light or mixed with a catalyst. It is used as a bond implant material and as the resin component of dental sealants and composite restorative materials.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Mandible: The largest and strongest bone of the FACE constituting the lower jaw. It supports the lower teeth.Dental Materials: Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.Dental Cementum: The bonelike rigid connective tissue covering the root of a tooth from the cementoenamel junction to the apex and lining the apex of the root canal, also assisting in tooth support by serving as attachment structures for the periodontal ligament. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Odontometry: Measurement of tooth characteristics.Dental Leakage: The seepage of fluids, debris, and micro-organisms between the walls of a prepared dental cavity and the restoration.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Dentition: The teeth collectively in the dental arch. Dentition ordinarily refers to the natural teeth in position in their alveoli. Dentition referring to the deciduous teeth is DENTITION, PRIMARY; to the permanent teeth, DENTITION, PERMANENT. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Dentin Solubility: The susceptibility of the DENTIN to dissolution.Dental Cavity Lining: An inner coating, as of varnish or other protective substance, to cover the dental cavity wall. It is usually a resinous film-forming agent dissolved in a volatile solvent, or a suspension of calcium hydroxide in a solution of a synthetic resin. The lining seals the dentinal tubules and protects the pulp before a restoration is inserted. (Jablonski, Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982)Ameloblasts: Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. Their functions include contribution to the development of the dentinoenamel junction by the deposition of a layer of the matrix, thus producing the foundation for the prisms (the structural units of the DENTAL ENAMEL), and production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (From Jablonski's Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)Molar, Third: The aftermost permanent tooth on each side in the maxilla and mandible.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Periodontal Ligament: The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).Hardness: The mechanical property of material that determines its resistance to force. HARDNESS TESTS measure this property.Dental Restoration Failure: Inability or inadequacy of a dental restoration or prosthesis to perform as expected.Dental Marginal Adaptation: The degree of approximation or fit of filling material or dental prosthetic to the tooth surface. A close marginal adaptation and seal at the interface is important for successful dental restorations.Dentinal Fluid: The lymph or fluid of dentin. It is a transudate of extracellular fluid, mainly cytoplasm of odontoblastic processes, from the dental pulp via the dentinal tubules. It is also called dental lymph. (From Stedman, 26th ed, p665)Alveolar Process: The thickest and spongiest part of the maxilla and mandible hollowed out into deep cavities for the teeth.Anodontia: Congenital absence of the teeth; it may involve all (total anodontia) or only some of the teeth (partial anodontia, hypodontia), and both the deciduous and the permanent dentition, or only teeth of the permanent dentition. (Dorland, 27th ed)Adhesives: Substances that cause the adherence of two surfaces. They include glues (properly collagen-derived adhesives), mucilages, sticky pastes, gums, resins, or latex.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Tooth Preparation, Prosthodontic: The selected form given to a natural tooth when it is reduced by instrumentation to receive a prosthesis (e.g., artificial crown or a retainer for a fixed or removable prosthesis). The selection of the form is guided by clinical circumstances and physical properties of the materials that make up the prosthesis. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p239)Shear Strength: The internal resistance of a material to moving some parts of it parallel to a fixed plane, in contrast to stretching (TENSILE STRENGTH) or compression (COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH). Ionic crystals are brittle because, when subjected to shear, ions of the same charge are brought next to each other, which causes repulsion.Polymethacrylic Acids: Poly-2-methylpropenoic acids. Used in the manufacture of methacrylate resins and plastics in the form of pellets and granules, as absorbent for biological materials and as filters; also as biological membranes and as hydrogens. Synonyms: methylacrylate polymer; poly(methylacrylate); acrylic acid methyl ester polymer.Age Determination by Teeth: A means of identifying the age of an animal or human through tooth examination.Root Canal Preparation: Preparatory activities in ROOT CANAL THERAPY by partial or complete extirpation of diseased pulp, cleaning and sterilization of the empty canal, enlarging and shaping the canal to receive the sealing material. The cavity may be prepared by mechanical, sonic, chemical, or other means. