Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Vaccines, Combined: Two or more vaccines in a single dosage form.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Vaccines, Conjugate: Semisynthetic vaccines consisting of polysaccharide antigens from microorganisms attached to protein carrier molecules. The carrier protein is recognized by macrophages and T-cells thus enhancing immunity. Conjugate vaccines induce antibody formation in people not responsive to polysaccharide alone, induce higher levels of antibody, and show a booster response on repeated injection.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Papillomavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PAPILLOMAVIRUS INFECTIONS. Human vaccines are intended to reduce the incidence of UTERINE CERVICAL NEOPLASMS, so they are sometimes considered a type of CANCER VACCINES. They are often composed of CAPSID PROTEINS, especially L1 protein, from various types of ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Meningococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Plague Vaccine: A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Measles Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had measles or been immunized with live measles vaccine and have no serum antibodies against measles. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Smallpox Vaccine: A live VACCINIA VIRUS vaccine of calf lymph or chick embryo origin, used for immunization against smallpox. It is now recommended only for laboratory workers exposed to smallpox virus. Certain countries continue to vaccinate those in the military service. Complications that result from smallpox vaccination include vaccinia, secondary bacterial infections, and encephalomyelitis. (Dorland, 28th ed)Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Haemophilus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing antigenic polysaccharides from Haemophilus influenzae and designed to prevent infection. The vaccine can contain the polysaccharides alone or more frequently polysaccharides conjugated to carrier molecules. It is also seen as a combined vaccine with diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis vaccine.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Rabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent and treat RABIES. The inactivated virus vaccine is used for preexposure immunization to persons at high risk of exposure, and in conjunction with rabies immunoglobulin, for postexposure prophylaxis.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Mice, Inbred BALB CRotavirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with ROTAVIRUS.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Antibodies, Neutralizing: Antibodies that reduce or abolish some biological activity of a soluble antigen or infectious agent, usually a virus.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Vaccines, Virosome: Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.Dengue Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with DENGUE VIRUS. These include live-attenuated, subunit, DNA, and inactivated vaccines.Chickenpox Vaccine: A live, attenuated varicella virus vaccine used for immunization against chickenpox. It is recommended for children between the ages of 12 months and 13 years.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Mumps Vaccine: Vaccines used to prevent infection by MUMPS VIRUS. Best known is the live attenuated virus vaccine of chick embryo origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of adolescents and adults who have not had mumps or been immunized with live mumps vaccine. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent MEASLES; MUMPS; and RUBELLA.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Streptococcal Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Staphylococcal VaccinesWest Nile Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with WEST NILE VIRUS.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Yellow Fever Vaccine: Vaccine used to prevent YELLOW FEVER. It consists of a live attenuated 17D strain of the YELLOW FEVER VIRUS.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Fungal Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed fungi administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious fungal disease.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.SqualeneRespiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUSES.Rubella Vaccine: A live attenuated virus vaccine of duck embryo or human diploid cell tissue culture origin, used for routine immunization of children and for immunization of nonpregnant adolescent and adult females of childbearing age who are unimmunized and do not have serum antibodies to rubella. Children are usually immunized with measles-mumps-rubella combination vaccine. (Dorland, 28th ed)Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.Vaccines, Acellular: Vaccines that are produced by using only the antigenic part of the disease causing organism. They often require a "booster" every few years to maintain their effectiveness.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Brucella Vaccine: A bacterial vaccine for the prevention of brucellosis in man and animal. Brucella abortus vaccine is used for the immunization of cattle, sheep, and goats.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Salmonella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with SALMONELLA. This includes vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER or PARATYPHOID FEVER; (TYPHOID-PARATYPHOID VACCINES), and vaccines used to prevent nontyphoid salmonellosis.Vaccines, Virus-Like Particle: Vaccines using supra-molecular structures composed of multiple copies of recombinantly expressed viral structural proteins. They are often antigentically indistinguishable from the virus from which they were derived.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Ebola Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent EBOLA HEMORRHAGIC FEVER.ISCOMs: A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Mice, Inbred C57BLRecombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cytomegalovirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS.Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Combined vaccines consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and an acellular form of PERTUSSIS VACCINE. At least five different purified antigens of B. pertussis have been used in various combinations in these vaccines.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Vaccines, Marker: Vaccines used in conjunction with diagnostic tests to differentiate vaccinated animals from carrier animals. Marker vaccines can be either a subunit or a gene-deleted vaccine.Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.Plague: An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Henipavirus Infections: Infections with viruses of the genus HENIPAVIRUS, family PARAMYXOVIRIDAE.Shigella Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY) caused by species of SHIGELLA.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Herpes Zoster Vaccine: An attenuated vaccine used to prevent and/or treat HERPES ZOSTER, a disease caused by HUMAN HERPESVIRUS 3.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Tetanus ToxoidProtein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Leishmaniasis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with LEISHMANIA.Alum Compounds: Aluminum metal sulfate compounds used medically as astringents and for many industrial purposes. They are used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of ulcerative stomatitis, leukorrhea, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, metritis, and minor wounds.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus: Membrane glycoproteins from influenza viruses which are involved in hemagglutination, virus attachment, and envelope fusion. Fourteen distinct subtypes of HA glycoproteins and nine of NA glycoproteins have been identified from INFLUENZA A VIRUS; no subtypes have been identified for Influenza B or Influenza C viruses.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Cross Protection: Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Virus Shedding: The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the B-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the B-cell receptor are located on the surface of the antigen.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Baculoviridae: Family of INSECT VIRUSES containing two subfamilies: Eubaculovirinae (occluded baculoviruses) and Nudibaculovirinae (nonoccluded baculoviruses). The Eubaculovirinae, which contain polyhedron-shaped inclusion bodies, have two genera: NUCLEOPOLYHEDROVIRUS and GRANULOVIRUS. Baculovirus vectors are used for expression of foreign genes in insects.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Japanese Encephalitis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Japanese B encephalitis virus (ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS, JAPANESE).Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Vaccines, Contraceptive: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent conception.Mass Vaccination: Administration of a vaccine to large populations in order to elicit IMMUNITY.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Vaccines, Edible: Vaccines or candidate vaccines derived from edible plants. Transgenic plants (PLANTS, TRANSGENIC) are used as recombinant protein production systems and the edible plant tissue functions as an oral vaccine.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Hendra Virus: A species of HENIPAVIRUS first identified in Australia in 1994 in HORSES and transmitted to humans. The natural host appears to be fruit bats (PTEROPUS).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protozoan Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed protozoa administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious protozoan disease.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Virosomes: Semi-synthetic complex derived from nucleic-acid free viral particles. They are essentially reconstituted viral coats, where the infectious nucleocapsid is replaced by a compound of choice. Virosomes retain their fusogenic activity and thus deliver the incorporated compound (antigens, drugs, genes) inside the target cell. They can be used for vaccines (VACCINES, VIROSOME), drug delivery, or gene transfer.Poxviridae: A family of double-stranded DNA viruses infecting mammals (including humans), birds and insects. There are two subfamilies: CHORDOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of vertebrates, and ENTOMOPOXVIRINAE, poxviruses of insects.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Vaccine Potency: The relationship between an elicited ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE and the dose of the vaccine administered.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Measles: A highly contagious infectious disease caused by MORBILLIVIRUS, common among children but also seen in the nonimmune of any age, in which the virus enters the respiratory tract via droplet nuclei and multiplies in the epithelial cells, spreading throughout the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Rickettsial Vaccines: Vaccines for the prevention of diseases caused by various species of Rickettsia.Smallpox: An acute, highly contagious, often fatal infectious disease caused by an orthopoxvirus characterized by a biphasic febrile course and distinctive progressive skin eruptions. Vaccination has succeeded in eradicating smallpox worldwide. (Dorland, 28th ed)Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.HIV Antibodies: Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.Parainfluenza Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with parainfluenza viruses in humans and animals.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Pseudorabies Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent PSEUDORABIES (Aujeszky's disease), a herpesvirus of swine and other animals.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.
Subunit Vaccine Delivery. pp. 130-131. ISBN 978-1-4939-1417-3. Puvvada, S.; Baral, S.; Chow, G.M.; Qadri, S.B.; Ratna, B.R. ( ...
