Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Antigens, CD29: Integrin beta-1 chains which are expressed as heterodimers that are noncovalently associated with specific alpha-chains of the CD49 family (CD49a-f). CD29 is expressed on resting and activated leukocytes and is a marker for all of the very late activation antigens on cells. (from: Barclay et al., The Leukocyte Antigen FactsBook, 1993, p164)Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Integrin alphaV: An alpha integrin with a molecular weight of 160-kDa that is found in a variety of cell types. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds. Integrin alphaV can combine with several different beta subunits to form heterodimers that generally bind to RGD sequence-containing extracellular matrix proteins.Integrin beta Chains: Integrin beta chains combine with integrin alpha chains to form heterodimeric cell surface receptors. Integrins have traditionally been classified into functional groups based on the identity of one of three beta chains present in the heterodimer. The beta chain is necessary and sufficient for integrin-dependent signaling. Its short cytoplasmic tail contains sequences critical for inside-out signaling.Receptors, Vitronectin: Receptors such as INTEGRIN ALPHAVBETA3 that bind VITRONECTIN with high affinity and play a role in cell migration. They also bind FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; osteopontin; and THROMBOSPONDINS.Integrin beta3: An integrin beta subunit of approximately 85-kDa in size which has been found in INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB-containing and INTEGRIN ALPHAV-containing heterodimers. Integrin beta3 occurs as three alternatively spliced isoforms, designated beta3A-C.Antigens, CD18: Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Integrin alpha4: An integrin alpha subunit that is unique in that it does not contain an I domain, and its proteolytic cleavage site is near the middle of the extracellular portion of the polypeptide rather than close to the membrane as in other integrin alpha subunits.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Integrin alphaVbeta3: An integrin that binds to a variety of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins containing the conserved RGD amino acid sequence and modulates cell adhesion. Integrin alphavbeta3 is highly expressed in OSTEOCLASTS where it may play role in BONE RESORPTION. It is also abundant in vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells, and in some tumor cells, where it is involved in angiogenesis and cell migration. Although often referred to as the vitronectin receptor there is more than one receptor for vitronectin (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN).Integrin alpha3beta1: Cell surface receptor for LAMININ, epiligrin, FIBRONECTINS, entactin, and COLLAGEN. Integrin alpha3beta1 is the major integrin present in EPITHELIAL CELLS, where it plays a role in the assembly of BASEMENT MEMBRANE as well as in cell migration, and may regulate the functions of other integrins. Two alternatively spliced isoforms of the alpha subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA3), are differentially expressed in different cell types.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Receptors, Fibronectin: Specific cell surface receptors which bind to FIBRONECTINS. Studies have shown that these receptors function in certain types of adhesive contact as well as playing a major role in matrix assembly. These receptors include the traditional fibronectin receptor, also called INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1 and several other integrins.Integrin alpha6beta1: A cell surface receptor mediating cell adhesion to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX and to other cells via binding to LAMININ. It is involved in cell migration, embryonic development, leukocyte activation and tumor cell invasiveness. Integrin alpha6beta1 is the major laminin receptor on PLATELETS; LEUKOCYTES; and many EPITHELIAL CELLS, and ligand binding may activate a number of signal transduction pathways. Alternative splicing of the cytoplasmic domain of the alpha6 subunit (INTEGRIN ALPHA6) results in the formation of A and B isoforms of the heterodimer, which are expressed in a tissue-specific manner.Integrin alpha4beta1: Integrin alpha4beta1 is a FIBRONECTIN and VCAM-1 receptor present on LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; EOSINOPHILS; NK CELLS and thymocytes. It is involved in both cell-cell and cell- EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX adhesion and plays a role in INFLAMMATION, hematopoietic cell homing and immune function, and has been implicated in skeletal MYOGENESIS; NEURAL CREST migration and proliferation, lymphocyte maturation and morphogenesis of the PLACENTA and HEART.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Integrin alpha5beta1: An integrin found in FIBROBLASTS; PLATELETS; MONOCYTES, and LYMPHOCYTES. Integrin alpha5beta1 is the classical receptor for FIBRONECTIN, but it also functions as a receptor for LAMININ and several other EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Laminin: Large, noncollagenous glycoprotein with antigenic properties. It is localized in the basement membrane lamina lucida and functions to bind epithelial cells to the basement membrane. Evidence suggests that the protein plays a role in tumor invasion.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Integrin alpha5: This integrin alpha subunit combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form a receptor (INTEGRIN ALPHA5BETA1) that binds FIBRONECTIN and LAMININ. It undergoes posttranslational cleavage into a heavy and a light chain that are connected by disulfide bonds.Integrin alpha6: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily associates with INTEGRIN BETA1 or INTEGRIN BETA4 to form laminin-binding heterodimers. Integrin alpha6 has two alternatively spliced isoforms: integrin alpha6A and integrin alpha6B, which differ in their cytoplasmic domains and are regulated in a tissue-specific and developmental stage-specific manner.Vitronectin: A blood plasma glycoprotein that mediates cell adhesion and interacts with proteins of the complement, coagulation, and fibrinolytic cascade. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Extracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.Integrin alpha1beta1: Integrin alpha1beta1 functions as a receptor for LAMININ and COLLAGEN. It is widely expressed during development, but in the adult is the predominant laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) in mature SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, where it is important for maintenance of the differentiated phenotype of these cells. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also found in LYMPHOCYTES and microvascular endothelial cells, and may play a role in angiogenesis. In SCHWANN CELLS and neural crest cells, it is involved in cell migration. Integrin alpha1beta1 is also known as VLA-1 and CD49a-CD29.