Derivatives of SUCCINIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,4-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
A water-soluble, colorless crystal with an acid taste that is used as a chemical intermediate, in medicine, the manufacture of lacquers, and to make perfume esters. It is also used in foods as a sequestrant, buffer, and a neutralizing agent. (Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p1099; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1851)
A flavoprotein oxidase complex that contains iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of SUCCINATE to fumarate and couples the reaction to the reduction of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
An electron transport chain complex that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from SUCCINATE to CYTOCHROME C. It includes ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX II and ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A family of compounds containing an oxo group with the general structure of 1,5-pentanedioic acid. (From Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p442)
A neural crest tumor usually derived from the chromoreceptor tissue of a paraganglion, such as the carotid body, or medulla of the adrenal gland (usually called a chromaffinoma or pheochromocytoma). It is more common in women than in men. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A water-soluble ester of METHYLPREDNISOLONE used for cardiac, allergic, and hypoxic emergencies.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Enzymes that catalyze the first step leading to the oxidation of succinic acid by the reversible formation of succinyl-CoA from succinate and CoA with the concomitant cleavage of ATP to ADP (EC or GTP to GDP (EC and orthophosphate. Itaconate can act instead of succinate and ITP instead of GTP.EC 6.2.1.-.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
An enzyme that plays a role in the GLUTAMATE and butanoate metabolism pathways by catalyzing the oxidation of succinate semialdehyde to SUCCINATE using NAD+ as a coenzyme. Deficiency of this enzyme, causes 4-hydroxybutyricaciduria, a rare inborn error in the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A saturated 12-carbon fatty alcohol obtained from coconut oil fatty acids. It has a floral odor and is used in detergents, lubricating oils, and pharmaceuticals. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
A relatively rare, usually benign neoplasm originating in the chemoreceptor tissue of the CAROTID BODY; GLOMUS JUGULARE; GLOMUS TYMPANICUM; AORTIC BODIES; and the female genital tract. It consists histologically of rounded or ovoid hyperchromatic cells that tend to be grouped in an alveolus-like pattern within a scant to moderate amount of fibrous stroma and a few large thin-walled vascular channels. (From Stedman, 27th ed)
Hemeproteins whose characteristic mode of action involves transfer of reducing equivalents which are associated with a reversible change in oxidation state of the prosthetic group. Formally, this redox change involves a single-electron, reversible equilibrium between the Fe(II) and Fe(III) states of the central iron atom (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p539). The various cytochrome subclasses are organized by the type of HEME and by the wavelength range of their reduced alpha-absorption bands.
Chelating agent and inhibitor of cellular respiration.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of proteins possessing only the iron-sulfur complex as the prosthetic group. These proteins participate in all major pathways of electron transport: photosynthesis, respiration, hydroxylation and bacterial hydrogen and nitrogen fixation.
The various filaments, granules, tubules or other inclusions within mitochondria.
Derivatives of OXALOACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include a 2-keto-1,4-carboxy aliphatic structure.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A botanical insecticide that is an inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport.
A systemic agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of fumaric acid to yield L-malic acid. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.
A large group of anaerobic bacteria which show up as pink (negative) when treated by the Gram-staining method.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The 8-hydroxy derivatives inhibit various enzymes and their halogenated derivatives, though neurotoxic, are used as topical anti-infective agents, among other uses.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Histamine H1 antagonist with pronounced sedative properties. It is used in allergies and as an antitussive, antiemetic, and hypnotic. Doxylamine has also been administered in veterinary applications and was formerly used in PARKINSONISM.
Mitochondria of skeletal and smooth muscle. It does not include myocardial mitochondria for which MITOCHONDRIA, HEART is available.
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the bovine RUMEN, the human gingival sulcus, and dental PULPITIS infections.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC
Enzymes which transfer coenzyme A moieties from acyl- or acetyl-CoA to various carboxylic acceptors forming a thiol ester. Enzymes in this group are instrumental in ketone body metabolism and utilization of acetoacetate in mitochondria. EC 2.8.3.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase complex that catalyzes the conversion of UBIQUINONE to ubiquinol. In MITOCHONDRIA the complex also couples its reaction to the transport of PROTONS across the internal mitochondrial membrane. The NADH DEHYDROGENASE component of the complex can be isolated and is listed as EC
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.
NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
An enzyme that catalyzes the reversible hydration of cis-aconitate to yield citrate or isocitrate. It is one of the citric acid cycle enzymes. EC
A closely related group of toxic substances elaborated by various strains of Streptomyces. They are 26-membered macrolides with lactone moieties and double bonds and inhibit various ATPases, causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from mitochondrial respiration. Used as tools in cytochemistry. Some specific oligomycins are RUTAMYCIN, peliomycin, and botrycidin (formerly venturicidin X).
A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Derivatives of the dimethylisoalloxazine (7,8-dimethylbenzo[g]pteridine-2,4(3H,10H)-dione) skeleton. Flavin derivatives serve an electron transfer function as ENZYME COFACTORS in FLAVOPROTEINS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cytochromes (electron-transporting proteins) with protoheme (HEME B) as the prosthetic group.
Dithionite. The dithionous acid ion and its salts.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous, non-pathogenic, soil bacteria that produces GLUTAMIC ACID.
The interference in synthesis of an enzyme due to the elevated level of an effector substance, usually a metabolite, whose presence would cause depression of the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC EC
Softening or loss of brain tissue following CEREBRAL INFARCTION; cerebral ischemia (see BRAIN ISCHEMIA), infection, CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA, or other injury. The term is often used during gross pathologic inspection to describe blurred cortical margins and decreased consistency of brain tissue following infarction. Multicystic encephalomalacia refers to the formation of multiple cystic cavities of various sizes in the cerebral cortex of neonates and infants following injury, most notably perinatal hypoxia-ischemic events. (From Davis et al., Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p665; J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, 1995 Mar;54(2):268-75)
A condensation product of riboflavin and adenosine diphosphate. The coenzyme of various aerobic dehydrogenases, e.g., D-amino acid oxidase and L-amino acid oxidase. (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p972)
A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped, phototrophic bacteria found in aquatic environments. Internal photosynthetic membranes are present as lamellae underlying the cytoplasmic membrane.
A genus of gram-negative, curved and spiral-shaped bacteria found in stagnant, freshwater environments. These organisms are motile by bipolar tufts of flagella having a long wavelength and about one helical turn. Some species of Spirillum cause a form of RAT-BITE FEVER.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A macrolide antibiotic of the oligomycin group, obtained from Streptomyces rutgersensis. It is used in cytochemistry as a tool to inhibit various ATPases and to uncouple oxidative phosphorylation from electron transport and also clinically as an antifungal agent.
The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.
A species of METHYLOBACTERIUM which can utilize acetate, ethanol, or methylamine as a sole carbon source. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)
A multisubunit enzyme complex that contains CYTOCHROME B GROUP; CYTOCHROME C1; and iron-sulfur centers. It catalyzes the oxidation of ubiquinol to UBIQUINONE, and transfers the electrons to CYTOCHROME C. In MITOCHONDRIA the redox reaction is coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
An electrochemical technique for measuring the current that flows in solution as a function of an applied voltage. The observed polarographic wave, resulting from the electrochemical response, depends on the way voltage is applied (linear sweep or differential pulse) and the type of electrode used. Usually a mercury drop electrode is used.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.
A group of oxidoreductases that act on NADH or NADPH. In general, enzymes using NADH or NADPH to reduce a substrate are classified according to the reverse reaction, in which NAD+ or NADP+ is formally regarded as an acceptor. This subclass includes only those enzymes in which some other redox carrier is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p100) EC 1.6.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
A species of bacteria isolated from soil.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Proteins that have one or more tightly bound metal ions forming part of their structure. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An increase in MITOCHONDRIAL VOLUME due to an influx of fluid; it occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria.
A genus of gram-negative, spiral bacteria that possesses internal photosynthetic membranes. Its organisms divide by binary fission, are motile by means of polar flagella, and are found in aquatic environments.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
Used as an electron carrier in place of the flavine enzyme of Warburg in the hexosemonophosphate system and also in the preparation of SUCCINIC DEHYDROGENASE.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Acetyl CoA participates in the biosynthesis of fatty acids and sterols, in the oxidation of fatty acids and in the metabolism of many amino acids. It also acts as a biological acetylating agent.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbamoyl phosphate and L-aspartate to yield orthophosphate and N-carbamoyl-L-aspartate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Used in the form of the hydrochloride as a reagent in ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A selective adrenergic beta-1 blocking agent that is commonly used to treat ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; and CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS.