They include a live-virus vaccine and a non-live subunit vaccine. A review by Cochrane concluded that the live vaccine was ... Two doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine had levels of protection of about 90% at 3.5 years. So far it has been ... The shingles vaccine reduces the risk of shingles by 50 to 90% depending on the vaccine used. It also decreases rates of ... Cunningham, AL (2016). "The herpes zoster subunit vaccine". Expert opinion on biological therapy. 16 (2): 265-71. doi:10.1517/ ...
Unsuccessful clinical trials have been conducted for some glycoprotein subunit vaccines. As of 2017, the ... Koelle DM, Corey L (2008). "Herpes Simplex: Insights on Pathogenesis and Possible Vaccines". Annu Rev Med. 59: 381-95. doi: ... Research has gone into vaccines for both prevention and treatment of herpes infections. ... There is no available vaccine and once infected, there is no cure. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and topical lidocaine may ...
"Vaccines for preventing cholera: killed whole cell or other subunit vaccines (injected)". Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. (8): ... Vaccine. Main article: Cholera vaccine. A number of safe and effective oral vaccines for cholera are available. The World ... The cholera toxin (CTX or CT) is an oligomeric complex made up of six protein subunits: a single copy of the A subunit (part A ... The vaccine that the FDA recommends, Vaxchora, is an oral attenuated live vaccine, that is effective as a single dose. ...
They include a live-virus vaccine and a non-live subunit vaccine. ... Two doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine had levels of protection of about 90% at 3.5 years. So far it has ... Cunningham, AL (2016). "The herpes zoster subunit vaccine". Expert opinion on biological therapy. 16 (2): 265-71. doi:10.1517/ ... The shingles vaccine reduces the risk of shingles by 50 to 90% depending on the vaccine used. It also decreases rates of ...
Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit vaccines are safe for immunocompromised patients ... Biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques are used to produce subunit vaccines. These vaccines use only the capsid ... Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008;7(5):579-87. doi:10.1586/147605184.108.40.2069. ... Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008;7(8):1225-37. doi:10.1586/14760584.7. ...
Isolation of subunit vaccine candidates for application within veterinary medicine. Development of immunoreagents and their ...
Subunit vaccines are composed of small fragments of disease causing organisms. A characteristic example is the subunit vaccine ... Examples are vaccines against flu, cholera, plague, and hepatitis A. Most vaccines of this type are likely to require booster ... Artificially acquired active immunity can be induced by a vaccine, a substance that contains antigen. A vaccine stimulates a ... There are four types of traditional vaccines: Inactivated vaccines are composed of micro-organisms that have been killed with ...
Abbott acquired the vaccines sub-unit from Solvay Pharmaceuticals included in its $6.2 billion purchase and the sub-unit ... "Trivalent inactivated subunit influenza vaccine Influvac: 25-Year experience of safety and immunogenicity". Vaccine. Elsevier. ... Influvac is a sub-unit vaccine produced and marketed by Abbott Laboratories. It contains inactivated purified surface fragments ... Approximately $850 million of sales revenue from vaccines was reported by Solvay Pharmaceuticals in 2009. Giezeman, K.M.; J. ...
"Immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant subunit vaccines against phocid herpesvirus type 1". Vaccine. 21 (19-20): 2433-40. ... adjuvanted influenza vaccine". Vaccine. 21 (9-10): 946-9. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00545-5. PMID 12547607. Isconova's homepage ... The complex displays immune stimulating properties and is thus mainly used as a vaccine adjuvant in order to induce a stronger ... Vaccine. 20 (1-2): 158-63. doi:10.1016/S0264-410X(01)00262-6. PMID 11567760. Mooij, P; Nieuwenhuis, I. G; Knoop, C. J; Doms, R ...
... a problem which could be resolved using next-generation subunit vaccines currently in development. In January 2015, Indian ... A vaccine for this is now available in the UK, produced by Intervet. Fort Dodge Animal Health has their vaccines available for ... "Evaluation of the immunogenicity of an experimental DIVA subunit vaccine against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 in cattle". ... Vaccine companies Fort Dodge Animal Health (Wyeth), Merial and Intervet were developing vaccines against serotype 8 (Fort Dodge ...
These vaccines use only the capsid proteins of the virus. Hepatitis B vaccine is an example of this type of vaccine. Subunit ... Vaccines can consist of live-attenuated or killed viruses, or viral proteins (antigens). Live vaccines contain weakened forms ... Yellow fever vaccines and international travelers. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008;7(5):579-87. doi:10.1586/147605220.127.116.119. ... Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility. Expert Review of Vaccines. 2008;7(8):1225-37. doi:10.1586/14760584.7. ...
Existing vaccines or natural antibodies cannot produce an immune response to the new strain. Viral shift is caused by viral ... subunit reassortment, as opposed to simple random mutation.. ...
They are linear and consist of regularly repeating subunits of one to six monosaccharides. There is enormous structural ... Mixtures of capsular polysaccharides, either conjugated or native are used as vaccines. Bacteria and many other microbes, ...
A vaccine in which the beta subunit of hCG is fused to the B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin has been ... for the development of contraceptive vaccine for male". Vaccine. 26: 3711-3718. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.04.060. Wang, M; JL ... women at 5 institutions in India with a more potent vaccine that combined the beta subunit of hCG with the alpha subunit of ... Repro-Bloc is GnRH vaccine marketed for use in domestic animals in general. Improvac® is a GnRH vaccine marketed for use in ...
Recently "subunit" vaccines have been devised that consist strictly of protein targets from the pathogen. They stimulate the ... Low vaccine-preventable disease rates as a result of herd immunity also make vaccines seem unnecessary and leave many ... Vaccines are very effective on stable viruses, but are of limited use in treating a patient who has already been infected. They ... These vaccines can, in very rare cases, harm the host by inadvertently infecting the host with a full-blown viral occupancy. ...
New second-generation vaccines currently being researched include recombinant live vaccines and recombinant subunit vaccines. ... The human vaccine for anthrax became available in 1954. This was a cell-free vaccine instead of the live-cell Pasteur-style ... "Anthrax and Anthrax Vaccine - Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases Archived 24 August 2012 at the ... The French scientist Louis Pasteur developed the first effective vaccine in 1881. Human anthrax vaccines were developed by the ...
Vaccine. 28 (8): 2039-2045. doi:10.1016/j.vaccine.2009.10.061. ISSN 0264-410X. PMID 20188261. Krajnc, Nika Lendero; Smrekar, ... "Reversed phase monolithic analytical columns for the determination of HA1 subunit of influenza virus haemagglutinin". Journal ... Improvement of Rabies Vaccine Production Using Monolithic Chromatographic Support Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Banjac, Marko; Steyer ...
... "a vaccine for people would take many more years." The vaccine is a subunit vaccine that neutralises Hendra virus and is ... Vaccine for horses. In November 2012, a vaccine became available for horses. The vaccine is to be used in horses only, since, ... "A recombinant Hendra virus G glycoprotein-based subunit vaccine protects ferrets from lethal Hendra virus challenge". Vaccine. ... While no vaccine currently exists, a recent (2012) study of a trial vaccine developed using the outer proteins of Hendra virus ...
... including a glycoprotein subunit vaccine. With William Ruyechan and John Hay, Straus cloned VZV and mapped its genome. They ... for the Shingles Prevention Study Group (2005), "A Vaccine to Prevent Herpes Zoster and Postherpetic Neuralgia in Older Adults ... With Lawrence Corey and David M. Knipe, Straus developed prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against HSV, ... as well as antiviral drugs and vaccines. He researched the mechanisms by which HSV establishes latency and later recurs. His ...
Novartis has said that Optaflu is a subunit vaccine, meaning it contains individual viral proteins rather than whole virus ... polio vaccine, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, chickenpox vaccine). In this system, viruses are grown in closed systems such as ... Universal flu vaccines. See Prospects for universal flu vaccines. Current major flu research contracts. The US ... Vaccines. A vaccine probably would not be available in the initial stages of population infection. Once a potential ...