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1700)Post and Core Technique: Use of a metal casting, usually with a post in the pulp or root canal, designed to support and retain an artificial crown.Dental Pulp Necrosis: Death of pulp tissue with or without bacterial invasion. When the necrosis is due to ischemia with superimposed bacterial infection, it is referred to as pulp gangrene. When the necrosis is non-bacterial in origin, it is called pulp mummification.Dental Pulp Exposure: The result of pathological changes in the hard tissue of a tooth caused by carious lesions, mechanical factors, or trauma, which render the pulp susceptible to bacterial invasion from the external environment.Dental Papilla: Mesodermal tissue enclosed in the invaginated portion of the epithelial enamel organ and giving rise to the dentin and pulp.Toothpastes: Dentifrices that are formulated into a paste form. They typically contain abrasives, HUMECTANTS; DETERGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; and CARIOSTATIC AGENTS.Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Pulpitis: Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.Microradiography: Production of a radiographic image of a small or very thin object on fine-grained photographic film under conditions which permit subsequent microscopic examination or enlargement of the radiograph at linear magnifications of up to several hundred and with a resolution approaching the resolving power of the photographic emulsion (about 1000 lines per millimeter).Root Canal Filling Materials: Materials placed inside a root canal for the purpose of obturating or sealing it. The materials may be gutta-percha, silver cones, paste mixtures, or other substances. (Dorland, 28th ed, p631 & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p187)Glass Ionomer Cements: A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.Dental Enamel Proteins: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.Decalcification Technique: Removal of minerals from bones during bone examination.Cariostatic Agents: Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Dental Models: Presentation devices used for patient education and technique training in dentistry.Enamel Organ: Epithelial cells surrounding the dental papilla and differentiated into three layers: the inner enamel epithelium, consisting of ameloblasts which eventually form the enamel, and the enamel pulp and external enamel epithelium, both of which atrophy and disappear before and upon eruption of the tooth, respectively.Periapical Periodontitis: Inflammation of the PERIAPICAL TISSUE. It includes general, unspecified, or acute nonsuppurative inflammation. Chronic nonsuppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL GRANULOMA. Suppurative inflammation is PERIAPICAL ABSCESS.Acrylic ResinsResins, Plant: Flammable, amorphous, vegetable products of secretion or disintegration, usually formed in special cavities of plants. They are generally insoluble in water and soluble in alcohol, carbon tetrachloride, ether, or volatile oils. They are fusible and have a conchoidal fracture. They are the oxidation or polymerization products of the terpenes, and are mixtures of aromatic acids and esters. Most are soft and sticky, but harden after exposure to cold. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Paleodontology: The study of the teeth of early forms of life through fossil remains.Tooth Attrition: The wearing away of a tooth as a result of tooth-to-tooth contact, as in mastication, occurring only on the occlusal, incisal, and proximal surfaces. It is chiefly associated with aging. It is differentiated from TOOTH ABRASION (the pathologic wearing away of the tooth substance by friction, as brushing, bruxism, clenching, and other mechanical causes) and from TOOTH EROSION (the loss of substance caused by chemical action without bacterial action). (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p86)Dentinogenesis Imperfecta: An autosomal dominant disorder of tooth development characterized by opalescent dentin resulting in discoloration of the teeth. The dentin develops poorly with low mineral content while the pulp canal is obliterated.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Dental Pulp Capping: Application of a protective agent to an exposed pulp (direct capping) or the remaining thin layer of dentin over a nearly exposed pulp (indirect capping) in order to allow the pulp to recover and maintain its normal vitality and function.Jaw, Edentulous, Partially: Absence of teeth from a portion of the mandible and/or maxilla.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dental Enamel Hypoplasia: An acquired or hereditary condition due to deficiency in the formation of tooth enamel (AMELOGENESIS). It is usually characterized by defective, thin, or malformed DENTAL ENAMEL. Risk factors for enamel hypoplasia include gene mutations, nutritional deficiencies, diseases, and environmental factors.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Epoxy Resins: Polymeric resins derived from OXIRANES and characterized by strength and thermosetting properties. Epoxy resins are often used as dental materials.Radiography, Panoramic: Extraoral body-section radiography depicting an entire maxilla, or both maxilla and mandible, on a single film.
... they are frequently considered together as the dentin-pulp complex. The teeth and gums exhibit normal sensations in health. ... Cracked tooth syndrome refers to a highly variable set of pain-sensitivity symptoms that may accompany a tooth fracture, ... Although toothache is an ancient problem, it is thought that ancient people suffered less dental decay due to a lack of refined ... The pulp of the tooth remains normal and healthy in dentin hypersensitivity. Many topical treatments for dentin ...
