Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Genetic loci which direct transcription of ribosomal RNA in bacterial operons. They are designated rrnB, rrnC, rrnD, etc. according to the structural position of the transcription unit in the DNA sequence.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The E1 component of the multienzyme PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX. It is composed of 2 alpha subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 alpha subunit) and 2 beta subunits (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 beta subunit).
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Constituent of the 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 120 nucleotides and 34 proteins. It is also a constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 5S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The beta subunit of luteinizing hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide with structure similar to the beta subunit of the placental chorionic gonadatropin (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN) except for the additional 31 amino acids at the C-terminal of CG-beta. Full biological activity of LH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the LHB gene causes HYPOGONADISM and infertility.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Constituent of the 60S subunit of eukaryotic ribosomes. 28S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis in eukaryotes.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Cell surface proteins that bind acetylcholine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholinergic receptors are divided into two major classes, muscarinic and nicotinic, based originally on their affinity for nicotine and muscarine. Each group is further subdivided based on pharmacology, location, mode of action, and/or molecular biology.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit subtype that non-covalently associates with voltage-gated alpha subunits. Defects in the SCN3B gene which codes for this beta subunit are associated with Brugada syndrome 7.
A group II chaperonin found in eukaryotic CYTOSOL. It is comprised of eight subunits with each subunit encoded by a separate gene. This chaperonin is named after one of its subunits which is a T-COMPLEX REGION-encoded polypeptide.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Cell surface receptors that bind GLYCINE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glycine receptors in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM have an intrinsic chloride channel and are usually inhibitory.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
One or more types of plant seed proteins providing the large amounts of AMINO ACIDS utilized in GERMINATION and SEEDLING growth. As seeds are the major food source from AGRICULTURAL CROPS, seed storage proteins are a major source of DIETARY PROTEINS.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.
Ribonucleic acid in fungi having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
A specific pair of GROUP D CHROMOSOMES of the human chromosome classification.
The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
Anterior pituitary cells that can produce both FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
An autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the onset in infancy of an exaggerated startle response, followed by paralysis, dementia, and blindness. It is caused by mutation in the alpha subunit of the HEXOSAMINIDASE A resulting in lipid-laden ganglion cells. It is also known as the B variant (with increased HEXOSAMINIDASE B but absence of hexosaminidase A) and is strongly associated with Ashkenazic Jewish ancestry.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Glycoproteins that inhibit pituitary FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretion. Inhibins are secreted by the Sertoli cells of the testes, the granulosa cells of the ovarian follicles, the placenta, and other tissues. Inhibins and ACTIVINS are modulators of FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE secretions; both groups belong to the TGF-beta superfamily, as the TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA. Inhibins consist of a disulfide-linked heterodimer with a unique alpha linked to either a beta A or a beta B subunit to form inhibin A or inhibin B, respectively
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. The enzyme functions in the nucleolar structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salts than RNA polymerase II and III and is not inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Ribonucleic acid in archaea having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A family of multisubunit protein complexes that form into large cylindrical structures which bind to and encapsulate non-native proteins. Chaperonins utilize the energy of ATP hydrolysis to enhance the efficiency of PROTEIN FOLDING reactions and thereby help proteins reach their functional conformation. The family of chaperonins is split into GROUP I CHAPERONINS, and GROUP II CHAPERONINS, with each group having its own repertoire of protein subunits and subcellular preferences.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Cell-surface proteins that bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID with high affinity and trigger changes that influence the behavior of cells. GABA-A receptors control chloride channels formed by the receptor complex itself. They are blocked by bicuculline and usually have modulatory sites sensitive to benzodiazepines and barbiturates. GABA-B receptors act through G-proteins on several effector systems, are insensitive to bicuculline, and have a high affinity for L-baclofen.
Establishment of a continuous culture system forEntamoeba murisand analysis of the small subunit rRNA gene. Author(s): S. ... The complete atomic structure of the large ribosomal subunit at 2.4 A resolution.. Authors: Jeffrey T. Steitz, N Ban, Johnni ...
Eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA. Location. SuperContig scaf940: 6,420-7,137 forward strand. ...
Eukaryotic large subunit ribosomal RNA. Location. SuperContig KQ428760: 96,642-96,953 forward strand. ...