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Integrin alpha3: An integrin alpha subunit that occurs as alternatively spliced isoforms. The isoforms are differentially expressed in specific cell types and at specific developmental stages. Integrin alpha3 combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form INTEGRIN ALPHA3BETA1 which is a heterodimer found primarily in epithelial cells.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Talin: A 235-kDa cytoplasmic protein that is also found in platelets. It has been localized to regions of cell-substrate adhesion. It binds to INTEGRINS; VINCULIN; and ACTINS and appears to participate in generating a transmembrane connection between the extracellular matrix and the cytoskeleton.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Receptors, Collagen: Collagen receptors are cell surface receptors that modulate signal transduction between cells and the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. They are found in many cell types and are involved in the maintenance and regulation of cell shape and behavior, including PLATELET ACTIVATION and aggregation, through many different signaling pathways and differences in their affinities for collagen isoforms. Collagen receptors include discoidin domain receptors, INTEGRINS, and glycoprotein VI.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Macrophage-1 Antigen: An adhesion-promoting leukocyte surface membrane heterodimer. The alpha subunit consists of the CD11b ANTIGEN and the beta subunit the CD18 ANTIGEN. The antigen, which is an integrin, functions both as a receptor for complement 3 and in cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesive interactions.Lymphocyte Function-Associated Antigen-1: An integrin heterodimer widely expressed on cells of hematopoietic origin. CD11A ANTIGEN comprises the alpha chain and the CD18 antigen (ANTIGENS, CD18) the beta chain. Lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 is a major receptor of T-CELLS; B-CELLS; and GRANULOCYTES. It mediates the leukocyte adhesion reactions underlying cytolytic conjugate formation, helper T-cell interactions, and antibody-dependent killing by NATURAL KILLER CELLS and granulocytes. Intracellular adhesion molecule-1 has been defined as a ligand for lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Integrin alpha2beta1: An integrin found on fibroblasts, platelets, endothelial and epithelial cells, and lymphocytes where it functions as a receptor for COLLAGEN and LAMININ. Although originally referred to as the collagen receptor, it is one of several receptors for collagen. Ligand binding to integrin alpha2beta1 triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling, including activation of p38 MAP kinase.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Integrin alpha2: An integrin alpha subunit that primarily combines with INTEGRIN BETA1 to form the INTEGRIN ALPHA2BETA1 heterodimer. It contains a domain which has homology to collagen-binding domains found in von Willebrand factor.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD11: A group of three different alpha chains (CD11a, CD11b, CD11c) that are associated with an invariant CD18 beta chain (ANTIGENS, CD18). The three resulting leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION) are LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; and ANTIGEN, P150,95.Integrin alpha6beta4: This intrgrin is a key component of HEMIDESMOSOMES and is required for their formation and maintenance in epithelial cells. Integrin alpha6beta4 is also found on thymocytes, fibroblasts, and Schwann cells, where it functions as a laminin receptor (RECEPTORS, LAMININ) and is involved in wound healing, cell migration, and tumor invasiveness.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Receptors, Lymphocyte Homing: Cell surface glycoproteins on lymphocytes and other leukocytes that mediate adhesion to specialized blood vessels called high endothelial venules. Several different classes of lymphocyte homing receptors have been identified, and they appear to target different surface molecules (addressins) on high endothelial venules in different tissues. The adhesion plays a crucial role in the trafficking of lymphocytes.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Antigens, CD151: Tetraspanin proteins found associated with LAMININ-binding INTEGRINS. The CD151 antigens may play a role in the regulation of CELL MOTILITY.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Receptors, Cytoadhesin: A group of INTEGRINS that includes the platelet outer membrane glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa (PLATELET GLYCOPROTEIN GPIIB-IIIA COMPLEX) and the vitronectin receptor (RECEPTORS, VITRONECTIN). They play a major role in cell adhesion and serve as receptors for fibronectin, von Willebrand factor, and vitronectin.Focal Adhesion Kinase 1: A non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase that is localized to FOCAL ADHESIONS and is a central component of integrin-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. Focal adhesion kinase 1 interacts with PAXILLIN and undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to adhesion of cell surface integrins to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. Phosphorylated p125FAK protein binds to a variety of SH2 DOMAIN and SH3 DOMAIN containing proteins and helps regulate CELL ADHESION and CELL MIGRATION.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Integrin beta4: Also known as CD104 antigen, this protein is distinguished from other beta integrins by its relatively long cytoplasmic domain (approximately 1000 amino acids vs. approximately 50). Five alternatively spliced isoforms have been described.Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Receptors, Very Late Antigen: Members of the integrin family appearing late after T-cell activation. They are a family of proteins initially identified at the surface of stimulated T-cells, but now identified on a variety of cell types. At least six VLA antigens have been identified as heterodimeric adhesion receptors consisting of a single common beta-subunit and different alpha-subunits.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Focal Adhesions: An anchoring junction of the cell to a non-cellular substrate. It is composed of a specialized area of the plasma membrane where bundles of the ACTIN CYTOSKELETON terminate and attach to the transmembrane linkers, INTEGRINS, which in turn attach through their extracellular domains to EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS.Receptors, Laminin: Glycoprotein molecules on the surface of cells that react with or bind to laminin whose function allows the binding of epithelial cells to the basement membrane. The molecular weight of this high-affinity receptor is 67 kD.