A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/34326)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (2/34326)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (3/34326)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (4/34326)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (5/34326)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (6/34326)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (7/34326)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (8/34326)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

The present invention relates to methods for the conversion of the substrate specificity of desaturases. Specifically, the present invention pertains to a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of a Δ4 desaturase, the method comprising: identifying regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of (i) the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase and (ii) the Δ4 desaturase; and replacing in the amino acid sequence of the mentioned Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, the regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, by the corresponding regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase, thereby converting the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase. The present invention further concerns a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ4
Cysteine protease 1 precursor from Zea mays (zmCP1) is classified as a member of the C1A family of peptidases (papain-like cysteine protease) in MEROPS (the Peptidase Database). The 3D structure and substrate specificity of the zmCP1 is still unknown. This study is the first one to build the 3D structure of zmCP1 by computer-assisted homology modeling. In order to determine the substrate specificity of zmCP1, docking study is used for rapid and convenient analysis of large populations of ligand-enzyme complexes. Docking results show that zmCP1 has preference for P1 position and P2 position for Arg and a large hydrophobic residue (such as Phe). Gly147, Gly191, Cys189, and Asp190 are predicted to function as active residues at the S1 subsite, and the S2 subsite contains Leu283, Leu193, Ala259, Met194, and Ala286. SIFt results indicate that Gly144, Arg268, Trp308, and Ser311 play important roles in substrate binding. Then Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) method was used to
Use:. This fluorescent ADAM substrate was originally described by us in the publication, Fluorescent substrates useful as high-throughput screening tools for ADAM9″. This ADAM substrate is based on the cleavage sequence of precursor TNF-alpha and has been used to assess activity of ADAM17 in single cell assays as well as standard in vitro enzymatic and cell based assays (See publications below). See our Product Sheets for the substrate specificity profile of this substrate. This ADAM substrate is also an excellent substrate for ADAM9 and ADAM10. This substrate is not specific for ADAM family members as it can also be processed by members of the MMP family of proteinases. BioZyme Inc, does sell specific substrates for ADAM or MMP family members (Please see our Product Sheets or Catalog, for the substrate specificity profile). It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against all of those enzymes, with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 4 x 103 to 4 x 105. ...
Results presented in this report show that caspase activation after TCR triggering is a physiological, tightly regulated, and early response that appears to be required for efficient T cell activation. Indeed, the selective processing of caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8 was detected within 24 h after anti-CD3 stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Caspase processing occurred in various T and B cell subsets, and was found in proliferating and nonapoptotic lymphocytes. Activation of caspases was confirmed through binding of caspase-3-processed forms to a specific substrate, and by showing that a cell-permeable substrate was cleaved in intact, activated lymphocytes. Importantly, activation of the caspase cascade was associated to restricted substrate specificity, with cleavage of PARP and Wee1 being observed while two other substrates, DFF45 and RFC140, remained unaffected. Caspase processing after T cell stimulation correlated with a defective lymphocyte activation in the presence of the caspase ...
Steric and hydrophobic effects on substrate specificity were probed by protein engineering of subtilisin. Subtilisin has broad peptidase specificity and contains a large hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. A conserved glycine (Gly166), located at the bottom of the substrate binding left, was replaced by 12 nonionic amino acids by the cassette mutagenesis method. Mutant enzymes showed large changes in specificity toward substrates of increasing size and hydrophobicity. In general, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward small hydrophobic substrates was increased (up to 16 times) by hydrophobic substitutions at position 166 in the binding cleft. Exceeding the optimal binding volume of the cleft (∼160 Å3), by enlarging either the substrate side chain or the side chain at position 166, evoked precipitous drops in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) (up to 5000 times) as a result of steric hindrance. ...
Protease-substrate interactions are governed by a variety of structural features. Although the substrate sequence specificities of numerous proteases have been established, topological specificities, whereby proteases may be classified based on recognition of distinct three-dimensional structural motifs, have not. The aggrecanase members of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family cleave a variety of proteins but do not seem to possess distinct sequence specificities. In the present study, the topological substrate specificity of ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) was examined using triple-helical or single-stranded poly(Pro) II helical peptides. Substrate topology modulated the affinity and sequence specificity of ADAMTS-4 with K(m) values indicating a preference for triple-helical structure. In turn, non-catalytic ADAMTS-4 domains were critical for hydrolysis of triple-helical and poly(Pro) II helical substrates. Comparison of ADAMTS-4 with MMP-1 (collagenase 1), MMP
X-converting enzyme (XCE) involved in nervous control of respiration, is a member of the M13 family of zinc peptidases, for which no natural substrate has been identified yet. In contrast, its well characterized homologue endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) showed broad substrate specificity and acts as endopeptidase as well as dipeptidase. To explore the structural differences between XCE and ECE-1, homology model of XCE was built using the complex structure of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon (pdb-id: 3DWB) as template. Phosphoramidon was docked into the binding site of XCE whereas phosphate oxygen of the inhibitor was used as water molecule to design the apo forms of both enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulation of both enzymes was performed to analyze the dynamic nature of their active site residues in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. Homology model of XCE explained the role of non-conserved residues of its S2 subsite. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified the flexible transitions of
An electronic device may include first, second, and third substrates wherein the second electronic substrate is between the first and second electronic substrates. A first electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the first and third electronic substrates, and a second electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the second and third electronic substrates. In addition or in an alternative, an electronic device may include a printed circuit board, a first electronic substrate on the printed circuit board, a second electronic substrate on the first electronic substrate, and a third electronic substrate on the second electronic substrate. More particularly, the first electronic substrate may be between the printed circuit board and the second electronic substrate, and the second electronic substrate may be between the first and third electronic substrates. In addition, the second electronic substrate may be offset relative to the first and third electronic substrates so
UGT8 has been an outlier member of the UGT superfamily since its discovery in 1993 (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). Initially called ceramide galactosyl-transferase, the gene was identified by purification of the protein conferring ceramide-galactosyl-transferase activity and protein sequencing, followed by screening of a rat brain cDNA library with probes derived from the deduced nucleotide sequence (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). In common with other UGTs, UGT8 has a molecular mass in the 50-60 kDa range and carries the UGT signature sequence and motifs associated with retention in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Until now the substrate specificity of UGT8 has never been broadly investigated. We found that UGT8 had restricted substrate specificity and did not conjugate classic xenobiotic substrates common to most UGT1, 2, and 3 isoforms such as 4-methylumbelliferone and 4-nitrophenol (Uchaipichat et al., 2004), although it did conjugate one of the tested bioflavones (chrysin). The potent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Substrate specificity of tor complex 2 is determined by a ubiquitin-fold domain of the sin1 subunit. AU - Tatebe, Hisashi. AU - Murayama, Shinichi. AU - Yonekura, Toshiya. AU - Hatano, Tomoyuki. AU - Richter, David. AU - Furuya, Tomomi. AU - Kataoka, Saori. AU - Furuita, Kyoko. AU - Kojima, Chojiro. AU - Shiozaki, Kazuhiro. PY - 2017/3/7. Y1 - 2017/3/7. N2 - The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase forms multi-subunit TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), which exhibit distinct substrate specificities. Sin1 is one of the TORC2-specific subunit essential for phosphorylation and activation of certain AGC-family kinases. Here, we show that Sin1 is dispensable for the catalytic activity of TORC2, but its conserved region in the middle (Sin1CRIM) forms a discrete domain that specifically binds the TORC2 substrate kinases. Sin1CRIM fused to a different TORC2 subunit can recruit the TORC2 substrate Gad8 for phosphorylation even in the sin1 null mutant of fission yeast. ...
2017. Trebosc, V. et al. Reversion of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tubercolosis by spiroisoxazoline SMARt-420″. Science 2017. Mar 2017 Vol. 355, Issue 6330, pp. 1206-1211 doi: 10.1126/science.aag1006. A. Gilardi, S.P. Bhamidimarri, M. Broenstrup, U. Bilitewski, R.K.R. Marreddy, K.M. Pos, L. Benier, P. Gribbon, M. Winterhalter, B. Windshuegel. Biophysical characterization of E. coli TolC interaction with the known blocker hexaamminecobalt.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Nov;1861(11 Pt A):2702-2709. Epub 2017 Jul 23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.014. Ramaswamy, V. K., Vargiu, A.V., Malloci, G., Dreier, J. G., & Ruggerone, P. Molecular rationale behind the differential substrate specificity of bacterial RND multi-drug transporters. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 8075(2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08747-8. Harsha Bajaj, Silvia Acosta-Gutiérrez, Igor Bodrenko, Giuliano Malloci, Mariano Andrea Scorciapino, Mathias Winterhalter and Matteo Ceccarelli. Bacterial Outer Membrane Porins ...
We previously reported that the in vitro inhibitory effects of several OATP1B1 inhibitors showed remarkable substrate-dependence using prototypical substrates, E2G, E1S, and BSP (Izumi et al., 2013). In addition to the prototypical substrates, clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs could also serve as in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates, for which the potential substrate-dependent inhibition has not been comprehensively evaluated. To identify representative in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates that could mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI prediction, this study investigated the impact of in vitro substrate selection on OATP1B1 inhibition and the subsequent DDI prediction for 12 clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs compared with the prototypical probe substrates.. Twelve OATP1B1 substrate drugs-including statins (pitavastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, and pravastatin), antidiabetics (repaglinide, nateglinide, and glibenclamide), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist ...
A novel dynamic charge-charge interaction between B56 and a subset of PP2A-B56 substrates is essential for substrate specificity, dephosphorylation and, for KIF4A, binding condensin I.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS. . ...
The extended substrate specificity of granzyme B (GrB) was used to identify substrates among the chaperone superfamily. This approach identified Hsp90 and Bag1-L as novel GrB substrates, and an additional GrB cleavage site was identified in the Hsc70/Hsp70-Interacting Protein, Hip. Hsp90, Bag1L, and …
Dynamical properties of enzyme-substrate complexes disclose substrate specificity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease as characterized by the electron density ...