Gene: SSU_rRNA_eukarya AGAP028867. .. Description. Eukaryotic small subunit ribosomal RNA [Source:RFAM;Acc:RF01960] ...
protein, subunit, evolution, REGION, AMPHIDINIUM-OPERCULATUM, COMPARATIVE SEQUENCE, MINICIRCLES, NUCLEUS, PLASTID GENOME, ... The chloroplast rRNA gene sequences are radically different from those in other organisms, and in many ways resemble the rRNA ... The features include further protein coding genes, unusual rRNA genes, which we show are transcribed, and the first examples of ... Genome reduction appears to be the result of extensive transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Unusually the genes believed to ...
Next-generation sequencing, targeting the 18S rRNA gene, revealed that the diatom genus Thalassiosira generally dominated the ... and transcription levels of the diatom-specific rbcL gene coding the large subunit of RuBisCO. It is suggested that the rising ... Gene expression of the rbcL gene was highly upregulated, suggesting a survival strategy for acclimating to the cold ice ... Interestingly, the psbA gene encoding the D1 protein of PSII was upregulated under high Fe conditions and vice versa. These ...
... rRNA, small subunit (SSU; 18 S) rRNA and 5.8 S rRNA . Based on differences in sequence and expression the four gene units are ... Gene model (rodent): PBANKA_0622921; Gene model (P.falciparum): Not available; Gene product: 18S ribosomal RNA (small subunit ( ... Gene product: Alternative name. small subunit (ssu) of the d-type ribosomal rna gene unit. ... In mutant RMgm-25 the d-type rRNA gene unit has been disrupted by double cross-over recombination, resulting in deletion of the ...
Current techniques identify individual microbes by examining their small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, but the new ... "There will be many advantages for looking at all the genes instead of just one, the SSU rRNA, such as to identify which ... "We want to figure out what organisms are there, and what genes they encode," Konstantinidis explained. "The tools we are ... A new project will provide computational tools designed to help identify and characterize the gene diversity of the residents ...
12S rRNA and 16S rRNA) and two protein-coding nuclear genes (Histone 3 and the sodium-potassium ATPase a-subunit) were employed ... COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.. Accessible surveys cited (54) [+] [-] AURORA ... A molecular analysis of 78 specimens from throughout this range shows both a weak geographical structuring and evidence of gene ... gene, and 14 operational molecular units were recognized. When these molecular units are overlaid over shell characters, 13 ...
The species can be sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes of ... affinis and Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis from the Western Pacific Ocean based on partial COI and 16S rRNA genes.. URI. https ...
18S and 28S rRNA genes, Histone H3, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1), 12S and 16S rRNA genes. We identify several problems ... COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.. Accessible surveys cited (54) [+] [-] AURORA ... For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This ... However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly ...
SSU rRNA) genes to examine picoplankton phylogenetic diversity and community composition. Our results demonstrated that sites ... and sequenced bacterial and archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA ( ... and sequenced bacterial and archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes to examine picoplankton phylogenetic ...
PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences, (c) sequencing the amplicons, and (d) comparison of the those sequences ... Due to the high level of horizontal gene transfer among microbial communities,[19] microbial ecology is also of importance to ... McDaniel, L. D.; Young, E.; Delaney, J.; Ruhnau, F.; Ritchie, K. B.; Paul, J. H. (2010). "High Frequency of Horizontal Gene ... Smets, Barth F.; Barkay, Tamar (2005). "Horizontal gene transfer: Perspectives at a crossroads of scientific disciplines". ...
25S rRNA in yeast), 5.8S rRNA, and 5S rRNA in the 60S subunit and 18S rRNA in the 40S subunit. The 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and 28S ... 2015). Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes, processing of pre-rRNA, modification of nucleotide residues within the rRNA, and ... genes BYSL , CSNK1D , CSNK1E , DKC1 , FBL , FAU , RPSA , RPL10A , SNU13 , NOP2 , EXOSC9 , EXOSC10 , PWP2 , RPL3 , RPL3L , RPL4 ... Pathway - rRNA processing in the nucleus and cytosol. description Each eukaryotic cytosolic ribosome contains 4 molecules of ...
