Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit: The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Structure, Quaternary: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, beta Subunit: The beta subunit of follicle stimulating hormone. It is a 15-kDa glycopolypeptide. Full biological activity of FSH requires the non-covalently bound heterodimers of an alpha and a beta subunit. Mutation of the FSHB gene causes delayed puberty, or infertility.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit: A type I cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIBETA SUBUNIT.Cross-Linking Reagents: Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other.NF-kappa B p50 Subunit: A component of NF-kappa B transcription factor. It is proteolytically processed from NF-kappa B p105 precursor protein and is capable of forming dimeric complexes with itself or with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR RELA. It regulates expression of GENES involved in immune and inflammatory responses.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Mitochondrial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases responsible for ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE synthesis in the MITOCHONDRIA. They derive energy from the respiratory chain-driven reactions that develop high concentrations of protons within the intermembranous space of the mitochondria.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.GTP-Binding Proteins: Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Bacterial Proton-Translocating ATPases: Membrane-bound proton-translocating ATPases that serve two important physiological functions in bacteria. One function is to generate ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE by utilizing the energy provided by an electrochemical gradient of protons across the cellular membrane. A second function is to counteract a loss of the transmembrane ion gradient by pumping protons at the expense of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Holoenzymes: Catalytically active enzymes that are formed by the combination of an apoenzyme (APOENZYMES) and its appropriate cofactors and prosthetic groups.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Protein Phosphatase 1: A eukayrotic protein serine-threonine phosphatase subtype that dephosphorylates a wide variety of cellular proteins. The enzyme is comprised of a catalytic subunit and regulatory subunit. Several isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. A large number of proteins have been shown to act as regulatory subunits for this enzyme. Many of the regulatory subunits have additional cellular functions.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Ribulose-Bisphosphate Carboxylase: A carboxy-lyase that plays a key role in photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the CALVIN-BENSON CYCLE by catalyzing the formation of 3-phosphoglycerate from ribulose 1,5-biphosphate and CARBON DIOXIDE. It can also utilize OXYGEN as a substrate to catalyze the synthesis of 2-phosphoglycolate and 3-phosphoglycerate in a process referred to as photorespiration.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIbeta Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a lower affinity for cAMP than the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIALPHA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Calcium Channels: Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human: The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.Affinity Labels: Analogs of those substrates or compounds which bind naturally at the active sites of proteins, enzymes, antibodies, steroids, or physiological receptors. These analogs form a stable covalent bond at the binding site, thereby acting as inhibitors of the proteins or steroids.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits: The GTPase-containing subunits of heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins. When dissociated from the heterotrimeric complex these subunits interact with a variety of second messenger systems. Hydrolysis of GTP by the inherent GTPase activity of the subunit causes it to revert to its inactive (heterotrimeric) form. The GTP-Binding protein alpha subunits are grouped into families according to the type of action they have on second messenger systems.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Tryptophan Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-serine and 1-(indol-3-yl)glycerol 3-phosphate to L-tryptophan and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. It is a pyridoxal phosphate protein that also catalyzes the conversion of serine and indole into tryptophan and water and of indoleglycerol phosphate into indole and glyceraldehyde phosphate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.1.20.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.RNA Polymerase II: A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase present in bacterial, plant, and animal cells. It functions in the nucleoplasmic structure and transcribes DNA into RNA. It has different requirements for cations and salt than RNA polymerase I and is strongly inhibited by alpha-amanitin. EC 2.7.7.6.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins: GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that contain three non-identical subunits. They are found associated with members of the seven transmembrane domain superfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. Upon activation the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT of the complex dissociates leaving a dimer of a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNIT bound to a GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNIT.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Azides: Organic or inorganic compounds that contain the -N3 group.