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Antigens, CD11a: An alpha-integrin subunit found on lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages and monocytes. It combines with the integrin beta2 subunit (CD18 ANTIGEN) to form LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins: Surface glycoproteins on platelets which have a key role in hemostasis and thrombosis such as platelet adhesion and aggregation. Many of these are receptors.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Integrin alphaXbeta2: A major adhesion-associated heterodimer molecule expressed by MONOCYTES; GRANULOCYTES; NK CELLS; and some LYMPHOCYTES. The alpha subunit is the CD11C ANTIGEN, a surface antigen expressed on some myeloid cells. The beta subunit is the CD18 ANTIGEN.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Paxillin: Paxillin is a signal transducing adaptor protein that localizes to FOCAL ADHESIONS via its four LIM domains. It undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION in response to integrin-mediated CELL ADHESION, and interacts with a variety of proteins including VINCULIN; FOCAL ADHESION KINASE; PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(C-SRC); and PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN C-CRK.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Platelet Glycoprotein GPIIb-IIIa Complex: Platelet membrane glycoprotein complex important for platelet adhesion and aggregation. It is an integrin complex containing INTEGRIN ALPHAIIB and INTEGRIN BETA3 which recognizes the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence present on several adhesive proteins. As such, it is a receptor for FIBRINOGEN; VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR; FIBRONECTIN; VITRONECTIN; and THROMBOSPONDINS. A deficiency of GPIIb-IIIa results in GLANZMANN THROMBASTHENIA.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Receptors, Leukocyte-Adhesion: Family of proteins associated with the capacity of LEUKOCYTES to adhere to each other and to certain substrata, e.g., the C3bi component of complement. Members of this family are the LYMPHOCYTE FUNCTION-ASSOCIATED ANTIGEN-1; (LFA-1), the MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN; (Mac-1), and the INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2 or p150,95 leukocyte adhesion protein. They all share a common beta-subunit which is the CD18 antigen. All three of the above antigens are absent in inherited LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, impaired pus formation, and wound healing as well as abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence-dependent functions of granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphoid cells.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Leukocyte-Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome: Rare, autosomal recessive disorder caused by deficiency of the beta 2 integrin receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION) comprising the CD11/CD18 family of glycoproteins. The syndrome is characterized by abnormal adhesion-dependent functions, especially defective tissue emigration of neutrophils, leading to recurrent infection.Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1: Cytokine-induced cell adhesion molecule present on activated endothelial cells, tissue macrophages, dendritic cells, bone marrow fibroblasts, myoblasts, and myotubes. It is important for the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. (From Pigott & Power, The Adhesion Molecule FactsBook, 1993, p154)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Disintegrins: A family of polypeptides purified from snake venoms, which contain the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) sequence. The RGD tripeptide binds to integrin receptors and thus competitively inhibits normal integrin-ligand interactions. Disintegrins thus block adhesive functions and act as platelet aggregation inhibitors.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Mice, Inbred C57BLAntigens, CD9: A subtype of tetraspanin proteins that play a role in cell adhesion, cell motility, and tumor metastasis. CD9 antigens take part in the process of platelet activation and aggregation, the formation of paranodal junctions in neuronal tissue, and the fusion of sperm with egg.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1: A cell-surface ligand involved in leukocyte adhesion and inflammation. Its production is induced by gamma-interferon and it is required for neutrophil migration into inflamed tissue.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Vinculin: A cytoskeletal protein associated with cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. The amino acid sequence of human vinculin has been determined. The protein consists of 1066 amino acid residues and its gene has been assigned to chromosome 10.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.PhosphoproteinsUp-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Cell-Matrix Junctions: Specialized areas at the CELL MEMBRANE where a cell attaches to the EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX or other substratum.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.rap1 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Neutrophil Activation: The process in which the neutrophil is stimulated by diverse substances, resulting in degranulation and/or generation of reactive oxygen products, and culminating in the destruction of invading pathogens. The stimulatory substances, including opsonized particles, immune complexes, and chemotactic factors, bind to specific cell-surface receptors on the neutrophil.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Cricetulus: A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Selectins: Transmembrane proteins consisting of a lectin-like domain, an epidermal growth factor-like domain, and a variable number of domains that are homologous to complement regulatory proteins. They are important cell adhesion molecules which help LEUKOCYTES attach to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIUM.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Tenascin: Hexameric extracellular matrix glycoprotein transiently expressed in many developing organs and often re-expressed in tumors. It is present in the central and peripheral nervous systems as well as in smooth muscle and tendons. (From Kreis & Vale, Guidebook to the Extracellular Matrix and Adhesion Proteins, 1993, p93)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
... is an integrin alpha subunit. It makes up half of the α1β1 integrin duplex. This gene encodes the alpha 1 subunit of ... Bodary SC, McLean JW (1990). "The integrin beta 1 subunit associates with the vitronectin receptor alpha v subunit to form a ... Clover J, Dodds RA, Gowen M (1992). "Integrin subunit expression by human osteoblasts and osteoclasts in situ and in culture". ... "Expression of native and truncated forms of the human integrin alpha 1 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (4): 2989-96. PMID 8428973 ...