The color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A saprophytic bacterium widely distributed in soil and dust and on plants.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The monoanhydride of carbamic acid with PHOSPHORIC ACID. It is an important intermediate metabolite and is synthesized enzymatically by CARBAMYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (AMMONIA) and CARBAMOYL-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE (GLUTAMINE-HYDROLYZING).
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and oxaloacetate to ADP, phosphoenolpyruvate, and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in some bacteria, yeast, and Trypanosoma, and is important for the photosynthetic assimilation of carbon dioxide in some plants. EC
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of acetate in the presence of a divalent cation and ATP with the formation of acetylphosphate and ADP. It is important in the glycolysis process. EC
A toxic thiol mercury salt formerly used as a diuretic. It inhibits various biochemical functions, especially in mitochondria, and is used to study those functions.
Derivatives of adipic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a 1,6-carboxy terminated aliphatic structure.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/1470)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. (2/1470)

In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids.  (+info)

Relationship between succinate transport and production of extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase in Pseudomonas lemoignei. (3/1470)

The relationship between extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase synthesis and the unusual properties of a succinate uptake system was investigated in Pseudomonas lemoignei. Growth on and uptake of succinate were highly pH dependent, with optima at pH 5.6. Above pH 7, growth on and uptake of succinate were strongly reduced with concomitant derepression of PHB depolymerase synthesis. The specific succinate uptake rates were saturable by high concentrations of succinate, and maximal transport rates of 110 nmol/mg of cell protein per min were determined between pH 5.6 and 6. 8. The apparent KS0.5 values increased with increasing pH from 0.2 mM succinate at pH 5.6 to more than 10 mM succinate at pH 7.6. The uptake of [14C]succinate was strongly inhibited by several monocarboxylates. Dicarboxylates also inhibited the uptake of succinate but only at pH values near the dissociation constant of the second carboxylate function (pKa2). We conclude that the succinate carrier is specific for the monocarboxylate forms of various carboxylic acids and is not able to utilize the dicarboxylic forms. The inability to take up succinate2- accounts for the carbon starvation of P. lemoignei observed during growth on succinate at pH values above 7. As a consequence the bacteria produce high levels of extracellular PHB depolymerase activity in an effort to escape carbon starvation by utilization of PHB hydrolysis products.  (+info)

One-carbon metabolism in methanogenic bacteria: analysis of short-term fixation products of 14CO2 and 14CH3OH incorporated into whole cells. (4/1470)

Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, M. ruminantium, and Methanosarcina barkeri were labeled with 14CO2 (14CO2 + H14CO3- + 14CO32-) for from 2 to 45 s. Radioactivity was recovered in coenzyme M derivatives, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, and several unidentified compounds. The properties of one important structurally unidentified intermediate (yellow fluorescent compound) displayed UV absorbance maxima at pH 1 of 290 and 335 nm, no absorbance in the visible region, and a fluorescence maximum at 460 nm. Label did not appear in organic phosphates until after 1 min. 14CH3OH was converted by M. barkeri primarily into coenzyme M derivatives at 25 s. [2-14C]acetate was assimilated by M. thermoautotrophicum mainly into alanine and succinate during 2 to 240 s, but not into coenzyme M derivatives or yellow fluorescent compound. Cell-free extracts of M. thermoautotrophicum lacked ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity. The data indicated the absence of the Calvin, serine, and hexulose phosphate paths of C1 assimilation in the methanogens examined and indicated that pyruvate was an early intermediate product of net CO2 fixation. The in vivo importance of coenzyme M derivatives in methanogenesis was demonstrated.  (+info)

Targeted delivery and improved therapeutic potential of catalase by chemical modification: combination with superoxide dismutase derivatives. (5/1470)

Four types of bovine liver catalase (CAT) derivatives, succinylated (Suc-CAT), galactosylated (Gal-CAT), mannosylated (Man-CAT), and polyethylene glycol conjugate (PEG-CAT), were synthesized and their pharmacokinetics and therapeutic potential in a hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury model were studied in mice. About 90% of the CAT enzymatic activity was retained after chemical modification. Biodistribution studies showed that 111indium (111In)-Gal-CAT accumulated selectively in the liver parenchymal cells as 111In-CAT, whereas an increased amount of 111In-Suc-CAT and 111In-Man-CAT was delivered to liver nonparenchymal cells. 111In-PEG-CAT exhibited prolonged retention in plasma. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the hepatic uptake clearances of 111In-Suc-CAT, 111In-Gal-CAT, and 111In-Man-CAT were much greater than that of 111In-CAT, whereas that of 111In-PEG-CAT was very small. In the ischemia/reperfusion injury model, in which hepatic injury was induced by occlusion of the portal vein for 30 min followed by 1 h reperfusion, the elevation of plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase levels was slightly inhibited by treatment with native CAT or Gal-CAT. PEG-CAT was less potent. In contrast, Suc-CAT and Man-CAT effectively suppressed the increase in plasma glutamic pyruvic transaminase and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase. Coinjection of mannosylated superoxide dismutase marginally improved the inhibitory effects of CAT derivatives. These results demonstrate that targeted CAT delivery to liver nonparenchymal cells via chemical modification is a promising approach to prevent hepatic injuries caused by reactive oxygen species. The potential usefulness of combining of CAT and superoxide dismutase derivatives is also demonstrated.  (+info)

Pseudo-proteinuria following gelofusine infusion. (6/1470)

Transient massive proteinuria following cardiopulmonary bypass surgery was observed. It was characterized and attributed to post-operative gelofusine infusion. Gelofusine was found to interfere with dye binding but not immunochemical assays of proteinuria. Proteinuria following gelofusine infusion may not reflect underlying glomerular pathology.  (+info)

Comparative disposition of the nephrotoxicant N-(3, 5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide and the non-nephrotoxicant N-(3, 5-difluorophenyl)succinimide in Fischer 344 rats. (7/1470)

Disposition of the nephrotoxicant N-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)succinimide (NDPS) was compared with that of a nontoxic analog, N-(3, 5-difluorophenyl)succinimide (DFPS). Male Fischer 344 rats were administered 0.2 or 0.6 mmol/kg [14C]NDPS or [14C]DFPS (i.p. in corn oil). Plasma concentrations were determined from blood samples obtained through the carotid artery. Urine samples were analyzed for metabolite content by HPLC. Rats were sacrificed at 3 h (DFPS) or 6 h (NDPS) and tissue radiolabel content and covalent binding were determined. [14C]NDPS-derived plasma radioactivity levels were 6- to 21-fold higher and peaked later than those from [14C]DFPS. Six hours after dosing, NDPS was 40% eliminated in the urine compared with approximately 90% for DFPS. By 48 h, only 67% of the NDPS dose was eliminated in urine. In contrast, DFPS excretion was virtually complete within 24 h. NDPS underwent oxidative metabolism to a slightly greater extent than DFPS. Distribution of [14C]NDPS-derived radioactivity into the kidneys was 3- to 6-fold higher than that into the liver or heart, and was more extensive than with [14C]DFPS. NDPS also covalently bound to plasma, renal, and hepatic proteins to a greater extent than DFPS. In summary, NDPS achieves higher tissue and plasma concentrations, covalently binds to a greater extent, and is eliminated more slowly than DFPS. Differences in the lipid solubility of NDPS metabolites and DFPS metabolites may help explain these results. The overall greater tissue exposure of NDPS and its metabolites may contribute to differential toxicity of these analogs.  (+info)

Uptake of bromosulfophthalein via SO2-4/OH- exchange increases the K+ conductance of rat hepatocytes. (8/1470)

In confluent primary cultures of rat hepatocytes, micromolar concentrations of bromosulfophthalein (BSP) lead to a sizeable hyperpolarization of membrane voltage. The effect is a saturable function of BSP concentration yielding an apparent value of 226 micromol/l and a Vmax of -10.3 mV. The BSP-induced membrane hyperpolarization is inhibited by the K+ channel blocker Ba2+, and in cable-analysis and ion-substitution experiments it becomes evident that the effect is due to a significant increase in cell membrane K+ conductance. Voltage changes were attenuated by the simultaneous administration of SO2-4, succinate, and cholate (cis-inhibition) and increased after preincubation with SO2-4 and succinate (trans-stimulation), suggesting that the effect occurs via BSP uptake through the known SO2-4/OH- exchanger. Microfluorometric measurements reveal that BSP-induced activation of K+ conductance is not mediated by changes in cell pH, cell Ca2+, or cell volume. It is concluded that K+ channel activation by BSP (as well as by DIDS and indocyanine green) may reflect a physiological mechanism linking the sinusoidal uptake of certain anions to their electrogenic canalicular secretion.  (+info)

The results of the present study demonstrated that combined treatment with sarpogrelate and rosuvastatin decreased hyperlipid-induced aortic injury by inhibiting p-ERK pathway activation and downregulating expression of the scavenger receptor protein, LOX-1. Furthermore, combined treatment with sarpogrelate and rosuvastatin prevented CD68+ macrophage recruitment and inflammatory cytokine release in ApoE-/- HFD mice.. A previous study reported a significant reduction in coronary stent restenosis in patients with stable angina administered sarpogrelate compared with the placebo group (30). Another study confirmed that sarpogrelate effectively decreases restenosis in patients with stable effort angina (31). Although these studies demonstrated the therapeutic effects of sarpogrelate in atherosclerotic heart disease, most studies focus on the thrombosis-inhibiting effects, whereas the effects of sarpogrelate on blood lipids have not yet been investigated. Statins are well recognized as lipid-lowering ...