The presence of maternal antibodies in infants limits the efficacy of inactivated, attenuated and subunit vaccines. Maternal ... Vaccines may fail to provide immunity if the vaccine is of poor quality when administered. A vaccine loses potency if it is ... The mumps vaccine is a component of the Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccine (MMR). The mumps vaccine, specifically, is 88% ... Indeed, vaccines, including the influenza vaccine, Tdap, and pneumococcal vaccines, are less effective in adults over the age ...
"1981-Hepatitis B: First Subunit Viral Vaccine in U.S". "3/17/1995-Chickenpox Vaccine Licensed". Beyer KH (1993). " ... "www.accessdata.fda.gov" (PDF). "Mumps - History of Vaccines". "Rubella - History of Vaccines". "1971-MMR Combination Vaccine ... Medically important vaccines developed at Merck include the first mumps vaccine, the first rubella vaccine, and the first ... Hilleman also developed the first Hepatitis B vaccine and the first varicella vaccine, for chickenpox. The thiazide diuretics ...
"Exploring dengue genome to construct a multi-epitope based subunit vaccine by utilizing immunoinformatics approach to battle ... March 2005). "HIV vaccine development by computer assisted design: the GAIA vaccine". Vaccine. 23 (17-18): 2136-48. doi:10.1016 ... "Exploring Leishmania secretory proteins to design B and T cell multi-epitope subunit vaccine using immunoinformatics approach ... donovani candidate peptide vaccines". Human Vaccines and Immunotheraputics. 8 (12): 1769-74. doi:10.4161/hv.21881. PMC 3656064 ...
In 2001, his group also focused on "Computer aided vaccine design" with emphasis on subunit vaccine design. Since 2006, his ...
ಈ ಪುಟವನ್ನು ೧೫ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೨೦೧೩, ೦೩:೩೭ ರಂದು ಕೊನೆಯಾಗಿ ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ...
ഈ ഫലകവും ഇതേ രീതിയിലെ മറ്റൊരു ഫലകവും കൂടി ഒരു താളിൽ ചേർത്താൽ, ഫലകത്തിന്റെ ഉള്ളടക്കത്തെ മറച്ചുവെച്ച് പ്രധാന തലക്കെട്ട് മാത്രമായി കാണിക്കാൻ ഇങ്ങനെ ഉപയോഗിക്കുക ...
A vaccine-preventable disease is an infectious disease for which an effective preventive vaccine exists. If a person acquires a vaccine-preventable disease and dies from it, the death is considered a vaccine-preventable death. The most common and serious vaccine-preventable diseases tracked by the World Health Organization (WHO) are: diphtheria, Haemophilus influenzae serotype b infection, hepatitis B, measles, meningitis, mumps, pertussis, poliomyelitis, rubella, tetanus, tuberculosis, and yellow fever. The WHO reports licensed vaccines being available to prevent, or contribute to the prevention and control of, 25 vaccine-preventable infections. In 2012, the World Health Organization estimated that vaccination prevents 2.5 million deaths each year. If there is 100% immunization, and 100% efficacy of the vaccines, one out of seven deaths among young children could be prevented, mostly in developing countries, making this an important global ...
Since vaccines first existed, there have been people who did not agree with the idea of using vaccines. Around the world, most scientists and doctors agree that the benefits of using vaccines are much greater than the risks. The adverse effects from vaccines are rare. Not vaccinating people is a much greater risk, because vaccines prevent suffering and death from infectious diseases. There have been controversies over using vaccines such as whether vaccines are safe, the amount of research and whether it is morally right to force people to get vaccinated. Some religious groups do not allow uses of vaccines. Some political groups argue that people should be able to choose whether or not to get vaccinated. They argue that laws ...
The development of new delivery systems raises the hope of vaccines that are safer and more efficient to deliver and administer. Lines of research include liposomes and ISCOM (immune stimulating complex).. Notable developments in vaccine delivery technologies have included oral vaccines. Early attempts to apply oral vaccines showed varying degrees of promise, beginning early in the 20th century, at a time when the very possibility of an effective oral antibacterial vaccine was controversial. By the 1930s there was increasing interest in the prophylactic value of an oral typhoid fever vaccine for example.. An oral polio vaccine turned out to be effective when vaccinations were administered by volunteer staff without formal training; the results also demonstrated increased ease and efficiency of administering the vaccines. Effective oral ...
A hepatitis C vaccine, a vaccine capable of protecting against hepatitis C, is not available. Although vaccines exist for hepatitis A and hepatitis B, development of a hepatitis C vaccine has presented challenges. No vaccine is currently available, but several vaccines are currently under development. Most vaccines work through inducing an antibody response that targets the outer surfaces of viruses. However the Hepatitis C virus is highly variable among strains and rapidly mutating, making an effective vaccine very difficult. The detailed structure of E2 envelope glycoprotein, believed to be the key protein the virus uses to invade liver cells, was elucidated by scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) in November 2013. Due to the relatively conserved binding region of E2 to the CD81 receptor on the liver cells, this discovery is expected to pave the way to design a HCV vaccine which ...
The Oxford Vaccine Group (OVG) is a vaccine research group within the Department of Paediatrics at the University of Oxford. It was founded in 1994 by Professor E. Richard Moxon, was initially based at the John Radcliffe Hospital, and moved in 2003 to its current location in the Centre for Clinical Vaccinology and Tropical Medicine (CCVTM) at the Churchill Hospital in Oxford, England. The group, led by Professor Andrew Pollard since 2001, comprises around 75 members across a number of disciplines, including consultants in paediatrics and vaccinology, clinical research fellows, research nurses, statisticians, post-doctoral laboratory scientists, research assistants and DPhil students. OVG carries out research on vaccines to improve human health. It works to enhance the understanding of immunity, studies the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and conducts clinical trials into new and improved vaccines for children and adults. Research by ...
... is a type of vaccine developed from mammalian cell lines rather than embryonic chicken eggs. The potential use of cell culture techniques in developing viral vaccines, especially for the Influenza virus, has been widely investigated in recent years as a complementary and alternative platform to the current egg-based strategies. The main benefit is the ability to rapidly produce vaccine supplies during an impending pandemic. Other benefits are the avoidance of egg-based allergy reactions. In addition, cell lines can be grown in synthetic media avoiding animal serum. This prevents the spread of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved Flucelvax as the first mammalian cell-based Influenza vaccine in the United States on November 20, 2012. The vaccine was produced by Novartis through culturing of the Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line. Specifically, Flucelvax targets three Influenza sub-types which includes ...
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens." A magazine article about vaccine adjuvants in 2007 was headlined "Deciphering Immunology's Dirty Secret" to refer to the early days of vaccine manufacture, when significant variations in the effectiveness of different batches of the same vaccine were observed, correctly assumed to be due to contamination of the reaction vessels. However, it was soon found that more scrupulous attention to cleanliness actually seemed to reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, and that the contaminants - "dirt" - actually enhanced the immune response. There are many known ...
COVID-19 was identified in December 2019. A major outbreak spread around the world in 2020, leading to considerable investment and research activity to develop a vaccine. Many organizations are using published genomes to develop possible vaccines against SARS-CoV-2. Some 50 companies and academic institutions are involved in vaccine development, with three of them receiving support from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), including projects by the biotechnology companies Moderna, and Inovio Pharmaceuticals, and the University of Queensland. Five hundred clinical studies worldwide, across all stages of development on vaccine and therapeutic candidates for COVID-19, are registered with the World Health Organization Clinical Trial Registry, as of March 2020. In early March 2020, CEPI announced a US$2 billion funding goal in a global partnership between public, private, philanthropic, and civil society ...
A vaccine against a particular virus is relatively easy to create. The virus is foreign to the body, and therefore expresses antigens that the immune system can recognize. Furthermore, viruses usually only provide a few viable variants. By contrast, developing vaccines for viruses that mutate constantly such as influenza or HIV has been problematic.. A tumour can have many cell types of cells, each with different cell-surface antigens. Those cells are derived from each patient and display few if any antigens that are foreign to that individual. This makes it difficult for the immune system to distinguish cancer cells from normal cells. Some scientists believe that renal cancer and melanoma are the two cancers with most evidence of spontaneous and effective immune responses, possibly because they often display antigens that are evaluated as foreign. Many attempts at developing cancer vaccines are directed against these tumors. However, ...
