Vitamin K: A lipid cofactor that is required for normal blood clotting. Several forms of vitamin K have been identified: VITAMIN K 1 (phytomenadione) derived from plants, VITAMIN K 2 (menaquinone) from bacteria, and synthetic naphthoquinone provitamins, VITAMIN K 3 (menadione). Vitamin K 3 provitamins, after being alkylated in vivo, exhibit the antifibrinolytic activity of vitamin K. Green leafy vegetables, liver, cheese, butter, and egg yolk are good sources of vitamin K.Vitamin K 1: A family of phylloquinones that contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and an isoprenoid side chain. Members of this group of vitamin K 1 have only one double bond on the proximal isoprene unit. Rich sources of vitamin K 1 include green plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria. Vitamin K1 has antihemorrhagic and prothrombogenic activity.Vitamin K Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN K in the diet, characterized by an increased tendency to hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGIC DISORDERS). Such bleeding episodes may be particularly severe in newborn infants. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1182)Vitamin K 2: A group of substances similar to VITAMIN K 1 which contains a ring of 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinione and an isoprenoid side chain of varying number of isoprene units. In vitamin K 2, each isoprene unit contains a double bond. They are produced by bacteria including the normal intestinal flora.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Vitamin A: Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.Vitamin K 3: A synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo.Vitamins: Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Vitamin K Epoxide Reductases: OXIDOREDUCTASES which mediate vitamin K metabolism by converting inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Vitamin B 12: A cobalt-containing coordination compound produced by intestinal micro-organisms and found also in soil and water. Higher plants do not concentrate vitamin B 12 from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. INTRINSIC FACTOR is important for the assimilation of vitamin B 12.Vitamin A Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN A in the diet, characterized by NIGHT BLINDNESS and other ocular manifestations such as dryness of the conjunctiva and later of the cornea (XEROPHTHALMIA). Vitamin A deficiency is a very common problem worldwide, particularly in developing countries as a consequence of famine or shortages of vitamin A-rich foods. In the United States it is found among the urban poor, the elderly, alcoholics, and patients with malabsorption. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1179)Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Carbon-Carbon Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-carbon bond. These are the carboxylating enzymes and are mostly biotinyl-proteins. EC 6.4.Vitamin B 6: VITAMIN B 6 refers to several PICOLINES (especially PYRIDOXINE; PYRIDOXAL; & PYRIDOXAMINE) that are efficiently converted by the body to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, and aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into PYRIDOXAMINE phosphate. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990). Most of vitamin B6 is eventually degraded to PYRIDOXIC ACID and excreted in the urine.Vitamin E Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)Vitamin B 12 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 12 in the diet, characterized by megaloblastic anemia. Since vitamin B 12 is not present in plants, humans have obtained their supply from animal products, from multivitamin supplements in the form of pills, and as additives to food preparations. A wide variety of neuropsychiatric abnormalities is also seen in vitamin B 12 deficiency and appears to be due to an undefined defect involving myelin synthesis. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p848)Warfarin: An anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. Warfarin is indicated for the prophylaxis and/or treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism, and atrial fibrillation with embolization. It is also used as an adjunct in the prophylaxis of systemic embolism after myocardial infarction. Warfarin is also used as a rodenticide.Cholecalciferol: Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Vitamin B 6 Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN B 6 in the diet, characterized by dermatitis, glossitis, cheilosis, and stomatitis. Marked deficiency causes irritability, weakness, depression, dizziness, peripheral neuropathy, and seizures. In infants and children typical manifestations are diarrhea, anemia, and seizures. Deficiency can be caused by certain medications, such as isoniazid.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.K562 Cells: An ERYTHROLEUKEMIA cell line derived from a CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA patient in BLAST CRISIS.Prothrombin Time: Clotting time of PLASMA recalcified in the presence of excess TISSUE THROMBOPLASTIN. Factors measured are FIBRINOGEN; PROTHROMBIN; FACTOR V; FACTOR VII; and FACTOR X. It is used for monitoring anticoagulant therapy with COUMARINS.Antifibrinolytic Agents: Agents that prevent fibrinolysis or lysis of a blood clot or thrombus. Several endogenous antiplasmins are known. The drugs are used to control massive hemorrhage and in other coagulation disorders.