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes represent a large superfamily that displays extraordinarily diverse substrate specificities. After a concise review about CYPs of the CYP1A subfamily, which plays a crucial role in procarcinogen activation, this paper presents segment-directed mutagenesis. This approach generates a library of random combinatorial mutants limited to a precise region of human CYP1A1, namely amino acids 204-214 in which nine positions differ between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The resulting mutants present all combinations possible among these nine positions shifting mutated residues to their CYP1A2 counterpart. The mutants were cloned and expressed in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that has a microsomal oxido-reduction environment optimized for CYPs. This procedure resulted in yeast transformants that express a library of mutant CYP1A1. A subset of transformants were chosen at random, assayed for a typical CYP1A1 activity and the plasmidic DNA of functional clones was rescued and
A calendar is formed of a plurality of substrates. A first substrate carries indicia thereon which identifies selected time periods, such as days or months of the year. A second substrate is positioned adjacent to the first substrate. The second substrate defines a plurality of cavities dimensioned to individually retain a respective information carrying article, such as a web. Each of the cavities is corresponding supplied with a respective information carrying article. Each indicia on the first substrate is positionally associated with a respective cavity in the second substrate. A third substrate, positioned adjacent to the second substrate, is positioned to retain the information carrying articles releasably within the second substrate. The third substrate provides a rupturable cover over each of the cavities of the second substrate whereby upon the application of a sufficient lateral force on the information carrying article within a selected cavity, the article passes through the cover to a
Kyani offers three different products. Those products are Kyäni Sunrise, Kyäni Sunset, and Kyäni Nitro. http://ushap.kyaniviral.com/
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Substrate identification needed? These standardized kinase substrate identification services are ideal for detection of substrates which might be phosphorylated by your protein kinases
Precise Probing of Residue Roles by NRPS Code Swapping: Mutation, Enzymatic Characterization, Modeling, and Substrate Promiscuity of Aryl Acid Adenylation Domains
Dive into the research topics of Screening, substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of yeast strains, which reduce sterically hindered isopropyl ketones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Article{pmid25409537, Author=Thibodeaux, C. J. and Ha, T. and van der Donk, W. A. , Title={{A} price to pay for relaxed substrate specificity: a comparative kinetic analysis of the class {I}{I} lanthipeptide synthetases {P}roc{M} and {H}al{M}2}, Journal=J. Am. Chem. Soc., Year=2014, Volume=136, Number=50, Pages=17513--17529, Month=Dec ...
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A technique for forming films of material (12) from a donor substrate (10). The technique has a step of introducing energetic particles (22) through a surface of a donor substrate (10) to a selected depth (20) underneath the surface, where the particles have a relatively high concentration to define donor substrate material (12) above the selected depth. Energy is provided to a selected region of the substrate to cleave a thin film of material from the donor substrate. Particles are introduced again into the donor substrate underneath a fresh surface of the donor substrate. A second thin film of material is then cleaved from the donor substrate.
TY - CONF. T1 - Substrate specificities of polyesterases. AU - Eberl, Anita. AU - Heumann, Sonja. AU - Liebminger, Stefan. AU - Almansa, Eva. AU - Gübitz, Georg. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Carbonyl reductase BaSDR1 has been identified as a potential ortho-haloacetophenone-specific biocatalyst for the synthesis of chiral 1-(2-halophenyl)ethanols due to its excellent stereoselectivity. However, the catalytic efficiency of BaSDR1 is far below the required level for practical applications. Thus, fine-tun
A module substrate consists of a substrate mounting electronic parts on one surface thereof, a conductor for electrically conducting the electronic parts mounted on the substrate to the other surface of the substrate, a conductive solder for attaching the conductor to a base substrate movably contacting the other surface of the substrate to electrically connect the electronic parts with the base substrate, and a deformable bushing for holding the conductor to maintain the attachment of the conductor to the base substrate regardless of whether the base substrate is moved.
Mulvaney KM, Blomquist C, Acharya N, et al. Molecular basis for substrate recruitment to the PRMT5 methylosome. Mol Cell. 2021;81(17):3481-3495.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2021.07.019. ...
For those that are actually best CBD gummies seeking the greatest CBD gummies to purchase, it is important to recognize what the different products contain. There are several items out there that claim to have CBD; nevertheless, it is actually not constantly easy to tell which are going to be effective and which ones will certainly not. It could be incredibly challenging, especially if you are actually seeking an item that will certainly permit you to obtain the perks of the cannabinoids without putting any kind of cash into it.. Different products may have different parts that might aid with the ailments that you are actually struggling with. The greatest trait to do is actually find a product that contains a blend of various cannabinoids. This will certainly permit you to have the a variety of advantages without must utilize any type of products that contain just CBD.. Before you get a product, you should initially take some time to explore the possibility of making use of the achievable item ...
Controlling Docks:. Before spraying docks, farmers must look at why some fields are worse for docks than others and how docks can be prevented etc. Keeping a thick, dense and leafy sward will reduce or even eliminate docks as grass will out-compete the docks for space, light and nutrients. Topping and grazing tight swards will also help improve the density of regrowth of grass thus reducing dock populations.. When spraying for docks it is essential that you use the correct product, at the correct rate and at the correct time. Always spray when the docks are green, growing and are at the rosette stage. Avoid spraying on windy days etc. There are many different products and ingredients to consider when deciding what sprays to use. Being in contact with farmers over the last few weeks I have heard farmers using an array of different products to control docks, some of these include Dockstar Pro Fore Front T, Pasture Pack, and Hurler. Some of the main active ingredients to look out for when ...
According to the study, 86% of organizations are using between 1 and 20 security vendors, and 13% are using over 20 vendors. Managing all those vendors is seen as being very challenging by 28% of respondents which is up by 8% from the 2019 survey.. Munroe commented that there are often structural levels of complexity when looking to integrate data from different products. That complexity can solved in part by automation, but fundamentally he emphasized that there is a need to do things differently than they have been done in the past. Thats where the new Cisco SecureX service comes into play.. SecureX is a platform for integrating multiple security technologies inside of a single view that enables ease of control, unified policy across assets on-premises and in the cloud, automation and remediation capabilities, among other features.. We want to enable customers to do things and respond inside of this platform, so you dont have to go into ten different products, you can just see and act from ...
Intelligent selections of enzyme substrates in microtiter plates for liquid phase assays (substrates for kinases, proteases and phosphatases).
Its not quite because silly a query as we may think. When you apply an anti wrinkle face cream, or any general skincare or anti aging product to a skin, one of the elements youll notice is that after youve rubbed it into the face it disappears. All of them, including the number one face…
All readers of Zhou et al. and the companion article by Yang et al. will no doubt agree that this work from Yigong Shis group represents a tour de force in applying cryoEM to the structure of the γ-secretase complex with either of two key substrates cross-linked to it. The atomic resolution detailing the juxtaposition of many specific PS1 residues to those of the C83 fragment of APP or to an analogous transmembrane (TM) fragment of Notch elegantly extends certain biochemical studies of presenilin structure-function relationships reported over the last two decades. Some substrate-enzyme interactions previously postulated in biochemical analyses are now firmly established by the structural work. Two examples are the importance of the PS1 transmembrane domain (TMD) 1-2 loop in substrate recognition (Takagi-Niidome et al., 2015) and the pattern of the S1-S2-S3 pockets on the PS1 enzyme that respectively accept large-small-large side chains of APP to effect the tripeptide cleavages (Bolduc et ...
A method for fabricating an LCD includes the steps of (a) loading a first substrate and a second substrate having seals formed thereon on a bonding chamber, (b) bonding the first and second substrates, (c) fixing the bonded first and second substrates, and (d) unloading the fixed first and second substrates.
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Synthesis of P(1)-Citronellyl-P(2)-alpha-D-pyranosyl pyrophosphates as potential substrates for the E. coli undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryl-N-acetylglucoseaminyl transferase MurG.
Enzyme- Enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary structure, which catalyse metabolic reactions in living organisms.. Enzymes are also known as biological catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. They have a very specific 3D shape which is determined by their tertiary structure. The active site is the most important part of an enzyme. This is where the enzymes substrate binds. One theory of enzyme action is called the lock and key theory because the enzymes active site and the substrate are complementary in shape and charge.. Intacelluar Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions inside of cells. e.g Catalase, ATPsynthase, ATPase, DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, Lysosome hydrolytic enzymes. Extracellular Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions outside of cells.e.g digestive enymes. ...
JPT Peptide Technologies is a DIN ISO 9001:2015 certified and GCLP compliant integrated provider of innovative peptide based catalog products and custom services.
Press Release issued Jul 19, 2017: The biochemical reagents market is expanding at a rapid rate, due to use of these reagents in each and every section of health care and life sciences industries. A miscellaneous range of biochemical reagents is recognized for identification of specific enzymes in metabolism and for differentiation between bacteria and viruses. Classical biochemical tests are often used to identify microorganisms. Normally, the results are seen by change in color, formation of a specific product, or chemical reaction. In several cases, detection is based on the reaction of an enzyme with a certain substrate. Additionally, in order to detect specific enzymes or proteins by chemical reaction or complex building techniques are widely used, with the help of biochemical reagents. The end result leads to greater cognition of an unknown organism, protein, or assay.
Sigma-Aldrich provides many substrates to determine the activity of diverse enzymes. A wide range of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates detect enzymatic activity optically.
Everything you do in bonsai, and as such, also the choice of your substrate, should be based on your local growing conditions & your personal care skills & abilities.. In any case. In the very first year I started bonsai I had a few plants from other growers that were planted in Akadama, and I was disappointed. All of them died within 2 years of purchase. Upon checking the plants afterwards, the roots had died and turned mushy. In my garden Akadama broke down to airless clay within one year. The repeated frost-freeze cycles in winter just did too much damage to the structure. As I am not convinced a good substrate has to come from the Orient, and be shipped around the globe in order to be suitable, I started looking for alternatives. The first thing I wanted to know are the qualities a good substrate must have. From my trawling the internet combined with my own insights in plant physiology I came up with a shortlist of things a good bonsai substrate should have.. ...
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
Enzymes, commonly known as biocatalysts, are unique and highly specific globular proteins.. They accelerate chemical reactions without themselves undergoing any apparent change during the process.. They are produced within the cells but are capable of action outside the cells. The word enzyme was first introduced by Kuhne in 1878. Each enzyme usually acts on a single substrate and is said to be highly specific in its action.. According to lock and key hypothesis, the substrate molecules fit into the active sites located on the surface of the enzyme molecules just as one particu-lar key fits into one particular lock.. ...