ಈ ಪುಟವನ್ನು ೧೫ ಏಪ್ರಿಲ್ ೨೦೧೩, ೦೩:೩೭ ರಂದು ಕೊನೆಯಾಗಿ ಸಂಪಾದಿಸಲಾಯಿತು ...
ഈ ഫലകവും ഇതേ രീതിയിലെ മറ്റൊരു ഫലകവും കൂടി ഒരു താളിൽ ചേർത്താൽ, ഫലകത്തിന്റെ ഉള്ളടക്കത്തെ മറച്ചുവെച്ച് പ്രധാന തലക്കെട്ട് മാത്രമായി കാണിക്കാൻ ഇങ്ങനെ ഉപയോഗിക്കുക ...
They include a live-virus vaccine and a non-live subunit vaccine. ... Two doses of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine had levels of protection of about 90% at 3.5 years. So far it has ... Cunningham, AL (2016). "The herpes zoster subunit vaccine". Expert opinion on biological therapy. 16 (2): 265-71. doi:10.1517/ ... The shingles vaccine reduces the risk of shingles by 50 to 90% depending on the vaccine used. It also decreases rates of ...
... the recombinant subunit zoster vaccine (Shingrix) and the live attenuated zoster vaccine (Zostavax). The recombinant vaccine ... using 1 of the 2 currently available vaccines (live attenuated zoster vaccine or recombinant subunit zoster vaccine), relative ... the recombinant subunit zoster vaccine and live attenuated zoster vaccine. We compared the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness ... was higher for the live attenuated zoster vaccine than for the recombinant subunit zoster vaccine for all herpes zoster-related ...
... and other immunization providers should understand key differences between currently available herpes zoster vaccines: ... The nonlive, recombinant subunit vaccine combines an antigen, glycoprotein E, and an adjuvant system, AS01B, developed ... A new shingles vaccine is causing a stir in the medical community. The zoster vaccine recombinant, adjuvanted (Shingrix- ... refrigerator), vaccine type, route of administration (I.M. vs. subcutaneous), dosing intervals, age of patient recommended to ...
Oral vaccine * Type 1 diabetes Identity. PubMed Central ID * PMC3856580 International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) * 0014-2980 ... Cholera toxin subunit B peptide fusion proteins reveal impaired oral tolerance induction in diabetes-prone but not in diabetes- ...
As a model for edible vaccines, the heat-labile enterotoxin subunit-B (LTB) of Escherichia coli was produced in potato tubers. ... The ideal edible vaccine in plants has sufficient levels of antigen, is easy to propagate under a wide range of conditions and ... For future edible vaccine studies, a more suitable plant with relatively high expression levels should be chosen (e.g. tomato ... This edible vaccine was either fed or administered orally to mice. Using the optimised immunisation protocol, local and ...
... antigen delivery systems have been identified as an innovative strategy to improve the efficacy of subunit vaccines. Among them ... we report on the recent research findings highlighting the versatility and potential of such systems in vaccine delivery. ... In the development of subunit vaccines with purified or recombinant antigens for cancer and infectious diseases, the design of ... Vaccines 2015, 3, 803-813. AMA Style. Trimaille T, Verrier B. Micelle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccine Delivery. Vaccines. ...
... to 2025 - published on openPR.com ... Subunit Vaccines Market Global Industry Analysis, Trends and Forecast-2025 Subunit vaccines are made by removing the non- ... Global Subunit Vaccine Market Research and Forecast, 2018-2023 Global subunit vaccine market, size, share, market trends, ... Subunit Vaccines Market - Technological breakthroughs Subunit vaccines are made by removing the non-immunity producing ...
... Author(s). Metz, S.W.H.; Geertsema, C.; Vlak, J.M.; ...
... vaccine significantly reduced sustained TB infections in adolescents. An experimental vaccine candidate, H4:IC31, also reduced ... today announced results from an innovative clinical trial that provides encouraging new evidence that TB vaccines could prevent ... a nonprofit organization dedicated to developing vaccines against tuberculosis (TB), ... another subunit vaccine candidate, and to commencing two Phase 2 clinical trials with an additional, promising subunit vaccine ...
Vaccines against the common cold or anti-allergy vaccines are similar in mechanism to many lifestyle vaccines. These do not ... It is this part which differentiates one vaccine from another, an anti-flu vaccine from an anti-TB vaccine. The second part of ... the first commercial vaccine developed using the reverse vaccinology approach. The vaccine may become the first vaccine ... Vaccines take many forms and work in many ways. This facet has been exploited in the development of life-style vaccines. Let us ...
Efficacy of a food plant-based oral cholera toxin B subunit vaccine.. Arakawa T1, Chong DK, Langridge WH. ... Transgenic potatoes were engineered to synthesize a cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) pentamer with affinity for GMI-ganglioside. ...
Antibody-driven design of a HCMV subunit vaccine. Anna Kabanova, Laurent Perez, Daniele Lilleri, Jessica Marcandalli, Gloria ... Antibody-driven design of a HCMV subunit vaccine. Anna Kabanova, Laurent Perez, Daniele Lilleri, Jessica Marcandalli, Gloria ... To design an effective subunit vaccine, it is essential to identify the most relevant protective antigen. One way to achieve ... Antibody-driven design of a human cytomegalovirus gHgLpUL128L subunit vaccine that selectively elicits potent neutralizing ...
Vaccines effective in the inhibition of infection caused by the family of retroviruses, HTLV-III, Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus, ... HIV related peptides, immunogenic antigens, and use therefor as subunit vaccine for AIDS virus ... When used as a vaccine in the method of this invention, the vaccine can be introduced into the host most conveniently by ... Therefore, the vaccines of this invention can be used to immunize patients at risk for AIDS, or exposed to the AIDS virus or to ...
Taken together our data demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant subunit vaccine candidate in ... Taken together our data demonstrate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant subunit vaccine candidate in ... These include nucleic acid vaccines based on the prM-E protein from the virus and purified formalin-inactivated ZIKV vaccines ( ... These include nucleic acid vaccines based on the prM-E protein from the virus and purified formalin-inactivated ZIKV vaccines ( ...
Vaccine. 2001 Dec 12;20(5-6):895-904. Comparative Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt ... We compared the inactivated virus vaccine (10 microg protein/mouse) with subunit vaccines--VP1 DNA vaccine (100 microg/mouse) ... and that VP1 subunit vaccines remain promising vaccine strategies that require further refinement. ... The subunit vaccines provided protection only at a lower challenge dosage of 230 LD(50) per mouse, with 40% survival for DNA ...
Individuals who had received any other vaccines within 2 weeks for inactivated vaccines or 4 weeks for live vaccines prior to ... Safety and Immunogenicity of MF59C.1 Adjuvanted Trivalent Subunit Influenza Vaccine in Elderly Subjects. This study has been ... Biological: Non-adjuvanted trivalent subunit influenza vaccine (TIV) one 0.5 mL dose administered IM in the deltoid muscle of ( ... Biological: MF59 adjuvanted trivalent subunit influenza vaccine (aTIV) one dose 0.5 mL administered IM in the deltoid muscle of ...
We conclude that cell-mediated immunity to SE after vaccination with the killed bacterial vaccine or subunit vaccines is ... vaccine or experimental subunit vaccines of crude protein (CP) extract or the outer membrane protein (OMP). Significantly ... but there were no differences between the killed vaccine and the subunit vaccines at this time, and the levels of both ... and Interleukin Production in Chickens Immunized with Killed Salmonella enteritidis Vaccine or Experimental Subunit Vaccines," ...
Immunogenicity of Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Treated With Vedolizumab. The safety and ... The purpose of this study is to determine the immunogenicity of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine in inflammatory bowel disease ... A Pilot Study Evaluating Immunogenicity of Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Treated With ... normal vaccine response comparable to those on anti-TNF monotherapy who might benefit from a third dose of the subunit vaccine ...