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Osteocalcin: Vitamin K-dependent calcium-binding protein synthesized by OSTEOBLASTS and found primarily in BONES. Serum osteocalcin measurements provide a noninvasive specific marker of bone metabolism. The protein contains three residues of the amino acid gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla), which, in the presence of CALCIUM, promotes binding to HYDROXYAPATITE and subsequent accumulation in BONE MATRIX.Prothrombin: A plasma protein that is the inactive precursor of thrombin. It is converted to thrombin by a prothrombin activator complex consisting of factor Xa, factor V, phospholipid, and calcium ions. Deficiency of prothrombin leads to hypoprothrombinemia.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Receptors, Calcitriol: Proteins, usually found in the cytoplasm, that specifically bind calcitriol, migrate to the nucleus, and regulate transcription of specific segments of DNA with the participation of D receptor interacting proteins (called DRIP). Vitamin D is converted in the liver and kidney to calcitriol and ultimately acts through these receptors.Vitamin D-Binding Protein: An alpha-globulin found in the plasma of man and other vertebrates. It is apparently synthesized in the liver and carries vitamin D and its metabolites through the circulation and mediates the response of tissue. It is also known as group-specific component (Gc). Gc subtypes are used to determine specific phenotypes and gene frequencies. These data are employed in the classification of population groups, paternity investigations, and in forensic medicine.Anticoagulants: Agents that prevent clotting.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.International Normalized Ratio: System established by the World Health Organization and the International Committee on Thrombosis and Hemostasis for monitoring and reporting blood coagulation tests. Under this system, results are standardized using the International Sensitivity Index for the particular test reagent/instrument combination used.Hypoprothrombinemias: Absence or reduced levels of PROTHROMBIN in the blood.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Pyridoxine: The 4-methanol form of VITAMIN B 6 which is converted to PYRIDOXAL PHOSPHATE which is a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. Although pyridoxine and Vitamin B 6 are still frequently used as synonyms, especially by medical researchers, this practice is erroneous and sometimes misleading (EE Snell; Ann NY Acad Sci, vol 585 pg 1, 1990).1-Carboxyglutamic Acid: Found in various tissues, particularly in four blood-clotting proteins including prothrombin, in kidney protein, in bone protein, and in the protein present in various ectopic calcifications.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Rodenticides: Substances used to destroy or inhibit the action of rats, mice, or other rodents.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Phenprocoumon: Coumarin derivative that acts as a long acting oral anticoagulant.Calcitriol: The physiologically active form of vitamin D. It is formed primarily in the kidney by enzymatic hydroxylation of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (CALCIFEDIOL). Its production is stimulated by low blood calcium levels and parathyroid hormone. Calcitriol increases intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphorus, and in concert with parathyroid hormone increases bone resorption.Avitaminosis: A condition due to a deficiency of one or more essential vitamins. (Dorland, 27th ed)Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPaseVitamin B Deficiency: A condition due to deficiency in any member of the VITAMIN B COMPLEX. These B vitamins are water-soluble and must be obtained from the diet because they are easily lost in the urine. Unlike the lipid-soluble vitamins, they cannot be stored in the body fat.Ergocalciferols: Derivatives of ERGOSTEROL formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. They differ from CHOLECALCIFEROL in having a double bond between C22 and C23 and a methyl group at C24.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Blood Coagulation Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, that are involved in the blood coagulation process.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Quinone Reductases: NAD(P)H:(quinone acceptor) oxidoreductases. A family that includes three enzymes which are distinguished by their sensitivity to various inhibitors. EC 1.6.99.2 (NAD(P)H DEHYDROGENASE (QUINONE);) is a flavoprotein which reduces various quinones in the presence of NADH or NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol. EC 1.6.99.5 (NADH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADH, is inhibited by AMP and 2,4-dinitrophenol but not by dicoumarol or folic acid derivatives. EC 1.6.99.6 (NADPH dehydrogenase (quinone)) requires NADPH and is inhibited by dicoumarol and folic acid derivatives but not by 2,4-dinitrophenol.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dicumarol: An oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases.Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum: An inherited disorder of connective tissue with extensive degeneration and calcification of ELASTIC TISSUE primarily in the skin, eye, and vasculature. At least two forms exist, autosomal recessive and autosomal dominant. This disorder is caused by mutations of one of the ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. Patients are predisposed to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION and GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blood Coagulation: The process of the interaction of BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS that results in an insoluble FIBRIN clot.Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.Rickets: Disorders caused by interruption of BONE MINERALIZATION manifesting as OSTEOMALACIA in adults and characteristic deformities in infancy and childhood due to disturbances in normal BONE FORMATION. The mineralization process may be interrupted by disruption of VITAMIN D; PHOSPHORUS; or CALCIUM homeostasis, resulting from dietary deficiencies, or acquired, or inherited metabolic, or hormonal disturbances.Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel.Sunlight: Irradiation directly from the sun.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Protein PrecursorsCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blood Coagulation Tests: Laboratory tests for evaluating the individual's clotting mechanism.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Coagulation Disorders: Hemorrhagic and thrombotic disorders that occur as a consequence of abnormalities in blood coagulation due to a variety of factors such as COAGULATION PROTEIN DISORDERS; BLOOD PLATELET DISORDERS; BLOOD PROTEIN DISORDERS or nutritional conditions.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters: Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.Naphthoquinones: Naphthalene rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 1-alpha-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 1-alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (also known as 25-hydroxycholecalciferol) in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP27B1 gene, converts 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 which is the active form of VITAMIN D in regulating bone growth and calcium metabolism. This enzyme is also active on plant 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (ergocalciferol).Partial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Calcium, Dietary: Calcium compounds used as food supplements or in food to supply the body with calcium. Dietary calcium is needed during growth for bone development and for maintenance of skeletal integrity later in life to prevent osteoporosis.Hydroxycholecalciferols: Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Homocysteine: A thiol-containing amino acid formed by a demethylation of METHIONINE.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Transcobalamins: A group of carrier proteins which bind with VITAMIN B12 in the BLOOD and aid in its transport. Transcobalamin I migrates electrophoretically as a beta-globulin, while transcobalamins II and III migrate as alpha-globulins.Tocopherols: A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Parathyroid Hormone: A polypeptide hormone (84 amino acid residues) secreted by the PARATHYROID GLANDS which performs the essential role of maintaining intracellular CALCIUM levels in the body. Parathyroid hormone increases intracellular calcium by promoting the release of CALCIUM from BONE, increases the intestinal absorption of calcium, increases the renal tubular reabsorption of calcium, and increases the renal excretion of phosphates.25-Hydroxyvitamin D 2: 9,10-Secoergosta-5,7,10(19),22-tetraene-3,25-diol. Biologically active metabolite of vitamin D2 which is more active in curing rickets than its parent. The compound is believed to attach to the same receptor as vitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Methylmalonic Acid: A malonic acid derivative which is a vital intermediate in the metabolism of fat and protein. Abnormalities in methylmalonic acid metabolism lead to methylmalonic aciduria. This metabolic disease is attributed to a block in the enzymatic conversion of methylmalonyl CoA to succinyl CoA.Nutrition Policy: Guidelines and objectives pertaining to food supply and nutrition including recommendations for healthy diet.Hemorrhagic Disorders: Spontaneous or near spontaneous bleeding caused by a defect in clotting mechanisms (BLOOD COAGULATION DISORDERS) or another abnormality causing a structural flaw in the blood vessels (HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS).Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Bone Density Conservation Agents: Agents that inhibit BONE RESORPTION and/or favor BONE MINERALIZATION and BONE REGENERATION. They are used to heal BONE FRACTURES and to treat METABOLIC BONE DISEASES such as OSTEOPOROSIS.Hemostatics: Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Riboflavin: Nutritional factor found in milk, eggs, malted barley, liver, kidney, heart, and leafy vegetables. The richest natural source is yeast. It occurs in the free form only in the retina of the eye, in whey, and in urine; its principal forms in tissues and cells are as FLAVIN MONONUCLEOTIDE and FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE.Dihydroxycholecalciferols: Cholecalciferols substituted with two hydroxy groups in any position.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Bone Diseases, MetabolicVacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Etidronic Acid: A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.Coumarins: Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Phenindione: An indandione that has been used as an anticoagulant. Phenindione has actions similar to WARFARIN, but it is now rarely employed because of its higher incidence of severe adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p234)Dithiothreitol: A reagent commonly used in biochemical studies as a protective agent to prevent the oxidation of SH (thiol) groups and for reducing disulphides to dithiols.Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.
"Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1): the key protein of the vitamin K cycle". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling ... VKORC1 is involved in the vitamin K cycle by reduction of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K, which is the rate-limiting step in ... The availability of reduced vitamin K is of importance for activation vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. The reduction of vitamin K epoxide ... The product of the VKORC1 gene encodes a subunit of the enzyme that is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to the ...
Vitamin K is a derivative of 1,4-naphthoquinone. It is a planar molecule with one aromatic ring fused to a quinone subunit. The ... Naphthoquinone forms the central chemical structure of many natural compounds, most notably the K vitamins. 2- ... Methylnaphthoquinone is a more effective coagulant than vitamin K. Other natural naphtoquinones include juglone, plumbagin, ...
The vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) is responsible for the pharmacodynamics of warfarin. VKORC1 along ... vitamin/mineral, herbal/natural supplement), and 29% are taking five or more. The study suggested that those aged 65 years or ...
Aerobic cobalt chelatase consists of three subunits, CobT, CobN and CobS. Cobalamin (vitamin B12) can be complexed with metal ... CobW proteins are generally found proximal to the trimeric cobaltochelatase subunit CobN, which is essential for vitamin B12 ( ... However, aerobic cobalt chelatase subunits CobN and CobS are homologous to Mg-chelatase subunits BchH and BchI, respectively. ... In molecular biology, cobalamin biosynthesis is the synthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12). Cobalamin (vitamin B12) is a ...
The allosteric, or "other", site is the active site of an adjoining protein subunit. The binding of oxygen to one subunit ... as well as other chemicals and possibly vitamins. Allosteric modulation of a receptor results from the binding of allosteric ... Both postulate that enzyme subunits exist in one of two conformations, tensed (T) or relaxed (R), and that relaxed subunits ... Instead, substrate-binding at one subunit only slightly alters the structure of other subunits so that their binding sites are ...
Evidence for identical subunits". J. Biol. Chem. 253 (18): 6523-8. PMID 681363. Longhi RC, Fleisher LD, Tallan HH, Gaull GE ( ... No specific cure has been discovered for homocystinuria; however, many people are treated using high doses of vitamin B6, which ... The human enzyme cystathionine β-synthase is a tetramer and comprises 551 amino acids with a subunit molecular weight of 61 kDa ... 1977). "Cystathionine beta-synthase deficiency: a qualitative abnormality of the deficient enzyme modified by vitamin B6 ...
Vitamin A plays a fundamental part of the gut-specific homing response. Evidence shows that vitamin A is converted to retinoic ... Using antagonist proteins against RAR subunit showed a reduction in the expression of alpha. Therefore, it may be that the ... Increased vitamin A concentrations was also shown to reduce the expression of the receptors P-Lig, E-Lig and Fuct-VII in vitro ... Research on vitamin A-deficient mice confirmed the reverse was true as there was significantly lower number of T cells found in ...
Vitamin B6: Pyridoxal Phosphate Volume 1, Part B, Coenzymes and Cofactors. Wiley Interscience, New YorkYear: 1986 ISBN 978- ... 8 Barrels in the Synthase Subunit of PLP Synthase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (30): 27914-27923. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic ... Austin, S. M.; Waddell, T. G. (1999). "Prebiotic synthesis of vitamin B6-type compounds". Origins of life and evolution of the ...
The allosteric, or "other", site is the active site of an adjoining protein subunit. The binding of oxygen to one subunit ... as well as other chemicals and possibly vitamins. ... subunits need not exist in the same conformation. *molecules of ... Instead, substrate-binding at one subunit only slightly alters the structure of other subunits so that their binding sites are ... subunits are connected in such a way that a conformational change in one subunit is necessarily conferred to all other subunits ...
Individual subunits can be absent or replaced by other subunits under different conditions. Also, there are many intrinsically ... Mediator is also referred to in scientific literature as the vitamin D receptor interacting protein (DRIP) coactivator complex ... A discussion of all mediator subunits is beyond the scope of this article, but details of one of the subunits is illustrative ... One important example is the Med 14 subunit structure. Mediator subunits have many intrinsically disordered regions called " ...