This enzyme is synthesized as a proenzyme of 53 kDa that is converted to an active form of 22 kDa. cDNA sequences have been obtained for the mouse [3] and human [4] enzymes. In peptidase family M10 (interstitial collagenase family ...
Youll want to check this Toolbox out if youre struggling with content creation, would like to learn how to create your own content, or just want TONS of new low content products (content, planners, puzzles, activity kits, etc).. There are lots of different products that youre going to get in the Toolbox all for $39.95.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. AU - Garrett, S.. AU - Barton, W. A.. AU - Knights, R.. AU - Jin, P.. AU - Morgan, D. O.. AU - Fisher, R. P.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is the catalytic subunit of the metazoan CDK-activating kinase (CAK), which activates CDKs, such as CDC2 and CDK2, through phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the T loop. Full activation of CDK7 requires association with a positive regulatory subunit, cyclin H, and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue at position 170 in its own T loop. We show that threonine-170 of CDK7 is phosphorylated in vitro by its targets, CDC2 and CDK2, which also phosphorylate serine-164 in the CDK7 T loop, a site that perfectly matches their consensus phosphorylation site. In contrast, neither CDK4 nor CDK7 itself can phosphorylate the CDK7 T loop in vitro. The ability of CDC2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - switching On Enzyme Substrate Specificity Analysis with a Fluorescent Competitive Inhibitor. AU - Strom, Alexander. AU - Shah, Rachit. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the University of Minnesota Foundation with additional support from the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education predoctoral fellowship awarded to A.S. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2021/2/16. Y1 - 2021/2/16. N2 - Enzymatically driven change to the spectroscopic properties of a chemical substrate or product has been a linchpin in the development of continuous enzyme kinetics assays. These assays inherently necessitate substrates or products that naturally comply with the constraints of the spectroscopic technique being used, or they require structural changes to the molecules involved to make them observable. Here we demonstrate a new analytical kinetics approach with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - OXA-46, a new class D β-lactamase of narrow substrate specificity encoded by a blaVIM-1-containing integron from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. AU - Giuliani, Francesco. AU - Docquier, Jean Denis. AU - Riccio, Maria Letizia. AU - Pagani, Laura. AU - Rossolini, Gian Maria. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - A novel OXA-type enzyme, named OXA-46, was found to be encoded by a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The variable region of the integron also contained a blaVIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase cassette and a duplicated aacA4 aminoglycoside acetyltransferase cassette. OXA-46 belongs to the OXA-2 lineage of class D β-lactamases. It exhibits 78% sequence identity with OXA-2 and the highest similarity (around 92% identity) with another OXA-type enzyme detected in clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia and in unidentified bacteria from a wastewater plant. Expression of blaOXA-46 in Escherichia coli ...
What is enzyme substrate specificity? What are the importance of enzyme specificity? Classification of enzyme specificity, Different types of enzyme specificity: Bond specificity, Group specificity, Substrate specificity, Absolute Specificity, Optical or Stereo specificity, Geometrical specificity and Co-factor specificity. Learn more: Lecture Note in Specificity of Enzyme. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
Use:. This mmp substrate can be used to assess activity of enzymes in the MMP family. The peptide sequence was described originally as a biosensor for MT1-MMP or MMP14 in Simultaneous visualization of protumorigenic Src and MT1-MMP activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Ouyang M, et al. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15;70(6):2204-12. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3698″. It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against MT1-MMP or MMP14 and MMP3, but has the highest activity against MMP9 with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 103 to 106. See also our Product Sheets for its substrate specificity profile. This substrate is not processed by ADAM family members. Typically, the peptide is dissolved in DMSO to make a stock solution of about 10mM concentration. When used for in vitro assays, the substrate is often used at about 10uM concentration. Remember to keep the DMSO concentration in the final reaction at 1% or below, to avoid DMSO effects on the ...
Novel glycine oxidase (GlyOX) from Marinomonas mediterranea depends on cysteine tryptophilquinone (CTQ) and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glycine to produce a glyoxylate, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. M. mediterranea GlyOX genes (goxA and goxB) were cloned and recombinant GlyOX was heterologously expressed by E. coli. The purification of recombinant GlyOX was carried out by metal affinity and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatographies. M. mediterranea GlyOX was homotetramic with a molecular mass of 76kDa and showed optimum activity around 30°C and at pH 5.0, and stability below 50°C and between pH 5.0 to 9.0. M. mediterranea GlyOX shows a strict substrate specificity toward glycine, and the Michaelis constant for glycine was 0.5mM. M. mediterranea GlyOX could determine the quantity of glycine in human serum and human blood plasma with high sensitivity. This study revealed the catalytic and structural properties of M. mediterranea GlyOX with high substrate specificity. ...
Background: Our understanding of how fungi evolved to develop a variety of ecological niches, is limited but of fundamental biological importance. Specifically, the evolution of enzymes affects how well species can adapt to new environmental conditions. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are enzymes able to hydrolyze the ester bonds linking ferulic acid to plant cell wall polysaccharides. The diversity of substrate specificities found in the FAE family shows that this family is old enough to have experienced the emergence and loss of many activities. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study we evaluate the relative activity of FAEs against a variety of model substrates as a novel predictive tool for Ascomycota taxonomic classification. Our approach consists of two analytical steps; (1) an initial unsupervised analysis to cluster the FAEs substrate specificity data which were generated by cultivation of 34 Ascomycota strains and then an analysis of the produced enzyme cocktail against 10 substituted
AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C beta-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C beta-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C beta-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C ...
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their
Phytaspase is a member of the plant subtilisin-like protease family, and is commonly distinguished from the other members by its unusual and extremely high specificity towards its substrates, which resembles that of the animal caspases. Similarly to the animal caspases, the phytaspase is a cell death promoting protease. The name phytaspase comes from phyto- (lat. for plant) and -aspase (aspartate-directed protease), similarly to caspases. The phytaspase displays a strict substrate specificity, which resembles that of the animal caspase-3. It recognizes a tetrapetide motive within a target protein and introduces a peptide bond break following an aspartate residue, which is crucial for the hydrolysis. Theoretical speculations, based on a 3D model predictions have been made, pointing to the histidine 331 of the phytaspase peptide chain, that might interact with the Asp in the target peptide and thereby guide the recognition. The phytaspase displays a structure, common to the subtilisin-like ...
0078] The coating composition according to the instant invention may be applied to a substrate. Exemplary suitable substrates include, but are not limited to, sheet, non-woven material, woven material, film, foams, and the like. Such substrate may comprise organic based materials, inorganic materials, and combinations thereof. The substrate may, for example, comprise a cellulose based material, a natural polymeric based material, a synthetic polymeric based material, a metal based material, a mineral based, and combinations thereof. The substrate may be porous, for example, micro-porous. The coating composition may be applied to the substrate via a conventional method for applying a coating composition. Such methods are generally known, and include, but are not limited to spraying, dipping, roll coating, blade coating, curtain coating, printing techniques such as flexography and rotogravure, size press, metered size press, screen coating, rod coating combinations thereof, and the like. The ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, requires Mn2+ for activity. It shows strict substrate specificity toward L-arginine as the first (N-terminal) amino acid of the product. The second amino acid could be any standard protein-building amino acid except for L-proline ...
Galactokinase; Sugar-1-kinase with a strict substrate specificity for the alpha-anomeric configuration of D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA) and ATP. Involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA) from the salvaged GalA that is released during growth- dependent cell wall restructuring (424 aa ...
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that hydrolyzes diverse intracellular proteins during programmed cell death (known as apoptosis). It has been a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death for more than a decade. No approved caspase based drug, however, is available so far. Therefore, structural insights about the substrate recognition of caspase-3 are needed for the future development of caspase-3 based inhibitors and drugs. In this study, crystal structures of recombinant caspase-3 in complex with seven substrate analog inhibitors, including acetyl (Ac)-DEVD-aldehyde (Cho), Ac-DMQD-Cho, Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-VDVAD-Cho, and tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-D-fluoromethylketone (Fmk), have been analyzed in combination with enzyme kinetic data and computational models. Seven crystal structures were determined at resolutions of 1.7-2.6Å. The binding conformation of each inhibitor residue at P1-P4 position was analyzed. The negative P1 aspartic acid side chain is exclusively
Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
We are interested in the mechanistic and molecular relationships between catalytic activity, conformational changes and microenvironment of ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Pgp) is in the focus of our interest; we have currently extended our work to ABCG2 (BCRP) and plan to do similar studies on MRP1 (ABCC1). The members of the ABC superfamily of membrane transporters are involved in the regulation of the uptake into and distribution within our body of physiological substrates as well as various xenobiotics, drugs. Due to their wide substrate spectrum, a consequence of their preference for lipophylic compounds, they also play a critical role in the multidrug resistance phenomenon severely limiting therapeutical success in cancer. Our ambition is to understand the molecular details of their catalytic cycle and the intimate molecular interactions with their microenvironment, as well as to apply the knowledge obtained at the cell/molecule level in the context of the whole organism, in ...
Substrate specificity of hyaluronidases tested on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated chondroitin sulfate.Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in bracket
Has an unusual substrate specificity for synthetic organophosphate triesters and phosphorofluoridates. All of the phosphate triesters found to be substrates are synthetic compounds. The identity of any naturally occurring substrate for the enzyme is unknown. Has no detectable activity with phosphate monoesters or diesters and no activity as an esterase or protease. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the insecticide paraoxon at a rate approaching the diffusion limit and thus appears to be optimally evolved for utilizing this synthetic substrate ...
The primary specificity residue of a substrate or an inhibitor, called the P1 residue, is responsible for the proper recognition by the cognate enzyme. This residue enters the S1 pocket of the enzyme and establishes contacts (up to 50%) inside the proteinase substrate cavity, strongly affecting its specificity. To analyze the influence on bovine α-chymotrypsin substrate activity, aromatic non-proteinogenic amino acid residues in position P1 with the sequence Ac-Phe-Ala-Thr-XAnb 5,2-NH2 were introduced: L-pyridyl alanine (Pal), 4-nitrophenylalanine - Phe(p-NO2), 4-aminophenylalanine - Phe(p- NH2), 4-carboxyphenylalanine Phe(p-COOH), 4-guanidine phenylalanine - Phe(p-guanidine), 4-methyloxycarbonylphenylalanine - Phe(p-COOMe), 4-cyanophenylalanine - Phe(p-CN), Phe, Tyr. The effect of the additional substituent at the phenyl ring of the Phe residue was investigated. All peptides contained an amide of 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid, which served as a chromophore. Kinetic parameters (kcat, KM and ...