A subunit canine. Lyme disease vaccine formulated with recombinant lipidated Osp A and OspB and saponin QS21 was assessed for ... Thus, the subunit canine. Lyme disease vaccine was safe and protective and elicited immunological memory. Vaccinated dogs were ... Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of a recombinant Osp subunit canine Lyme disease vaccine. Posted By wp_admin. On October 1 ... www.prohealth.com/library/safety-efficacy-and-immunogenicity-of-a-recombinant-osp-subunit-canine-lyme-disease-vaccine-10299 ...
DNA Subunit Measles Vaccine Protects All 14 Primate Models From Wild-Type Viral Challenge ...
Title: Nanolipoprotein Particles (NLPs) as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit ... as Versatile Vaccine Platforms for Co-delivery of Multiple Adjuvants with Subunit Antigens from Burkholderia spp. and F. ... In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 ... The goal of this proposal is to demonstrate that colocalization of protein subunit antigens and adjuvants on nanolipoprotein ...
Vaccines and Antiviral Agents. Rational Design of Zika Virus Subunit Vaccine with Enhanced Efficacy. Wanbo Tai, Jiawei Chen, ... Rational Design of Zika Virus Subunit Vaccine with Enhanced Efficacy. Wanbo Tai, Jiawei Chen, Guangyu Zhao, Qibin Geng, Lei He ... Rational Design of Zika Virus Subunit Vaccine with Enhanced Efficacy. Wanbo Tai, Jiawei Chen, Guangyu Zhao, Qibin Geng, Lei He ... Rational Design of Zika Virus Subunit Vaccine with Enhanced Efficacy Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or ... Vaccines, Subunit. Known as: Subunit Vaccines, Vaccines, Subunit [Chemical/Ingredient], subunit vaccine ... Adjuvant modulation of immune responses to tuberculosis subunit vaccines.. *E. Lindblad, M. Elhay, R. Silva, R. Appelberg, P. ... BACKGROUND A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su… ...
Subunit Protein Vaccines: Theoretical and Practical Considerations for HIV-1. Author(s): Michael W. Cho. Case Western Reserve ... This review will be divided into three sections: First, the theoretical benefits and limitations of subunit protein vaccine ... This review will be divided into three sections: First, the theoretical benefits and limitations of subunit protein vaccine ... Keywords:Protein Vaccines, HIV-1, humoral immune responses. Abstract: With the spread of AIDS still rampant in many parts of ...
... invaplex vaccines in guinea pigs or mice is comparable to that generated by live attenuated vaccines or other subunit vaccines ... Delivering subunit vaccines by the mucosal route (intranasal, oral, etc) is difficult and not very effective unless suitable ... Isolation and Characterization of a Shigella flexneri Invasin Complex Subunit Vaccine. K. Ross Turbyfill, Antoinette B. Hartman ... Such vaccines include live attenuated vaccines (25, 32) and delivery of Shigella LPS or O polysaccharides with carriers such as ...
AntigenAdjuvantHeat-labile enteDoseAdultsLiveAdjuvantsLive attenuated vaccinesHope for subunit vaccinesEfficaciousCandidatesVaricella-zosteMeaslesAbstractAdjuvantClinicalConjugateProtein subunitViralBacterialSmallpoxProtective efficacyAdultsNovel subunit vaccineHerpes zosterImprove the efficacyEbolaDevelopmentMiceMalaria vaccineFormulationsImmune systemDosesExperimentalProphylacticTypes of vaccinesDevelop a vaccineDiseasesApproachesCholera vaccineOral vaccine against choleraInfluenza virusHumoral immune responsesSanofi PasteurInfectiousEffective
- Two vaccines against herpes zoster are currently authorized for use in Canada: the recombinant subunit zoster vaccine and live attenuated zoster vaccine. (cmaj.ca)
- The number needed to vaccinate (NNV) was higher for the live attenuated zoster vaccine than for the recombinant subunit zoster vaccine for all herpes zoster-related events at all ages. (cmaj.ca)
- For the live vaccine, the cost-effectiveness ratios varied between cost-saving and $130 587 per QALY gained and were less than $45 000 per QALY gained only for those 65 to 75 years old. (cmaj.ca)
- Given its higher efficacy, we estimated that the cost for the complete series of the recombinant vaccine could be $150 to $200 more than the cost of the live vaccine and still be considered cost-effective. (cmaj.ca)
- Verrier, B. Micelle-Based Adjuvants for Subunit Vaccine Delivery. (mdpi.com)
- Despite two centuries of vaccine use, only a few adjuvants and delivery systems are licensed for human use. (semanticscholar.org)
- The study demonstrated marked differences in the immune responses induced by the different adjuvants and identified both IFA and DDA as efficient adjuvants for a TB subunit vaccine. (asm.org)
- I thought though that you could use some pure peptides with some adjuvants as a vaccine. (biology-online.org)
- Advancements in development of novel adjuvants and therapeutic vaccines are expected to drive growth during the forecast period. (marketresearch.com)
- To this end, several strategies have been proposed, including the use of adjuvants, higher doses of vaccine, and intradermal delivery ( 9 , 10 ). (asm.org)
- Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for older people (50-75 years and up), whose immune response to a simple vaccine may have weakened. (wikipedia.org)
- The technological analysis includes a discussion on different classes of vaccines, vaccine adjuvants, and commercially available products. (pitchengine.com)
- Such vaccines include live attenuated vaccines ( 25 , 32 ) and delivery of Shigella LPS or O polysaccharides with carriers such as proteosomes ( 28 ), tetanus toxoid ( 6 ), or ribosomes ( 16 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- However, the long-term efficacy of these live-attenuated vaccines is inadequate, and improved vaccines are desirable. (grantome.com)
- Live attenuated vaccines. (aidsmap.com)
- Creating live attenuated vaccines normally involves deleting genes that protect the virus against the immune system, but which are not essential for its reproduction. (aidsmap.com)
- However animal research into live-attenuated vaccines continues for several reasons. (aidsmap.com)
- Inactivated or live attenuated vaccines have been developed in endemic countries, but there is still interest in the development of SBV vaccines that would allow Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA). (bvsalud.org)
- And subunit vaccines don't come with all the baggage of other 'genomic affects' or the probability of being 'alive' and therefore potentially harmful which is a risk all live-attenuated vaccines run. (blogspot.com)
- Live attenuated vaccines are effective in providing people with lifelong immunity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Results from innovative tuberculosis vaccine trial show potential for new BCG revaccination strategies and hope for subunit vaccines. (uct.ac.za)
- A Phase II trial on tuberculosis (TB) vaccines has suggested the potential for new Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) revaccination strategies in addition to hope for subunit vaccines against the disease, according to results presented at the 5th Global Forum on TB Vaccines (20-23 February, New Delhi, India). (id-hub.com)
- Commercial attenuated and inactivated vaccines are efficacious in reducing BTV spread and disease, but do not fulfil all safety, adaptability, or production requirements. (avhandlingar.se)
- Electroporation can increase the potency of DNA vaccines and is efficacious, safe, and well tolerated in human clinical trials;it represents a realistic product modality for a VZV/HZ vaccine destined for adults. (grantome.com)
- Mucosal administration of next generation TB vaccines has great potential, but developing a safe and efficacious mucosal vaccine is challenging. (figshare.com)
- Blood-stage vaccines remain a primary research focus, but real progress is evident in the development of a partially efficacious recombinant pre-erythrocytic subunit vaccine and a live-attenuated sporozoite vaccine. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Two separate vectors are being utilized to create multiple vaccine candidates to improve the probability of creating a safe, efficacious and economical ASFV vaccine. (whiteboard2boardroom.com)
- In response, a strong global initiative to develop safe and effective countermeasures has engendered more than 30 preclinical vaccine candidates ( 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
- however, several ZIKV vaccine candidates have progressed to Phase 1/2 clinical trials, including DNA/mRNA, purified inactivated ZIKV, and measles virus-vectored vaccines. (frontiersin.org)
- Secondly, recent progress in our understanding of immune responses against AIDS vaccine candidates that incorporate recombinant proteins or peptides will be reviewed, mainly those that are designed to elicit humoral immune responses. (eurekaselect.com)
- Finally, some of the factors that must be considered in designing and evaluating future vaccine candidates will be discussed. (eurekaselect.com)
- Proteins located at the extracellular needle tip of TTSSs appear to be excellent candidates for a sub-unit vaccine approach. (ku.edu)
- The unavailability of common vaccine candidate for the three pathogens causing atherosclerosis has aimed at the identification of potential vaccine candidates against the atherosclerosis infections. (jbsdonline.com)
- We hypothesize that these ORFs are candidates for an effective vaccine to prevent reactivation and thus herpes zoster. (grantome.com)
- Scientists have yet to find a stable cell line capable of generating live vaccine candidates in bulk, but these types of vaccines are expected to be the first to hit the market. (the-scientist.com)
- The phagocytosis inhibition assay is a simple procedure for screening potential candidates for sub-unit vaccines against P. falciparum based on the correlation between opsonizing antibodies and immunoprotection. (pasteur.fr)
