A group of enzymes within the class EC 3.6.1.- that catalyze the hydrolysis of diphosphate bonds, chiefly in nucleoside di- and triphosphates. They may liberate either a mono- or diphosphate. EC 3.6.1.-.
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to a DEOXYRIBOSE containing a bond to a phosphate group.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A purine or pyrimidine base bonded to DEOXYRIBOSE.
Cysteine proteinase found in many tissues. Hydrolyzes a variety of endogenous proteins including NEUROPEPTIDES; CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS; proteins from SMOOTH MUSCLE; CARDIAC MUSCLE; liver; platelets; and erythrocytes. Two subclasses having high and low calcium sensitivity are known. Removes Z-discs and M-lines from myofibrils. Activates phosphorylase kinase and cyclic nucleotide-independent protein kinase. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.22.4.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Biological processes, properties, and characteristics of the whole organism in human, animal, microorganisms, and plants, and of the biosphere.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
The type species of gram negative bacteria in the genus ALCALIGENES, found in soil. It is non-pathogenic, non-pigmented, and used for the production of amino acids.
Enzymes catalyzing the dehydrogenation of secondary amines, introducing a C=N double bond as the primary reaction. In some cases this is later hydrolyzed.
INDOLES which have two keto groups forming QUINONES like structures of the indole aromatic ring.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group to the 5'-terminal hydroxyl groups of DNA and RNA. EC 2.7.1.78.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
An autolytic enzyme bound to the surface of bacterial cell walls. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the link between N-acetylmuramoyl residues and L-amino acid residues in certain cell wall glycopeptides, particularly peptidoglycan. EC 3.5.1.28.
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
A subclass of peptide hydrolases that depend on a CYSTEINE residue for their activity.
A species of rod-shaped bacteria that is a common soil saprophyte. Its spores are widespread and multiplication has been observed chiefly in foods. Contamination may lead to food poisoning.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
A phospholipase that hydrolyzes the acyl group attached to the 1-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/34326)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (2/34326)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (3/34326)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (4/34326)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (5/34326)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (6/34326)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (7/34326)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (8/34326)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

The present invention relates to methods for the conversion of the substrate specificity of desaturases. Specifically, the present invention pertains to a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of a Δ4 desaturase, the method comprising: identifying regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of (i) the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase and (ii) the Δ4 desaturase; and replacing in the amino acid sequence of the mentioned Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, the regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, by the corresponding regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase, thereby converting the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase. The present invention further concerns a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ4
Use:. This fluorescent ADAM substrate was originally described by us in the publication, Fluorescent substrates useful as high-throughput screening tools for ADAM9″. This ADAM substrate is based on the cleavage sequence of precursor TNF-alpha and has been used to assess activity of ADAM17 in single cell assays as well as standard in vitro enzymatic and cell based assays (See publications below). See our Product Sheets for the substrate specificity profile of this substrate. This ADAM substrate is also an excellent substrate for ADAM9 and ADAM10. This substrate is not specific for ADAM family members as it can also be processed by members of the MMP family of proteinases. BioZyme Inc, does sell specific substrates for ADAM or MMP family members (Please see our Product Sheets or Catalog, for the substrate specificity profile). It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against all of those enzymes, with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 4 x 103 to 4 x 105. ...
Results presented in this report show that caspase activation after TCR triggering is a physiological, tightly regulated, and early response that appears to be required for efficient T cell activation. Indeed, the selective processing of caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8 was detected within 24 h after anti-CD3 stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Caspase processing occurred in various T and B cell subsets, and was found in proliferating and nonapoptotic lymphocytes. Activation of caspases was confirmed through binding of caspase-3-processed forms to a specific substrate, and by showing that a cell-permeable substrate was cleaved in intact, activated lymphocytes. Importantly, activation of the caspase cascade was associated to restricted substrate specificity, with cleavage of PARP and Wee1 being observed while two other substrates, DFF45 and RFC140, remained unaffected. Caspase processing after T cell stimulation correlated with a defective lymphocyte activation in the presence of the caspase ...
Steric and hydrophobic effects on substrate specificity were probed by protein engineering of subtilisin. Subtilisin has broad peptidase specificity and contains a large hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. A conserved glycine (Gly166), located at the bottom of the substrate binding left, was replaced by 12 nonionic amino acids by the cassette mutagenesis method. Mutant enzymes showed large changes in specificity toward substrates of increasing size and hydrophobicity. In general, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward small hydrophobic substrates was increased (up to 16 times) by hydrophobic substitutions at position 166 in the binding cleft. Exceeding the optimal binding volume of the cleft (∼160 Å3), by enlarging either the substrate side chain or the side chain at position 166, evoked precipitous drops in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) (up to 5000 times) as a result of steric hindrance. ...