A partial, 90 bp 16S rRNA gene fragment in one MAG was linked to a clade of 16S rRNA genes assigned to an uncultured group of ... were screened for the predicted presence of genes assigned as the M and L subunits of type-II photochemical reaction center ( ... none of the genomes possessed a full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence. ... 12]) that also encoded the genes for RbcLS. The nine genomes of interest are of varying degrees of quality with estimated ...
Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit. Membrane protein; Derived by automated computational analysis using gene ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ... in 16S rRNA. Acts on the fully assembled 30S ribosomal subunit ...
Genes and transcripts for the P700 chlorophylla apoprotein and subunit 2 of the photosystem I reaction center complex from ... The primary structure of 16S rDNA from Zea mays chloroplast is homologous to E. coli 16S rRNA in NATURE ... Localisation of genes for four ATP synthase subunits in pea chloroplast DNA in MOLECULAR GENETICS AND GENOMICS ... The 5 terminal gene (psaA1) codes for a 761-residue protein (MW 84.1 kD) and the 3 terminal gene (psaA2) for a 734-residue ...
Genetic comparison of the sequence of the barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI), also supports the ... cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, COI, and 16S rRNA). These two sources of data revealed the existence of eight new species of ... COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.. Accessible surveys cited (54) [+] [-] AURORA ... For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This ...
... cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, COI, and 16S rRNA). These two sources of data revealed the existence of eight new species of ... COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.. Accessible surveys cited (54) [+] [-] AURORA ... For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This ... However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly ...
GO:0019843 2.38E-05 rRNA binding. Cellular Component:. GO:0044391 6.10E-09 ribosomal subunit. GO:0015935 1.33E-05 small ... Number of genes. Enriched GO terms (Term/Q-value/Description). Enriched KEGG pathway (Term/Q-value/Description). ... GO:0044391 4.70E-15 ribosomal subunit. GO:0015935 2.18E-09 small ribosomal subunit. GO:0015934 6.41E-05 large ribosomal subunit ... GO:0006364 1.90E-12 rRNA processing. GO:0034660 8.70E-11 ncRNA metabolic process. GO:0042273 1.04E-06 ribosomal large subunit ...
Metaxa2: Improved Identification and Taxonomic Classification of Small and Large Subunit rRNA in Metagenomic Data. Johan ... I am not 100% sure what exactly you mean by "other taxonomically distinct genes". Do you refer to, e.g., the rpoB genes or some ... Improved Identification and Taxonomic Classification of Small and Large Subunit rRNA in Metagenomic Data. Molecular Ecology ... That said, Metaxa2 is in principle designed to deal with other genes as well, but that would require some changes to the code. ...
E-site; exit site; E-tRNA, exit site tRNA; LSU, large subunit; N, N-terminus; SSU, small subunit. MotionCor2: anisotropic ... Eukaryotic ESs and rRNA helices diminish from left to right. In contrast, rRNA removal has not progressed to the A-site tRNA. ... Energy costs constrain the evolution xalatan pill price of gene expression. The inset showcases the nucleotide-binding site ( ... In contrast, rRNA removal has not progressed to the A-site by fitting into the reductive can you get xalatan without a ...
Genetic comparison of the sequence of the barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI), also supports the ... combined with a molecular genetic analysis using partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA genes, three distinct ... Genetic comparison of sequences of the barcoding gene, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit (COI), supported the species ... Comparisons of the partial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) show high degree of divergence (12.5-22.3%) among ...
... and humans using 28s rRNA sequencing. Get in touch with us for more info. ... Attain Project Success With 28s rRNA Sequencing. With Yaazhs 28s rRNA sequencing, you capture unique gene expression reads and ... It is the most conserved part of the eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes and connected to the large (60S) ribosomal subunit in ... The study of rRNA is imperative to understand evolution. The ~4000 to 5000bp long 28s rRNA is also vital in Medicine. ...
... based on mitochondrial 16S and 12S rRNA genes". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (1): 89-95. doi:10.1016/j.ympev. ... "Phylogenetic analysis of the family Pectinidae (Bivalvia) based on mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit". Journal of ... Pamilo, P.; Nei, M. (1988). "Relationships between gene trees and species trees". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 5 (5): 568- ... The cladogram is based on molecular phylogeny using mitochondrial (12S, 16S) and nuclear (18S, 28S, and H3) gene markers by ...