The report IA E11A presents an up-to-date, detailed cost analysis of Itaconic Acid production from dimethyl succinate (DMS) and formaldehyde.
E-Vitamin Succinate - description, side Effects of E-Vitamin Succinate, dosage (E-Vitamin Succinate), proper use of E-Vitamin Succinate. Drugs review.
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From a solution of lithium hydroxide and (RS)-phenylsuccinic acid in water, crystals of the title compound, Li+.C10H9O4-, were obtained. The basic structural feature is an approximately square-planar centrosymmetric Li2O2 unit. The Li atoms in this unit are coordinated by further O atoms, yielding a distorted tetrahedral geometry around Li.. ...
From a solution of lithium hydroxide and (RS)-phenylsuccinic acid in water, crystals of the title compound, Li+.C10H9O4-, were obtained. The basic structural feature is an approximately square-planar centrosymmetric Li2O2 unit. The Li atoms in this unit are coordinated by further O atoms, yielding a distorted tetrahedral geometry around Li.. ...
[150 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Potassium succinate Market Insights 2019, Global and Chinese Analysis and Forecast to 2024 report by Prof Research. Potassium succinate Market Insights 2019, Global and Chinese Scenario is...
Metopropol Succinate ER is the extended release formula of Metropropol Succinate and is given as a beta blocker for patients with chest pain, according to WebMD. It lowers blood pressure and...
Aldrich-306355; (1R)-(-)-Dimenthyl succinate 0.99; CAS No.: 34212-59-4; Synonyms: (-)-Di[(1R)-menthyl] succinate; Linear Formula: C24H42O4; Empirical Formula: C24H42O4; find related products, papers, technical documents, MSDS & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
Emoxypine Succinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Emoxypine Succinate is available on the website.
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গুণ Polybutylene Succinate পিবিএস নির্মাতারা & রপ্তানিকারক - কেনা জৈব ভিত্তিক Polybutylene Succinate PBS সম্পূর্ণ Biodegradable পলিমার উপাদান চীন থেকে উত্পাদক.
Spectrometer: Bruker DMX - 400 MHz. Data Source: Madison Metabolomics Consortium - Qiu Cui, Ian Lewis, Francisca Jofre, Mark E. Anderson, John L. Markley.. View the GISSMO record for this entry.. View Assigned Chemical Shifts. ...
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Ammonium succinate | C4H12N2O4 | CID 160625 - structure, chemical names, physical and chemical properties, classification, patents, literature, biological activities, safety/hazards/toxicity information, supplier lists, and more.
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Protein target information for Succinate receptor 1 (pig). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
Cibenzoline succinate/ACM100678328 can be provided in Alfa Chemistry. We are dedicated to provide our customers the best products and services.
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Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
ATCC provides both yeast and bacterial strains to support the production of organic acids including citric, lactic, succinic, gluconic, and itaconic acid.
ATCC provides both yeast and bacterial strains to support the production of organic acids including citric, lactic, succinic, gluconic, and itaconic acid.
Rich, PR. The molecular machinery of Keilins respiratory chain. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Dec31(Pt 6) p.1103, subheading A re-evaluation of yields of ATP synthesis from glucose oxidation.PubMed ID14641005 ...
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Itaconic acid is one of the top bio-based chemical building blocks and thus a promising platform compound for the production of polymers, coatings, chemical compounds and biofuels. It is an important monomer for the synthesis of, e.g. poly-acrylates, rubber, colours, additives, adhesives, emulsifying agents, lipids, pharmaceuticals, herbicides and biodegradable polymers for the packaging industry. Currently, Itaconic acid is commercially produced by microbial fermentation using filamentous fungi of the genus Aspergillus, such as A. terreus. This itaconic acid producer is well characterized, but has several disadvantages. Filamentous fungi are particularly problematic as their morphology is difficult to be controlled in fermentation systems, thus the synthesis process and the quality of production is varying. The offered innovative production process of itaconic acid uses genes encoding for the biosynthesis pathway of unicellular fungi from the family of Ustilaginaceae, in particular Ustilago ...
The average guanidinosuccinic acid (GSA) level in the serum of seventeen uremic subjects was found to be 2.53 mg per cent (0.15… Expand ...
Chloramphenicol sodium succinate 982-57-0 route of synthesis, Chloramphenicol sodium succinate chemical synthesis methods, Chloramphenicol sodium succinate synthetic routes ect.
A gram-negative, anaerobic, nonmotile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacterium that fermented succinate quantitatively to propionate was isolated from a high dilution of rumen ingesta obtained from a dairy cow fed a production diet containing grass silage as the main roughage source. This organism did not grow on any of the following energy sources: 12 carbohydrates, pyruvate, lactate, 7 dicarboxylic acids, aspartate, citrate, and trans-aconitate. Both rumen fluid and yeast extract were necessary for good growth on succinate. The organism was negative for the following characteristics: production of propionate from threonine, protein digestion, sulfide production, nitrate reduction, catalase activity, and urease activity. There was no growth at 22°C and reduced growth at 45°C compared with growth at 39°C. The DNA base composition was 52 mol% G+C. The complete 16S rRNA sequence (EMBL accession number, X81137) was obtained, and the phylogenetic relationships of the organism were determined. The most
Global Itaconic Acid Market By Product Type (Synthesis, Fermentation) And By End-Users/Application (Plasticizer, Lubricating Oil Additive) Global Market Share, Forecast Data, In-Depth Analysis, And Detailed Overview, and Forecast, 2013 - 2026
Although little glucose is formed from succinate in rat hepatocytes, the rate of gluconeogenesis from monomethyl succinate approaches that from L-lactate. Dimethyl succinate is as good as monomethyl succinate at 5 mM, but not at 20 mM. Monoethyl fumarate and 4-methyl malate are only fair glucogenic …
Maturation inhibitors act at the last step of the HIV life cycle and keep the protein known as Gag from helping the virus to mature and become infectious. ...
The Succinate produced by Succinyl CoA-Synthetase in the prior reaction needs to be converted to Oxaloacetate to complete the Krebs cycle. • Both Succinate and Oxaloacetate are 4-carbon compounds • The first step in the conversion is the dehydrogenation of Succinate to yield • In this reaction a C-C bond is being oxidized to produce a C=C bond. This oxidation is energetically more costly than oxidizing a C-O bond. • The redox coenzyme for this reaction is therefore FAD, rather than NAD+ (FAD is a more powerful oxidizing agent compared to NAD+) • FAD is covalently bound to the Succinate Dehydrogenase molecule (via a • The FADH2 has to be oxidized for the enzyme activity to be restored. This oxidation occurs via interaction with the mitochondrial electron transport system (bound to mitochondrial inner membrane). • Succinate Dehydrogenase is tightly bound to the mitochondrial inner membrane • Succinate Dehydrogenase is stereo-specific: the trans- isomer (Fumarate) is produced and ...