- In silico analysis of the ORFs using a range of bioinformatics algorithms assigned 12 ORF products as periplasmic, outer membrane, or secretory proteins, and these were given a high priority as potential vaccine candidates. (edu.au)
- Malaria vaccine research and development faces formidable obstacles because many vaccine candidates will probably only be effective in a specific species at a specific stage. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A large number of potential therapeutic and preventive vaccine candidates addressing various diseases which are in the pipeline are listed with their current status in clinical trials. (pitchengine.com)
- Researchers at Kansas State University are creating African Swine Fever Virus (ASFV) subunit vaccine candidates using next-generation vectors. (whiteboard2boardroom.com)
- The subunit vaccine contained 50 mcg recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and a liposome-based AS01B adjuvant system. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Overall, the results of this trial suggest that this recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E subunit vaccine is highly effective for preventing herpes zoster in older immunocompetent adults. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Glycoprotein-D-adjuvant vaccine to prevent genital herpes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Adjuvant modulation of immune responses to tuberculosis subunit vaccines. (semanticscholar.org)
- Subunit vaccine was designed very precisely by combining the immunogenic B-cell epitope with CTL and HTL epitopes and also suitable adjuvant and linkers. (ncbs.res.in)
- However, their efficacy is inferior to that of the live attenuated 17DD vaccine, indicating that formulation development, such as incorporating a more suitable adjuvant, may be required for product development. (ajtmh.org)
- The proposed vaccine composed by an adjuvant (β-defensin) at the N-terminal site of the vaccine constructs and three peptide fragments where the adjuvant was fused by EAAAK linker and the peptide fragments were fused by GPGPG linker. (medworm.com)
- Based on the feasibility of protein production and the capability of the remaining four proteins to induce humoral or cellular immune responses in mice, VP2, NS1, and NS2 were selected to formulate an experimental vaccine combined to an ISCOM-matrix adjuvant (SubV). (avhandlingar.se)
- At least two pharmaceutical improvements are expected to help filling this gap: i) The development of thermostable vaccine dosage forms, and ii) the full exploitation of the adjuvant technology for subunit vaccines to potentiate strong immune responses. (eurekaselect.com)
- We hypothesize that a vaccine consisting of a suitable adjuvant and recombinant E2 with natural conformation may induce a similar level of protection as the MLV vaccine. (physiciansweekly.com)
- Our experimental vaccine KNB-E2 was formulated with the recombinant E2 protein (Genotype 1.1) expressed by insect cells and an oil-in-water emulsion based adjuvant. (physiciansweekly.com)
- All vaccines and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) controls were prepared with adjuvant and administered subcutaneously to cattle at 6 month of age. (bvsalud.org)
- Thus, APGA in Freund's adjuvant appears to have great potential as part of a maternally applied vaccine against coccidiosis. (edu.au)
- These results demonstrate the efficacy of melanin as a vaccine adjuvant. (jpt.com)
- In addition, the adjuvant GLA-SE promoted the expansion of peripheral follicular helper T cells and recruitment of T cells bearing common T cell receptors, which is essential for a vaccine intended for the general population. (unibas.ch)
- Although no treatment currently exists, several vaccines using different platforms are in clinical development. (frontiersin.org)
- These include nucleic acid vaccines based on the prM-E protein from the virus and purified formalin-inactivated ZIKV vaccines (ZPIV) which are in Phase 1/2 clinical trials. (frontiersin.org)
- The focus of the overview is on the development of intranasal BLP-based vaccines to prevent diseases caused by influenza and respiratory syncytial virus, and includes a selection of Phase I clinical data for the intranasal FluGEM vaccine. (frontiersin.org)
- In Europe, manufacturers/marketing holders of these vaccines are required to be involved in ongoing clinical trials and to present the results to the competent authorities each year. (bioportfolio.com)
- For instance, in June 2016, Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the initiation of phase I clinical trial for their Zika DNA vaccine named GLS-5700. (marketresearch.com)
- If successful in preclinical and clinical trials, this will be the first recombinant subunit vaccine produced by large-scale TGE in mammalian cells. (epfl.ch)
- Our findings have implications for current HIV-1 clinical vaccine trials and ongoing efforts to develop safe prophylactic AIDS vaccines. (ovid.com)
- Here, I review state of the art and perspectives in formulation design and processing methods for powder-based subunit vaccines intended for pulmonary administration, and present dry powder inhaler technologies suitable for translating these vaccines into clinical trials. (eurekaselect.com)
- They are in Phase 1 clinical trials with the vaccine in healthy flavivirus naive adults. (blogspot.com)
- This review focuses on the construction, pre-clinical and clinical characterization of ChimeriVax-WN02 for humans, a live chimeric vaccine composed of a yellow fever (YF) 17D virus in which the prM-E envelope protein genes are replaced with the corresponding genes of the WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
- No safety signals were detected in the three clinical trials with no remarkable differences in incidence of adverse events (AEs) between vaccine and placebo recipients. (mdpi.com)
- While two recombinant vaccines have shown promising results in clinical trials, we have developed an alternate subunit vaccine candidate that could be called upon in the event that problems are encountered with regard to safety or protection efficacy. (engconfintl.org)
- It was reported recently that a proportion of patients previously diagnosed with alleged vaccine encephalopathy might possess SCN1A mutations and clinical histories that enabled a diagnosis of Dravet syndrome, but these results have not been replicated. (aappublications.org)
- Future confirmatory clinical efficacy trials may be used to support the recombinant influenza vaccine as an alternative for the pediatric age group of ≥6 years. (aappublications.org)
- An earlier phase 1 clinical trial of trivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV3) in a healthy pediatric population aged 6 to 59 months revealed that RIV3 was safe and well tolerated but yielded inferior levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers compared with those induced by the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3). (aappublications.org)
- Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: Funding, R&D, and Global Partnership Strategies' finds that philanthropic organizations and public-private partnerships like the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) are filling a niche for funding translational and clinical vaccine research, allowing development of vaccines for diseases such as Lassa fever to occur even in the absence of an ongoing epidemic. (prnewswire.com)
- As of November 2018 , there were 235 vaccines in preclinical investigation, clinical development, or marketed for twelve major EIDs. (prnewswire.com)
- EIDs are uniquely challenging for vaccine development due to unpredictable clinical incidence or geographical patterns. (prnewswire.com)
- The report also finds that 90.2% of marketed or experimental vaccines for major EIDs are still in preclinical or clinical development, leaving significant opportunity for drug developers to enter relatively open disease landscapes for numerous indications. (prnewswire.com)
- For instance, there have been 57 planned, ongoing, or completed clinical trials for vaccines to prevent Ebola virus disease, and Merck's Phase III product, V920, is expected to receive FDA approval in 2019. (prnewswire.com)
- Some EIDs including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) have had experimental vaccines tested in fewer than six clinical trials. (prnewswire.com)
- Adaptive clinical trial design will play a major role in the pivotal studies of pipeline vaccines for EIDs. (prnewswire.com)
- KOLs believe that regulators and vaccine developers are moving towards adaptive clinical trials that factor in rapid surges and declines in disease incidence. (prnewswire.com)
- Instead of requiring a single large, randomized Phase III trial for vaccine approval, new strategies include collecting and combining data across multiple outbreaks, and expanding avenues for post-marketing studies to evaluate safety and clinical benefit. (prnewswire.com)
- Clinical Trial Design: How vaccine for EIDs clinical trials are being designed and what regulatory strategies are being explored. (prnewswire.com)
- Middle East and Africa human vaccines market has been segmented on the basis of technology which comprises attenuated, inactivated, toxoid, conjugate & subunit, recombinant DNA. (medgadget.com)
- Conjugate vaccines formed the dominant technology segment in terms of revenue in 2016. (marketresearch.com)
- A newer conjugate form of the vaccine (Vi bound to a non-toxic recombinant Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin, or Vi-rEPA) has enhanced efficacy, including protection of children under 5 years of age. (wikipedia.org)