... dentin. If the odontoblasts are killed, the dentin produced is called "reparative" dentin. In the case of reparative dentin, ... dental caries may progress for a long period of time without any sensitivity of the tooth, allowing for greater loss of tooth ... Bacteria collect around the teeth and gums in a sticky, creamy-coloured mass called plaque, which serves as a biofilm. Some ... Over a million years ago, hominins such as Australopithecus suffered from cavities. The largest increases in the prevalence of ...
Progression of the carious lesion is also more rapid in teeth with MIH as patients may experience tooth sensitivity while ... It will be useful for the children who are suspected to suffer from MIH to visit their dentist more frequently during the ... Sapir, Shabtai; Shapira, Joseph (July 2007). "Clinical solutions for developmental defects of enamel and dentin in children". ... "Remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions by sugar-free chewing gum containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium ...
The endodontist makes an opening through the enamel and dentin tissues of the tooth, usually using a dental drill fitted with a ... "sensitivity" in the area.[53] Other studies have found that endodontic therapy patients report the maximum pain the day ... Corticosteroid intra-oral injections were found to alleviate pain in the first 24 hours in patients suffering from symptomatic ... Tooth discoloration[edit]. Tooth discoloration is common following root canal treatment; however, the exact causes for this are ...
Periodontium (gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolus) - Gums and tooth-supporting structures. *Cementicle ... Antigenic sensitivity[edit]. Various antigenic triggers have been implicated as a trigger, including L forms of streptococci, ... Although these studies found that 0-42% of those with recurrent ulcers suffer from vitamin B12 deficiency, an association with ... Failure of eruption of teeth. *Dens evaginatus *Talon cusp. *Dentin dysplasia. *Dentin hypersensitivity ...
Periodontium (gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, alveolus) - Gums and tooth-supporting structures. *Cementicle ... "central sensitivity syndrome", in reference to evidence that TMD might be caused by a centrally mediated sensitivity to pain.[ ... that many of the studies investigating acupuncture and TMD suffer from significant risk of bias,[83] and that the long term ... They can be designed to fit onto the upper teeth or the lower teeth. They may cover all the teeth in one arch (full coverage ...
At-home treatments include desensitizing toothpastes or dentifrices, potassium salts, mouthwashes and chewing gums. A variety of toothpastes are marketed for dentin hypersensitivity, including compounds such as strontium chloride, strontium acetate, arginine, calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite and calcium sodium phosphosilicate.[1] Desensitizing chewing gums[19] and mouthwashes are also marketed.[5] Potassium-containing toothpastes are common; however, the mechanism by which they may reduce hypersensitivity is unclear. Animal research has demonstrated that potassium ions placed in deep dentin cavities cause nerve depolarization and prevent re-polarization. It is not known if this effect would occur with the twice-daily, transient and small increase in potassium ions in saliva that brushing with ...
... toothpastes work in different ways depending on the product's active ingredient - potassium nitrate, strontium acetate/chloride. Potassium nitrate: The potassium ion hyperpolarizes[3] the nerve and stops it from firing. The nerve impulses are thus desensitized and there is no pain. Strontium acetate and chloride: These compounds share a similar chemical structure to calcium. Strontium based toothpastes (acetate and chloride) are therefore able to replace some of the lost calcium and block the exposed tubules in the dentinal tissue. This helps prevent the movement of the fluid within the tubules in response to a sensitivity stimulus that could otherwise cause tooth pain.[4]. Some Sensodyne products contain calcium sodium phosphosilicate CSPS (Novamin), which appears to help with tooth sensitivity.[5][6] A randomized ...
... (/ˈdɛntɪn/) (American English) or dentine (/ˈdɛnˌtiːn/ or /ˌdɛnˈtiːn/) (British English) (Latin: substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth. It is usually covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp. By weight, 45% of dentin consists of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 33% is organic material, and 22% is water. Yellow in appearance, it greatly affects the color of a tooth due to the translucency of enamel. Dentin, which is less mineralized and less brittle than enamel, is necessary for the support of enamel. Dentin rates approximately 3 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Dentinal sclerosis/transparent dentin-sclerosis of primary dentin is regressive alteration in tooth ...