Macrophages activated by the Gram-negative bacterial product lipopolysaccharide switch their core metabolism from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. Here we show that inhibition of glycolysis with 2-deoxyglucose suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β but not tumour-necrosis factor-α in mouse macrophages. A comprehensive metabolic map of lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages shows upregulation of glycolytic and downregulation of mitochondrial genes, which correlates directly with the expression profiles of altered metabolites. Lipopolysaccharide strongly increases the levels of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle intermediate succinate. Glutamine-dependent anerplerosis is the principal source of succinate, although the GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) shunt pathway also has a role. Lipopolysaccharide-induced succinate stabilizes hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, an effect that is inhibited by 2-deoxyglucose, with interleukin-1β as an important target. Lipopolysaccharide also increases ...
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Hello, I am looking for a protocol to detect succinate semialdehyde content in yeast cells after heat stress by not using HPLC, could anybody offer some suggestions? Best regards Juxiang Cao ...
গুণ Lyophilized পাউডার ইনজেকশন নির্মাতারা & রপ্তানিকারক - কেনা ইনজেকশন, Hydrocortisone সোডিয়াম Succinate জন্য ইনজেকশন 100mg জন্য হাইড্রোকোরিসিসন পাউডার চীন থেকে উত্পাদক.
This report presents the worldwide Sumatriptan Succinate market size (value, production and consumption), splits the breakdown (data status 2018 and forecast to 2025), by manufacturers, region, type and application. This study also analyzes the market status, market share, growth rate, future trends, market drivers, opportunities and challenges, risks and entry barriers, sales channels, distributors and […]. ...
D-alpha tocopheryl acid succinate 1210 is a white to off-white crystalline powder with little to no odor or taste. This product is derived from IP-certi...
Learn about Imitrex (Sumatriptan Succinate) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications.
Succinate adapted cells were created by growing continuous cultures of the wild-type cells. The culture media was changed every 10 turnovers (100 hr) with the succinate concentration gradually increased by 0.11M. The continuous culture reached a steady-state at which point the succinate concentration was 0.592M. The cells were then harvested for DNA microarray analysis ...
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[button size=small text=MSDS & Datasheet link=/wp-content/uploads/media/BCDatasheets_C_10.26/AXXXX/A-1102-5.pdf]Immobilized Succinyl Con A Lectin
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Emoxypine (MEXIDOL) reduces stress, anxiety and inflamation, it also improves concentration, mood and enhances cognition. Clinical studies showed emoxypine results in a rapid recovery from Sciatica by the spinal and peripheral nerves with a signifigant reduction in severity of pain going down the leg from the lower back.
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Succinate-CoA ligaseEdit. Succinate-CoA ligase is a heterodimer composed of an invariant α-subunit and a substrate-specific ß- ... This combination results in either an ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase (A-SUCL, EC or a GDP-forming succinate-CoA ... utilizing either phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase or succinate-CoA ligase, or monofunctional C1-tetrahydrofolate synthase. ... ligase (G-SUCL, EC The ADP-forming succinate-CoA ligase is potentially the only matrix enzyme generating ATP in the ...
Polybutylene succinate (PBS)Edit. Polybutylene succinate is a thermoplastic polymer resin that has properties comparable to ... Xu, Jun; Guo, Bao-Hua (2010), Chen, George Guo-Qiang (ed.), "Microbial Succinic Acid, Its Polymer Poly(butylene succinate), and ...
Succinate + ubiquinone (Q) Fumarate + ubiquinol (QH2) Succinate dehydrogenase Oxidation uses FAD as a prosthetic group (FAD→ ... In addition, electrons from the succinate oxidation step are transferred first to the FAD cofactor of succinate dehydrogenase, ... Succinate + CoA-SH + GTP Succinyl-CoA synthetase substrate-level. phosphorylation or ADP→ATP instead of GDP→GTP,[15] generates ... and convert 2-oxoglutarate to succinate via succinate semialdehyde, using EC, 2-oxoglutarate decarboxylase, and EC 1.2 ...
... was first isolated from apple juice by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1785.[3] Antoine Lavoisier in 1787 proposed the name acide malique, which is derived from the Latin word for apple, mālum-as is its genus name Malus.[4][5] In German it is named Äpfelsäure (or Apfelsäure) after plural or singular of the fruit apple, but the salt(s) Malat(e). Malic acid is the main acid in many fruits, including apricots, blackberries, blueberries, cherries, grapes, mirabelles, peaches, pears, plums, and quince[6] and is present in lower concentrations in other fruits, such as citrus.[7] It contributes to the sourness of unripe apples. Sour apples contain high proportions of the acid. It is present in grapes and in most wines with concentrations sometimes as high as 5 g/l.[8] It confers a tart taste to wine; the amount decreases with increasing fruit ripeness. The taste of malic acid is very clear and pure in rhubarb, a plant for which it is the primary flavor. It is also a component of some artificial ...
"Ribociclib succinate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine.. .mw-parser-output .navbar{display:inline; ...
Succinate-Q oxidoreductase, also known as complex II or succinate dehydrogenase, is a second entry point to the electron ... Out of these compounds, the succinate/fumarate pair is unusual, as its midpoint potential is close to zero. Succinate can ... Competitive inhibitors of succinate dehydrogenase (complex II).[91]. Antimycin A Piscicide Complex III Binds to the Qi site of ... Fumarate / Succinate +0.03 As shown above, E. coli can grow with reducing agents such as formate, hydrogen, or lactate as ...
The succinate dehydrogenase (also called SDH or Complex II) protein complex catalyzes the oxidation of succinate (succinate + ... Succinate accumulation in the cytosol[edit]. SDH inactivation can block the oxidation of succinate, starting a cascade of ... "Entrez Gene: succinate dehydrogenase complex".. *^ Kita K, Oya H, Gennis RB, Ackrell BA, Kasahara M (January 1990). "Human ... Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur subunit, mitochondrial (SDHB) also known as iron-sulfur subunit of complex II ...
... succinate (CAS 562-10-7). DOXYLAMINE SUCCINATE. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - ... Doxylamine succinate is generally safe for administration to healthy adults. The median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be ~ ... Doxylamine succinate is used in general over-the-counter sleep-aids branded as Somnil (South Africa), Dozile, Donormyl, Lidène ... doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) are the ingredients of Diclegis, approved by the FDA in April 2013 becoming ...
The free base is a yellow oil, while the salt solifenacin succinate forms yellowish crystals. The compound was studied using ... "Solifenacin Succinate Monograph for Professionals". American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. "FDA Approves ... "Solifenacin Succinate - Drug Usage Statistics". ClinCalc. Retrieved 11 April 2020. Lexi-Comp (December 2009). "Solifenacin". ... "Solifenacin succinate". Drug Information Portal. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Medicine portal. ...
Succinate + acceptor <=> fumarate + reduced acceptor Fumarate reductases can be divided into two classes depending on the ... Fumarate reductase is the enzyme that converts fumarate to succinate, and is important in microbial metabolism as a part of ...
... succinate - coenzyme Q reductase (fumarate reductase); and succinate dehydrogenase. See electron transport chain. ...
decyl benzyl succinate. 119450-18-9 C21H36O5. cortol. 516-38-1 ...
... succinate - coenzyme Q reductase (fumarate reductase); and succinate dehydrogenase. See electron transport chain. 3.D.1 The H+ ... Family 3.D.10 The Prokaryotic Succinate Dehydrogenase (SDH) Family Bacteriorhodopsin-like proteins including rhodopsin (see ...
It is formed by the oxidation of succinate by the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase. Fumarate is then converted by the enzyme ... It is produced in eukaryotic organisms from succinate in complex 2 of the electron transport chain via the enzyme succinate ...