Many predicted (phospho)lipases are poorly characterized with regard to their substrate specificities and physiological functions. Here ...
To boost our understanding of Taspase1s substrate specificity we used our biosensor assay mixed with positional scanning mutagenesis
Motivation:In silico methods are being widely used for identifying substrates for various kinases and deciphering cell signaling networks. However, most of the available phosphorylation site prediction methods use motifs or profiles derived from a known data set of kinase substrates and hence, their applicability is limited to only those kinase families for which experimental substrate data is available. This prompted us to develop a novel multi-scale structure-based approach which does not require training using experimental substrate data.. Results:In this work, for the first time, we have used residue-based statistical pair potentials for scoring the binding energy of various substrate peptides in complex with kinases. Extensive benchmarking on Phospho.ELM data set indicate that our method outperforms other structure-based methods and has a prediction accuracy comparable to available sequence-based methods. We also demonstrate that the rank of the true substrate can be further improved, if ...
The RAS/MAPK pathway has been intensively studied [1-4], with constitutive activation of ERK1 and ERK2 found frequently in human cancer cells from a variety of tissues (e.g., lung, pancreas, colon, ovary, kidney, skin, and thyroid) [13]. Amplification, overexpression, or mutations in RTKs and genetic alterations in upstream components of the MAPK pathway, including KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, CRAF, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2, alter cell signaling in tumors. In clinical practice and clinical trials, small molecules targeting RTKs or components in the MAPK cascade are used to treat cancer [1, 3, 4]. MEK1 and MEK2 are ideal targets; not only do they play a key role in tumor development and progression [3, 4], they have narrow substrate specificities and distinctive structural characteristics.. MEK activation through the MAPK signaling cascade is necessary for mammalian cell transformation, and constitutively active MEK mutants promote transformation of fibroblast cells [14, 15]. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors inhibit ...
within the GH-J clan. Moreover, besides the effect of substrate entrance on its own, we strongly suggest that a highly conserved arginine residue (in the RDP motif) rather than the previously proposed Tyr motif (not conserved) provides the proton to increase the pKa of the acid-base catalyst ...
Chaetoviridins constitute a large family of structurally related secondary metabolites isolated from Chaetomium fungi. To elucidate the biosynthesis pathway and understand how the chemical diversity of chaetoviridins is generated, gene deletion and in vitro characterization of the four post-PKS modifications enzymes were undertaken. CazL and CazP were identified to have substrate promiscuity that facilitates the formation of nonchlorinated analogues. In addition, enzymatic oxidation and reduction combined with spontaneous dehydration and lactonization of the intermediates further expand the chemical diversity ...
Thus, when a great deal of substrate is altered by an enzyme every minute, the reaction is said to be proceeding at a rapid rate.. In enzyme reaction rates, the rate depends on the CONCENTRATION of the enzyme and the CONCENTRATION of the substrate (CONCENTRATION rather than AMOUNT). Concentration refers to amount in a given volume of solution. As previously mentioned, it has been calculated that enzyme mediated reactions occur 1 x 109 times faster than the same reactions without enzymes.. In most enzyme reactions, enzyme concentration is small compared to the substrate concentration. Therefore, the rate of the reaction becomes proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. If the enzyme concentration is doubled, the reaction rate is doubled. At low substrate concentrations, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the substrate concentration, but at higher substrate concentrations the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. That is, further increase in the amount of ...
An apparatus includes a first substrate; and a second substrate coupled to the first substrate, characterized in that, to control formation of a segregated phase domain structure within a chemical reaction product by controlling an amount of a constituent of a precursor that is present per unit surface area, at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first substrate and the second substrate defines a substantially regularly periodically varying relief with respect to basal spatial location.
By Janine Mok, Philip M. Kim, Hugo Y. K. Lam, Stacy Piccirillo, Xiuqiong Zhou, Grace R. Jeschke, Douglas L. Sheridan, Sirlester A. Parker, Ved Desai, Miri Jwa, Elisabetta Cameroni, Hengyao Niu, Matthew Good, Attila Remenyi, Jia-Lin Nianhan Ma, Yi-Jun Sheu, Holly E. Sassi, Richelle Sopko, Clarence S. M. Chan, Claudio De Virgilio, Nancy M. Hollingsworth, Wendell A. Lim, David F. Stern, Bruce Stillman, Brenda J. Andrews, Mark B. Gerstein, Michael Snyder, Benjamin E. Turk. Science Signaling ...
Abstract Primary cilia are organelles necessary for proper implementation of developmental and homeostasis processes. To initiate their assembly, coordinated actions of multiple proteins are needed. Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) is a key player in the cilium assembly pathway, controlling final step of cilia initiation. The function of TTBK2 in ciliogenesisis critically dependent on its kinase activity, however, precise mechanism of action of this kinase is so far incompletely understood, in part due to very limited information about its relevant substrates. In this study we identify CEP83, CEP89, CCDC92, Rabin8 and DVL3 as substrates of TTBK2 kinase activity. Further, we characterise a set of phosphosites of the newly identified substrates and CEP164, induced by TTBK2 in vitro and in vivo and show that TTBK2 preferentially phosphorylates examined substrates at intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Intriguingly, we further show that identified TTBK2 phosphosites and consensus sequence ...
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BioAssay record AID 1078669 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human P70S6K catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 70 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
BioAssay record AID 1078796 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human FER catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 9 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 是一种高度特异性的 Src 底物。Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 可以用来检测 Src 活性。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
Identifying the substrates of protein kinases to understand their modes of action has been undertaken by various approaches and remains an ongoing challenge
1UN4: Crystallographic Studies on Structural Features that Determine the Enzymatic Specificity and Potency of Human Angiogenin: Thr44, Thr80 and Residues 38-41
The more the enzyme of a particular substrate, the faster the rate of breakdown and therefore the more CO2 is produced. This will help me to test how much CO2 each substrate produces. Yeast can also respire aerobically and anerobically depending on the availability of O2.
At the atomic scale, we are interested in providing detailed three-dimensional information about the nature of complex metallocofactors to help understand how protein environment modulates reactivity. At the protein scale, we are interested in seeing how enzymes are constructed to control substrate access and specificity, and how they prevent loss of reactive intermediates or damage to expensive cofactors. At the largest scale, that of protein complexes, we want to know how proteins interact and how those interactions explain the observed behavior. Protein complexes are often large, have multiple distinct states, and can have large inter- and intrasubunit motions; therefore a single snapshot usually does not tell the entire story.. ...
Implications for substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (34): 21714-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34.21714 ... and is also found in a variety of proteins with phosphorylated substrates. Major lineages include: RecA and rotor ATP synthase ...
Implications for substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 273 (34): 21714-21720. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34. ...
Substrate and inhibitor specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (7): 2346-52. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(17)30227-2 ... Compounds that are substrates for AdK include the N-nucleosides toyocamycin, tubercidin and 6-methylmecaptopurine riboside; the ... identification of a novel motif implicated in phosphate and magnesium ion binding and substrate inhibition". Biochemistry. 41 ( ...
Crans, Debbie C.; Whitesides, George M. (1985). "Glycerol kinase: substrate specificity". Journal of the American Chemical ...
Substrate and cofactor specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 234 (8): 2129-32. PMID 13673025. Moorefield HH (1956). "Purification of DDT ...
Lipid composition and substrate specificity". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 190 (2): 514-22. doi:10.1016/0003-9861( ... Goss R (September 2003). "Substrate specificity of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase of the primitive green alga Mantoniella ...
... the enzyme possesses a high degree of substrate specificity, with the indole moiety of tryptamine required for substrate ... McCoy E, Galan MC, O'Connor SE (2006). "Substrate specificity of strictosidine synthase". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16 (9): 2475 ... have suggested that strictosidine synthase can be easily manipulated to have a broader range of substrate specificity. For ... Upon substrate binding, secologanin's position is located at the pocket's entrance, where the positively charged residues His ...
... has broad substrate specificity. EPHX1 detoxifies low molecular weight chemicals, e.g., butadiene, benzene, styrene, etc ... Oesch F (1974). "Purification and specificity of a human microsomal epoxide hydratase". Biochem. J. 139 (1): 77-88. doi:10.1042 ... Androstene oxide and epoxyestratrienol have been shown as endogenous EPHX1 substrates. EPHX1 also metabolizes endocannabinoid 2 ... Structure-activity relationships for substrates and inhibitors". Biochemistry. 10 (26): 4858-66. doi:10.1021/bi00802a005. PMID ...
Substrate specificity and mechanistic implications". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (40): 23540-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.40.23540. PMID ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tryptophan and O2, whereas its two products are alpha,beta-didehydrotryptophan and H2O2 ...
Implication for a substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (12): 9158-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009250200. ...
Marsh IR, Bradley M (1997). "Substrate specificity of trypanothione reductase". Eur. J. Biochem. 243 (3): 690-4. doi:10.1111/j. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are trypanothione and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are trypanothione disulfide, NADPH, and ... Subversive Substrates and Antitrypanosomal Properties". ChemMedChem. 2 (12): 1708-12. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700172. PMID 17918760 ...
Sols, Alberto; Crane, Robert (1954). "Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 210 (2): 581 ... "The Kinetics of Yeast Hexokinase in the Light of the Induced Fit Involved in the Binding of its Sugar Substrate". European ...
"Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry 210, 1954, pp. 581-595. Robert K. Crane, Richard A ...
"Polypeptide substrate specificity of PsLSMT. A set domain protein methyltransferase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 ...
McLarin, Mark-Anthony; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H. (2020). "Substrate Specificity of Polyphenol Oxidase". Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. ... Because the substrates of these PPO reactions are located in the vacuoles of plant cells damaged mainly by improper harvesting ... PPO may accept monophenols and/or o-diphenols as substrates. The enzyme works by catalyzing the o-hydroxylation of monophenol ... The two isoenzymes prefer different substrates, as jr PPO1 shows a higher activity towards monophenols, whereas jr PPO2 is more ...
Implication for a substrate specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (12): 9158-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009250200. PMID 11124260. Spurway ... substrate proteins associate with the transamidase subunit gpi8p". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (19): 15975-82. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Structural basis for substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (30): 18558-63. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30. ... Active-site amino acid sequence explains substrate specificity compared with liver isozymes". The Journal of Biological ... Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, ...