... is an integrin alpha subunit. It makes up half of the α4β1 lymphocyte homing receptor. The product of this gene belongs ... Teixidó J, Parker CM, Kassner PD, Hemler ME (1992). "Functional and structural analysis of VLA-4 integrin alpha 4 subunit ... Szabo M, McIntyre BW (1996). "Identification of two variants of the human integrin alpha 4 subunit". Mol. Immunol. 32 (17-18): ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ...
ITGA3 is an integrin alpha subunit. Together with beta-1 subunit, it makes up half of the α3β1 integrin duplex that plays a ... "Entrez Gene: ITGA3 integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor)". Park KR, Inoue T, Ueda M, Hirano T, ... Jones SD, van der Flier A, Sonnenberg A (September 1998). "Genomic organization of the human alpha 3 integrin subunit gene". ... ITGA3 encodes the integrin alpha 3 chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and ...
Tani TT, Mercurio AM (September 2001). "PDZ interaction sites in integrin alpha subunits. T14853, TIP/GIPC binds to a type I ... Integrin alpha-6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGA6 gene. The ITGA6 protein product is the integrin alpha ... For example, alpha 6 may combine with beta 4 in the integrin referred to as TSP180, or with beta 1 in the integrin VLA-6. ... Cluster of differentiation Integrins GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000091409 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89 ...
Tani TT, Mercurio AM (September 2001). "PDZ interaction sites in integrin alpha subunits. T14853, TIP/GIPC binds to a type I ... Tani TT, Mercurio AM (2001). "PDZ interaction sites in integrin alpha subunits. T14853, TIP/GIPC binds to a type I recognition ... "The PDZ domain of TIP-2/GIPC interacts with the C-terminus of the integrin alpha5 and alpha6 subunits". Matrix Biol. 21 (2): ... form of G alpha i subunits". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (26): 15203-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.26.15203. PMC 26381 . PMID ...
"PDZ interaction sites in integrin alpha subunits. T14853, TIP/GIPC binds to a type I recognition sequence in alpha 6A/alpha 5 ... Integrin alpha-5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGA5 gene. The product of this gene belongs to the integrin ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and a beta chain. This gene encodes the ...
Integrin α6β4 is composed to two α and β subunit dimers. The larger β4 subunit has domains that bind to fibronectin III and ... integrin β4 subunit in the cytoplasm and integrin α6 and laminin-332 in the extracellular space. CD151, a protein of the ... The α6 subunit binds to extracellular BP180, CD151 and laminin-322. When integrin α6β4 binds to Plectin 1a and BPAG1, it ... Hemidesmosomes have two membrane-spanning components: Integrin α6β4 and Plectin 1a. Integrin α6β4 operates as a laminin-332 ...
The CD49b protein is an integrin alpha subunit. It makes up half of the α2β1 integrin duplex. Integrins are heterodimeric ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors". Trends Cell ... ITGA2 integrin, alpha 2 (CD49B, alpha 2 subunit of VLA-2 receptor)". Gagliani, Nicola; Magnani, Chiara F.; Huber, Samuel; ... Integrin alpha-2 or CD49b (cluster of differentiation 49b) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the CD49b gene. ...
This gene encodes the integrin beta 4 subunit, a receptor for the laminins. This subunit tends to associate with alpha 6 ... Suzuki S, Naitoh Y (Mar 1990). "Amino acid sequence of a novel integrin beta 4 subunit and primary expression of the mRNA in ... Integrins are heterodimers composed of alpha and beta subunits, that are noncovalently associated transmembrane glycoprotein ... Hogervorst F, Kuikman I, van Kessel AG, Sonnenberg A (Jul 1991). "Molecular cloning of the human alpha 6 integrin subunit. ...