16S rRNA and COI) and a nuclear gene (18S rRNA) from 83 euryalid ophiuroids. The monophyly of the three families, Euryalidae, ... Methodology: Partial (595 bp) sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) gene were determined for 65 ... COI gene sequence differences support the morphological species distinctions.. Accessible surveys cited (54) [+] [-] AURORA ... For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. This ...
26-27). The DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from C. novaeguineae sp. nov. and ... We have also included molecular data from two mitochondrial markers (16S rRNA and COI) to support the taxonomic status of ... Analysis of DNA sequence data for the cytochrome c oxidase I gene suggests that Exilia hilgendorfi, previously considered to be ... A molecular analysis of 78 specimens from throughout this range shows both a weak geographical structuring and evidence of gene ...
26-27). The DNA sequences from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene from C. novaeguineae sp. nov. and ... Rather, we recommend to systematically include loci commonly used for phylogenetics and taxonomy (i.e. DNA barcodes, rRNA genes ... Analysis of DNA sequence data for the cytochrome c oxidase I gene suggests that Exilia hilgendorfi, previously considered to be ... The large majority of conotoxins appeared to be from new gene superfamilies, three of which are highly different from previously ...
In contrast, rRNA removal has not progressed to the 25S rRNA backbone of helix-69 using R16, and stacks W40 between R55 and R60 ... E-site; exit site; E-tRNA, exit site tRNA; LSU, large subunit; N, N-terminus; does zocor cause insomnia SSU, small subunit. A ... Genome sequence and gene compaction of microsporidian genomes. New tools for automated high-resolution zocor side effects ... Stepwise reduction of rRNA in microsporidia.. PSRP1 is not a ribosomal protein, but a ribosome-binding factor that is recycled ...
  • The chloroplast rRNA gene sequences are radically different from those in other organisms, and in many ways resemble the rRNA genes found in some highly reduced mitochondrial genomes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The species can be sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) genes of two deep-sea fish specimens from the Western Pacific Ocean and molecular phylogenetic relationship analysis was performed using maximum likelihood (ML) method. (kiost.ac.kr)
  • Based on the comparison of abundant material from the western Pacific, combined with a molecular genetic analysis using partial sequences of the mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA genes, three distinct species could be recognized. (mnhn.fr)
  • Although A. vaigiensis A and A. sexfasciatus were found to be distinct based on nuclear information, A. vaigiensis A was found to be nested within A. sexfasciatus in the mitochondrial gene tree. (mnhn.fr)
  • In this study, the phylogenetic affinities of the genera Thoosa and Alectona have been investigated with the species T. mismalolli, T. calpulli, and T. purpurea from the Mexican Pacific using morphology and three molecular loci: the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (CO1 mtDNA), 28S rRNA (fragment D2), and 18S rRNA. (mnhn.fr)
  • Small subunit rrna gene sequences of aeromonas salmonicida subsp. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Conclusion: Comparative analysis of minicircle sequences has allowed us to identify previously unrecognised features of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes, including additional protein and RNA genes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The procedure involves (a) isolation of nucleic acids directly from a natural environment, (b) PCR amplification of small subunit rRNA gene sequences, (c) sequencing the amplicons, and (d) comparison of the those sequences to a database of sequences from pure cultures and environmental DNA. (appspot.com)
  • With our 28s rRNA sequencing, we elucidate transcriptomic details in the plant, mouse, rat and human sequences. (yaazhxenomics.com)
  • Comparisons of the partial sequence of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) show high degree of divergence (12.5-22.3%) among all the species of Petrarctus. (mnhn.fr)
  • Phylogenetic reconstruction using the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene shows that it is sister to Calyptogena similaris but distinct from that species by a pairwise distance of 3.9%, larger than the average intraspecific variation within the genus Calyptogena sensu lato. (mnhn.fr)
  • Each eukaryotic cytosolic ribosome contains 4 molecules of RNA: 28S rRNA (25S rRNA in yeast), 5.8S rRNA, and 5S rRNA in the 60S subunit and 18S rRNA in the 40S subunit. (cmh.edu)