PDC is a large complex composed of multiple copies of 3 or 4 subunits depending on species. In Gram-negative bacteria, e.g. ... The reaction catalysed by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is: Initially, pyruvate and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP or vitamin B1 ... are bound by pyruvate dehydrogenase subunits. The thiazolium ring of TPP is in a zwitterionic form, and the anionic C2 carbon ...
STRA6 (Vitamin A receptor) Wolf, G. (1984). "Multiple functions of vitamin A". Physiol. Rev. 64: 873-937. ,access-date= ... Porcine exhibit a diffuse type placenta that has areolar-gland subunits which allows for transport of larger molecules between ... Thomas, D.G.; James, S.L.; Fudge, A.; Odgers, C.; Teubner, J.; Simmer, K. (1991). "Delivery of vitamin A from parenteral ... Li, E.; Norris, A.W. (1996). "Structure/function of cytoplasmic vitamin A-binding proteins". Annual Review of Nutrition. 16: ...
... thyroid hormone and vitamin D3 receptors. In addition, this subunit interacts with the transcription factor CREB, which has a ... This gene encodes one of the larger subunits of TFIID that has been shown to potentiate transcriptional activation by retinoic ... Transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TAF4 gene. Initiation of ... Aberrant binding to this subunit by proteins with expanded polyglutamine regions has been suggested as one of the pathogenetic ...
The tetrameric protein contains four identical subunits (homotetramer), each of which can bind to biotin (Vitamin B7, vitamin H ... despite availability of the vitamin in their diet. It was concluded that a component of the egg-white was sequestering biotin ... "Egg-White Injury in Chicks and Its Relationship to a Deficiency of Vitamin H (Biotin)". Science. 92 (2384): 224-5. Bibcode: ...
In vitamin B12, the resulting complex also features a benzimidazole-derived ligand, and the sixth site on the octahedron serves ... Both feature four pyrrole-like subunits organized into a ring with a largely conjugated structure of alternating double and ... It is the parent macrocycle related to substituted derivative that is found in vitamin B12. Its name reflects that it is the " ... "core" of vitamin B12 (cobalamins). Upon deprotonation, the corrinoid ring is capable of binding cobalt. ...
The absorption of vitamin C into the body and its distribution to organs requires two sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters. ... 2000). "The B1 subunit of the H+ATPase is a PDZ domain-binding protein. Colocalization with NHE-RF in renal B-intercalated ... This gene encodes one of the two required transporters and the encoded protein accounts for tissue-specific uptake of vitamin C ... 2000). "The amino-terminal domain of the B subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase contains a filamentous actin binding site". J. Biol. ...
Lys-680 is involved in binding the pyridoxal phosphate, which is the active form of vitamin B6, a cofactor required by ... By similarity other sites have been estimated: Tyr-76 binds AMP, Cys-109 and Cys-143 are involved in subunit association, and ...
The various kinds of Coenzyme Q may be distinguished by the number of isoprenoid subunits in their side-chains. The most common ... Absorption follows the same process as that of lipids; the uptake mechanism appears to be similar to that of vitamin E, another ... The structure of coenzyme Q10 is very much similar to the structure of vitamin K, which competes with and counteracts ... This fat-soluble substance, which resembles a vitamin, is present in all respiring eukaryotic cells, primarily in the ...
However, aerobic cobalt chelatase subunits CobN and CobS are homologous to Mg-chelatase subunits BchH and BchI, respectively. ... Warren MJ, Raux E, Schubert HL, Escalante-Semerena JC (2002). "The biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin (vitamin B12)". Nat. Prod ... CobT, too, has been found to be remotely related to the third subunit of Mg-chelatase, BchD (involved in bacteriochlorophyll ... The aerobic cobalt chelatase (aerobic cobalamin biosynthesis pathway) consists of three subunits, CobT, CobN (InterPro: ...
Mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 4 also known as mediator complex subunit 4 (MED4), a component of Mediator ... The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the vitamin D receptor-interacting protein (DRIP) complex which functions as ... "A mammalian mediator subunit that shares properties with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mediator subunit Cse2". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (7 ... subunit 4 homolog (S. cerevisiae)". Rachez C, Lemon BD, Suldan Z, Bromleigh V, Gamble M, Näär AM, Erdjument-Bromage H, Tempst P ...