- Recombinant protein subunit vaccine synthesis in microbes: a role for yeast? (aston.ac.uk)
- This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: Bill, RM 2015, 'Recombinant protein subunit vaccine synthesis in microbes: a role for yeast? (aston.ac.uk)
- Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Recombinant protein subunit vaccine synthesis in microbes: a role for yeast? (aston.ac.uk)
- This pH-responsive blend particle system represents a simple and promising delivery platform for subunit vaccine development against viral infections. (washington.edu)
- Recently, the idea of using S. cerevisiae as a delivery vehicle for cancer, viral, and bacterial vaccines has been explored, inducing robust humoral and cellular immune responses. (rvc.ac.uk)
- Vaccines against viral toxins. (aidsmap.com)
- The protective efficacy of these inactivated vaccines was determined in the 1950s. (cdc.gov)
- 2013 Evaluation of protective efficacy using a nonstructural protein NS1 in DNA vaccine-loaded microspheres against dengue 2 virus. (blogspot.com)
- Further studies are needed to confirm the safety and protective efficacy of recombinant hemagglutinin as an alternative to egg-grown inactivated influenza vaccines. (aappublications.org)
- Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older. (semanticscholar.org)
- Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. (semanticscholar.org)
- Moderate influenza vaccine effectiveness against influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus and low effectiveness against A(H3N2) virus among older adults during 2013-2014 influenza season in Beijing, China. (bioportfolio.com)
- Since 2007, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine has been provided free-of-charge to older adults aged ≥60 years in Beijing, China, but the data regarding influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) am. (bioportfolio.com)
- Zostavax, a live zoster vaccine, is recommended for adults ≥60 years old, but it is not appropriate for adults with. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- Immunocompromised patients were excluded from this phase 3 trial, however, so further studies will be required to determine if this vaccine is safe for all older adults. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- The primary objective was to assess the efficacy of the vaccine, as compared with placebo, in reducing the risk of herpes zoster in older adults. (uta.fi)
- The HZ/su vaccine significantly reduced the risk of herpes zoster in adults who were 50 years of age or older. (uta.fi)
- Vaccine efficacy in adults who were 70 years of age or older was similar to that in the other two age groups. (uta.fi)
- however, many studies have reported that the effectiveness of the influenza vaccine is lower in elderly individuals than in young adults ( 4 , 5 ). (asm.org)
- The recombinant influenza vaccine is well established in adults ≥18 years of age for preventing seasonal influenza disease. (aappublications.org)
- Recombinant influenza vaccine has provided better protection in older adults. (aappublications.org)
- Matiaskova K., Nedbalcova K., Tesarik R., Kudlackova H., Gebauer J., Toman M., Faldyna M. (2019): A crude capsular polysaccharide extract as a potential novel subunit vaccine with cross-protection against the most prevalent serovars of Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis in the Czech Republic. (agriculturejournals.cz)
- The high efficacy of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine that was found in this trial has many important implications. (clinicaladvisor.com)
- During a mean follow-up of 3.2 years, herpes zoster was confirmed in 6 participants in the vaccine group and in 210 participants in the placebo group (incidence rate, 0.3 vs. 9.1 per 1000 person-years) in the modified vaccinated cohort. (uta.fi)
- A stabilized subunit vaccine for ebola virus" by Keith Chappell, Daniel Watterson et al. (engconfintl.org)
- In response to recent global outbreaks, such as the 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic, global partnerships have been formed to stimulate vaccine development with a blend of push and pull market incentives. (prnewswire.com)
- The substantial number of pharmaceutical challenges associated with the subunit vaccines process of development is projected to restrain the market. (openpr.com)
- However, the genetic engineering segment is anticipated to driven by technological advancements in the research & development of the subunit vaccines. (openpr.com)
- Yet the development of vaccines remains largely trapped in the past, a hostage to the methodology of Pasteur. (springer.com)
- The last two decades have seen a breath-taking revival in the commercial market for vaccines and the simultaneous emergence of a whole tranche of new technologies that promise to free vaccine development from the muddle of empirical thinking. (springer.com)
- In this short introduction, we set the scene for this renaissance, and explore how the combination of computational and experimental techniques promise so much for the future development of vaccines and the science of vaccinology. (springer.com)
- The successful development of a mucosal vaccine depends critically on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or carrier system. (frontiersin.org)
- A key issue in the development of improved and new vaccines is safety, since most vaccines are given to healthy individuals. (frontiersin.org)
- For example vaccine action plan of WHO along with huge funding from international bodies were responsible for driving the vaccine market to great heights in the past and also resulted in development and expansion of vaccine production capacities especially in developing states notably India. (medgadget.com)
- S ubunit vaccines have much promise in solving unmet needs in vaccine development. (omicsonline.org)
- New BBSRC grant: Development of a novel yeast-based oral subunit vaccine against Eimeria spp. (rvc.ac.uk)
- A new BBSRC grant has been awarded to Profs Damer Blake , Dirk Werling and Fiona Tomley entitled "Development of a novel yeast-based oral subunit vaccine against Eimeria spp. (rvc.ac.uk)
- Recognition of the limitations associated with live anticoccidial vaccines has promoted development of a third generation of subunit or recombinant vaccines. (rvc.ac.uk)
- The development of a broadly protective or universal influenza virus vaccine is currently a public health priority worldwide. (bioportfolio.com)
- The global pediatric vaccines market is expected to reach USD 60.4 billion by 2025 at an 11.7% CAGR, according to a new report by Grand View Research, Inc. Advancements in development of vaccines and new product launches are some of the major drivers of the market. (marketresearch.com)
- This thesis presents the development and evaluation of a novel subunit DIVA vaccine against BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) in cattle. (avhandlingar.se)
- Having a high-resolution B cell epitope map of RiVax will enable the development and optimization of competitive serum profiling assays to examine vaccine-induced antibody responses across species. (asm.org)
- Yeast cells represent an established bioreactor to produce recombinant proteins for subunit vaccine development. (pasteur.fr)
- Thus, the development of more effective vaccines would be highly desirable and is the objective of this Proposal. (grantome.com)
- This advance would accelerate rational development of new TB vaccines. (uct.ac.za)
- This led to the study of the characteristics of the virus and the development of inactivated vaccines. (cdc.gov)
- There are several other subunit vaccines in development including one using NS1 which is mentioned in Murphy and Whitehead's article in Annu Rev Immunol . (blogspot.com)
- Efforts towards better disease control and focal elimination are hindered by development and spread of insecticide and drug resistance, leaving a malaria vaccine as a required tool to complement these approaches. (unibas.ch)
- There is, therefore, an urgent need for the development of more potent malaria vaccines. (unibas.ch)
- Elimination of malaria will probably ultimately depend on the development of highly effective vaccines. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- DNA and recombinant vector vaccines are two additional types of vaccine that are still in the experimental stages of development. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vaccine development and testing stages vary from country to country. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Furthermore, a strong patent portfolio and the need for large investments towards vaccine development have limited the scope of entry for new companies. (pitchengine.com)
- The details on the emerging approaches to vaccine development such as reverse vaccinology, personalized vaccinomics, and systems vaccinomics are discussed. (pitchengine.com)
- Apart from the technological and market analysis, the investor climate has been assessed by tracking the complete investor network and collecting data on funds/grants and investments made towards vaccine development. (pitchengine.com)
- 1 , 2 Because children are especially susceptible to complications of influenza B, 2 we therefore initiated the development of the quadrivalent, recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV4) in children aged 6 to 17 years. (aappublications.org)
- Although development of interventions for emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) has traditionally been limited by a lack of market incentives, novel funding mechanisms and global partnerships for outbreak preparedness are expanding the commercial prospects for vaccine developers. (prnewswire.com)