... [1] je američki igrani film snimljen 1991. u režiji Spikeja Leeja. Za temu ima u tadašnjim SAD još uvijek kontroverzne odnose osoba različitih rasa, a protagonist, čiji lik tumači Wesley Snipes, je crni poslovni čovjek koji započinje ljubavnu vezu sa svojom italoameričkom sekretaricom. Poznat je kao glumački debi tadašnje rap zvijezde Queen Latifah. U Srbiji je prikazivan pod naslovom Ljubavna groznica. ...
पाठ क्रिएटिभ कमन्स एट्रिब्युसन/सेयर-अलाइक लाइसेन्सअन्तर्गत उपलब्ध छ; अतिरिक्त सर्तहरू लागू हुन सक्छन्। अधिक जानकारीको लागि उपयोगका सर्तहरू हेर्नुहोला ...
At-home treatments include desensitizing toothpastes or dentifrices, potassium salts, mouthwashes and chewing gums. A variety of toothpastes are marketed for dentin hypersensitivity, including compounds such as strontium chloride, strontium acetate, arginine, calcium carbonate, hydroxyapatite and calcium sodium phosphosilicate.[1] Desensitizing chewing gums[19] and mouthwashes are also marketed.[5] Potassium-containing toothpastes are common; however, the mechanism by which they may reduce hypersensitivity is unclear. Animal research has demonstrated that potassium ions placed in deep dentin cavities cause nerve depolarization and prevent re-polarization. It is not known if this effect would occur with the twice-daily, transient and small increase in potassium ions in saliva that brushing with ...
... (/ˈdɛntɪn/) (American English) or dentine (/ˈdɛnˌtiːn/ or /ˌdɛnˈtiːn/) (British English) (Latin: substantia eburnea) is a calcified tissue of the body and, along with enamel, cementum, and pulp, is one of the four major components of teeth. It is usually covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root and surrounds the entire pulp. By weight, 45% of dentin consists of the mineral hydroxylapatite, 33% is organic material, and 22% is water. Yellow in appearance, it greatly affects the color of a tooth due to the translucency of enamel. Dentin, which is less mineralized and less brittle than enamel, is necessary for the support of enamel. Dentin rates approximately 3 on the Mohs scale of mineral hardness. Dentinal sclerosis/transparent dentin-sclerosis of primary dentin is regressive alteration in tooth ...
Members of Cricetidae are known for variety in their diets, for Phyllotis xanthopygus this range includes herbivory, insectivory, granivory, and frugivory. This variation enables them to be opportunistic feeder:[5] an advantageous trait as it permits quick and unselective foraging in open and vulnerable areas.[3]. Their teeth are specialized to accommodate for the diversity in their diet as they have enlarged incisors which are separated from the cheekteeth by a diastema. The teeth are characterized as aradicular, being that they grow continuously throughout an organism's' lifetime. This results in the incisors resembling a chisel due to rapid wear on the soft dentin at the back of the tooth from rubbing against one another. One study that was done with these rodents tested how their behaviors changed based on the amount of light that was allowed in their habitat.[8] The researchers found that the habitats with the least amount of light had the most foraging ...
... is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish. It makes up the normally visible part of the tooth, covering the crown. The other major tissues are dentin, cementum, and dental pulp. It is a very hard, white to off-white, highly mineralised substance that acts as a barrier to protect the tooth but can become susceptible to degradation, especially by acids from food and drink. Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body and contains the highest percentage of minerals, 96%, with water and organic material composing the rest. The primary mineral is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphate. Enamel is formed on the tooth while the tooth is developing within the gum, before it erupts into the mouth. Once fully formed, it does not ...
Labyrinthodont is a term which was used for fossil amphibia. Although it is no longer a formal term in taxonomy, it is still useful as an evolutionary grade, a kind of catch-all term. Labyrinth mean a maze and dont means tooth.. Labyrinthodonts are often called Temnospondyls.[1] The Labyrinthodontia is not a clade, because it is not monophyletic. It has been replaced in the classification by more correct terms.. The labyrithodonts were some of the dominant animals from the Devonian to the Lower Triassic (about 390 to 210 million years ago). The group is an evolutionary grade (a polyphyletic or paraphyletic group) of species which look rather similar.. The name describes the pattern of infolding of the dentine and enamel of the teeth, which often fossilise. They are also have a heavily armoured skull roof (so they also have an even older name "Stegocephalia"), and complex vertebrae.. ...