Protease-substrate interactions are governed by a variety of structural features. Although the substrate sequence specificities of numerous proteases have been established, topological specificities, whereby proteases may be classified based on recognition of distinct three-dimensional structural motifs, have not. The aggrecanase members of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family cleave a variety of proteins but do not seem to possess distinct sequence specificities. In the present study, the topological substrate specificity of ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) was examined using triple-helical or single-stranded poly(Pro) II helical peptides. Substrate topology modulated the affinity and sequence specificity of ADAMTS-4 with K(m) values indicating a preference for triple-helical structure. In turn, non-catalytic ADAMTS-4 domains were critical for hydrolysis of triple-helical and poly(Pro) II helical substrates. Comparison of ADAMTS-4 with MMP-1 (collagenase 1), MMP
X-converting enzyme (XCE) involved in nervous control of respiration, is a member of the M13 family of zinc peptidases, for which no natural substrate has been identified yet. In contrast, its well characterized homologue endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) showed broad substrate specificity and acts as endopeptidase as well as dipeptidase. To explore the structural differences between XCE and ECE-1, homology model of XCE was built using the complex structure of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon (pdb-id: 3DWB) as template. Phosphoramidon was docked into the binding site of XCE whereas phosphate oxygen of the inhibitor was used as water molecule to design the apo forms of both enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulation of both enzymes was performed to analyze the dynamic nature of their active site residues in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. Homology model of XCE explained the role of non-conserved residues of its S2 subsite. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified the flexible transitions of
An electronic device may include first, second, and third substrates wherein the second electronic substrate is between the first and second electronic substrates. A first electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the first and third electronic substrates, and a second electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the second and third electronic substrates. In addition or in an alternative, an electronic device may include a printed circuit board, a first electronic substrate on the printed circuit board, a second electronic substrate on the first electronic substrate, and a third electronic substrate on the second electronic substrate. More particularly, the first electronic substrate may be between the printed circuit board and the second electronic substrate, and the second electronic substrate may be between the first and third electronic substrates. In addition, the second electronic substrate may be offset relative to the first and third electronic substrates so
UGT8 has been an outlier member of the UGT superfamily since its discovery in 1993 (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). Initially called ceramide galactosyl-transferase, the gene was identified by purification of the protein conferring ceramide-galactosyl-transferase activity and protein sequencing, followed by screening of a rat brain cDNA library with probes derived from the deduced nucleotide sequence (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). In common with other UGTs, UGT8 has a molecular mass in the 50-60 kDa range and carries the UGT signature sequence and motifs associated with retention in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Until now the substrate specificity of UGT8 has never been broadly investigated. We found that UGT8 had restricted substrate specificity and did not conjugate classic xenobiotic substrates common to most UGT1, 2, and 3 isoforms such as 4-methylumbelliferone and 4-nitrophenol (Uchaipichat et al., 2004), although it did conjugate one of the tested bioflavones (chrysin). The potent ...
2017. Trebosc, V. et al. Reversion of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tubercolosis by spiroisoxazoline SMARt-420″. Science 2017. Mar 2017 Vol. 355, Issue 6330, pp. 1206-1211 doi: 10.1126/science.aag1006. A. Gilardi, S.P. Bhamidimarri, M. Broenstrup, U. Bilitewski, R.K.R. Marreddy, K.M. Pos, L. Benier, P. Gribbon, M. Winterhalter, B. Windshuegel. Biophysical characterization of E. coli TolC interaction with the known blocker hexaamminecobalt.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Nov;1861(11 Pt A):2702-2709. Epub 2017 Jul 23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.014. Ramaswamy, V. K., Vargiu, A.V., Malloci, G., Dreier, J. G., & Ruggerone, P. Molecular rationale behind the differential substrate specificity of bacterial RND multi-drug transporters. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 8075(2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08747-8. Harsha Bajaj, Silvia Acosta-Gutiérrez, Igor Bodrenko, Giuliano Malloci, Mariano Andrea Scorciapino, Mathias Winterhalter and Matteo Ceccarelli. Bacterial Outer Membrane Porins ...