Integrins are heterodimers which are formed from one beta and one alpha subunit. These subunits are present in different forms ... Connection between focal adhesions and proteins of the extracellular matrix generally involves integrins. Integrins bind to ... Focal adhesions are integrin-containing, multi-protein structures that form mechanical links between intracellular actin ... Within the cell, the intracellular domain of integrin binds to the cytoskeleton via adapter proteins such as talin, α-actinin, ...
This protein noncovalently binds to an alpha subunit to form a heterodimeric integrin complex. In general, integrin complexes ... Integrin beta-8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGB8 gene. This gene is a member of the integrin beta chain ... Moyle M, Napier MA, McLean JW (1991). "Cloning and expression of a divergent integrin subunit beta 8". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (29 ... 2002). "The integrin αvβ8 mediates epithelial homeostasis through MT1-MMP-dependent activation of TGF-β1". J. Cell Biol. 157 (3 ...
"Identification of an interaction between the m-band protein skelemin and beta-integrin subunits. Colocalization of a skelemin- ... like protein with beta1- and beta3-integrins in non-muscle cells". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (52): 35039-47. doi ... "Structural insight into the interaction between platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 and cytoskeletal protein skelemin". The Journal ...
The α9 subunit forms a heterodimeric complex with a β1 subunit to form the α9β1 integrin. This integrin participates in cell ... Integrin alpha-9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ITGA9 gene. This gene encodes an alpha integrin. Integrins are ... "Sequence and tissue distribution of the integrin alpha 9 subunit, a novel partner of beta 1 that is widely distributed in ... "Aberrant upregulation of a novel integrin alpha subunit gene at 3p21.3 in small cell lung cancer". Oncogene. 9 (2): 611-9. PMID ...
It is a humanized monoclonal antibody against the β7 subunit of integrins α4β7 and αEβ7. Etrolizumab was developed by Genentech ... "Methods of administering beta7 integrin antagonists," assigned to Genentech and Roche. Paragraph 146. For the FIB504 mAb, see ...
1994). "The integrin alpha 9 beta 1 mediates cell attachment to a non-RGD site in the third fibronectin type III repeat of ... This results in a multitude of TN-C subunits differing in the number and identity of fibronectin type III domain repeats. ... An example of this interaction is the adhesion of SW80 carcinoma cells to the third FN-III repeat of TN-C via the αvβ3 integrin ... 1995). "Distribution of integrins alpha v beta 6 and alpha 9 beta 1 and their known ligands, fibronectin and tenascin, in human ...
"Calpain cleavage of the cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta 3 subunit". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (44): 26146-51. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... regulatory subunit. This gene encodes the large subunit of the ubiquitous enzyme, calpain 1. CAPN1 has been shown to interact ... Calpain-1 catalytic subunit is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CAPN1 gene. The calpains, calcium-activated neutral ... "Entrez Gene: CAPN1 calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit". Shinozaki K, Maruyama K, Kume H, Tomita T, Saido TC, Iwatsubo T, Obata K ( ...
This encoded protein mediates posttranslational endoproteolytic processing for several integrin alpha subunits. It is thought ... "Endoproteolytic processing of integrin pro-alpha subunits involves the redundant function of furin and proprotein convertase ( ...
... , also known as Integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit) (ITGAX), is a gene that encodes for CD11c . ... Corbi AL, Garcia-Aguilar J, Springer TA (1990). "Genomic structure of an integrin alpha subunit, the leukocyte p150,95 molecule ... ITGAX integrin, alpha X (complement component 3 receptor 4 subunit)". Dyer KD, Garcia-Crespo KE, Killoran KE, Rosenberg HF ( ... CD11c is an integrin alpha X chain protein. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain ...
GPIbα subunit bears the binding site for von Willebrand factor (vWF), α-thrombin, leukocyte integrin αMβ2 and P-selectin. The ... The β1 subunit has four cysteine-rich regions and a structure similar to other β-integrins. The interaction with collagen leads ... It consists of two subunits (α2 and β1). The α2 subunit includes a domain homologous to von Willebrand factor domain binding to ... This is a heterodimer.Its α5 subunit is 36% identical to the GPIIb subunit. This complex is located mainly on endothelial cells ...
... and sequence analysis of the integrin subunit alpha10, a beta1-associated collagen binding integrin expressed on chondrocytes ... and sequence analysis of the integrin subunit alpha10, a beta1-associated collagen binding integrin expressed on chondrocytes ... Lehnert K, Ni J, Leung E, Gough S, Morris CM, Liu D, Wang SX, Langley R, Krissansen GW (1999). "The integrin alpha10 subunit: ... 1999). "The integrin alpha10 subunit: expression pattern, partial gene structure, and chromosomal localization". Cytogenet. ...