Before the treatment, the clinician should examine the patient: taking a health and dental history (including allergies and sensitivities), observe hard and soft tissues, placement and conditions of restorations, and sometimes x-rays to determine the nature and depth of possible irregularities. If this is not completed prior to the whitening agents being applied to the tooth surface, excessive sensitivity and other complications may occur. The whitening shade guides are used to measure tooth colour. These shades determine the effectiveness of the whitening procedure, which may vary from two to seven shades.[33] These shades may be reached after a single in office appointment, or may take longer, depending on the individual. The effects of bleaching can last for several months, but may vary depending on the lifestyle of the patient. Consuming tooth staining foods or drinks that have a strong ...
Before the treatment, the Oral health professional should examine the patient: taking a health and dental history (including allergies and sensitivities), observe hard and soft tissues, placement and conditions of restorations, and sometimes x-rays to determine the nature and depth of possible irregularities. If this is not completed prior to the whitening agents being applied to the tooth surface, excessive sensitivity and consequences may occur. The whitening shade guides are used to measure tooth colour. These shades determine the effectiveness of the whitening procedure, which may vary from two to seven shades.[34] These shades may be reached after a single in office appointment, or may take longer depending on the individual. The effects of bleaching can last for several months, but may vary depending on the lifestyle of the patient. Consuming tooth staining foods or drinks that have a ...
import numpy as np def zca_whitening_matrix(X): ''' Function to compute ZCA whitening matrix (aka Mahalanobis whitening). INPUT: X: [M x N] matrix. Rows: Variables Columns: Observations OUTPUT: ZCAMatrix: [M x M] matrix ''' # Covariance matrix [column-wise variables]: Sigma = (X-mu)' * (X-mu) / N sigma = np.cov(X, rowvar=True) # [M x M] # Singular Value Decomposition. X = U * np.diag(S) * V U,S,V = np.linalg.svd(sigma) # U: [M x M] eigenvectors of sigma. # S: [M x 1] eigenvalues of sigma. # V: [M x M] transpose of U # Whitening constant: prevents division by zero epsilon = 1e-5 # ZCA Whitening matrix: U * Lambda * U' ZCAMatrix = np.dot(U, np.dot(np.diag(1.0/np.sqrt(S + epsilon)), U.T)) # [M x M] return ZCAMatrix ...
Anyone, who has problems with teeth or gums, can suffer from tooth sensitivity. There are no risk groups. ... of Americans suffer from tooth sensitivity. Why does it happen? One of the components of our teeth is a layer of dentin. If ... Gum inflammation can expose the root of the tooth.. * Check your teeth regularly. Cracked teeth may be the reason for tooth ... If you have gum disease or tooth damage, sensitivity will only get worse. As long as dentin is exposed, it will cause pain when ...
Another factor is gum recession, which often occurs in people who suffer from periodontal disease, as it exposes the dentin. ... Related: 8 Natural Remedies That Repair Receding Gums.). Having cracked teeth can also lead to tooth sensitivity as these can ... Gingivitis, which causes inflamed and sore gum tissue, can also cause tooth sensitivity as it exposes the tooths root. ( ... putting a stop to tooth grinding; and treating receding gums. Although its symptoms may be lessened, tooth sensitivity will ...
Here are a few causes of sensitive gums. ... Gum disease is typically to blame for sensitive gums, but there ... Exposed dentin can be annoying and painful, but there are many ways to prevent enamel erosion and treat tooth sensitivity. Find ... Some individuals gums can be sensitive to pressure, particularly when suffering from gum disease, so brushing too hard or ... TOOTH SENSITIVITY. Definition. Tooth sensitivity occurs when the enamel that protects our teeth gets thinner, or when gum ...
TOOTH SENSITIVITY. Definition. Tooth sensitivity occurs when the enamel that protects our teeth gets thinner, or when gum ... What Causes Tooth Sensitivity?. Sensitivity occurs when the enamel is damaged, thinned or eroded, leaving the underlying dentin ... Enamel can suffer damage due to decay or trauma, but gradual erosion is more common. If your enamel is naturally thin, youre ... makes your teeth or a tooth sensitive or painful, then you may have sensitive teeth. Tooth sensitivity can come and go over ...
... dentin, and pulp. The enamel is the outermost layer and is primarily made of calcium phosphate minerals. Enamel is the hardest ... Bacteria can form a biofilm called plaque on the surface of teeth and the carboxylic acids produced by these bacteria can wear ... down your enamel, causing dental caries (cavities) and sensitivity. ... If you suffer from tooth sensitivity, call your dentist.. Pulp is the innermost and softest layer of teeth. It contains living ...