McCormick DB; Butler RC (1962). "Substrate specificity of liver flavokinase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 65 (2): 326-332. doi: ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and riboflavin, whereas its two products are ADP and FMN. Riboflavin is converted ...
August 2014). "Substrate specificity of cytoplasmic N-glycosyltransferase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (35): ... The principal substrates of N-glycosyltransferases are adhesins. Adhesins are proteins that are used to colonize a surface, ... The substrate for the HMW1C homologue of Aggregatibacter aphrophilus is called EmaA and is an autotransporter protein. The ... Among these are a deprotonation of the amide, an interaction between a hydroxyl group in the substrate sequon with the amide (a ...
Zou J, Zhang R, Zhu F, Liu J, Madison V, Umland SP (March 2005). "ADAM33 enzyme properties and substrate specificity". ...
Substrate specificity and effects of inhibitors". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 706 (2): 229-38. doi:10.1016/0167-4838(82) ...
Koudelakova T, Chovancova E, Brezovsky J, Monincova M, Fortova A, Jarkovsky J, Damborsky J (2011). "Substrate Specificity of ... To begin, aspartate 124 is perfectly aligned with the substrate. It will drive off the halogen and form an ester functionality ... the two substrates of this enzyme are 1-haloalkane and H2O, whereas its two products are primary alcohol and halide. This ... a dehalogenase of wide substrate range from an Arthrobacter sp". J. Bacteriol. 169 (11): 5016-21. doi:10.1128/jb.169.11.5016- ...
I. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies". Biochem. J. 71 (3): 477-84. doi:10.1042/bj0710477. PMC 1196820. PMID ... "Kinetic and structural analysis of substrate specificity in two copper amine oxidases from Hansenula polymorpha". Biochemistry ... The active site is buried and requires a conformational change to allow the substrate access. The N2 and N3 N-terminal domains ... In prokaryotes, the enzyme enables various amine substrates to be used as sources of carbon and nitrogen. This enzyme belongs ...
Lyons, P. J.; Fricker, L. D. (2010). "Substrate Specificity of Human Carboxypeptidase A6". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 285 ... CPA6 may have additional roles in processing peptides and proteins in vivo, but the nature of these substrates and the effects ...
I. Substrate specificity and electrophoresis studies". Biochem. J. 71 (3): 477-84. doi:10.1042/bj0710477. PMC 1196820. PMID ... are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities". J. Lipid Res. 46 (6): 1239-47. doi:10.1194/jlr.M400511- ... are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities". The Journal of Lipid Research. 46 (6): 1239-1247. doi: ... Characterization of an arylesterase of guinea pig cerebral cortex utilizing p-nitrophenyl acetate as substrate". Biochim. ...
Miller FD, Chapman JL, Queener SW (1992). "Substrate specificity of isopenicillin N synthase". J. Med. Chem. 35 (10): 1897-914 ... Substrate Determination of Oxidase versus Oxygenase Activity in Nonheme Fe Enzymes". J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 (23): 7427-7438. doi ... This allows for the binding of the substrate ACV to the deprotonated thiol group of the cysteine residue. This ligation of the ... and two water molecules in the absence of a bound substrate. Just two histidine residues and one aspartic acid residue are ...
Substrate specificity, gene expression, and regulation". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (2): 884-94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M008300200. PMID ... the two substrates of this enzyme are pyrimidine nucleoside and H2O, whereas its two products are D-ribose and pyrimidine base ...
I. REACTION PRODUCT AND SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY". J. Biol. Chem. 239: 4257-62. PMID 14247679. HOOK RH, ROBINSON WG (1964). " ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ricinine and H2O, whereas its two products are 3-carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone ...
2005). "Substrate specificity of human ceramide kinase". J. Lipid Res. 46 (12): 2706-2716. doi:10.1194/jlr.M500313-JLR200. PMID ... Taha, T. A.; Argraves, K. M.; Obeid, L. M. (2004). "Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors: receptor specificity versus functional ... that act on ceramide as either a substrate or product. Regulation of ceramide levels can therefore be performed by one of these ...
O'Connor RJ, Halvorson H (March 1961). "The substrate specificity of L-alanine dehydrogenase". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ... H+ The 2 substrates of this enzyme are L-alanine, water, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide+ because water is 55M and does ...
"Acyl chain specificity of the acyltransferases LpxA and LpxD and substrate availability contribute to lipid A fatty acid ...
"Substrate specificity of rhomboid intramembrane proteases is governed by helix-breaking residues in the substrate transmembrane ... Known substrates of RHBDL2 include thrombomodulin and epidermal growth factor; profiling of the substrate repertoire of RHBDL2 ... "Quantitative proteomics screen identifies a substrate repertoire of rhomboid protease RHBDL2 in human cells and implicates it ... has identified a number of additional type I membrane proteins substrates, including BCAM, SPINT1, and CLCP1. GRCh38: Ensembl ...
Stoop, JMH, Chilton WS, Pharr DM (1996). "Substrate specificity of the NAD-dependent mannitol dehydrogenase from celery". ... the two substrates of this enzyme are D-mannitol and NAD+, whereas its 3 products are D-mannose, NADH, and H+. This enzyme ...
Substrate specificity and product identification studies on canine submaxillary gland UDP-GlcNAc:Gal beta 1-3GalNAc(GlcNAc ... Analysis of substrates and products for four N-acetyl-D-glucosaminyl-transferases involved in mucin synthesis". Carbohydrate ... I. Detection in canine submaxillary glands of an N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase which acts on mucin substrates". The Journal ...
Although differing in substrate specificity, subcellular localization, and tissue distribution, all isozymes of this family ...
Substrate specificity and regulation of activity by phospholipids, metal ion chelators, and inositol 2-phosphate". J. Biol. ...
Mo SL, Liu YH, Duan W, Wei MQ, Kanwar JR, Zhou SF (September 2009). "Substrate specificity, regulation, and polymorphism of ... Following is a table of selected substrates, inducers and inhibitors of CYP2B6. Inhibitors of CYP2B6 can be classified by their ... Ekins S, Iyer M, Krasowski MD, Kharasch ED (June 2008). "Molecular characterization of CYP2B6 substrates". Current Drug ... "Drug Interactions & Labeling - Drug Development and Drug Interactions: Table of Substrates, Inhibitors and Inducers". www.fda. ...
... but show slightly different protein substrate specificities. TPST is a prevalent enzyme, found in many multicellular eukaryotes ... Another substrate for TPST, CC-chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5), has generated interest because of its role as the target protein ... P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) has been extensively studied as a substrate for TPST and the importance of sulfation ... Lee RW, Huttner WB (Sep 1985). "(Glu62, Ala30, Tyr8) n serves as high-affinity substrate for tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase: a ...
ISBN 978-1-60623-356-6. Speer, Nicole; Yarkoni, Tal; Zacks, Jeffrey (2008). "Neural substrates of narrative comprehension and ... examining the language specificity of orthographic processing". Journal of Research in Reading. 32 (2): 215-229. doi:10.1111/j. ...
Twelve of the 56 Thrinchostoma species are native to Madagascar and exhibit some host-plant specificity. Parathrincostoma ... nesting substrate availability, and risk of predation or parasitism. For eusociality to be expressed, the summer breeding ... cleptoparasitic bees are host generalists and belong to an ancient lineage of parasites that uniquely shares no specificity ...
2001). "Pollinator specificity and convergence in fly pollinated Pleurothallis (Orchidaceae) species: a multiple population ... The flowers emit scents that resemble decaying organic materials, excrement or carrion, substrates visited by flies in search ...
In this closed conformation, the Gly-34 residue of the A domain interacts with UDP-glucose and forces the substrate to adapt a ... First, antibodies with high specificities for plant SPS also target the bacterial SPS, indicating the structure is conserved ... These domains are joined by residue loops to form a substrate binding cleft, where the glucosyl group acceptor binds. Although ... Crystal structures studies reveal that after binding, the two domains twist to narrow the entrance of the substrate binding ...
... biosynthesis Substrate specificity, enzyme inhibition, and kinetic mechanism". J. Biol. Chem. 263 (30): 15626-33. PMID 3170602 ... the two substrates of this enzyme are S-adenosyl methionine and demethylmacrocin, whereas its two products are S- ...
Investigation of deconjugating enzyme substrate specificity in comparison with alternative UBL-AMC substrates (e.g. NEDD8-AMC) ... Biochemistry, 37, 1868-1879 (1998) Mason, D.E., Ek, J., Peters, E.C. and Harris J.L. Substrate profiling of deubiquitin ... Ubiquitin-AMC is a fluorogenic substrate for a wide range of deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs), including ubiquitin C-terminal ... Typical assay set-up: Assay substrate concentration: 0.01-1.0µM. Enzyme concentrations, UCH-L3: 10-100pM, isopeptidase-T: 10- ...
Ronau JA, Beckmann JF, Hochstrasser M (April 2016). "Substrate specificity of the ubiquitin and Ubl proteases". Cell Research. ... Deubiquitination or deconjugation - that is, removal of ubiquitin from a protein substrate - is performed by deubiquitinating ... Mevissen TE, Komander D (June 2017). "Mechanisms of Deubiquitinase Specificity and Regulation". Annual Review of Biochemistry. ... both are unusual in that ATG12 has only two known protein substrates and ATG8 is conjugated not to a protein but to a ...
Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase is easily inhibited by many drugs due to its broad substrate specificity. It has been shown to ... Pikuleva IA; Norcross, R; Andersson, U; Shou, M; Nakayama, K; Bjorkhem, I; Pikuleva, IA (2003). "Broad substrate specificity of ... "Crystal structures of substrate-bound and substrate-free cytochrome P450 46A1, the principal cholesterol hydroxylase in the ... Cholesterol-24 hydroxylase has a variety of possible substrates, including: elongated steroid chains, cholesterol derivatives, ...
Development of a new substrate, inhibitors, and an affinity ligand". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 255 (8): 3482-6. PMID ... but specificity differs in other respects This enzyme belongs to the peptidase family M4 (thermolysin family). Morihara K, ...
Fujii H, Sagami H, Koyama T, Ogura K, Seto S, Baba T, Allen CM (October 1980). "Variable product specificity of solanesyl ... the significance of the diphosphate linkage involved in the allylic substrates for prenyltransferase". Journal of Biochemistry ...