Liliental J, Chang DD (January 1998). "Rack1, a receptor for activated protein kinase C, interacts with integrin beta subunit ... Liliental J, Chang DD (January 1998). "Rack1, a receptor for activated protein kinase C, interacts with integrin beta subunit ... Much of the function of Asc1/RACK1 appears to result from its position on the 'head' of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Asc1/RACK1 ... RACK1 is positioned at the solvent-exposed surface of the 40S ribosomal subunit, where it is held in place through contacts ...
Otey CA, Pavalko FM, Burridge K (1990). "An interaction between alpha-actinin and the beta 1 integrin subunit in vitro". J. ... Pavalko FM, LaRoche SM (1993). "Activation of human neutrophils induces an interaction between the integrin beta 2-subunit ( ... 2002). "Each actin subunit has three nebulin binding sites: implications for steric blocking". Curr. Biol. 12 (5): 383-8. doi: ... 2000). "The amino-terminal domain of the B subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase contains a filamentous actin binding site". J. Biol. ...
... and determine binding to integrin [beta] subunits". J. Cell Biol. United States. 156 (2): 361-76. doi:10.1083/jcb.200103037. ... and determine binding to integrin [beta] subunits". J. Cell Biol. 156 (2): 361-76. doi:10.1083/jcb.200103037. PMC 2199218 . ...
... αv integrins, β1 integrins, syndecan, and integrin-associated protein (IAP or CD47). It also interacts with numerous proteases ... Thrombospondin 1 is a subunit of a disulfide-linked homotrimeric protein. This protein is an adhesive glycoprotein that ... This protein can bind to fibrinogen, fibronectin, laminin, type V collagen and integrins alpha-V/beta-1. This protein has been ... "Pro-adhesive and chemotactic activities of thrombospondin-1 for breast carcinoma cells are mediated by alpha3beta1 integrin and ...
2002). "Integrin-linked kinase phosphorylates the myosin phosphatase target subunit at the inhibitory site in platelet ... Myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, which is also called the myosin-binding subunit of myosin phosphatase, is one of the ... Protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 12A is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PPP1R12A gene. ... Kitazawa T, Eto M, Woodsome TP, Khalequzzaman M (2003). "Phosphorylation of the myosin phosphatase targeting subunit and CPI-17 ...
ICAM-4 - interacts with integrins;. *BCAM - a glycoprotein that defines the Lutheran blood group and also known as Lu or ... Thalassemia is a genetic disease that results in the production of an abnormal ratio of hemoglobin subunits. ...
Flow Cytometry for the detection of mouse Integrin alphaV. Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information. ... This Anti-mouse Integrin alphaV Antibody, clone RMV-7 (Preservative free) is validated for use in Western Blotting, ... Vitronectin receptor subunit alpha. *CD51. *1.Integrin alpha-V heavy chain2.Integrin alpha-V light chain ... Anti-mouse Integrin alphaV, clone RMV-7 2472968 Anti-mouse Integrin alphaV, clone RMV-7 (Preservative free) - Q2067202 Q2067202 ...
2001). "Association of the membrane proximal regions of the alpha and beta subunit cytoplasmic domains constrains an integrin ... ITGAL encodes the integrin alpha L chain. Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha chain and ... This I-domain containing alpha integrin combines with the beta 2 chain (ITGB2) to form the integrin lymphocyte function- ... Porter JC, Hogg N (1999). "Integrins take partners: cross-talk between integrins and other membrane receptors.". Trends Cell ...
It is diagnosed by evaluating expression (or lack) of the beta chain (CD18) of the integrin by flow cytometry.. Read a mnemonic ... Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type I (LAD I) is a failure to express CD18, which composes the common ß2 subunit of LFA1 family ... ß2 integrins).. Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type II is extremely rare; it manifests in people with the Bombay blood group ...
ITGAV integrin subunit alpha V [Homo sapiens] ITGAV integrin subunit alpha V [Homo sapiens]. Gene ID:3685 ... Note that the integrin alpha 5 and integrin alpha V subunits are encoded by distinct genes. [provided by RefSeq, Oct 2015]. ... Integrins are heterodimeric integral membrane proteins composed of an alpha subunit and a beta subunit that function in cell ... integrin alphaVbeta3. integrin, alpha V (vitronectin receptor, alpha polypeptide, antigen CD51). vitronectin receptor subunit ...
Cross-references: Integrin beta subunit, VWA domain (IPR002369). The following external resources were found for this entry:. ...
... Supervisors. A.J.M. Berns. ... Chapter 3: Phosphorylation of threonine 1736 in the C-tail of integrin β4 contributes to hemidesmosome disassembly. ... Chapter 2: EGF-induced MAPK signaling inhibits hemidesmosome formation through phosphorylation of the integrin β4. ...