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.DNA Polymerase III: A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.Ribonucleotide ReductasesProtein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Integrins: A family of transmembrane glycoproteins (MEMBRANE GLYCOPROTEINS) consisting of noncovalent heterodimers. They interact with a wide variety of ligands including EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS; COMPLEMENT, and other cells, while their intracellular domains interact with the CYTOSKELETON. The integrins consist of at least three identified families: the cytoadhesin receptors(RECEPTORS, CYTOADHESIN), the leukocyte adhesion receptors (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE ADHESION), and the VERY LATE ANTIGEN RECEPTORS. Each family contains a common beta-subunit (INTEGRIN BETA CHAINS) combined with one or more distinct alpha-subunits (INTEGRIN ALPHA CHAINS). These receptors participate in cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion in many physiologically important processes, including embryological development; HEMOSTASIS; THROMBOSIS; WOUND HEALING; immune and nonimmune defense mechanisms; and oncogenic transformation.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.NADH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein and iron sulfur-containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD. In eukaryotes the enzyme can be found as a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex I. Under experimental conditions the enzyme can use CYTOCHROME C GROUP as the reducing cofactor. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 1.6.2.1.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Eukaryotic: The small subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 18S RIBOSOMAL RNA and 32 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Ribosome Subunits, Large, Eukaryotic: The large subunit of the 80s ribosome of eukaryotes. It is composed of the 28S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5.8S RIBOSOMAL RNA, the 5S RIBOSOMAL RNA, and about 50 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disulfides: Chemical groups containing the covalent disulfide bonds -S-S-. The sulfur atoms can be bound to inorganic or organic moieties.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-3: A multisubunit eukaryotic initiation factor that contains at least 8 distinct polypeptides. It plays a role in recycling of ribosomal subunits to the site of transcription initiation by promoting the dissociation of non-translating ribosomal subunits. It also is involved in promoting the binding of a ternary complex of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2; GTP; and INITIATOR TRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.ATP Synthetase Complexes: Multisubunit enzyme complexes that synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE from energy sources such as ions traveling through channels.Mice, Inbred C57BLRibosome Subunits, Small: The small ribonucleoprotein component of RIBOSOMES. It contains the MESSENGER RNA binding site and two TRANSFER RNA binding sites - one for the incoming AMINO ACYL TRNA (A site) and the other (P site) for the peptidyl tRNA carrying the elongating peptide chain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Ribosome Subunits, Small, Bacterial: The small subunit of eubacterial RIBOSOMES. It is composed of the 16S RIBOSOMAL RNA and about 23 different RIBOSOMAL PROTEINS.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Models, Structural: A representation, generally small in scale, to show the structure, construction, or appearance of something. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Calcium Channels, L-Type: Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.GlobulinsLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIIalpha Subunit: A type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunit that plays a role in confering CYCLIC AMP activation of protein kinase activity. It has a higher affinity for cAMP than that of the CYCLIC-AMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE RIIBETA SUBUNIT. Binding of this subunit by A KINASE ANCHOR PROTEINS may play a role in the cellular localization of type II protein kinase A.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits: Heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein subunits that tightly associate with GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS. A dimer of beta and gamma subunits is formed when the GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT dissociates from the GTP-binding protein heterotrimeric complex. The beta-gamma dimer can play an important role in signal transduction by interacting with a variety of second messengers.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel beta Subunits: The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Allosteric Regulation: The modification of the reactivity of ENZYMES by the binding of effectors to sites (ALLOSTERIC SITES) on the enzymes other than the substrate BINDING SITES.
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... RPS15A: encoding protein 40S ribosomal protein S15a. *RSL1D1: encoding protein Ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein 1 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... PDPR: encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit. *PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile ...
... the 18S rRNA is a component of 40S ribosomal subunit, and the 60S large subunit contains three rRNA species (the 5S, 5.8S and ... The 5S DNA occurs in tandem arrays (~200-300 true 5S genes and many dispersed pseudogenes); the largest is on chromosome 1q41- ... 18S is a component of the ribosomal 40S subunit. 28S, 5.8S and 5S, which is transcribed independently, are components of 60S. ... September 2008). "Abnormalities of the large ribosomal subunit protein, Rpl35a, in Diamond-Blackfan anemia". Blood. 112 (5): ...
... using a small-subunit ribosomal DNA". Canadian Journal of Zoology. 75 (12): 2112-2119. doi:10.1139/z97-846. CS1 maint: Multiple ...
Pawlowski, J.; Holzmann, M.; Fahrni, J.; Richardson, S.L. (2003). "Small subunit ribosomal DNA suggests that the ...
Molecular studies based on sequences of the large subunit of ribosomal DNA. Nova Hedwigia 74:187-200 Coniochaeta extramundana, ...