We previously reported that the in vitro inhibitory effects of several OATP1B1 inhibitors showed remarkable substrate-dependence using prototypical substrates, E2G, E1S, and BSP (Izumi et al., 2013). In addition to the prototypical substrates, clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs could also serve as in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates, for which the potential substrate-dependent inhibition has not been comprehensively evaluated. To identify representative in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates that could mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI prediction, this study investigated the impact of in vitro substrate selection on OATP1B1 inhibition and the subsequent DDI prediction for 12 clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs compared with the prototypical probe substrates.. Twelve OATP1B1 substrate drugs-including statins (pitavastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, and pravastatin), antidiabetics (repaglinide, nateglinide, and glibenclamide), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist ...
A novel dynamic charge-charge interaction between B56 and a subset of PP2A-B56 substrates is essential for substrate specificity, dephosphorylation and, for KIF4A, binding condensin I.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS. . ...
The extended substrate specificity of granzyme B (GrB) was used to identify substrates among the chaperone superfamily. This approach identified Hsp90 and Bag1-L as novel GrB substrates, and an additional GrB cleavage site was identified in the Hsc70/Hsp70-Interacting Protein, Hip. Hsp90, Bag1L, and …
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes represent a large superfamily that displays extraordinarily diverse substrate specificities. After a concise review about CYPs of the CYP1A subfamily, which plays a crucial role in procarcinogen activation, this paper presents segment-directed mutagenesis. This approach generates a library of random combinatorial mutants limited to a precise region of human CYP1A1, namely amino acids 204-214 in which nine positions differ between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The resulting mutants present all combinations possible among these nine positions shifting mutated residues to their CYP1A2 counterpart. The mutants were cloned and expressed in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that has a microsomal oxido-reduction environment optimized for CYPs. This procedure resulted in yeast transformants that express a library of mutant CYP1A1. A subset of transformants were chosen at random, assayed for a typical CYP1A1 activity and the plasmidic DNA of functional clones was rescued and
A calendar is formed of a plurality of substrates. A first substrate carries indicia thereon which identifies selected time periods, such as days or months of the year. A second substrate is positioned adjacent to the first substrate. The second substrate defines a plurality of cavities dimensioned to individually retain a respective information carrying article, such as a web. Each of the cavities is corresponding supplied with a respective information carrying article. Each indicia on the first substrate is positionally associated with a respective cavity in the second substrate. A third substrate, positioned adjacent to the second substrate, is positioned to retain the information carrying articles releasably within the second substrate. The third substrate provides a rupturable cover over each of the cavities of the second substrate whereby upon the application of a sufficient lateral force on the information carrying article within a selected cavity, the article passes through the cover to a
Kyani offers three different products. Those products are Kyäni Sunrise, Kyäni Sunset, and Kyäni Nitro. http://ushap.kyaniviral.com/
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Substrate identification needed? These standardized kinase substrate identification services are ideal for detection of substrates which might be phosphorylated by your protein kinases
Precise Probing of Residue Roles by NRPS Code Swapping: Mutation, Enzymatic Characterization, Modeling, and Substrate Promiscuity of Aryl Acid Adenylation Domains
Article{pmid25409537, Author=Thibodeaux, C. J. and Ha, T. and van der Donk, W. A. , Title={{A} price to pay for relaxed substrate specificity: a comparative kinetic analysis of the class {I}{I} lanthipeptide synthetases {P}roc{M} and {H}al{M}2}, Journal=J. Am. Chem. Soc., Year=2014, Volume=136, Number=50, Pages=17513--17529, Month=Dec ...
A technique for forming films of material (12) from a donor substrate (10). The technique has a step of introducing energetic particles (22) through a surface of a donor substrate (10) to a selected depth (20) underneath the surface, where the particles have a relatively high concentration to define donor substrate material (12) above the selected depth. Energy is provided to a selected region of the substrate to cleave a thin film of material from the donor substrate. Particles are introduced again into the donor substrate underneath a fresh surface of the donor substrate. A second thin film of material is then cleaved from the donor substrate.