2005) Distinct roles for the alpha and beta subunits in the functions of integrin alphaMbeta2. J Biol Chem 280(2):1336-1345. ... Staphylococcus aureus LukAB cytotoxin kills human neutrophils by targeting the CD11b subunit of the integrin Mac-1. Ashley L. ... Here we describe the identification of CD11b, the α subunit of the αM/β2 integrin (CD11b/CD18), macrophage-1 antigen, or ... LukAB directly interacts with the CD11b subunit of this integrin, specifically the I domain, which is responsible for the ...
Expression of dominant-negative and chimeric subunits reveals an essential role for beta1 integrin during myelination.. Relvas ... Signaling mechanisms regulated by cell surface adhesion receptors of the integrin family represent likely candidates. Integrins ... evidence that beta1 integrin function is required for myelination in vivo and use chimeric integrins to dissect apart the roles ... However, these experiments do not address the important question of integrin function during myelination in vivo, nor do they ...
Partial cDNAs encoding integrin subunits alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5, alpha 6 and an alpha IIb-related subunit were ... Integrin alpha subunit mRNAs are differentially expressed in early Xenopus embryos Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Considerable integrin diversity is apparent early in development with integrins alpha 2, alpha 3, alpha 4, alpha 5 and alpha 6 ... Integrin alpha 5 is expressed at relatively high levels during cleavage, blastula and gastrula stages suggesting that it may ...
Integrin Distribution in Malignant Melanoma: Association of the β3 Subunit with Tumor Progression. Steven M. Albelda, Stephen A ... Integrin Distribution in Malignant Melanoma: Association of the β3 Subunit with Tumor Progression ... Integrin Distribution in Malignant Melanoma: Association of the β3 Subunit with Tumor Progression ... Integrin Distribution in Malignant Melanoma: Association of the β3 Subunit with Tumor Progression ...
What is integrin alpha-4 subunit? Meaning of integrin alpha-4 subunit medical term. What does integrin alpha-4 subunit mean? ... Looking for online definition of integrin alpha-4 subunit in the Medical Dictionary? integrin alpha-4 subunit explanation free ... redirected from integrin alpha-4 subunit) ITGA4. A gene on chromosome 2q31.3 that encodes an integrin alpha chain protein which ... Integrin alpha-4 subunit , definition of integrin alpha-4 subunit by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ...
Regulation of the VLA integrin-ligand interactions through the beta 1 subunit.. A G Arroyo, P Sánchez-Mateos, M R Campanero, I ... Regulation of the VLA integrin-ligand interactions through the beta 1 subunit. ... Integrins from the very late activation antigen (VLA) subfamily are involved in cellular attachment to extracellular matrix ( ... The anti-beta 1-mediated changes in the affinities of beta 1 integrin for their ligands were comparable to those triggered by ...
... alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, ... Integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) ELISA Kits. Clear ... Your search returned 24 Integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) ELISA ELISA Kit across 2 suppliers ... Integrin, alpha 3 (antigen CD49C, alpha 3 subunit of VLA-3 receptor) ELISA Kits. ...
Regulation of adhesion of ICAM-1 by the cytoplasmic domain of LFA-1 integrin beta subunit ... Regulation of adhesion of ICAM-1 by the cytoplasmic domain of LFA-1 integrin beta subunit ... Regulation of adhesion of ICAM-1 by the cytoplasmic domain of LFA-1 integrin beta subunit ... Regulation of adhesion of ICAM-1 by the cytoplasmic domain of LFA-1 integrin beta subunit ...
... many of these processes are mediated by a superfamily of alpha beta heterodimeric transmembrane glycoproteins called integrins ... In situ expression of beta 1, beta 3 and beta 4 integrin subunits in non-neoplastic endothelium and vascular tumours Virchows ... These data show that EC dispose of broad and at the same time differential repertoires of integrin subunits that presumably ... The distribution patterns of beta 1, beta 3 and beta 4 integrin subunits in endothelial cells (EC) in situ were examined ...
Abstract 4847: NME1 mediates a switch in beta integrin subunits that correlates with prolonged patient survival. M. Kathryn ... NME1 mediates a switch in beta integrin subunits that correlates with prolonged patient survival [abstract]. In: Proceedings of ... Abstract 4847: NME1 mediates a switch in beta integrin subunits that correlates with prolonged patient survival ... Abstract 4847: NME1 mediates a switch in beta integrin subunits that correlates with prolonged patient survival ...
Using purified heterodimeric chicken smooth muscle integrin (a beta 1 integrin) or the platelet integrin glycoprotein IIb/IIIa ... Antibodies to the conserved cytoplasmic domain of the integrin beta 1 subunit react with proteins in vertebrates, invertebrates ... An interaction between alpha-actinin and the beta 1 integrin subunit in vitro. ... Integrins: a family of cell surface receptors. Cell. 1987 Feb 27;48(4):549-554. [PubMed] ...
... ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) directed to integrin subunits a6 and b1 were tested for their specificity to epithelial growth. In ... et al]. Potential periodontal regeneration by application of monoclonal antibodies against integrin-subunits a6 and b1. ...
Glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa or beta 3 subunit) is the common beta-subunit of the beta 3 subfamily of integrins, which, when ... A disulphide pattern for the β-subunits of the integrin family J J Calvete; J J Calvete ... Integrins are cell-surface heterodimers formed by the association of one alpha- and one beta-subunit. ... On the basis of this information and on the highly conserved overall structure observed in the beta-subunits of the integrin ...
... for the alpha 6 integrin subunit whereas specific reduction of alpha 6 subunit levels by treatment with an alpha 6 integrin ... Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates neurogenesis in chick retina by regulating expression of the alpha 6 integrin subunit ... Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates neurogenesis in chick retina by regulating expression of the alpha 6 integrin subunit ... Insulin-like growth factor-I stimulates neurogenesis in chick retina by regulating expression of the alpha 6 integrin subunit ...
CD49 Antigen Like Family Member D or VLA4 Subunit Alpha or CD49d or ITGA4) - Pipeline Review, H2 2018Integrin Alpha 4 (CD49 ... Integrins alpha-4 (VLA-4) subunit associates with a beta 1 or beta-7 subunit to form an integrin that plays a role in cell ... Integrin Alpha 4 (CD49 Antigen Like Family Member D or VLA4 Subunit Alpha or CD49d or ITGA4) - Integrin Alpha 4 is a protein ... Integrin Alpha 4 (CD49 Antigen Like Family Member D or VLA4 Subunit Alpha or CD49d or ITGA4) - Overview. Integrin Alpha 4 (CD49 ...
... each composed of one alpha and one beta subunit. A novel integrin alpha subunit partial cDNA isolated from TGF-beta stimulated ... Sequence and tissue distribution of the integrin alpha 9 subunit, a novel partner of beta 1 that is widely distributed in ... Sequence and tissue distribution of the integrin alpha 9 subunit, a novel partner of beta 1 that is widely distributed in ... identity with the previously identified integrin subunit alpha 4. By Northern blot analysis, alpha 9 mRNA was detected in the ...
... of an α and a β subunit picked out among the 18 α and 8 β integrin subunits that can heterodimerize into one of the 24 integrin ... which have been reported to normally express the integrin subunits α2, α3, α4, α5, α6, αv, α9, β1, β4, and β5.21,22 Integrins, ... α5 integrin subunit gene in CECs despite that α5β1 is an FN but not a collagen-binding integrin. ... α5 integrin subunit gene despite that the α5β1 integrin is not a collagen-binding receptor. ...
β2 integrin family α subunits are not necessary for HlyA cytotoxic activity. Six unique sgRNAs targeting each α subunit of the ... Loss of any single β2 integrin α subunit, or even all four α subunits together, does not confer resistance to HlyA. HlyA and ... We proceeded to generate directed mutations in each of the α-subunit-encoding genes and the β2 integrin β-subunit-encoding gene ... Far-Western blotting.Recombinant human integrin αLβ2 (3868-AV), human integrin αMβ2 (4047-AM), human integrin αXβ2 (5755-AX), ...
... α6A integrin subunit: structural requirements for cleavage and functional analysis of the uncleaved α6Aβ1 integrin. Gepke O. ... α6A integrin subunit: structural requirements for cleavage and functional analysis of the uncleaved α6Aβ1 integrin ... α6A integrin subunit: structural requirements for cleavage and functional analysis of the uncleaved α6Aβ1 integrin ... The mutant α6A integrin subunits were expressed in association with endogenous β1 at levels comparable to that of wild-type ...
  • Here, we use a dominant-negative approach to provide, for the first time, evidence that beta1 integrin function is required for myelination in vivo and use chimeric integrins to dissect apart the roles of the extracellular and cytoplasmic domains of the alpha6 subunit in the signaling pathways of myelination. (nih.gov)
  • Ectopic expression of either the human alpha5 subunit or the chicken alpha6 subunit produced contrasting phenotypes. (rupress.org)
  • In contrast, myoblasts that overexpress the alpha6 subunit exhibit inhibited proliferation and substantial differentiation. (rupress.org)
  • Ectopic expression of chimeric alpha subunits, alpha5ex/6cyto and alpha6ex/5cyto, produced phenotypes opposite to those observed with ectopic alpha5 or alpha6 expression. (rupress.org)
  • Myoblasts expressing the human alpha5 subunit differentiate only in the absence of serum while differentiation of untransfected and alpha6-transfected myoblasts is insensitive to serum concentration. (rupress.org)
  • CD29 (beta1 integrin subunit, GPIIa) forms non-covalently linked heterodimers with at least 6 different alpha chains (alpha1-alpha6, CD49a-f) determining the binding properties of beta1 (VLA) integrins. (thermofisher.com)