Although it was known at the time that nitrilase could operate with wide substrate specificity in producing the corresponding ... In plants, there are two distinguishable groups in regard to substrate specificity: those with high hydrolytic activity towards ... The arylcetonitrile substrates for these particular enzymes consist of phenylpropionitrile and other products that result from ... Early release of the enzyme-bound substrate after the first water hydrolysis followed by delayed addition of the second water ...
Schaertl S, Konrad M, Geeves MA (1998). "Substrate specificity of human nucleoside-diphosphate kinase revealed by transient ...
... kinetic characterization and substrate specificities of the erythrocyte, liver, and brain isoforms". Biochemistry. 30 (21): ...
Cloning, functional expression in Pichia pastoris, and substrate specificity of the isolated recombinant enzymes". The Journal ...
... and a specificity of 75%, yielding a positive predictive value of 20% and a negative predictive value of 20%. PMID 8522703 - ... which may be the substrate for a micro-re-entry mechanism, implying a higher risk of potentially dangerous ventricular ...
"Substrate specificities and identification of putative substrates of ATM kinase family members". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (53): 37538 ... Many proteins have been identified as substrates for the kinase activity of DNA-PK. Autophosphorylation of DNA-PKcs appears to ...
Renilla and Gaussia based cell viability assays use the substrate coelenterazine. Animal coloration Biophoton Life That Glows, ... symbiont specificity and codivergence in bioluminescent symbioses". Cladistics. 23 (5): 507-532. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.2007. ... is used to calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the measurements. There is direct correlation between luminescence ... mind that different types of microbial populations are determined through different sets of ATP assays using other substrates ...
Lykke-Andersen J, Thi-Ngoc HP, Garrett RA (November 1994). "DNA substrate specificity and cleavage kinetics of an archaeal ...
Missingsch, Low Saxon grammar, pronunciation, pragmatics, loanwords and substrate and German vocabulary.[citation needed] Para- ... "categorial specificity of the structural borrowing" or a uniform borrowing of specific categories (Winford).[citation needed] ...
"The N-end rule adaptor protein ClpS from Plasmodium falciparum exhibits broad substrate specificity". FEBS Letters. 590 (19): ... ClpS is as a specific adaptor protein for the ATP-dependent AAA+ protease ClpAP, and hence ClpS delivers N-degron substrates to ... It is posited that upon recognition, ClpS1 binds to these substrate proteins and brings them to the ClpC chaperone of the ... This study suggests that ClpS1 is functionally similar to ClpS, also playing a role in substrate recognition via specific N- ...
Substrate and inhibitor specificity J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 1;277(44):41827-34. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M206854200. Epub 2002 Aug 19. ... The substrate specificity of the ubiquinone cofactor (CoQ(n)) that is required for the oxidation of FMN in the second step of ...
EP-3408384-B1 chemical patent summary.
... show a novel function of the heavy chain 4F2hc that impacts transport by modulating the substrate affinity and specificity of ... In addition, the presented data confirm that the light chains LAT1 and LAT2 constitute the substrate-transporting subunits of ... Figure 3. Determination of the substrate specificity of 4F2hc-LAT1 (A), LAT1 (B), 4F2hc-LAT2 (C), and LAT2 (D) by 100 nM [3H]L- ... Figure 3. Determination of the substrate specificity of 4F2hc-LAT1 (A), LAT1 (B), 4F2hc-LAT2 (C), and LAT2 (D) by 100 nM [3H]L- ...
Seminars and Events at the Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP) and Vienna Biocenter (VBC).
Tissue and substrate specificity of inhibition by alkoxy-aryl-lactams of platelet and arterial smooth muscle cyclic nucleotide ... Claire Lugnier, A Stierlé, Alain Beretz, P Schoeffter, A Lebec, et al.. Tissue and substrate specificity of inhibition by ...
One third of the worlds population is estimated to be infected with a dormant TB infection. |i|M. tuberculosis|/i| survives within this dormant |
Analysis of the substrate specificity of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB and its possible function in racemic resolution. * ... Analysis of the substrate specificity of the haloalkane dehalogenase LinB and its possible function in racemic resolution ...
The results suggest that a modification of PKC alpha in situ limits its substrate specificity, and indicate an additional level ... The results suggest that a modification of PKC alpha in situ limits its substrate specificity, and indicate an additional level ... Characterization of two forms of protein kinase C alpha, with different substrate specificities, from skeletal muscle. Abstract ... Characterization of two forms of protein kinase C alpha, with different substrate specificities, from skeletal muscle ...
A localized tolerance in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme enables "last-step" 18F fluorination of a RGD ... A localized tolerance in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme enables "last-step" 18F fluorination of a RGD ... A localized tolerance in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme enables "last-step" 18F fluorination of a RGD ... A localized tolerance in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme enables "last-step" 18F fluorination of a RGD ...
Dive into the research topics of The localization of human cyclins B1 and B2 determines CDK1 substrate specificity and neither ... In this paper, we show that substrate specificity is primarily conferred on human mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by ... title = "The localization of human cyclins B1 and B2 determines CDK1 substrate specificity and neither enzyme requires MEK to ... T1 - The localization of human cyclins B1 and B2 determines CDK1 substrate specificity and neither enzyme requires MEK to ...
Oncogenic RET receptors display different autophosphorylation sites and substrate binding specificities. Xin Liu, Quinn C. Vega ... Oncogenic RET receptors display different autophosphorylation sites and substrate binding specificities. Journal of Biological ... Oncogenic RET receptors display different autophosphorylation sites and substrate binding specificities. In: Journal of ... Oncogenic RET receptors display different autophosphorylation sites and substrate binding specificities. / Liu, Xin; Vega, ...
Plastidic delta-6 Fatty-Acid Desaturases with Distinctive Substrate Specificity Regulate the Pool of C18-PUFAs in the Ancestral ... Plastidic delta-6 Fatty-Acid Desaturases with Distinctive Substrate Specificity Regulate the Pool of C18-PUFAs in the Ancestral ... Plastidic delta-6 Fatty-Acid Desaturases with Distinctive Substrate Specificity Regulate the Pool of C18-PUFAs in the Ancestral ...
With the objective of improving the differentiation of enzyme specificities in a knowledge-based context, and to obtain new ... Evolution, substrate specificity and subfamily classification of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5). *Henrik Aspeborg1, ... Aspeborg, H., Coutinho, P.M., Wang, Y. et al. Evolution, substrate specificity and subfamily classification of glycoside ... Evolution, substrate specificity and subfamily classification of glycoside hydrolase family 5 (GH5) ...
Dive into the research topics of Identification of amino acid residues essential for the substrate specificity of ... Identification of amino acid residues essential for the substrate specificity of Flavobacterium sp. Endo-β-N- ...
Structural basis of substrate specificity in human cytidine deaminase family APOBEC3s. Journal of Biological Chemistry ... of ssDNA-bound A3s together with experimental studies have provided some insights into distinct substrate specificities among ... Although overall structurally similar, A3s have vastly varying deamination activity and substrate preferences. Recent crystal ...
These studies provide not only a molecular elucidation of substrate recognition and specificity for the NatA family, but also ... Their structures can vary according to the first two residues of their substrate. However, the mechanisms of substrate ... Further enzyme activity assays revealed that the substrate specificity of SsArd1 could be altered from SSGTPT to MEEKVG by a ... Both structures contain coenzyme A, while the latter also contains a substrate-derived peptide. Sequential structure-based ...
... the two domains were closed in substrate-bound form and the domain closure ratio was changed in response to the substrate size ... Substrate size-dependent conformational changes of bacterial pectin-binding protein crucial for chemotaxis and assimilation Sci ... Substrate-free SPH1118 adopted three different conformations in the open form. On the other hand, ... SPH1118 consisted of two domains with a large cleft between the domains and substrates bound to positively charged and aromatic ...
Effects on reaction and substrate specificity.. Vacca, R.A., Christen, P., Malashkevich, V.N., Jansonius, J.N., Sandmeier, E.. ... The study shows that substitutions of single active-site residues may result in altered reaction and substrate specificities of ... In an attempt to change the reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase, several apolar active-site ... In an attempt to change the reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase, several apolar active-site ...
Structural Studies of HNA Substrate Specificity in Mutants of an Archaeal DNA Polymerase Obtained by Directed Evolution Camille ... Structural Studies of HNA Substrate Specificity in Mutants of an Archaeal DNA Polymerase Obtained by Directed Evolution. ...
... the basis for substrate specificity, or the rationale for donor specificity for any LuxI member. Here, we present several ... determinant that establishes specificity for the acyl donor and identify residues that are critical for acyl/aryl specificity. ... the basis for substrate specificity, or the rationale for donor specificity for any LuxI member. Here, we present several ... "Molecular Basis for the Substrate Specificity of Quorum Signal Synthases". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
... complex structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius reveals the structural basis of substrate specificity. ... complex structure of bile salt hydrolase from Lactobacillus salivarius reveals the structural basis of substrate specificity. ...
Nuclear RNA Exosome at 3.1 Å Reveals Substrate Specificities, RNA Paths, and Allosteric Inhibition of Rrp44/Dis3.. Publication ... Home » Nuclear RNA Exosome at 3.1 Å Reveals Substrate Specificities, RNA Paths, and Allosteric Inhibition of Rrp44/Dis3. ... phosphate RNA substrates. Using reconstituted exosome complexes, we show that 3 phosphate RNA is not a substrate for Rrp6 but ...
Substrate specificity evaluation for the ribosyl substrate of thymidine phosphorylase. Aiko Harano, Akihiko Hatano, Masayuki ... Substrate specificity evaluation for the ribosyl substrate of thymidine phosphorylase. / Harano, Aiko; Hatano, Akihiko; ... Harano A, Hatano A, Kirihara M. Substrate specificity evaluation for the ribosyl substrate of thymidine phosphorylase. Default ... Substrate specificity evaluation for the ribosyl substrate of thymidine phosphorylase. In: Default journal. 2006. ...