  • It is the most conserved part of the eukaryotic cytoplasmic ribosomes and connected to the large (60S) ribosomal subunit in higher eukaryotes. (yaazhxenomics.com)
  • In this case, the bound nucleotide in P. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and V. Eukaryotic ESs and rRNA helices diminish from left to right. (tuliptreefabrics.co.uk)
  • A putative promoter has been identified for the psaA1 gene, and potential ribosome binding sites are present before both genes. (springernature.com)
  • Densities for eL20, uL6, and the large subunit tRNA binding sites, providing a reversible ribosome inactivation mechanism ziac online purchase. (dcmautodetailing.co.uk)
  • The features include further protein coding genes, unusual rRNA genes, which we show are transcribed, and the first examples of tRNA genes from peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The retention of certain tRNA genes in the dinoflagellate chloroplast genome has important implications for models of chloroplast-mitochondrion interaction. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Stabilizes the binding of IF-2 and IF-3 on the 30S subunit to which N-formylmethionyl-tRNA(fMet) subsequently binds. (string-db.org)
  • 2015). Transcription of ribosomal RNA genes, processing of pre-rRNA, modification of nucleotide residues within the rRNA, and assembly of precursor 60S and 40S subunits occur predominantly in the nucleolus (reviewed in Hernandez-Verdun et al. (cmh.edu)
  • Based on differences in sequence and expression the four gene units are divided into the blood stage A-type (a- and b-unit) and S-type (c- and d-units), which is transcribed mainly in the proliferative stages in the mosquito. (pberghei.eu)
  • As is common for MAGs, none of the genomes possessed a full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence. (nature.com)
  • The nucleotide sequence of the genes and the flanking regions has been determined. (springernature.com)
  • In contrast, rRNA removal has not progressed to the same extent in P. The http://www.communigator.co.nz/where-can-i-buy-xalatan-over-the-counter/ significant sequence divergence between microsporidian species suggests variability in microsporidian intracellular parasites. (tuliptreefabrics.co.uk)
  • This mutant contains a disruption of the ssu (small subunit) part of the rRNA locus (disruption by single cross-over integration). (pberghei.eu)
  • Current techniques identify individual microbes by examining their small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes, but the new tools will allow scientists to analyze entire genomes and meta-genomes. (gatech.edu)
  • Across 24 sites, ranging 0-21 km from the effluent point source, we measured nutrient concentrations, quantified microbial cell abundances, and sequenced bacterial and archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) genes to examine picoplankton phylogenetic diversity and community composition. (ithaca.edu)
  • A collection of 3655 marine microbial MAGs were screened for the presence of the genes encoding PufML, resulting in the identification of 102 genomes. (nature.com)
  • Along with nine other genomes lacking the genes for PufML and/or RbcLS, they form a distinct sister clade to the Rhodobacteraceae (Fig. 1a ), absent of cultured or genomic representatives in NCBI GenBank [ 15 ]. (nature.com)
  • Gene families whose occurrence patterns across genomes show similarities. (string-db.org)
  • The 5' terminal gene (psaA1) codes for a 761-residue protein (MW 84.1 kD) and the 3' terminal gene (psaA2) for a 734-residue protein (MW 82.4 kD). (springernature.com)
  • We targeted 850 protein coding genes (678,322 bp) in ca. 120 samples, spanning all (except one) known families of Conoidea and a broad selection of non-Conoidea neogastropods. (mnhn.fr)
  • Stepwise reduction of rRNA reduction. (dcmautodetailing.co.uk)
  • Stepwise reduction of rRNA elements in microsporidia. (tuliptreefabrics.co.uk)
  • Stepwise reduction of rRNA reduction is ES39, which is lost in both V. In a similar binding mechanism in other microsporidia as well as ribosomal hibernation and recycling factor Lso2. (tuliptreefabrics.co.uk)
  • Genome reduction appears to be the result of extensive transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This indicates a Get More Info lineage-specific adaptation and reduction of rRNA in microsporidia. (heartsmindsandhorses.co.uk)
  • The 18S rRNA, 5.8S rRNA, and 28S rRNA are produced by endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic processing of a single 47S precursor (pre-rRNA) (reviewed in Henras et al. (cmh.edu)
  • For some coding genes the amplification success varies greatly among taxa and the phylogenetic signal is highly saturated. (mnhn.fr)
  • The genes encoding the two P700 chlorophyll a-apoproteins of the photosystem I complex were localized on the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast genome. (springernature.com)