Ribosomes and ribosomal subunits are found in these bodies. Table 1. Genome features of selected Chlamydia species and strains ... The DNA genome, proteins, and ribosomes are retained in the reticulate body. This occurs as a result of the development cycle ... Some species also contain a DNA plasmids or phage genomes (see Table). The elementary body contains an RNA polymerase ... The main nonculture tests include fluorescent monoclonal antibody test, enzyme immunoassay, DNA probes, rapid Chlamydia tests ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of agaric fungi based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences". Syst. Biol. 49 (2): 278-305 ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of agaric fungi based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences". Systematic Biology. 49 (2 ...
Hong SG, Jung HS (2004). "Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA ... Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic ... Progress toward a phylogenetic classification of the Polyporaceae through parsimony analysis of mitochondrial ribosomal DNA ... Phylogenetic analysis using DNA sequence information have helped to clarify our understanding of the relationships amongst ...
"Phylogenetic relationships of agaric fungi based on nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences" (PDF). Systematic Biology. ... "Evolution of gilled mushrooms and puffballs inferred from ribosomal DNA sequences". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... There are several genera classified in the Agaricales that are i) poorly known, ii) have not been subjected to DNA analysis, or ... These groups are still accepted by modern treatments based on DNA analysis, as the euagarics clade, bolete clade, and russuloid ...
"A preliminary overview of the Diaporthales based on large subunit nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences". Mycologia: 1017-31. Lumbsch ... "Two ascomycete classes based on fruiting-body characters and ribosomal DNA sequence". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 9 (2): ...
... based on nuclear small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences". Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 16 (2): 253-62. doi:10.1006/mpev.2000.0775. ...
A phylogeny inferred from large-subunit (26S) ribosomal DNA sequences suggests that Burmanniales are polyphyletic. Austral. ...
2001). "The small subunit of the mammalian mitochondrial ribosome. Identification of the full complement of ribosomal proteins ... MRPS6 mitochondrial ribosomal protein S6". Hattori M, Fujiyama A, Taylor TD, et al. (2000). "The DNA sequence of human ... This gene encodes a 28S subunit protein that belongs to the ribosomal protein S6P family. Pseudogenes corresponding to this ... Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) consist of a small 28S subunit and a large 39S subunit. They have an estimated 75% ...
... based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25(1): 43-52. DOI: 10.1016/S1055-7903(02) ...
"Peracarid monophyly and interordinal phylogeny inferred from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (Crustacea: ... doi:10.1007/s00227-008-1005-0. Simon N. Jarman (2001). "The evolutionary history of krill inferred from nuclear large subunit ...
Drehmel D, Moncalvo J-M, & Vilgalys R. (1999). Molecular phylogeny of Amanita based on large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences: ... Variation in modes and rates of evolution in nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA in the mushroom genus Amanita (Agaricales ...
... based on nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25(1): 43-52. doi: 10.1016/S1055-7903(02) ... Recent research using ribosomal DNA has shown that the family Eriococcidae is not a single monophyletic group but is an ...
"Peracarid monophyly and interordinal phylogeny inferred from nuclear small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (Crustacea: ...
Drehmel D, Moncalvo J-M, Vilgalys R (1999). "Molecular phylogeny of Amanita based on large-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences: ... The DNA of A. bisporigera has been partially sequenced, and the genes responsible for the production of amatoxins have been ... thereby interfering with DNA transcription, which suppresses RNA production and protein synthesis. This causes cellular ...
... and related species based on morphology and ribosomal large subunit DNA sequences". Mycotaxon. 79: 7-21. Johnston PR, Whitton ...
... and related species based on morphology and ribosomal large subunit DNA sequences". Mycotaxon. 79: 7-21. Bulliard JBF. (1783). ... More recently, phylogenetic analyses of the sequences of their ribosomal large subunit genes have concluded that Panellus ...
2009). "A phylogenetic tree of nematodes based on about 1200 full-length small subunit ribosomal DNA sequences". Nematology. 11 ...
"Molecular phylogeny of Amanita based on large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences: implications for taxonomy and character ... Two molecular studies based on sequences of the large ribosomal subunit RNA gene (nLSU-rDNA) and the mitochondrial small ... "Variation in modes and rates of evolution in nuclear and mitochondrial ribosomal DNA in the mushroom genus Amanita (Agaricales ... ribosomal subunit RNA gene (mtSSU-rDNA) show that A. gemmata is part of a clade within Amanita with its close relatives A. ...