An increase in succinate concentration, which is used as a catalyst, may lead to an increase in the speed of the Citric Acid ... Potera, Carol (December 2005). "Making Succinate More Successful". Environmental Health Perspectives. 113 (12): A832-A835. doi: ... of CoA biosynthesis during the pyruvate hydrogenase reaction also causes an increase in the production of both succinate and ...
It binds to the active site of the enzyme without reacting, competing with the usual substrate succinate but lacking the − ... Malonic acid is the classic example of a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (complex II), in the ... This observation was used to deduce the structure of the active site in succinate dehydrogenase. Inhibition of this enzyme ... Dervartanian, D.V.; Veeger, C. (1964). "Studies on succinate dehydrogenase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Specialized ...
succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase Ja methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (acylating) Ja L- ...
succinate + LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are N-succinyl-LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate and ... H2O, whereas its two products are succinate and LL-2,6-diaminoheptanedioate. ...
succinate + acceptor ⇌ fumarate + reduced acceptor. See also[edit]. *Anoxic event. *Purple sulfur bacteria ...
succinate: Differences in uses and effects". Medical News Today. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 24 ... Metoprolol Succinate: A Comparison". Healthline. 28 February 2018. Archived from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved ... The active substance metoprolol is employed either as metoprolol succinate or as metoprolol tartrate (where 100 mg metoprolol ... Cupp M (2009). "Alternatives for Metoprolol Succinate" (PDF). Pharmacist's Letter / Prescriber's Letter. 25 (250302). Retrieved ...
Succinate dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] cytochrome b small subunit, mitochondrial (CybS), also known as succinate dehydrogenase ... Because the mutated SDH enzyme cannot convert succinate to fumarate, succinate accumulates in the cell. As a result, the ... Succinate dehydrogenase is an important enzyme in both the citric acid cycle and the electron transport chain. The SDHD gene is ... "Entrez Gene: succinate dehydrogenase complex". Heutink P, van der Mey AG, Sandkuijl LA, van Gils AP, Bardoel A, Breedveld GJ, ...
The succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) protein complex catalyzes the oxidation of succinate (succinate + ubiquinone => fumarate + ... "Entrez Gene: succinate dehydrogenase complex". Zong NC, Li H, Li H, Lam MP, Jimenez RC, Kim CS, et al. (October 2013). " ... Succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein variant is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SDHA gene. This ... Initially, SDHA oxidizes succinate via deprotonation at the FAD binding site, forming FADH2 and leaving fumarate, loosely bound ...
It was reported that for every mol of succinate that was fermented by P. modesetum, there was between 2.1 and 2.4 grams of cell ... Its growth optimum is pH of 7.1-7.7 and a temperature of 33 °C. The G+C content is 33.9%. It utilizes succinate, fumarate, ... Propionigenium modestum converts succinate (as well as other energy sources) to propionate to generate energy. The conversion ... The original isolation of P. modestum was obtained through a succinate media, which was used as the primary source of energy. ...
"Krintafel (tafenoquine succinate tablets) FDA Advisory Committee Briefing Document" (PDF). 12 July 2018. Archived from the ... "Tafenoquine Succinate (Krintafel) Monograph for Professionals". Retrieved 22 November 2019. Hounkpatin, Aurore B; ...
Ansofaxine "Desvenlafaxine Succinate Monograph for Professionals". American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. ... "Wyeth Receives Approvable Letter From FDA For Pristiq (Desvenlafaxine Succinate) For The Treatment Of Major Depressive Disorder ... "PRODUCT INFORMATION - PRISTIQ desvenlafaxine (as succinate)" (PDF). TGA eBusiness Services. Pfizer Australia Pty Ltd. 10 ... "Desvenlafaxine succinate: A new serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor" (PDF). The Journal of Pharmacology and ...
Succinate receptor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SUCNR1 gene. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000198829 - ... "Entrez Gene: SUCNR1 succinate receptor 1". Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial ...
fumarate + NADH + H+ → succinate + NAD+ This reduction is an anaerobic respiration reaction in E. coli, as it uses electrons ... This produced a succinate yield that was approximately 3 times greater than normal. Several experiments using a similar ... Alternative approaches have altered the redox and ATP balance to optimize the succinate yield. There are a number of other ... For instance, strains for the increased production of ethanol, lactate, succinate and acetate have been developed due to the ...
Media in category "Succinates". The following 30 files are in this category, out of 30 total. ... Retrieved from "" ...
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase (SQR) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in ... Succinate binding site[edit]. SdhA provides the binding site for the oxidation of succinate. The side chains Thr254, His354, ... Succinate oxidation[edit]. Little is known about the exact succinate oxidation mechanism. However, the crystal structure shows ... Succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome b560 subunit, mitochondrial. Pfam PF01127 4. SdhD. DHSD_HUMAN. Succinate dehydrogenase [ ...
3. Succinate stock (500 mM sodium succinate). --Sodium succinate 2.7g. --Distilled water 20ml. Freeze in 5ml amounts. 4. ... SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE SUCCINATE DEHYDROGENASE (MODIFIED FROM PETTE & TYLER, 1983). 1. Phosphate buffer (100mM, pH 7.6). -- ... Succinate stock 0.2ml. --Phenazine methosulphate 0.7mg (one small crystal). Mix just before use, keep out of strong light.. ...
succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) is a succinate (CHEBI:26806) succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) is conjugate base of succinate(1−) (CHEBI: ... sodium succinate (anhydrous) (CHEBI:63675) has part succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031). succinate(1−) (CHEBI:30779) is conjugate acid ... succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) has role Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite (CHEBI:75772) succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) has role ... succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) is a C4-dicarboxylate (CHEBI:61336) succinate(2−) (CHEBI:30031) is a dicarboxylic acid dianion ( ...
Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Loxapine Succinate Oral ... WebMD provides common contraindications for Loxapine Succinate Oral. ...
Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the early development of the brain and other body systems ... Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency results from mutations in the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene. SUCLG1 gene mutations can cause fatal ... Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the early development of the brain and other body systems ... The SUCLA2 and SUCLG1 genes each provide instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called succinate-CoA ligase. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Emoxypine Succinate is available on the website. ... Emoxypine Succinate is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Other names: Dipropyl butanedioate; Butanedioic acid, dipropyl ester; Succinic acid, dipropyl ester; Di-n-propyl succinate; ...
Methylprednisolone succinate is provided as two different salts when used as a pharmaceutical drug: a sodium salt ( ... Methylprednisolone succinate, sold under the brand names Solu-Medrol among others, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid ... methylprednisolone sodium succinate; brand name Solu-Medrol, others) and a hydrogen salt (methylprednisolone hemisuccinate or ... methylprednisolone hydrogen succinate; brand name Urbason). List of corticosteroid esters § Methylprednisolone esters Elks J ( ...
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWGs strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIEDTM on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more , Legal Disclaimer ...
The antihistamine drug doxylamine succinate promotes sleep and relieves cold symptoms. Drinking alcohol while taking doxylamine ... The antihistamine drug doxylamine succinate promotes sleep and relieves cold symptoms. Drinking alcohol while taking doxylamine ...
Nandrolone hydrogen succinate (brand name Anabolico, Menidrabol), or nandrolone hemisuccinate, also known as 19-nortestosterone ...
Definition of succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Includes medical ... succinate semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Definition: an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of succinate semialdehyde and either ... NAD+ or NADP+ to form succinate and NADH (or NADPH); a deficiency of this enzyme is associated with 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria. ...
... Juxiang Cao caojuxi at Fri Apr 28 22:05:40 EST 2006 *Previous message: ... Hello, I am looking for a protocol to detect succinate semialdehyde content in yeast cells after heat stress by not using HPLC ...
Top prescribers for SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE. « First ‹ Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 … Next › Last » ... Prescriber Checkup » SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE SUMATRIPTAN SUCCINATE. Sumatriptan is used to treat the symptoms of migraine ...
WebMD provides information about interactions between Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate Intravenous and corticosteroids- ...
noun) A product in the Krebs cycle formed from succinic/butanedioic acid is an example of a succinate.... ... The definition of a succinate is a salt or an ester made of succinic acid. ( ... Succinamide, C 2 H 4(CONH2)2, best obtained by the action of ammonia on diethyl succinate, crystallizes in needles which melt ... A product in the Krebs cycle formed from succinic/butanedioic acid is an example of a succinate. ...