  • A single liter of lake water may contain as many as 500 different species, and together, their genomic information can total tens of billions of gene-coding letters. (gatech.edu)
  • This study is the first report of species identification of Synaphobranchus affinis and Synaphobranchus brevidorsalis from the Western Pacific Ocean based on partial COI and 16S rRNA genes. (kiost.ac.kr)
  • Most analyses used an incomplete and opportunistic sampling of species, but also an incomplete and opportunistic gene selection among those available for Decapoda. (mnhn.fr)
  • We then used coalescent-based simulation to characterize a spatially widespread but weak gene flow between the two species. (mnhn.fr)
  • A partial, 90 bp 16S rRNA gene fragment in one MAG was linked to a clade of 16S rRNA genes assigned to an uncultured group of organisms associated with the Rhodobacteraceae . (nature.com)
  • Would it be possible to use a database containing other taxonomically distinct genes? (microbiology.se)
  • The C-terminal ends of M. Homo sapiens have been deposited in the EM Data Bank with accession code EMD-11437 (state 2, composite multibody refined maps and the absence thereof between (A) S. A notable example of rRNA elements in microsporidia. (tuliptreefabrics.co.uk)
  • Proteins whose genes are observed to be correlated in expression, across a large number of experiments. (string-db.org)
  • Woodward these amino acids are the subunits that make up proteins. (brffarfadern1.se)
  • The complete atomic structure of the large ribosomal subunit at 2.4 A resolution. (scienceopen.com)
  • Here, rising temperature led to an increase in P\(^B\)\(_{max}\) and transcription levels of the diatom-specific rbcL gene coding the large subunit of RuBisCO. (edu.au)
  • During the past decade, a large number of multi-gene analyses aimed at resolving the phylogeneticrelationships within Decapoda. (mnhn.fr)
  • Yaazh combines unparalleled expertise with functional genomics in our high-performance 28s rRNA sequencing. (yaazhxenomics.com)
  • With the dawn of the genomic era, we can now get the whole genome of these organisms to see not only the ribosomal RNA, but also all the genes in the genome to get a better understanding of what the each organism's potential might be," said Konstantinidis. (gatech.edu)
  • There will be many advantages for looking at all the genes instead of just one, the SSU rRNA, such as to identify which organisms encode toxins or the enzymes for breaking down pollutants. (gatech.edu)
  • Results: PCR was used to amplify several minicircles from Amphidinium carterae so that a homologous set of gene-containing minicircles was available for Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium operculatum, two apparently closely related peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. (cam.ac.uk)
  • L'objectif général de la campagne KANACONO était de retourner sur les sites prospectés pendant les premières missions du programme Tropical Deep-See Benthos pour y collecter la faune d'invertébrés benthiques profonds, et notamment re-collecter et conserver en alcool pour les analyses moléculaires les espèces déjà collectées dans les années 80. (mnhn.fr)
  • A new project will provide computational tools designed to help identify and characterize the gene diversity of the residents of microbial communities. (gatech.edu)
  • Do you refer to, e.g., the rpoB genes or some other genetic barcode? (microbiology.se)
  • grouping indicated high genetic diversity within populations and no significant gene flow between distinctly geographical regions. (fupress.net)
  • The analysis is thus restricted to the genes homogeneously amplified over the whole sampling. (mnhn.fr)
  • With Yaazh's 28s rRNA sequencing, you capture unique gene expression reads and maximise the success of your project. (yaazhxenomics.com)
  • Mutant RMgm-24 in which the d-type rRNA gene has been disrupted by double cross-over recombination, resulting in deletion of the 5.8S, ITS2 region and part of the 5'-LSU. (pberghei.eu)
  • In mutant RMgm-25 the d-type rRNA gene unit has been disrupted by double cross-over recombination, resulting in deletion of the SSU, ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2 region, and part of the D-ETS and 5'-LSU.These mutants shows a similar phenotype as described above. (pberghei.eu)
  • It is suggested that the rising temperature upregulated the diatom-specific rbcL gene and then triggered the higher P\(^B\)\(_{max}\) as well as the spring diatom bloom. (edu.au)
  • However the genes commonly used in Decapoda appear non-adapted for clarifying inter-families relationships, which remain poorly resolved. (mnhn.fr)

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