RNA and ribosomal subunits must be continually transferred from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Histones, gene regulatory ... If the cell is synthesizing DNA each pore complex needs to transport about 100 histone molecules per minute. If the cell is ... each complex also needs to transport about 6 newly assembled large and small ribosomal subunits per minute from the nucleus to ... proteins, DNA and RNA polymerases, and other substances essential for nuclear activities must be imported from the cytoplasm. ...
21 ribosomal proteins, and four RNA polymerase subunits,[22][23] involved in protein synthesis. For photosynthesis, the ... DNA replicationEdit. Leading model of cpDNA replicationEdit. Chloroplast DNA replication via multiple D loop mechanisms. ... Chloroplast DNA Interactive gene map of chloroplast DNA from Nicotiana tabacum. Segments with labels on the inside reside on ... As in prokaryotes, genes in chloroplast DNA are organized into operons.[10] Introns are common in chloroplast DNA molecules, ...
We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... Phylogeny of the genus Corynebacterium deduced from analyses of small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences Int J Syst Bacteriol. ... We determined almost complete small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences of 50 reference strains belonging to the genera ... The variability of chemotaxonomic characteristics within the genus Corynebacterium suggests that small-subunit ribosomal DNA ...
Small Subunit Ribosomal DNA Suggests that the Xenophyophorean Syringammina corbicula1 is a Foraminiferan. Authors. *. JAN ... To establish the phylogenetic position of Xenophyophorea, we analysed the small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence of ...
... rRNA gene DNA sequences.(Report) by Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences; Science and technology, general Base ... aspects Research Genetic aspects Nucleotide sequence Plant evolution Plants Evolution Questions and answers Ribosomal RNA ... This Relationship is inferred from a maximum parsimony analysis using large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA gene DNA sequences. ... The phylogenetic position of subfamily Monotropoideae (Ericaceae) inferred from large ribosomal subunit (26S) rRNA gene DNA ...
This article provides a step by step account of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) translation and the molecular machinery involved in ... The smallest ribosomal subunit of the mitochondria, called the mitoribosome, is capable of binding with high affinity to these ... Ribosomal subunits, mRNA and tRNA. A second point that distinguishes the mitochondrial translation mechanism are the features ... The mitochondrial DNA translation machinery resembles that of prokaryotes. *Components of the mitochondrial Translation ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta. 04. 1369. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpoC, Z5561, ECs4911. EC: 2.7 ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit alpha. 01, 02. 229. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpoA, Z4665, ECs4160. EC: ... DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit beta. 03. 1340. Escherichia coli. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: rpoB, ECS88_4448. EC: 2.7.7.6 ... Structure of RNA polymerase bound to ribosomal 30S subunit.. Demo, G., Rasouly, A., Vasilyev, N., Svetlov, V., Loveland, A.B., ...
May play a critical role in biogenesis of 30S subunits. ... DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database. More... ... Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase AUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,Q98RJ3,RSMA_MYCPU Ribosomal RNA small subunit methyltransferase A OS=Mycoplasma pulmonis (strain UAB CTIP) OX=272635 GN=rsmA ... May play a critical role in biogenesis of 30S subunits.UniRule annotation. ,p>Manual validated information which has been ...
AM086211 Genomic DNA Translation: CAJ30491.1. EF450709 Genomic DNA Translation: ABQ00063.1. KC206006 Genomic DNA Translation: ... AM086211 Genomic DNA Translation: CAJ30491.1. EF450709 Genomic DNA Translation: ABQ00063.1. KC206006 Genomic DNA Translation: ... Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase CfrAdd BLAST. 349. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). ... Ribosomal RNA large subunit methyltransferase CfrUniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ...
Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using ei … ... DNA, Fungal / genetics * DNA, Fungal / isolation & purification * DNA, Ribosomal / chemistry * DNA, Ribosomal / genetics ... Ribosomal small subunit sequence variation within spores of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus, Scutellospora sp Mol Ecol. 1999 ... Partial small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA sequences were amplified from both roots and spores using either the universal ...
High-density microarray of small-subunit ribosomal DNA probes by Kenneth H. Wilson, Wendy J. Wilson, Jennifer L, Todd Z. ... Motivation: Current DNA sequencing technology produces reads of about 500-750 base pairs (bp) with typical coverage under 10X. ... Motivation: Current DNA sequencing technology produces reads of about 500-750 base pairs (bp) with typical coverage under 10X. ... A casein kinase II␣ subunit also is involved in the photoperiod response of flowering in rice (Y. Takahashi and M. Yano, ...
DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit E9; RpoE2, DNA-directed RNA polymerase subunit E99; S6E, ribosomal protein S6E; S24E, 30S ... Members of the vast assemblage of DNA-binding domains that share common structural features, namely the HTH (helix-turn-helix) ... ribosomal protein S24E; S27AE, 30S ribosomal protein S27AE; Sag, Yersinia/Haemophilus virulence surface antigen; TPR, ... The domain abbreviations are: abhydr, alpha/beta hydrolase; eif2G, translation initiation factor eIF-2, gamma subunit; FF, ...
Partial large subunit ribosomal DNA sequences were obtained by single-cell polymerase chain reaction. Maximum-likelihood and ...
Ultrastructure and small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequence of Henneguya lesteri n.sp. (Myxosporea), a parasite of sand whiting ... we determined 1966 bp of the small-subunit (18S) rDNA. The results indicated that differences between this and the hitherto ...
POLR3K: encoding enzyme DNA-directed RNA polymerase III subunit RPC10. *PRR35: encoding protein Proline rich 35 ... RPS15A: encoding protein 40S ribosomal protein S15a. *RSL1D1: encoding protein Ribosomal L1 domain-containing protein 1 ... Chromosome 16 spans about 90 million base pairs (the building material of DNA) and represents just under 3% of the total DNA in ... PDPR: encoding protein Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase regulatory subunit. *PKDTS: Polycystic kidney disease, infantile ...
Genomic DNA was extracted from the four species of Tilapia. About 2000 bp 18S ribosomal DNA was amplified by PCR using specific ... analysis of the nuclear small subunit ribosomal RNA gene (srDNA) for molecular identification of Tilapia spp. in Egypt. The ... "RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS(RFLPs) OF THE SMALL-SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL DNA AS A TOOL FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TILAPIA SPP ... RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISMS(RFLPs) OF THE SMALL-SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL DNA AS A TOOL FOR IDENTIFICATION OF TILAPIA SPP ...
DNA sequence analysis was done by the Core Facility at the Institute for Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Texas at ... Nmd3p cosediments with free 60S ribosomal subunits.Destabilization of ribosomal subunits can result from mutations in ribosomal ... is required for ribosomal subunit joining (13, 16). The loading of L10 to the 60S ribosomal subunit may be a late cytoplasmic ... 1997) Qsr1p, a 60S ribosomal subunit protein, is required for joining of 40S and 60S subunits. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:5136-5145. ...
High levels of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40 prevent loss of mitochondrial DNA in null mmf1 ... High levels of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40 prevent loss of mitochondrial DNA in null mmf1 ... High levels of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit protein 40 prevent loss of mitochondrial DNA in null mmf1 ... Using a multicopy suppression approach, we have identified a protein of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit, MRPL40, ...
Using a species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we ... Long PCR amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA extracted from filter paper blots. Exp Parasitol 97 : 50-54.. [Google ... f LARGE SEQUENCE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SMALL SUBUNIT RIBOSOMAL RNA GENE OF PLASMODIUM OVALE IN CAMBODIA * SANDRA INCARDONA1, ... Primary sequences of two small subunit ribosomal RNA genes from Plasmodium falciparum. Mol Biochem Parasitol 28 : 63-68.. [ ...
Phylogeny of leeches (Hirudinea) based on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 9: 156-162. ... with three repetitive DNA probes [ribosomal DNA (rDNA), (TTAGGG) n and (GATA) n ]. FISH with the rDNA probe consistently mapped ... Chromosomal location of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), (GATA)n and (TTAGGG)n telomeric repeats in the neogastropod Fasciolaria lignaria ... Chromosome Analysis and FISH Mapping of Ribosomal DNA (rDNA), Telomeric (TTAGGG)n and (GATA)n Repeats in the Leech Haemopis ...
The Largest Subunit of DNA Polymerase Delta Is Required for Normal Formation of Meiotic Type I Crossovers ... 2016) Involvement of ribosomal protein L6 in assembly of functional 50S ribosomal subunit in Escherichia coli cells. Biochem ... 2000) The plastid ribosomal proteins. Identification of all the proteins in the 50 S subunit of an organelle ribosome ( ... 2000) The plastid ribosomal proteins. Identification of all the proteins in the 30 S subunit of an organelle ribosome ( ...