Overlapping substrate specificities in a Mutt-type protein phosphohydrolase. Stephen T. Safrany, Stephen W. Ingram, Jared L. ... Overlapping substrate specificities in a Mutt-type protein phosphohydrolase. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
... the KshA5 homolog had the highest apparent specificity for substrates with no C17 side chain (kcat/Km >105 s-1m-1 for 4- ... the cholesterol-degrading KshAMtb from Mycobacterium tuberculosis had the highest specificity for CoA-thioesterified substrates ... substrate complexes as compared with substrate-free KshA, suggesting that Rieske oxygenases may have a dynamic nature similar ... These specificities are consistent with differences in the catabolism of cholesterol and bile acids, resp., in actinobacteria. ...
Nucleotide Substrate Specificity of Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Nucleoside Analogs for Human Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase.. ... The in vitro nucleotide substrate specificity of POLRMT was studied in order to explore structure-activity relationships that ...
Screening of Beta-lactam Acylase Producers from Soil and Characterization of Isolates for Substrate Specificity for ... Also the substrate specificity for various cephalosporins showed it most selective to cephalexin. ... Screening of Beta-lactam Acylase Producers from Soil and Characterization of Isolates for Substrate Specificity for ... Screening of Beta-lactam Acylase Producers from Soil and Characterization of Isolates for Substrate Specificity for ...
  • Identification of amino acid residues essential for the substrate specificity of Flavobacterium sp. (elsevier.com)
  • Their structures can vary according to the first two residues of their substrate. (nature.com)
  • Superimposition of SsArd1 (NatA) with human Naa50p (NatE) showed significant differences in key residues of enzymes near the first amino-acid position of the substrate peptide (Glu35 for SsArd1 and Val29 for Naa50p). (nature.com)
  • SPH1118 consisted of two domains with a large cleft between the domains and substrates bound to positively charged and aromatic residues in the cleft through hydrogen bond and stacking interactions. (nih.gov)
  • In an attempt to change the reaction and substrate specificity of aspartate aminotransferase, several apolar active-site residues were substituted in turn with a histidine residue. (rcsb.org)
  • The study shows that substitutions of single active-site residues may result in altered reaction and substrate specificities of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzymes. (rcsb.org)
  • We also identify the determinant that establishes specificity for the acyl donor and identify residues that are critical for acyl/aryl specificity. (boisestate.edu)
  • To understand how specific residues contribute to substrate selectivity, three site-directed mutants of (MOUSE)NAT2*1 were prepared: these were (MOUSE)NAT2_F125S, (MOUSE)NAT2_R127G and (MOUSE)NAT2_R127L. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In silico modelling of selective ligands into the appropriate NAT active sites further implicated these residues in substrate and inhibitor specificity in mouse and human NAT isoenzymes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three non-catalytic residues within (HUMAN)NAT1*4 (F125, R127 and Y129) contribute both to substrate recognition and inhibitor binding by participating in distinctive intermolecular interactions and maintaining the steric conformation of the catalytic pocket. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These active site residues contribute to the definition of substrate and inhibitor selectivity, an understanding of which is essential for facilitating the design of second generation (HUMAN)NAT1-selective inhibitors for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • PRCP has an extended active-site cleft that can accommodate proline substrates with multiple N-terminal residues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Right) Structure of a histidine kinase and its cognate response regulator highlighting the coevolving residues that dictate interaction specificity. (mit.edu)
  • B y studying patterns of amino-acid coevolution in cognate kinase-substrate pairs, we have identified the key specificity-determining residues. (mit.edu)
  • Because partner specificity relies on only a handful of residues in each protein, two-component signaling pathways are amenable to systematic investigations into molecular recognition. (mit.edu)
  • As with two-component signaling proteins, we have used analyses of amino-acid coevolution in cognate toxin-antitoxin pairs to pinpoint the residues crucial to interaction specificity. (mit.edu)
  • PKs catalyze the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl group from ATP to serine/threonine or tyrosine residues on protein substrates. (umbc.edu)
  • 8599766 10.1038/nsb0496-388 1 'Ptb Domains of Irs-1 and Shc Have Distinct But Overlapping Binding Specificities' J.Biol.Chem. (rcsb.org)
  • Reference: DNA polymerase beta: analysis of the contributions of tyrosine-271 and asparagine-279 to substrate specificity and fidelity of DNA replication by pre-steady-state kinetics. (neb.com)
  • A high-throughput platform was developed for the identification of tyrosine kinase substrate specificity by using an improved one-bead-one-compound ladder peptide library and MALDI-TOF MS. (sookmyung.ac.kr)
  • Fibroblast growth factor or nerve growth factor (NGF) stimulation leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of the FGF Receptor Substrate 2 (FRS2) docking proteins. (novusbio.com)
  • Src was originally identified as a transforming protein of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) that had enzymatic ability to phosphorylate tyrosine in protein substrates (1). (signalchem.com)
  • Given the prevalence of convergent evolution of enzymes that cleave glycosidic bonds, as well as the demonstrable catalytic promiscuity of individual enzymes, sequence-based classification has proven to be a robust way to unify information on enzyme structure, specificity, and mechanism, which provides enormous predictive power [ 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • W140-->H, I17-->H and V37--H, decreased the aminotransferase activity toward aromatic amino acids by 10-100-fold, while decreasing the activity toward dicarboxylic substrates only moderately to 20%, 20% and 60% of the activity of the wild-type enzymes, respectively. (rcsb.org)
  • All enzymes have a flexible 16-residue "mouth loop," which in some structures completely occluded the substrate-binding pocket from the bulk solvent. (eltislab.com)
  • METHODS: To determine whether the (MOUSE)NAT1 and (HUMAN)NAT2 enzymes are functionally equivalent, we expressed and purified (MOUSE)NAT1*1 and analysed its substrate specificity using a panel of arylamines and hydrazines. (ox.ac.uk)
  • RESULTS: Comparing (MOUSE)NAT1*1 with other mammalian NAT enzymes demonstrated that the substrate profiles of (MOUSE)NAT1 and (HUMAN)NAT2 are less similar than previously believed. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The structural basis of the different substrate specificities of the two enzymes is not understood nor has the structure of the S28 fold been described. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Don't forget that both enzymes and their substrates are highly specific to each other - this is known as enzyme-substrate specificity. (linstitute.net)
  • High sensitivity and specificity of the test. (testlinecd.com)
  • ABSTRACT The aim of this study in Iraq was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a commercial ELISA test for detection of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool. (who.int)
  • Kinetic analysis of the purified enzyme in a system which contained both pullulan and amylose as two competing substrates was used to distinguish the dual specificity of the enzyme from the single-substrate specificity known for pullulanases and α-amylases. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Catalytic domain of Plant dual-specificity MAP kinase kinases and similar proteins. (umbc.edu)
  • Differences between murine arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 1 and human arylamine N-acetyltransferase type 2 defined by substrate specificity and inhibitor binding. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Comparisons suggest Tyr-245 and Phe-297 are determinants of KshA1 specificity. (eltislab.com)
  • Determinants of function and substrate specificity in human UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Despite the functional importance of the two classes of labdane-related diterpene synthases in initiating the biosynthesis of large numbers of natural products with both realized and potential medical significance, little is known about the enzymatic determinants underlying substrate and product specificity. (grantome.com)
  • To characterize class II cyclization more basic mechanistic enzymology studies are proposed to identify the determinants for catalysis, as well as initial investigations of product specificity. (grantome.com)
  • The substrate specificity of the ubiquinone cofactor (CoQ(n)) that is required for the oxidation of FMN in the second step of the reaction was also determined. (nih.gov)
  • Effects on reaction and substrate specificity. (rcsb.org)
  • no change in reaction specificity was observed. (rcsb.org)
  • Creatine kinase and its relatives undergo large changes in structure to wrap around the substrates, eliminating water and the possibility of a wasteful side reaction. (ohsu.edu)
  • Unlike the metabolism of glucose, which ordinarily depends on the activity of hexokinase with a wide substrate-specificity to carry out this reaction, substrate-specific galactokinase activity exclusively phosphorylates galactose. (medscape.com)
  • If specific antibodies are present, they bind to the antigen, in the following steps they are labelled with conjugate and are detected by color reaction with a single component substrate. (testlinecd.com)
  • The enzyme-substrate reaction is terminated by the addition of stop solution and the color turns yellow. (srgroupchemical.com)
  • The mammalian NatA complex is composed of the catalytic subunit Naa10p and auxiliary subunit Naa15p and prefers to acetylate the N-terminal end with a Ser substrate 15 , 16 . (nature.com)
  • Comparison of the crystal structure of the complexed and uncomplexed forms of catalytic subunit Naa10p revealed that the substantial conformational change in the α1-loop-α2 region of Naa10p was driven by interacting with auxiliary subunit Naa15p, for a substrate preference from Glu to Ser 16 . (nature.com)
  • Remarkably, the catalytic iron and α-helixes harboring its ligands were displaced up to 4.4 Å in the KshA5·substrate complexes as compared with substrate-free KshA, suggesting that Rieske oxygenases may have a dynamic nature similar to cytochrome P 450. (eltislab.com)
  • Although the structural basis of catalytic mechanism, substrate specificity and rational drug design has been identified for numerous protease families, there has been no structural description of the S28 family of proteases that form a distinct branch of the serine carboxypeptidase clan. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts. (bvsalud.org)
  • 3 'Characterization of an Interaction between Insulin Receptor Substrate 1 and the Insulin Receptor by Using the Two-Hybrid System' Mol.Cell.Biol. (rcsb.org)
  • However, the detailed mechanism of substrate recognition and catalysis for Nat complexes is unclear. (nature.com)
  • Little is known about the molecular mechanism of signal biosynthesis, the basis for substrate specificity, or the rationale for donor specificity for any LuxI member. (boisestate.edu)
  • A structure-based alignment with the previously undescribed structure of DPP7 illuminates the mechanism of orthogonal substrate specificity of PRCP and DPP7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structures of phi29 DNA polymerase complexed with substrate: the mechanism of translocation in B-family polymerases. (neb.com)
  • The results define the structure of the S28 family of proteases, provide the structural basis of PRCP and DPP7 substrate specificity and enable the rational design of selective PRCP modulators. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Comparison with the recently released coordinates of DPP7 illuminates the structural basis for the different substrate specificities of PRCP and DPP7. (biomedcentral.com)