They consist of two subunits, the α-subunit, which is common to both enzymes, and the β-subunit, whose sequence identity is ... Recently it was described prenylation of a vitamin B2 derivative (flavin mononucleotide). A 2012 study found that statin ... In signal transduction via G protein, palmitoylation of the α subunit, prenylation of the γ subunit, and myristoylation is ... "Biochemistry: Unexpected role for vitamin B2". Nature. 522: 427-428. doi:10.1038/nature14536. PMID 26083748. Spindler SR, Li R ...
Since citrus fruits are rich in vitamin C, British sailors were given limes to combat scurvy on long ocean voyages; hence, they ... multi-subunit enzymes prolyl 4-hydroxylase, prolyl 3-hydroxylase and lysyl 5-hydroxylase, respectively. These reactions require ... iron (as well as molecular oxygen and α-ketoglutarate) to carry out the oxidation, and use ascorbic acid (vitamin C) to return ...
... integrator complex subunit 8 INTS9: integrator complex subunit 9 KCNQ3: potassium channel, voltage gated KQT-like subfamily Q, ... responsible for human inability to produce Vitamin C HGSNAT: heparan-alpha-glucosaminide N-acetyltransferase HMBOX1: encoding ... transcription factor IIIB 50 kDa subunit C8orf32/WDYHV1: encoding enzyme Protein N-terminal glutamine amidohydrolase C8orf33: ... pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase catalytic subunit 1 PKIA: cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha PLEC: plectin PNMA2 ...
Keutel syndrome, deficiency of vitamin K epoxide reductase subunit 1 (VKORC1), gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (GGCX), Xp contiguous ... Vitamin K is also needed for controlling binding of calcium to bone and other tissues within the body. List of cutaneous ... "Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health". Integrative Medicine: A Clinician's Journal. ... CDPX1 activity may be inhibited by warfarin because it is believed that ARSE has enzymatic activity in a vitamin K producing ...
Deficiency of vitamin B1 has been shown to cause alterations in editing of Glur2 pre-mRNA.Thiamine deficiency leads to mild ... Each AMPAR has four sites to which an agonist (such as L-glutamate) can bind, one for each subunit.[5] Gria2 pre-mRNA undergoes ... AMPA receptors (AMPAR) are composed of four subunits, designated as GluR1 (GRIA1), GluR2 (GRIA2), GluR3 (GRIA3), and GluR4( ... found in the second transmembrane domain of the receptor subunit. This is called the Q/R site. Editing occurs in 100% of ...
"Benzopyrene and Vitamin A deficiency". Researcher links cigarettes, vitamin A and emphysema. Retrieved March 5, 2005.. ... BaP diminished NMDA receptor-dependent nerve cell activity measured as mRNA expression of the NMDA NR2B receptor subunit.[10] ... A link between vitamin A deficiency and emphysema in smokers was described in 2005 to be due to BaP, which induces vitamin A ...
"Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1): the key protein of the vitamin K cycle". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling ... VKORC1 is involved in the vitamin K cycle by reduction of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K, which is the rate-limiting step in ... The availability of reduced vitamin K is of importance for activation vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. The reduction of vitamin K epoxide ... The product of the VKORC1 gene encodes a subunit of the enzyme that is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to the ...
2. Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. General function:. Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi. ... Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide. Description. Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide (CAS: 25486-55-9) is a vitamin K derivative. Vitamin K is needed ... vitamin K undergoes electron reduction to a reduced form of vitamin K (called vitamin K hydroquinone) by the enzyme vitamin K ... Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active ...
Recombinant Protein and Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and ... Shop Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex ELISA Kit, ... Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. Vitamin K ... Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 Antibody. Also known as Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (Vitamin K1 ... Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active ...
Maternal vitamin B deficiency and epigenetic changes of genes involved in the Alzheimers disease pathogenesis.(Research ... general Development and progression Genetic aspects Epigenetic inheritance Health aspects Mothers Vitamin B deficiency ... 20.) Lee VM, Balin BJ, Otvos L, Trojanowski JQ (1991) A68: A major subunit of paired helical filaments and derivatized forms of ... vitamin B12 and vitamin B6 supply. After transmethylation reactions, SAM is converted into S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) and ...