Doxylamine succinate salt; CAS Number: 562-10-7; EC Number: 209-228-7; Linear Formula: C17H22N2O · C4H6O4; find Sigma-Aldrich- ... Doxylamine succinate salt has been used as a therapeutic drug to check developmental toxicity. ...
Succinate Dehydrogenase (Sdh) fromBradyrhizobium japonicum Is Closely Related to Mitochondrial Sdh David J. Westenberg, Mary ... Advantage of Upregulation of Succinate Dehydrogenase in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms Rosmarie Gaupp, Steffen Schlag, Manuel ... Succinate Dehydrogenase and Other Respiratory Pathways in Thylakoid Membranes of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Capacity ... Succinate:Quinol Oxidoreductases in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803: Presence and Function in Metabolism ...
Furthermore, poly(butylene succinate) (PBS)/ACNs nanocomposites were also prepared via melt-mixing process, and the reinforcing ... Cellulose nanocrystals Surface acetylation Poly(butylene succinate) Nanocrystal reinforcement Nanocomposites This is a preview ...
Hydrocortisone sodium succinate) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Hydrocortisone sodium succinate, the active ingredient in SOLU-CORTEF, belongs to a group of medicines called corticosteroids. ... are allergic to SOLU-CORTEF, other medicines containing hydrocortisone sodium succinate any of the ingredients listed at the ... SOLU-CORTEF (hydrocortisone sodium succinate) can be identified by an Australian Register Number which is found on the carton. ...
... methylprednisolone sodium succinate) intended for persons living in Australia. ... Methylprednisolone sodium succinate, the active ingredient in Methylprednisolone Alphapharm, belongs to a group of medicines ... Each vial of Methylprednisolone Alphapharm contains 500 mg and 1 g of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. ...
Metoprolol succinate is an extended-release version of metoprolol. This drug is a beta blocker that is used to treat high blood ... Metoprolol succinate is an extended-release version of metoprolol. This drug is a beta blocker that is used to treat high blood ... Metoprolol succinate is just one of many drugs known as beta blockers. These medications block the effects of epinephrine on ... If metoprolol succinate is not effective, other beta blockers may be used to control blood pressure. Examples of beta blockers ...
Loxapine succinate salt for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and ...
Hydrocotisone Sodium Succinate (Hydrocortisone) glucocorticosteroid side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and ... Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate is used most often as a supportive care medication. Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate is ... If you are on a daily dose of Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate, and you miss a dose, take the dose as soon as you remember. You ... Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate eye ointment, or eye drops, is given to treat or prevent many inflammatory eye conditions. ...
... is a bioluminescent assay for detecting the activity of JumonjiC (JmjC) ... The Succinate-Glo™ JmjC Demethylase/Hydroxylase Assay rapidly detects succinate formation in JumonjiC histone demethylase and ... After the demethylase/dioxygenase reaction, Succinate Detection Reagent I is added to convert succinate to ATP and allow the ... The Succinate-Glo™ Assay has good linearity and sensitivity. The assay is performed in a single well of a multiwell plate, and ...
Information about Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate (SOLU-MEDROL ®), a glucocorticoid used to treat a variety of health ... About: Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate (SOLU-MEDROL ®) Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is a glucocorticoid. ... How to take Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate. Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is given as either an intravenous infusion ... Taking methylprednisolone sodium succinate with food or milk is generally enough to prevent nausea and heartburn. If possible, ...
24 HR metoprolol succinate 50 MG Extended Release Oral Tablet. SCD. 3. 866436. 24 HR metoprolol succinate 50 MG (as metoprolol ... Risk Reduction with Metoprolol Succinate Extended-Release Tablets. Nominal P-value. Placebo n=2001. Metoprolol succinate ... See full prescribing information for METOPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLETS. METOPROLOL SUCCINATE extended-release ... Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, metoprolol succinate, is a beta 1-selective adrenoceptor blocking agent. ...
  • The antihistamine drug doxylamine succinate promotes sleep and relieves cold symptoms. (
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  • This study is being done to compare the effects of bucindolol hydrochloride (bucindolol) to metoprolol succinate (Toprol-XL) on the recurrence of symptomatic atrial fibrillation/atrial flu. (
  • Metoprolol succinate (Toprol-XL) belongs to a group of drugs called beta-blockers. (
  • Toprol XL product information published by the manufacturer describes several digestive system side effects that can occur in people taking metoprolol succinate. (
  • metoprolol weight gain Trust in 4 dosage strengths to suit your patient's needs TOPROL-XL and its authorized generic, metoprolol succinate (distributed by Lannett Company, Inc.), are available in 4 dosage strengths-25 mg, 50 mg, 100 mg, and 200 mg. (
  • Produced by the pharmaceutical company AstraZeneca under the brand name of Toprol XL, Metoprolol Succinate ER was approved by the FDA in 2001. (
  • A Toprol XL metoprolol succinate is a beta-1 selective adrenergic receptor blocker used in the treatment of hypertension high blood pressure most common side effects with Toprol XL. (
  • when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H. (
  • Y-Oxyacids are formed when aldehydes are heated with sodium succinate and sodium acetate. (
  • Hydrocortisone sodium succinate, the active ingredient in SOLU-CORTEF, belongs to a group of medicines called corticosteroids. (
  • Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate has many uses in the treatment of cancer. (
  • Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate is used most often as a supportive care medication. (
  • Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate is classified as a glucocorticosteroid. (
  • Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate relieves inflammation in various parts of the body. (
  • If you are on a daily dose of Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate, and you miss a dose, take the dose as soon as you remember. (
  • Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate eye ointment, or eye drops, is given to treat or prevent many inflammatory eye conditions. (
  • You may be given Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate as a lotion or a cream (topical) to treat skin disorders. (
  • The amount of Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate you will receive depends on many factors, including your height and weight, your general health or other health problems, and the reason you are receiving this drug. (
  • This list includes common and less common side effects for individuals taking Hydrocortisone Sodium Succinate. (
  • Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is a glucocorticoid. (
  • Synthetic (man-made) forms of steroids, including methylprednisolone sodium succinate, are used primarily to decrease inflammation. (
  • Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is used to treat a variety health issues including severe allergic reactions, asthma, autoimmune diseases, blood disorders, gastrointestinal diseases and endocrine disorders. (
  • Methylprednisolone sodium succinate is given as either an intravenous infusion (IV, directly into a vein) or as an intramuscular injection (as an injection directly into a muscle). (
  • There are a number of things you can do to manage the side effects of methylprednisolone sodium succinate. (
  • Taking methylprednisolone sodium succinate with food or milk is generally enough to prevent nausea and heartburn. (
  • Each 0.5 mL of IMITREX Injection 8 mg/mL solution contains 4 mg of sumatriptan (base) as the succinate salt and 3.8 mg of sodium chloride, USP in Water for Injection, USP. (
  • Sagent Pharmaceuticals announced the voluntary nationwide recall of ten lots of Methylprednisolone Sodium Succinate for Injection, USP, 40mg, 125mg, and 1g. (
  • The sodium salt of hydrocortisone succinate with glucocorticoid property. (
  • Hydrocortisone sodium succinate is chemically similar to the endogenous hormone that stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive activities, in addition to exhibiting minor mineralocorticoid effects. (
  • Prednisolone Hemisuccinate arises from the use of Prednisolone Sodium Succinate. (
  • This method of Prednisolone Hemisuccinate screening detects the recent use of veterinary preparations containing the active ingredient Prednisolone Sodium Succinate. (
  • It is suggested that succinate synthesis under functional (sodium azide) or environmental (N(2)) anaerobic conditions occurs via the reductive part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle. (
  • Kinetics of sodium succinate cotransport across renal brush-border membranes. (
  • Effects of diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and diazepam on the metabolism of methylprednisolone and its sodium succinate. (