TY - CONF. T1 - Substrate specificities of polyesterases. AU - Eberl, Anita. AU - Heumann, Sonja. AU - Liebminger, Stefan. AU - Almansa, Eva. AU - Gübitz, Georg. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Carbonyl reductase BaSDR1 has been identified as a potential ortho-haloacetophenone-specific biocatalyst for the synthesis of chiral 1-(2-halophenyl)ethanols due to its excellent stereoselectivity. However, the catalytic efficiency of BaSDR1 is far below the required level for practical applications. Thus, fine-tun
A module substrate consists of a substrate mounting electronic parts on one surface thereof, a conductor for electrically conducting the electronic parts mounted on the substrate to the other surface of the substrate, a conductive solder for attaching the conductor to a base substrate movably contacting the other surface of the substrate to electrically connect the electronic parts with the base substrate, and a deformable bushing for holding the conductor to maintain the attachment of the conductor to the base substrate regardless of whether the base substrate is moved.
For those that are actually best CBD gummies seeking the greatest CBD gummies to purchase, it is important to recognize what the different products contain. There are several items out there that claim to have CBD; nevertheless, it is actually not constantly easy to tell which are going to be effective and which ones will certainly not. It could be incredibly challenging, especially if you are actually seeking an item that will certainly permit you to obtain the perks of the cannabinoids without putting any kind of cash into it.. Different products may have different parts that might aid with the ailments that you are actually struggling with. The greatest trait to do is actually find a product that contains a blend of various cannabinoids. This will certainly permit you to have the a variety of advantages without must utilize any type of products that contain just CBD.. Before you get a product, you should initially take some time to explore the possibility of making use of the achievable item ...
Controlling Docks:. Before spraying docks, farmers must look at why some fields are worse for docks than others and how docks can be prevented etc. Keeping a thick, dense and leafy sward will reduce or even eliminate docks as grass will out-compete the docks for space, light and nutrients. Topping and grazing tight swards will also help improve the density of regrowth of grass thus reducing dock populations.. When spraying for docks it is essential that you use the correct product, at the correct rate and at the correct time. Always spray when the docks are green, growing and are at the rosette stage. Avoid spraying on windy days etc. There are many different products and ingredients to consider when deciding what sprays to use. Being in contact with farmers over the last few weeks I have heard farmers using an array of different products to control docks, some of these include Dockstar Pro Fore Front T, Pasture Pack, and Hurler. Some of the main active ingredients to look out for when ...
According to the study, 86% of organizations are using between 1 and 20 security vendors, and 13% are using over 20 vendors. Managing all those vendors is seen as being very challenging by 28% of respondents which is up by 8% from the 2019 survey.. Munroe commented that there are often structural levels of complexity when looking to integrate data from different products. That complexity can solved in part by automation, but fundamentally he emphasized that there is a need to do things differently than they have been done in the past. Thats where the new Cisco SecureX service comes into play.. SecureX is a platform for integrating multiple security technologies inside of a single view that enables ease of control, unified policy across assets on-premises and in the cloud, automation and remediation capabilities, among other features.. We want to enable customers to do things and respond inside of this platform, so you dont have to go into ten different products, you can just see and act from ...
Intelligent selections of enzyme substrates in microtiter plates for liquid phase assays (substrates for kinases, proteases and phosphatases).
Its not quite because silly a query as we may think. When you apply an anti wrinkle face cream, or any general skincare or anti aging product to a skin, one of the elements youll notice is that after youve rubbed it into the face it disappears. All of them, including the number one face…
All readers of Zhou et al. and the companion article by Yang et al. will no doubt agree that this work from Yigong Shis group represents a tour de force in applying cryoEM to the structure of the γ-secretase complex with either of two key substrates cross-linked to it. The atomic resolution detailing the juxtaposition of many specific PS1 residues to those of the C83 fragment of APP or to an analogous transmembrane (TM) fragment of Notch elegantly extends certain biochemical studies of presenilin structure-function relationships reported over the last two decades. Some substrate-enzyme interactions previously postulated in biochemical analyses are now firmly established by the structural work. Two examples are the importance of the PS1 transmembrane domain (TMD) 1-2 loop in substrate recognition (Takagi-Niidome et al., 2015) and the pattern of the S1-S2-S3 pockets on the PS1 enzyme that respectively accept large-small-large side chains of APP to effect the tripeptide cleavages (Bolduc et ...
A method for fabricating an LCD includes the steps of (a) loading a first substrate and a second substrate having seals formed thereon on a bonding chamber, (b) bonding the first and second substrates, (c) fixing the bonded first and second substrates, and (d) unloading the fixed first and second substrates.
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Synthesis of P(1)-Citronellyl-P(2)-alpha-D-pyranosyl pyrophosphates as potential substrates for the E. coli undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryl-N-acetylglucoseaminyl transferase MurG.