- Chief among these are advanced market commitments (AMCs) from health organizations to subsidize vaccine development by purchasing a vaccine before licensure. (prnewswire.com)
- There is a wide gap in the stage of vaccine development for different EIDs. (prnewswire.com)
- This report covers current and future challenges for the development and deployment of vaccines for EIDs, focusing on vaccine platform technology and research, funding mechanisms, and collaborative global partnerships. (prnewswire.com)
- Pipeline Assessment for Key EIDs: What are the pipeline vaccine products in development for key EIDs. (prnewswire.com)
- Funding and Market Incentives: How vaccine development is being incentivized in the public and private spaces. (prnewswire.com)
- Global Collaborations: How global and public-private partnership organizations are supporting vaccine development. (prnewswire.com)
- BALB/c, C57BL/6, and Ifnar1 −/− mice were immunized with the wild-type (WT) and mutant (M375N/E377T) ZIKV EDIII vaccines. (asm.org)
- BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously three times at an interval of two weeks with designed vaccine. (magiran.com)
- Mice were immunised subcutaneously with two doses of the constructed vaccine in a 14-day interval and challenged intraperitoneally with various G. parasuis strains (serovars 1, 4, 5, 13) at 21 days after the second immunisation. (agriculturejournals.cz)
- An additional study, published in 2009, confirmed the presence of antigenic sin in mice and showed a greater tendency for live-virus vaccines to produce the phenomenon ( 9 ). (cdc.gov)
- In the second quarter of the third year, LLNL finalized all immunological assessments of NLP vaccine formulations in the F344 model. (osti.gov)
- Wild-type parasite (first generation) vaccine formulations such as Coccivac® are still common in North America and Asia, but these have been replaced by safer attenuated (second generation) vaccines such as Paracox® and Hipracox® in much of the world. (rvc.ac.uk)
- ADJUVANTED VACCINE FORMULATIONS - The invention relates to adjuvanted vaccine formulations, in particular influenza vaccines for intranasal delivery. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- The global subunit vaccines market is driven by the cost of production, better safety as compared to traditional vaccines, and presence of pure and well-defined components that improve the immune system. (openpr.com)
- Thus, the immune system recognizes vaccine agents as foreign, destroys them, and subsequently 'remembers' them. (biomedcentral.com)
- Vaccines are products that help the immune system combat invading disease-causing pathogens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vaccines train the immune system to detect and combat disease-causing pathogens. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- To understand how vaccines work, people will need to know how the immune system works. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Participants received two intramuscular doses of the vaccine or placebo 2 months apart. (uta.fi)
- Vaccine induced immune response, mainly the Th1 type cytokine secretion, was evaluated in different age groups following booster doses at equal time intervals. (dtu.dk)
- The 24,770 persons who ingested two or more doses of BS-WC vaccine were compared with 24,842 controls who took two or more doses of killed whole-cell (WC) oral cholera vaccine. (elsevier.com)
- The vaccines require two or three doses depending on a person's age and immune status. (wikipedia.org)
- A person will require several doses or booster shots of an inactivated vaccine to guarantee its effectiveness. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- BACKGROUND An effective prophylactic vaccine would help control the spread of genital herpes. (semanticscholar.org)
- Our primary approach to develop an effective prophylactic vaccine against HIV utilizes a novel immunogen called the Full Length Single Chain (FLSC) that consists of gp120 derived from HIV-1(BaL) genetically linked via a 20 amino acid linker to the D1D2 domains of human CD4. (grantome.com)
- With the spread of AIDS still rampant in many parts of the world, there is a global urgency to develop a vaccine against HIV-1. (eurekaselect.com)
- To date attempts to develop a vaccine against B. pilosicoli to protect humans and animals have not been successful. (edu.au)
- It takes about 10-15 years to develop a vaccine for a specific disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Vaccines based upon S. cerevisiae are likely to be particularly valuable against diseases of farmed poultry, where safety, scalability, stability, delivery and cost are crucial. (rvc.ac.uk)
- In the past century, vaccines have contributed to a significant improvement in global public health by preventing a number of infectious diseases. (eurekaselect.com)
- There is overwhelming scientific consensus that vaccines are a very safe and effective way to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. (wikipedia.org)
- Today, vaccines help control and prevent a range of serious diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- A close view on the therapeutic vaccines for various diseases by providing details and status of current vaccines in the pipeline. (pitchengine.com)
- The 'Vaccines for Emerging Infectious Diseases: Funding, R&D, and Global Partnership Strategies' report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (prnewswire.com)
- In one example modern poultry production relies on effective control of Eimeria, but current approaches using drugs and live vaccines require improvement. (rvc.ac.uk)
- 2014). Genome-based approaches to develop epitope-driven subunit vaccines against pathogens of infective endocarditis. (jbsdonline.com)
- Although early successful vaccinations with irradiated, live-attenuated malaria parasites suggested that a vaccine is possible, until recently, most efforts have focused on subunit vaccine approaches. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Universal influenza virus vaccines and therapeutics: where do we stand with influenza B virus? (bioportfolio.com)
- Biomolecule Surface Display and Uses Thereof - A vaccine for the treatment or prevention of a disease in a subject, wherein said disease is associated with an avian influenza virus, and wherein said vaccine comprises an expression vector comprising a nucleic acid encoding a hemagglutinin peptide, such that in use said hemagglutinin peptide is expressed by said expression vector in said subject. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
- Key players in the global subunit vaccines market are Sanofi Pasteur SA, Virbac, Pfizer Inc., and Merck, among others. (openpr.com)
- H4:IC31 is an investigative subunit vaccine candidate being developed jointly by Aeras and Sanofi Pasteur, the vaccines business of Sanofi (EURONEXT: SAN) (NYSE: SNY), and the Statens Serum Institut. (eurekalert.org)
- All current licensed YF vaccines, including YF-Vax ® (Sanofi-Pasteur, Lyon, France) and 17DD-YFV (Bio-Manguinhos, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), are based on live attenuated virus produced in hens' eggs and have been widely used. (ajtmh.org)
- Sanofi Pasteur) influenza vaccines are widely used throughout South Korea. (asm.org)
- H4:IC31 is a subunit TB vaccine candidate being developed jointly by Aeras and Sanofi Pasteur, and the Statens Serum Institut. (uct.ac.za)
- The present invention relates to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis viruses which fail to produce any functional thymidine kinase as a result of an insertion in the thymidine kinase gene, vaccines against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis containing the same and methods for production and use of same. (google.com.au)
- Developing effective vaccines is considered a top choice among all control measures. (nih.gov)
- Our data indicated that inactivated virus is the choice of vaccine preparation capable of fulfilling the demand for effective control, and that VP1 subunit vaccines remain promising vaccine strategies that require further refinement. (nih.gov)
- Without a doubt, developing an effective vaccine against the virus has been a monumental scientific challenge. (eurekaselect.com)
- 12 ), even to the newest antibiotics, underscores the need for an effective vaccine to help control Shigella disease. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The YF vaccines are considered safe and highly effective. (ajtmh.org)
- Specifically, the severity of the pandemic HIV-1 makes the emergence of an enduring effective vaccine against HIV-1. (medworm.com)
- An effective vaccine has not been developed to date. (magiran.com)
- These responses were of similar type and comparable magnitude between both vaccines, suggesting that SubV might provide protection that is at least as effective as the commercial vaccine. (avhandlingar.se)
- Thus an effective vaccine should not only elicit strong immune response in young animals, but also a quality of the T-cell response that correlates with long term protection. (dtu.dk)
- for example, vaccines that have proven effective include the influenza vaccine , the HPV vaccine , and the chicken pox vaccine . (wikipedia.org)
- In those already infected the vaccines are not effective. (wikipedia.org)
- The ideal vaccine should be effective, well tolerated, easy and inexpensive to manufacture, and easy to administer and store. (tabers.com)
- More effective vaccines are needed to improve protection and public health. (aappublications.org)
- The vaccine is not effective in children under the age of two. (wikipedia.org)
- The vaccine offers effective protection the first year after being given (with between 50% and 80% efficacy) and the second year (31% to 76%), but not after that. (wikipedia.org)