  • Chloramphenicol Sodium Succinate is the sodium succinate salt form of chloramphenicol, a nitrobenzene derivate and broad-spectrum antibiotic with antibacterial activity. (
  • The SUCLA2 and SUCLG1 genes each provide instructions for making one part (subunit) of an enzyme called succinate-CoA ligase. (
  • SdhE interacts with the catalytic subunit of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex. (
  • In step 6 of the citric acid cycle , SQR catalyzes the oxidation of succinate to fumarate with the reduction of ubiquinone to ubiquinol . (
  • The succinate -binding site and ubiquinone -binding site are connected by a chain of redox centers including FAD and the iron - sulfur clusters. (
  • The structure of Escherichia coli succinate dehydrogenase (SQR), analogous to the mitochondrial respiratory complex II, has been determined, revealing the electron transport pathway from the electron donor, succinate, to the terminal electron acceptor, ubiquinone. (
  • The proper name for succinate dehydrogenase is succinate:ubiquinone oxidoreductase ( EC 1,3,5,1 ). (
  • This is an oxidation-reduction reaction where succinate is oxidized and ubiquinone (Q) is reduced to ubiquinol (QH 2 ). (
  • Succinate dehydrogenase ( SDH ) or succinate-coenzyme Q reductase ( SQR ) or respiratory Complex II is an enzyme complex, found in many bacterial cells and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of eukaryotes . (
  • [1] Histochemical analysis showing high succinate dehydrogenase in muscle demonstrates high mitochondrial content and high oxidative potential. (
  • Succinate-CoA ligase is involved in producing and maintaining the building blocks of mitochondrial DNA. (
  • Ischaemic accumulation of succinate controls reperfusion injury through mitochondrial ROS. (
  • We show that selective accumulation of the citric acid cycle intermediate succinate is a universal metabolic signature of ischaemia in a range of tissues and is responsible for mitochondrial ROS production during reperfusion. (
  • After reperfusion, the accumulated succinate is rapidly re-oxidized by succinate dehydrogenase, driving extensive ROS generation by reverse electron transport at mitochondrial complex I. Decreasing ischaemic succinate accumulation by pharmacological inhibition is sufficient to ameliorate in vivo ischaemia-reperfusion injury in murine models of heart attack and stroke. (
  • This is the site where succinate is oxidized to fumarate and it projects into the cytoplasm of bacterial cells or the mitochondrial matrix in eukaryotic cells. (
  • Succinate dehdrogenase is a mitochondrial membrane protein. (
  • reported that ischemic accumulation of succinate controls redox dynamics of reperfusion injury through mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. (
  • Visualization of mitochondrial respiratory function using cytochrome c oxidase/succinate dehydrogenase (COX/SDH) double-labeling histochemistry. (
  • Ischaemic succinate accumulation arises from reversal of succinate dehydrogenase, which in turn is driven by fumarate overflow from purine nucleotide breakdown and partial reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. (
  • Succinate + a quinone = fumarate + a quinol. (
  • A possible role of succinate synthesis in the regeneration of NAD ('fumarate respiration') is discussed. (
  • In addition to the active ingredient solifenacin succinate, each VESIcare tablet also contains the following inert ingredients: lactose monohydrate, corn starch, hypromellose 2910, magnesium stearate, talc, polyethylene glycol 8000 and titanium dioxide with yellow ferric oxide (5 mg VESIcare tablet) or red ferric oxide (10 mg VESIcare tablet). (
  • Along with its needed effects, metoprolol (the active ingredient contained in Metoprolol Succinate ER) may cause some unwanted effects. (
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use METOPROLOL SUCCINATE EXTENDED-RELEASE TABLETS safely and effectively. (
  • Metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets, metoprolol succinate, is a beta 1 -selective adrenoceptor blocking agent. (
  • Switching from immediate release metoprolol to metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets: use the same total daily dose of metoprolol succinate extended-release tablets. (
  • The objective of this study is to compare the rate and extent of absorption of sumatriptan from a test formulation of Sumatriptan Succinate 100 mg Tablets versus the reference Imitrex® 100 mg Tablets under fasting conditions. (
  • Metoprolol succinate extended release tablets 100 mg orally once a day buy cheapest kamagra Metoprolol Succinate ER is a prescription medication dispensed in a 25 mg tablet form for oral ingestion. (
  • Open Label, Randomized, Two Way Crossover, Comparative Evaluation of Relative Bioavailabilities of Two Formulations of Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets 100 mg (Dr. Reddy's Laboratories Limited, India)With the Reference Formulation Imitrex Tablets 100 mg (Glaxosmilthkine) in Healthy Adult Subjects Under Fed Conditions. (
  • The objective of this study was to compare the relative bioavailability of Sumatriptan Succinate Tablets 100 mg with Imitrex Tablets 100 mg under fed conditions in healthy adult human subjects. (
  • VESIcare® (solifenacin succinate) is a muscarinic receptor antagonist . (
  • Solifenacin succinate is a white to pale-yellowish-white crystal or crystalline powder. (
  • Each VESIcare tablet contains 5 or 10 mg of solifenacin succinate and is formulated for oral administration. (
  • solifenacin succinate manufacturers and suppliers with contacts and product range are mentioned in the study. (
  • Furthermore, solifenacin succinate prices in regional markets can be found in the report with regards to countries and companies. (
  • The report also focuses on solifenacin succinate consumers by providing data on companies that use it. (
  • Solifenacin Succinate (CAS 24278-38-2) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in February, 2018. (
  • Please note that Solifenacin Succinate (CAS 24278-38-2) Market Research Report 2018 is a half ready publication and contents are subject to change. (
  • IMITREX Injection contains sumatriptan succinate, a selective 5-HT 1B/1D receptor agonist . (
  • Sumatriptan succinate is a white to off-white powder that is readily soluble in water and in saline . (
  • SdhA provides the binding site for the oxidation of succinate . (
  • Furthermore, these findings reveal a new pathway for metabolic control of ROS production in vivo, while demonstrating that inhibition of ischaemic succinate accumulation and its oxidation after subsequent reperfusion is a potential therapeutic target to decrease ischaemia-reperfusion injury in a range of pathologies. (
  • Ischemic preconditioning protects against cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury without affecting succinate accumulation or oxidation. (
  • Paraffin oxidation is the initial method to prepare succinate [ 8 ]. (
  • However, bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber also produces large amounts of succinate and, to date, no study has focused on the role of succinate on host metabolism. (
  • Another name for SdhE is succinate dehydrogenase assembly factor 2 (Sdhaf2). (
  • See also Category:Succinic acid and Category:Succinate ion . (
  • The definition of a succinate is a salt or an ester made of succinic acid. (
  • We are HACCP certified plants, and Succinic Acid and Disodium Succinate are some of our Principal products. (
  • 17. A method of preparing (+)-a-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt which comprises mixing (+)-a-dihydrotetrabenazine free base and succinic acid together with a solvent, allowing time for (+)-a-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt to form and isolating the succinate salt. (
  • Magnesium succinate is the magnesium salt of succinic acid used as a source of the essential mineral magnesium in dietary supplements. (
  • A product in the Krebs cycle formed from succinic/butanedioic acid is an example of a succinate. (
  • Succinate, also known as 1,4-butanedioic acid or amber acid, is a four-carbon dicarboxylic acid for multiple applications. (
  • Nandrolone hydrogen succinate (brand name Anabolico, Menidrabol), or nandrolone hemisuccinate, also known as 19-nortestosterone 17β-(3-carboxy)propionate, is a synthetic androgen and anabolic steroid and a nandrolone ester that is or has been marketed in Italy. (
  • Succistearin (stearoyl propylene glycol hydrogen succinate). (
  • There are some conditions which may increase the risk of taking metoprolol succinate or at least require an adjusted dosage or increased doctor observation during treatment. (
  • It is not recommended to stop taking Metopropol Succinate ER without first consulting a doctor, as the dosage should be tapered down slowly, rather than abruptly stopping the medication. (
  • 6. A unit dosage form comprising between 1 mg and 30 mg of (+)-a- dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. (
  • 15. A unit dosage form according to claim 1 or claim 2 the unit dosage form contains no more than 20% by weight, relative to the (+)-a-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt, of any other isomer of dihydrotetrabenazine. (
  • Parabacteroides distasonis Alleviates Obesity and Metabolic Dysfunctions via Production of Succinate and Secondary Bile Acids. (