Enzyme- Enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary structure, which catalyse metabolic reactions in living organisms.. Enzymes are also known as biological catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. They have a very specific 3D shape which is determined by their tertiary structure. The active site is the most important part of an enzyme. This is where the enzymes substrate binds. One theory of enzyme action is called the lock and key theory because the enzymes active site and the substrate are complementary in shape and charge.. Intacelluar Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions inside of cells. e.g Catalase, ATPsynthase, ATPase, DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, Lysosome hydrolytic enzymes. Extracellular Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions outside of cells.e.g digestive enymes. ...
JPT Peptide Technologies is a DIN ISO 9001:2015 certified and GCLP compliant integrated provider of innovative peptide based catalog products and custom services.
Press Release issued Jul 19, 2017: The biochemical reagents market is expanding at a rapid rate, due to use of these reagents in each and every section of health care and life sciences industries. A miscellaneous range of biochemical reagents is recognized for identification of specific enzymes in metabolism and for differentiation between bacteria and viruses. Classical biochemical tests are often used to identify microorganisms. Normally, the results are seen by change in color, formation of a specific product, or chemical reaction. In several cases, detection is based on the reaction of an enzyme with a certain substrate. Additionally, in order to detect specific enzymes or proteins by chemical reaction or complex building techniques are widely used, with the help of biochemical reagents. The end result leads to greater cognition of an unknown organism, protein, or assay.
Sigma-Aldrich provides many substrates to determine the activity of diverse enzymes. A wide range of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates detect enzymatic activity optically.
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
Enzymes, commonly known as biocatalysts, are unique and highly specific globular proteins.. They accelerate chemical reactions without themselves undergoing any apparent change during the process.. They are produced within the cells but are capable of action outside the cells. The word enzyme was first introduced by Kuhne in 1878. Each enzyme usually acts on a single substrate and is said to be highly specific in its action.. According to lock and key hypothesis, the substrate molecules fit into the active sites located on the surface of the enzyme molecules just as one particu-lar key fits into one particular lock.. ...
This enzyme is synthesized as a proenzyme of 53 kDa that is converted to an active form of 22 kDa. cDNA sequences have been obtained for the mouse [3] and human [4] enzymes. In peptidase family M10 (interstitial collagenase family ...
The right price often makes the difference between a sale and a switch. In fact, across five different product or service attributes analyzed (price, service agreement, selection,...
Dr. Mc Allister responded: Debacterol. There are different products that can be used to help with the discomfort of canker sores. Everything from a |a href=/topics/topical-anesthetic track_data={
See a list of all the different products that Advil offers and learn which one is the best to treat the pain youre going through.
See a list of all the different products that Advil offers and learn which one is the best to treat the pain youre going through.
TYPES OF ENZYME Oxidoreductases Transfer hydrogen and oxygen atoms or electrons from one substrate to another Transferases Transfer phosphate or methyl group from one substrate to another Hydrolases Hydrolysis a substrate Isomerases Change molecular form of the substrate Lyases Non-hydrolytic removal of a group or addition of a group to a substrate Ligases Join two […]. ...
Substrate, structural panel, bonded waterproofing The universal substrate for tiles Perfect covering No matter whether you work with mosaics or large format tiles, an absolutely level substrate with straight
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. AU - Garrett, S.. AU - Barton, W. A.. AU - Knights, R.. AU - Jin, P.. AU - Morgan, D. O.. AU - Fisher, R. P.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is the catalytic subunit of the metazoan CDK-activating kinase (CAK), which activates CDKs, such as CDC2 and CDK2, through phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the T loop. Full activation of CDK7 requires association with a positive regulatory subunit, cyclin H, and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue at position 170 in its own T loop. We show that threonine-170 of CDK7 is phosphorylated in vitro by its targets, CDC2 and CDK2, which also phosphorylate serine-164 in the CDK7 T loop, a site that perfectly matches their consensus phosphorylation site. In contrast, neither CDK4 nor CDK7 itself can phosphorylate the CDK7 T loop in vitro. The ability of CDC2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - switching On Enzyme Substrate Specificity Analysis with a Fluorescent Competitive Inhibitor. AU - Strom, Alexander. AU - Shah, Rachit. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the University of Minnesota Foundation with additional support from the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education predoctoral fellowship awarded to A.S. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2021/2/16. Y1 - 2021/2/16. N2 - Enzymatically driven change to the spectroscopic properties of a chemical substrate or product has been a linchpin in the development of continuous enzyme kinetics assays. These assays inherently necessitate substrates or products that naturally comply with the constraints of the spectroscopic technique being used, or they require structural changes to the molecules involved to make them observable. Here we demonstrate a new analytical kinetics approach with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - OXA-46, a new class D β-lactamase of narrow substrate specificity encoded by a blaVIM-1-containing integron from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. AU - Giuliani, Francesco. AU - Docquier, Jean Denis. AU - Riccio, Maria Letizia. AU - Pagani, Laura. AU - Rossolini, Gian Maria. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - A novel OXA-type enzyme, named OXA-46, was found to be encoded by a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The variable region of the integron also contained a blaVIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase cassette and a duplicated aacA4 aminoglycoside acetyltransferase cassette. OXA-46 belongs to the OXA-2 lineage of class D β-lactamases. It exhibits 78% sequence identity with OXA-2 and the highest similarity (around 92% identity) with another OXA-type enzyme detected in clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia and in unidentified bacteria from a wastewater plant. Expression of blaOXA-46 in Escherichia coli ...