It is also recommended for adults suffering from tooth sensitivity.. When you first apply it, your teeth may look dull white or ... The teeth as we age teeth began to lose mineral deposit and the enamel becomes translucent. The dentin, which is naturally in ... Nothing beats brushing when it comes to teeth and gum care. Proper brushing get rids of plaque and built up. Thus, brushing ... Tagged With: dental, dentist, Teeth, Teeth Whitening, white teeth, Whitening, whiter teeth. ...
... and decaying dental work are just some of the issues that can cause tooth sensitivity to cold and heat. Read on... ... What Causes Sensitive Teeth?. Tooth sensitivity occurs when the dentin or roots of a tooth become exposed. This can occur for a ... Tooth sensitivity is no joke!. Worn enamel, receding gums, cavities, and decaying dental work are just some of the issues that ... According to Journal of the American Dental Association, one in eight adults suffer from sensitive teeth. ...
1 in every 2 adult Americans suffers from some kind of tooth sensitivity. What are the most common causes of tooth sensitivity ... and how can you help protect your teeth from discomfort? Gum recession There are several ... you probably experience some degree of tooth sensitivity. When the temperature gets colder outside, even just breathing in ... If youve ever noticed sharp pain in your teeth when enjoying ice cream or a cold or hot beverage, ...
However, there are a variety of products for sensitive teeth and ways to prevent it. Read on to know what they are. ... You could have gum recession, and the softer dentin of the root is beginning to show. Another cause of sensitivity has to do ... Sensitive teeth can be very painful for those who suffer from it. Its always advisable to see a dentist to determine the ... You could have gum recession, and the softer dentin of the root is beginning to show. Another cause of sensitivity has to do ...
I am suffering from tooth sensitivity receding gums exposing tooth dentin visible in front lower incisors. * Teeth looks a ... I am 22 years old, I hv an issue with my teeth. My gums used to bleed when I brush my teeth or even smtime during shower. This ... It is due to infection in your gums. For cure, you have to visit your dentist and ask him for cleaning of teeth as well as gums ... Bleeding gums are a sign of gum infection. Go for professional scaling and polishing of teeth. Maintain proper oral hygiene ...
The portion of tooth that shows above the gum line has an inner layer of dentin and an outer layer of hard enamel. Dentin and ... However, patients who live in cool climates or go out in cold weather can suffer a stab of pain every time they breathe cold ... 5 Tips for Reducing Recurrence of Tooth Sensitivity. *Brush your teeth and gum line with a soft-bristled tooth and a non- ... Tooth Sensitivity 411 and 5 Ways to Reduce It Home » Learn » Dental Conditions » Tooth Sensitivity 411 and 5 Ways to Reduce It ...
Tooth sensitivity to heat, cold, acids, sugar or brushing is not uncommon. There are some simple at-home treatments or you can ... inner part of the tooth called the dentin becomes exposed. Dentin lies under the enamel and the gums. Other factors that cause ... Do you suffer from tooth sensitivity? Many of the patients that visit our clinics express discomfort related to temperature ... What causes tooth sensitivity?. Tooth sensitivity is a common dental problem that can develop over time. It starts to happen ...
... drinks consumption and acidified foods are the key factors leading to the emergence of sensitivity to the teeth, experts say. A ... Brushing and consumption of acidic substances can harm tooth enamel and gums. If enamel erosion or gum withdrawal, dentin ... Specialized studies show that 38% of the population of Central and Eastern Europe suffer from tooth sensitivity.. Brushing and ... Tooth sensitivity occurs when a nerve is damaged and is in the form of pain in one or more teeth, often in contact with food or ...
This toothpaste ingredient is meant to prevent tooth sensitivity, a condition experienced by almost 50 of the population. ... Tooth sensitivity can be caused by aging-related gum recession; erosion from acidic beverages; and teeth grinding; among other ... To meet the needs of the large number of consumers suffering from tooth sensitivity-estimated to be almost 50% of the ... These factors leave the dentin of teeth exposed, allowing fluid to travel through its tubules to stimulate nerves and cause ...