  • We show that, as M. tuberculosis adapts to hypoxia, it slows and remodels its tricarboxylic acid cycle to increase production of succinate, which is used to flexibly sustain membrane potential, ATP synthesis, and anaplerosis, in response to varying degrees of O 2 limitation and the presence or absence of the alternate electron acceptor nitrate. (
  • Isocitrate lyase-dependent production of succinate affords M. tuberculosis with a unique and bioenergetically efficient metabolic means of entry into and exit from hypoxia-induced quiescence. (
  • Succinate: A Promising Therapeutic Target for Reperfusion Injury. (
  • 2) These findings, as the investigators anticipated, will lead to the development of a novel class of drugs--"succinate drugs" seems to be good term for them--for preventing and/or or treating reperfusion injury. (
  • The research study properties of the starch-based foam from mixed between tapioca starch and octenyl succinate starch (OSA starch), have addition alpha-chitin prepared by hot compression molding method. (
  • An alternative way is using modified starch in order to improve hydrophobicity of the starch as octenyl succinate starch (OSA). (
  • In this study, morphology, chemical structure, density, flexural and thermal properties of tapioca starch/octenyl succinate starch blended starch/chitin composite foams were investigated. (
  • Dimethyl succinate is as good as monomethyl succinate at 5 mM, but not at 20 mM. (
  • Show all 74 recent products that contain DIHEPTYL SUCCINATE. (
  • Diheptyl succinate is a lightweight, emollient texture enhancer that is sometimes used as a replacement for silicones in cosmetic products. (
  • Methylprednisolone succinate, sold under the brand names Solu-Medrol among others, is a synthetic glucocorticoid corticosteroid and a corticosteroid ester-specifically the C21 succinate ester of methylprednisolone-which is used by intravenous administration. (
  • The activity of a particulate succinate cytochrome c reductase is inhibited by antimycin, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline-N-oxide, 2-(9-cyclohexyl-n-nonyl)-3-hydroxy-1,4naphthoquinone and thenoyltrifluoroacetone. (
  • The ratio of antimycin A (required for complete inhibition) to the molar content of the cytochrome b of the reductase is approximately 0.5 in contrast to the reported value of 1.0 or higher for succinate oxidase preparations. (
  • In comparing the structure of the active sites in the PALA-enzyme complex to the active sites in the carbamoyl phosphate-succinate-enzyme complex, we find that they are similar. (
  • These GISTs have a distinct transcriptional profile including over-expression of the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and exhibit deficiency in the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) enzyme complex. (
  • Cheng, V.W.T., Johnson, A., Rothery, R.A. and Weiner, J.H. (2008) Alternative Sites for Proton Entry from the Cytoplasm to the Quinone Binding Site in Escherichia coli Succinate Dehydrogenase. (
  • In the pharmaceutical industry, succinate acts as an anticarcinogenic agent and as an insulinotropic agent [ 3 ]. (
  • Succinate is an interesting chemical for industries producing food and pharmaceutical products, surfactants, detergents and biodegradable plastics. (
  • Also provided are (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt for use in medicine, pharmaceutical compositions comprising (+)-α-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient and the uses of (+)-α- dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt as a VMAT2 receptor antagonist and in the treatment of a movement disorder such as Tourette's syndrome. (
  • 3. A pharmaceutical composition comprising (+)-a-dihydrotetrabenazine succinate salt and a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient. (
  • This results in SdhA flavinylation which is required for the proper function succinate dehydrogenase. (
  • Succinate Dehydrogenase and Other Respiratory Pathways in Thylakoid Membranes of Synechocystis sp. (
  • dramatically advanced our understanding of impaired succinate pathways in reperfusion ischemic injury, whereas no evidence for similar impairment was developed in the 2004 study. (
  • Through their dynamics with GPCRs, succinate and [alpha]-ketoglutarate serve important signaling pathways, including those that affect renin functions in the kidney. (
  • In this review, recent attempts and experiences devoted to reduce the production cost of biobased succinate are summarized, including strain improvement, fermentation engineering, and downstream processing. (
  • Dipropyl Succinate (CAS 925-15-5) Market Research Report 2018 aims at providing comprehensive data on dipropyl succinate market globally and regionally (Europe, Asia, North America, Latin America etc. (
  • Dipropyl Succinate (CAS 925-15-5) Market Research Report 2018 contents were worked out and placed on the website in March, 2018. (
  • Global Metoprolol Succinate Market (2018-2023) report presents a comprehensive overview, market shares, and growth opportunities of Metoprolol Succinate market by product type, application, key manufacturers and key regions and countries. (
  • Succinate is then excreted because the oxidative part of the tricarboxylic acid cycle is inactive. (
  • Succinamide, C 2 H 4(CONH2)2, best obtained by the action of ammonia on diethyl succinate , crystallizes in needles which melt at 242243° C., and is soluble in hot water. (
  • Finally, succinate is a precursor to many specialized polyesters, for example, polybutylene succinate (PBS) [ 5 ], which might be its most promising application area. (
  • InfodriveIndia provides latest Polybutylene Succinate export import data and directory of Polybutylene Succinate exporters, Polybutylene Succinate importers, Polybutylene Succinate buyers, Polybutylene Succinate suppliers, manufacturers compiled from actual shipment data from Indian Customs and US Customs. (
  • Along with the India Export Import data, InfodriveIndia also provides Polybutylene Succinate USA Import Data which is accurately gathered using Bills of lading and Shipping Manifests filed with US Customs at US Ports. (
  • Found 354 Polybutylene Succinate Global Export Import Custom Shipment Data with 45 importers & 29 exporters information. (
  • Hello, I am looking for a protocol to detect succinate semialdehyde content in yeast cells after heat stress by not using HPLC, could anybody offer some suggestions? (
  • Diisooctyl succinate is a synthetic or plant-derived (Paula's Choice uses the latter) transparent liquid emollient that lends a cushiony texture to creams and balms while imparting a silky finish. (
  • The 50-mg dose of metoprolol succinate ER is a mid-range amount. (
  • Thus, microbiota-produced succinate is a previously unsuspected bacterial metabolite improving glycemic control through activation of IGN. (
  • The FDA medicaments that lidocaine should not be affected to blood pressure medication metoprolol succinate tooth pain in pregnancy babies, because lidocaine is easily available into the bloodstream and may feel death. (
  • Lowering high blood pressure medication metoprolol succinate pressure helps prevent people, heart attacks, and devising drug interactions by blocking the use of certain op chemicals in your medical (such as epinephrine) that figure the heart and. (
  • I'm asking all this on here as I slide I will get more blood pressure medication metoprolol succinate than I just have from my problem nurse. (
  • Studies indicate that SdhE is required by bacteria in order to grow on succinate, using succinate as its only source of carbon and additionally for the function, of succinate dehydrogenase, a vital component of the electron transport chain which produces energy. (
  • The important point is that FAD is part of a short electron transfer chain from succinate to QH 2 . (
  • Metoprolol succinate is a beta blocker drug. (
  • Metopropol Succinate ER is the extended release formula of Metropropol Succinate and is given as a beta blocker for patients with chest pain, according to WebMD. (
  • The most common side effects of metoprolol succinate relate to its actions as a beta-blocker. (
  • Metoprolol Succinate is a beta-blocker used to treatÂchest painÂ(angina),Âheart failure, andÂhigh blood pressure. (
  • and (2) succinate retention occurs partly due to reversal of the malate/aspartate shuttle. (
  • Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is an inherited disorder that affects the early development of the brain and other body systems. (
  • Most children with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency also experience a failure to thrive, which means that they gain weight and grow more slowly than expected. (
  • Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency causes breathing difficulties that often lead to recurrent infections of the respiratory tract. (
  • These infections can be life-threatening, and most people with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency live only into childhood or adolescence. (
  • A few individuals with succinate-CoA ligase deficiency have had an even more severe form of the disorder known as fatal infantile lactic acidosis. (
  • Although the exact prevalence of succinate-CoA ligase deficiency is unknown, it appears to be very rare. (
  • Succinate-CoA ligase deficiency results from mutations in the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene. (
  • Mutations in either the SUCLA2 or SUCLG1 gene disrupt the normal function of succinate-CoA ligase. (
  • These problems lead to hypotonia, muscle weakness, and the other characteristic features of succinate-CoA ligase deficiency. (
  • succinate-CoA ligase, GDP-forming, beta. (