Ribosomal protein S19/S15 (IPR002222) Pfam signature: PF00203 DNA topoisomerase, type IIA, subunit B, domain 2 (IPR013506) Pfam ... DNA gyrase B subunit, C-terminal (IPR002288) Pfam signature: PF00986 Carbamoyl-phosphate synthase small subunit, N-terminal ... Ribosomal protein S28e (IPR000289) Pfam signature: PF01200 Ribosomal protein S8e/ribosomal biogenesis NSA2 (IPR022309) Pfam ... Ribosomal protein S12/S23 (IPR006032) Pfam signature: PF00164 DNA binding HTH domain, AraC-type (IPR018060) Pfam signature: ...
NMD3 was amplified from genomic DNA with the primers 5′ aaa aaa gct agc ATG GAA TTC ACA CCT ATA GA and 3′ ttt ttt ttg cgg ccg ... 1997) Qsr1p, a 60S ribosomal subunit protein, is required for joining of 40S and 60S subunits. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:5136-5145. ... 1990) Ribosomal proteins L15 and L16 are mere late assembly proteins of the large ribosomal subunit. Analysis of an Escherichia ... 2000) Domain III of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 25 S ribosomal RNA: its role in binding of ribosomal protein L25 and 60 S subunit ...
... is the term used to describe the process of protein synthesis by ribosomes in the cytoplasm or endoplasmic ... Small ribosomal subunits bind to mRNA. The initiator tRNA which is equipped with the anticodon (UAC) also binds to the start ... PARP enzymes can bring two broken DNA ends together, shows study. *A new approach to study the role of Neandertal DNA during ... mRNA is used to convey information from DNA to the ribosome. It is a single strand molecule, complimentary to the DNA template ...
... and the small ribosomal protein 4 gene (rps4)], and three nuclear ribosomal regions [1,230 bp from the large subunit (26S), the ... and ITS from the nuclear ribosomal DNA). Based on the resulting phylogeny, we conclude that Stapfs widely used classification ... Abbreviations: Myr, million years (ago); rbcL, ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit; rps4, small ribosomal protein 4 ... DNA was extracted, amplified, and sequenced by using standard methods. Fragments were assembled and edited by using the staden ...
... beta subunit. LECHLO X79898 1886bp DNA PLN 20-NOV-1997 Arabidopsis thaliana chloroplast DNA. chloroplast; psbA gene; rps19 ... ribosomal protein S4; F5J6.13; 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG2 protein); F5J6.14; clathrin adaptor protein small ... New DNA Sequences ======================= AB004872 AB004872 2484bp DNA PLN 19-NOV-1997 Arabidopsis thaliana DNA for COR47, ... alpha subunit. ATY13692 Y13692 753bp RNA PLN 14-NOV-1997 Arabidopsis thaliana mRNA for proteasome subunit prgb. beta subunit; ...
  • This preparation of high molecular weight DNA is appropriate for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR)* process and other molecular biology applications. (atcc.org)
  • Molecular genetic analysis of NMD3 revealed that it is an essential gene required for stable 60S ribosomal subunits. (asm.org)
  • infections in semicaptive orangutans housed at the Orangutan Care Center and Quarantine, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, by using a combination of microscopic and DNA molecular techniques to identify the Plasmodium spp. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings underscore the importance of exploiting sequencing, bioinformatics, and DNA probes to refine molecular amplification techniques and to validate the performance of primers when used for new applications. (ajtmh.org)
  • Routine DNA barcoding involves the production of PCR amplicons from particular regions to sequence them and these sequence data are used to identify or "barcode" that organism to make a distinction from other species. (hindawi.com)
  • Mitotic recombination occurs in all eukaryotes and is intimately involved in the repair of damaged DNA ( H elleday 2003 ). (genetics.org)
  • SKI6 encodes an essential 3′→5′ exonuclease that is a component of the exosome ( 45 ), and ski6 mutants have defects in assembly of 60S ribosomal subunits ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • Taxonomy proposed by independent curators, including the NCBI, the Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) (Bergey's) ( 7 ), Wolfgang Ludwig ( 21 ), Phil Hugenholtz ( 16 ), and Norman Pace ( 23 ), is tracked to promote user awareness of several estimations of phylogenetic descent, allowing a balanced approach to node nomenclature when dendrograms are generated. (asm.org)
  • 190 years of Sargassum taxonomy, facing the advent of DNA phylogenies. (thefreelibrary.com)