... and vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1) at position 381, used to infer VKORC1haplotype in combination with ... A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and ... A warfarin-dosing model in Asians that uses single-nucleotide polymorphisms in vitamin K epoxide reductase complex and ...
... binding subunit of glutamate mutase from Clostridium tetanomorphum traps the nucleotide moiety of coenzyme B(12). ... NMR STRUCTURE OF GLUTAMATE MUTASE (B12-BINDING SUBUNIT) COMPLEXED WITH THE VITAMIN B12 NUCLEOTIDE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1id8/pdb ... F-LOOP OF VITAMIN B12 (Synonym). C3 H10 N O HXKKHQJGJAFBHI-GSVOUGTGSA-O ...
... binding subunit of glutamate mutase from Clostridium tetanomorphum traps the nucleotide moiety of coenzyme B(12). ... NMR STRUCTURE OF GLUTAMATE MUTASE (B12-BINDING SUBUNIT) COMPLEXED WITH THE VITAMIN B12 NUCLEOTIDE. ...
Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.,p>,a href=/help/cofactor target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Cofactori. [4Fe-4S] cluster ... help/subunit_structure target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Subunit structurei. The complex is composed of six subunits: RsxA, RsxB, ... sp,A7ZM88,RSXB_ECO24 Ion-translocating oxidoreductase complex subunit B OS=Escherichia coli O139:H28 (strain E24377A / ETEC) OX ... Ion-translocating oxidoreductase complex subunit BUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Helps release RbfA from mature subunits. May play a role in the assembly of ribosomal proteins into the subunit. Circularly ... One of several proteins that assist in the late maturation steps of the functional core of the 30S ribosomal subunit. ... permuted GTPase that catalyzes slow GTP hydrolysis, GTPase activity is stimulated by the 30S ribosomal subunit. ... Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.,p>,a href=/help/cofactor target=_top>More...,/a>,/p>Cofactori. Zn2+*Search ...
Cofactor and vitamin biosynthesis ... glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. Names. GCS heavy ... Gclc glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit [Mus musculus] Gclc glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit [Mus ... glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunitprovided by MGI. Primary source. MGI:MGI:104990 See related. Ensembl: ... XM_006510812.1 → XP_006510875.1 glutamate--cysteine ligase catalytic subunit isoform X1. Conserved Domains (1) summary. ...
... vitamin A, 12,000 IU; vitamin D3, 5,000 IU; vitamin E, 50 mg; vitamin K, 3 mg; thiamine, 2 mg; riboflavin, 7 mg; vitamin B12, ... For the α subunits, the relative rates of turnover are α4 ≫ α6 = α1,2,3,5,7 and for the β subunits β3 = β7 , β5 , β1,2,4,6. The ... The subunit designation of Baumeister et al. (1) has been used in this article. Each subunit was identified by PMF to chicken ... These subunits may be key to controlling the rate of assembly of proteasome. Analysis of the rates of turnover of subunits ...
vitamin D3 receptor-interacting protein complex 80 kDa component. NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq) Go to the top of the page ... mediator of RNA polymerase II transcription subunit 17. Names. ARC77. CRSP complex subunit 6. activator-recruited cofactor 77 ... MED17 mediator complex subunit 17 [Homo sapiens] MED17 mediator complex subunit 17 [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:9440 ... mediator complex subunit 17provided by HGNC. Primary source. HGNC:HGNC:2375 See related. Ensembl:ENSG00000042429 MIM:603810 ...
OMIM: VITAMIN K EPOXIDE REDUCTASE COMPLEX, SUBUNIT 1. *. Watzka M, Geisen C, Bevans CG, Sittinger K, Spohn G, Rost S, Seifried ... vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes.. Printable PDF Open All ... Specifically, the VKORC1 enzyme converts one form of vitamin K into a different form of vitamin K that assists in activating ... This change reduces the amount of VKORC1 enzyme that is available to convert vitamin K into a form that can activate clotting ...
Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. ... Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1) ELISA and Immunotag™ Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 ELISA Kit ... Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active ... Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active ...
vitamin D receptor. PPP1R163, NR1I1. 12q13.11. VPS54 VPS54, GARP complex subunit. PPP1R164, HCC8. 2p15-p14. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3D. PPP1R6. 20q13.33. PPP1R3E protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 3E. FLJ00089. ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 7. sds22. 2q37.3. PPP1R8 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 8. ard-1, NIPP-1, ... protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1A. 12q13.2. PPP1R1B protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1B. ...
... vitamin D receptor; RXR, retinoid X receptor; ECM, extracellular matrix; MWU, Mann-Whitney U test. (B) Pie charts indicating ... Identification of Interleukin-27 (IL-27)/IL-27 Receptor Subunit Alpha as a Critical Immune Axis for In Vivo HIV Control. M. ... Identification of Interleukin-27 (IL-27)/IL-27 Receptor Subunit Alpha as a Critical Immune Axis for In Vivo HIV Control ... Identification of Interleukin-27 (IL-27)/IL-27 Receptor Subunit Alpha as a Critical Immune Axis for In Vivo HIV Control ...
vitamin binding. oxidoreductase activity. Molecular Function. oxidoreductase activity, acting on single donors with ... Showing Protein Prolyl 4-hydroxylase subunit alpha-1 (HMDBP00304). IdentificationBiological propertiesGene propertiesProtein ... Helaakoski T, Vuori K, Myllyla R, Kivirikko KI, Pihlajaniemi T: Molecular cloning of the alpha-subunit of human prolyl 4- ... Structure and expression of the human gene for the alpha subunit of prolyl 4-hydroxylase. The two alternatively spliced types ...
Showing Protein Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrial (HMDBP00510). IdentificationBiological properties ... Human biotin-containing subunit of 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase gene (MCCA): cDNA sequence, genomic organization, ... Methylcrotonoyl-CoA carboxylase subunit alpha, mitochondrial MAAASAVSVLLVAAERNRWHRLPSLLLPPRTWVWRQRTMKYTTATGRNITKVLIANRGEI ...
Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, Subunit 1 (VKORC1). DGKL 2 Von Hippel-Lindau syndrome (VHL). EMQN10 ...
Frequency of vitamin K oxidoreductase complex subunit-1 (VKORC1) polymorphisms and warfarin dose management in patients with ...
Link between neonatal vitamin D deficiency and schizophrenia confirmed 12/07/2018 Schizophrenia ... Our results show a new possibility to produce more specific drugs against some particular NMDA subunits -GluN3A or NR3A- in ... GluN3A subunits of NMDA-type glutamate receptors, new therapeutic targets against Huntingtons disease. ... NMDA-type glutamate receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate) are macromolecular structures composed by different subunits (GluN1A, ...
The VKORC1 gene provides instructions for making a vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme. Learn about this gene and related health ... vitamin K 1 2,3-epoxide reductase subunit 1. *vitamin K epoxide reductase complex, subunit 1 ... Specifically, the VKORC1 enzyme converts one form of vitamin K into a different form of vitamin K that assists in activating ... The VKORC1 gene provides instructions for making a vitamin K epoxide reductase enzyme. The VKORC1 enzyme is made primarily in ...
VKORC1: vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1. *VLDLR: very low density lipoprotein receptor ...
vitamin D active form serum level QTL 11 (mouse). 15. 79000000. 104043685. Mouse. ... CACNA1G (calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 G). HGNC. OrthoDB. Homo sapiens (human):. CACNA1H (calcium voltage-gated ... vitamin D inactive form serum level QTL 8 (mouse). 15. 61700000. 95700000. Mouse. ... Homo sapiens (human) : CACNA1I (calcium voltage-gated channel subunit alpha1 I) HGNC AGR Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) : ...
The heavy neurofilament subunit (NFH) tail is composed of a repeating amino acid motif, usually X-lysine-serine-proline-Y- ... Benefit of vitamin E, riluzole, and gabapentin in a transgenic model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.. *Mark E Gurney ... Analysis of the KSP repeat of the neurofilament heavy subunit in familiar amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.. *Karen Rooke, Denise ... The heavy neurofilament subunit (NFH) tail is composed of a repeating amino acid motif, usually X-lysine-serine-proline-Y- ...