What causes teeth to be sensitive? What causes tooth sensitivity? What causes tooth enamel to be los ... Extra Soft Toothbrushes Tooth Desensitizers Toothache Products Dental First Aid How much do you know about sensitive teeth? ... Toothache and Sensitive Teeth Questions Sensitive Teeth Toothpaste Remineralization Toothpastes ... Anything that would expose dentin to the outside environment. Either the enamel is missing or the gum below the enamel has ...
It is estimated that as many as 35% of the US population suffers from tooth sensitivity. ... Gums can recede (shrink away) from the tooth and expose the root surface. Improper or overly aggressive tooth brushing can ... Tooth brushing immediately following an acid attack can result in a dramatic loss of dentin when this softened tooth material ... It is estimated that as many as 35% of the US population suffers from tooth sensitivity. Saliva and its components can ...
Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief. Were here to separate the fact from ... gum disease, and exposed tooth roots. Dentin hypersensitivity is a common issue. A visit to our dental office can help you find ... Do you suffer from regular sensitivity? Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief ... MYTH: Sensitivity never results in tooth loss. Sensitivity may in fact be a precursor to tooth loss. Gum recession, which ...
Were here to separate the fact from fiction in sensitivity. ... Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team ... gum disease, and exposed tooth roots. Dentin hypersensitivity is a common issue. A visit to our dental office can help you find ... Do you suffer from regular sensitivity? Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief ... Sensitivity may in fact be a precursor to tooth loss. Gum recession, which exposes the roots of your teeth, can cause general ...
Were here to separate the fact from fiction in sensitivity. ... Were here to separate the fact from fiction in sensitivity. ... Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief. ... Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief. ... gum disease, and exposed tooth roots. Dentin hypersensitivity is a common issue. A visit to our dental office can help you find ...
In this post, we take a look at the most common teeth sensitivity myths. Click here to learn more about dont hesitate to make ... Do you struggle with sensitive teeth? At LA Lux Dental, we want to help you find long-term relief from such discomfort. ... gum disease, and exposed tooth roots. Dentin hypersensitivity is a common issue. A visit to our dental office can help you find ... Do you suffer from regular sensitivity? Teeth sensitivity is often misunderstood, but our dental team can help you find relief ...
Subjecting the dentin coating to a particular teeth bleaching chemical compounds can improve teeth level of sensitivity. ... Even though most people use teeth whitening items without suffering from any bad implications, there are a few possible side ... In case you are not in a position to clean your tooth following a dinner, chew a bit of sugars-free of charge chewing gum. The ... However if you brush them for too long, you are able to injure your gum area or even take away enamel through your tooth and ...
... because it can hurt the gums and damage the protective enamel layer on your teeth. This eventually leads to tooth sensitivity. ... 5: Do You Suffer from Gum Diseases? Oral problems such as periodontal disease and gingivitis can abate the gum layer away from ... However, along with open and exposed dentin, here are the 7 common reasons that lead to teeth sensitivity in an individual. ... Keeping the teeth whitening solution for a longer time will dehydrate your teeth and increase tooth sensitivity. Both the teeth ...
Or do your teeth hurt when you eat an ice-cream? If so, this means you… ... People enjoy hot beverages like tea and coffee but has it ever occurred to you that while taking tea your teeth started hurting ... Minor defects or scratches in enamel (outer lining of tooth) causes mild sensitivity. This might be due to recession of gums ... Following some simple rules can help you avoid a lot of suffering. You can even make a check list to healthy teeth:. · Make ...
Gum recession is one of the most common sensitive teeth causes. ... Sensitive teeth causes are often related to the patients ... Avoiding these foods and drinks can help you prevent tooth sensitivity.. Teeth Grinding. Many people suffer from involuntary ... Teeth grinding can wear down the tooth enamel and expose the dentin. Also, it can cause severe gum recession in the cervical ... the tooth enamel breaks down and tooth sensitivity occurs. Also, broken tooth fillings can be responsible for tooth sensitivity ...
People often wear down their enamel or suffer from receding gums and tooth sensitivity because of one of the following reasons: ... When this happens, the dentin at the base of the gums is exposed and can lead to temperature-sensitive teeth. ... Tooth decay: Sensitivity to cold is an early sign of an undetected tooth decay problem. If you start to experience tooth pain, ... Do your teeth ever hurt when you eat something hot or cold? When tooth enamel wears down or the gums recede, it exposes a layer ...
  • Especially in food: we are more permissive with what we eat and drink and we do not realise that we eat more aggressive products for our teeth. (tenerifenews.com)