  • WRAP-structural-basis-substrate-specificity-nucleotide-sugar-lipid-Parker-2019.pdf - Published Version - Requires a PDF viewer. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • These studies provide not only a molecular elucidation of substrate recognition and specificity for the NatA family, but also insight into how members of the NAT family distinguish between amino acids at the substrate N-terminus from the ancient monomeric archaeal Ard1. (nature.com)
  • Molecular Basis for the Substrate Specificity of Quorum Signal Synthas" by Shi-Hui Dong, Nicole D. Frane et al. (boisestate.edu)
  • The molecular weight of the purified cellulase was found to be 67 kDa by SDS-PAGE, had an optimal pH and temperature at 7.0 and 40 °C. According to substrate specificity, the purified cellulase had high specificity on CMC substrate which indicated it to be an endo-β-1,4-glucanase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By means of homology modeling molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations we have generated 3D structure models of hDAT in complex with substrate and inhibitors. (khas.edu.tr)
  • W e are actively engaged in several lines of study related to these initial findings, including (i) identifying TA systems that protect against phage predation, (ii) elucidating the mechanisms by which phage infection triggers release or activation of toxins, (iii) determining the basis of phage specificity for individual TA systems, and (iv) investigating the molecular means by which toxins disrupt phage replication or development. (mit.edu)
  • Returning to arginine kinase, the group reported, in the January issue of the Journal of Molecular Biology , a combination of x-ray crystallography and NMR Residual Dipolar Coupling measurements demonstrating that even without substrates, in solution, the enzyme exists as a dynamic equilibrium of the open and closed (substrate-bound) forms seen crystallographically. (ohsu.edu)
  • 1973. Substrate-specificity and toxicological significance of pyrethroid-hydrolyzing esterases of mouse liver microsomes. (cdc.gov)
  • The postprandial state is a dynamic period of metabolic trafficking, biosynthesis and oxidative metabolism of absorbed substrate, such as glucose, lipids, proteins and other dietary constituents. (cambridge.org)
  • Alba possesses a Ser residue at the N-terminus and is the best protein substrate of SsArd1 in vitro . (nature.com)
  • The in vitro nucleotide substrate specificity of POLRMT was studied in order to explore structure-activity relationships that can facilitate the identification of nontoxic NAIs. (bvsalud.org)
  • The established in silico approach allowed the identification of promising substrate compounds that were subsequently analyzed for their efficiency in inhibiting hDAT-dependent fluorescent substrate uptake through in vitro live cell imaging experiments. (khas.edu.tr)
  • Taken together our work presents the first implementation of a combined in silico/in vitro approach enabling the selection of promising dopaminergic neuron-specific substrates. (khas.edu.tr)
  • In this video, we demonstrate how our proprietary surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates enhance Raman signal to detect antibody samples from SARS-CoV-1 and -2 proteins. (oceaninsight.com)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) at a concentration of 2 μg/ml and an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) followed by QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • After washing and blocking with PBST+5% BSA, detection was performed using Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody, clone AbD30255 (HCA299) titrated to the given concentrations in PBST followed by an HRP labeled anti-DYKDDDDK tag antibody in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • Detection was performed using HRP conjugated Human Anti-Nivolumab Antibody ( HCA301 ) at a concentration of 2 µg/ml in HISPEC Assay Diluent ( BUF049A ) and QuantaBlu Fluorogenic Peroxidase Substrate. (bio-rad-antibodies.com)
  • A strategy for last-step 18 F fluorination of bioconjugated peptides is reported that exploits an "Achilles heel" in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • abstract = "A strategy for last-step 18F fluorination of bioconjugated peptides is reported that exploits an {"}Achilles heel{"} in the substrate specificity of the fluorinase enzyme. (elsevier.com)
  • Substrate peptides that lism (4). (cdc.gov)
  • Using reconstituted exosome complexes, we show that 3' phosphate RNA is not a substrate for Rrp6 but is readily degraded by Rrp44 in the nuclear exosome. (cornell.edu)
  • The results suggest that a modification of PKC alpha in situ limits its substrate specificity, and indicate an additional level of control of the kinase that may be a site for modulation of PKC-mediated signal transduction. (garvan.org.au)
  • Graph Presented) Pick and choose: The identification of the substrate specificity of a protein kinase is critical in understanding its role and function in a cellular signal transduction network. (sookmyung.ac.kr)
  • By building large, comprehensive mutant libraries and with deep-sequencing as a readout, we are generating maps of the sequence space that underlies the kinase-substrate interaction in two-component pathways. (mit.edu)
  • The ability to rationally reprogram kinase and substrate specificity in two-component pathways is enabling new efforts in the design of synthetic signaling circuits in vivo. (mit.edu)
  • With the objective of improving the differentiation of enzyme specificities in a knowledge-based context, and to obtain new evolutionary insights, we present here a new, robust subfamily classification of family GH5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specificity This assay has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Xeroderma Pigmentosum, Complementation Group G (XPG). (biobool.com)
  • On the other hand, the two domains were closed in substrate-bound form and the domain closure ratio was changed in response to the substrate size, suggesting that the conformational change upon binding to the substrate triggered the expression of pectin chemotaxis and assimilation. (nih.gov)
  • This study first clarified that the solute-binding protein with dual functions recognized the substrate through flexible conformational changes in response to the substrate size. (nih.gov)
  • Tissue and substrate specificity of inhibition by alkoxy-aryl-lactams of platelet and arterial smooth muscle cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases relationship to pharmacological activity. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Nucleotide Substrate Specificity of Anti-Hepatitis C Virus Nucleoside Analogs for Human Mitochondrial RNA Polymerase. (bvsalud.org)
  • This enzyme from an annelid worm was of interest because of its decreased substrate specificity, but when the structure of its nucleotide-bound complex was determined, it was intermediate between substrate-free and -bound structures of other members of the family. (ohsu.edu)
  • Instead, the Committee recommended further consultation in view of a forthcoming international meeting on the safety of biologicals prepared from mammalian cell substrates. (who.int)
  • In this paper, we show that substrate specificity is primarily conferred on human mitotic cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by their subcellular localization. (elsevier.com)
  • We have shown that histidine kinases harbor an intrinsic ability to distinguish their cognate substrate from all possible non-cognate partners rather than relying on auxiliary factors like scaffolds. (mit.edu)
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell. (bvsalud.org)
  • DNA polymerase beta (pol beta) from rat brain, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, was used as a model to study the factors responsible for substrate specificity [kpol, Kd(app) and kpol/Kd(app)] and fidelity during DNA synthesis. (neb.com)
  • Involvement of phage phi29 DNA polymerase and terminal protein subdomains in conferring specificity during initiation of protein-primed DNA replication. (neb.com)
  • Nuclear RNA Exosome at 3.1 Å Reveals Substrate Specificities, RNA Paths, and Allosteric Inhibition of Rrp44/Dis3. (cornell.edu)
  • Unexpectedly, substrates such as 4-androstene-3,17-dione (ADD) and 4-BNC displayed strong substrate inhibition (KiS ∼100 μm). (eltislab.com)
  • TMB substrate is utilized to measure the HRP enzymatic response. (eccscotland.com)
  • In this demo, learn how high-sensitivity SERS substrates can be used for rapid detection of COVID-19 and other virus antibodies. (oceaninsight.com)
  • Human Transcriptional repressor protein YY1 (YY1) ELISA Kit has high sensitivity and excellent specificity for detection of Human YY1. (abbkine.com)
  • The metastability of human UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE) is increased by variants associated with type III galactosemia but decreased by substrate and cofactor binding. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Following a wash to remove any unbound avidin-enzyme reagent, a substrate solution is added to the wells and color develops in proportion to the amount of YY1 bound in the initial step. (abbkine.com)
  • Further enzyme activity assays revealed that the substrate specificity of SsArd1 could be altered from SSGTPT to MEEKVG by a range of Glu35 mutants. (nature.com)
  • Different culture parameters such as pH, temperature, incubation period, substrate concentration and carbon sources were optimized for enzyme production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene polymorphisms influence protein concentration and substrate specificity, as do some occupational and lifestyle factors. (cdc.gov)
  • This review covers the pathways involved in dNTP production, how they are dysregulated in cancer cells, and the various approaches that have been used to exploit this biology to improve the tumor specificity of oncolytic viruses. (frontiersin.org)
  • To improve tumor specificity, researchers have modified a wide range of viruses to take advantage of dysregulated control pathways and altered signaling cascades characteristic of cancer cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although completely unrelated at the sequence level, bla VIM resembles bla IMP in being carried on an integron-borne mobile gene cassette and in encoding an enzyme (VIM-1) with broad substrate specificity (3) . (cdc.gov)
  • Nα-acetyltransferase (Nat) performs this modification and transfers an acetyl group from acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) to an α-amino group from the first residue of the protein substrate. (nature.com)
  • A model of the structure of the quinonoid enzyme substrate intermediate indicates that H140 might assist in the reprotonation of C alpha of the amino acid substrate from the re side of the deprotonated coenzyme-substrate adduct in competition with si-side reprotonation by K258. (rcsb.org)
  • In contrast, the substrate binding groove of DPP7 is occluded by a short amino-acid insertion unique to DPP7 that creates a truncated active site selective for dipeptidyl proteolysis of N-terminal substrates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Rat liver sections and the human epithelial cell line HEp-2 were compared as substrates for the detection of canine ANA using the indirect immunofluorescence (HF) technique. (slu.se)
  • Only one of the ID subgroups showed identity with any of the well-defined and clinically important human ANA specificities, demonstrating anti-RNP reactivity. (slu.se)
  • RÉSUMÉ L'objectif de cette étude réalisée en Iraq était de définir la sensibilité et la spécificité d'un test ELISA commercial pour la détection de l'antigène de Giardia lamblia dans les selles. (who.int)
  • But, it increases for aromatic substrates as the complexity of the ring increases. (scielo.org.mx)
  • However, the mechanisms of substrate recognition and catalysis of Nats are elusive. (nature.com)
  • these excess substrates then undergo iron-facilitated spontaneous oxidization to photoactive porphyrins. (medscape.com)
  • These specificities are consistent with differences in the catabolism of cholesterol and bile acids, resp. (eltislab.com)
  • By contrast, the KshA5 homolog had the highest apparent specificity for substrates with no C17 side chain (kcat/Km >105 s-1m-1 for 4-estrendione, 5α-androstandione, and testosterone). (eltislab.com)
  • F inally, we also study the specificity and evolution of toxin-antitoxin systems. (mit.edu)
  • Mineralization is higher, for both systems, when a mixture of glucose and hexadecane is used as substrate. (scielo.org.mx)