What is enzyme substrate specificity? What are the importance of enzyme specificity? Classification of enzyme specificity, Different types of enzyme specificity: Bond specificity, Group specificity, Substrate specificity, Absolute Specificity, Optical or Stereo specificity, Geometrical specificity and Co-factor specificity. Learn more: Lecture Note in Specificity of Enzyme. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
Use:. This mmp substrate can be used to assess activity of enzymes in the MMP family. The peptide sequence was described originally as a biosensor for MT1-MMP or MMP14 in Simultaneous visualization of protumorigenic Src and MT1-MMP activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Ouyang M, et al. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15;70(6):2204-12. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3698″. It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against MT1-MMP or MMP14 and MMP3, but has the highest activity against MMP9 with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 103 to 106. See also our Product Sheets for its substrate specificity profile. This substrate is not processed by ADAM family members. Typically, the peptide is dissolved in DMSO to make a stock solution of about 10mM concentration. When used for in vitro assays, the substrate is often used at about 10uM concentration. Remember to keep the DMSO concentration in the final reaction at 1% or below, to avoid DMSO effects on the ...
Novel glycine oxidase (GlyOX) from Marinomonas mediterranea depends on cysteine tryptophilquinone (CTQ) and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glycine to produce a glyoxylate, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. M. mediterranea GlyOX genes (goxA and goxB) were cloned and recombinant GlyOX was heterologously expressed by E. coli. The purification of recombinant GlyOX was carried out by metal affinity and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatographies. M. mediterranea GlyOX was homotetramic with a molecular mass of 76kDa and showed optimum activity around 30°C and at pH 5.0, and stability below 50°C and between pH 5.0 to 9.0. M. mediterranea GlyOX shows a strict substrate specificity toward glycine, and the Michaelis constant for glycine was 0.5mM. M. mediterranea GlyOX could determine the quantity of glycine in human serum and human blood plasma with high sensitivity. This study revealed the catalytic and structural properties of M. mediterranea GlyOX with high substrate specificity. ...
Background: Our understanding of how fungi evolved to develop a variety of ecological niches, is limited but of fundamental biological importance. Specifically, the evolution of enzymes affects how well species can adapt to new environmental conditions. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are enzymes able to hydrolyze the ester bonds linking ferulic acid to plant cell wall polysaccharides. The diversity of substrate specificities found in the FAE family shows that this family is old enough to have experienced the emergence and loss of many activities. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study we evaluate the relative activity of FAEs against a variety of model substrates as a novel predictive tool for Ascomycota taxonomic classification. Our approach consists of two analytical steps; (1) an initial unsupervised analysis to cluster the FAEs substrate specificity data which were generated by cultivation of 34 Ascomycota strains and then an analysis of the produced enzyme cocktail against 10 substituted
AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C beta-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C beta-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C beta-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C ...
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their
Phytaspase is a member of the plant subtilisin-like protease family, and is commonly distinguished from the other members by its unusual and extremely high specificity towards its substrates, which resembles that of the animal caspases. Similarly to the animal caspases, the phytaspase is a cell death promoting protease. The name phytaspase comes from phyto- (lat. for plant) and -aspase (aspartate-directed protease), similarly to caspases. The phytaspase displays a strict substrate specificity, which resembles that of the animal caspase-3. It recognizes a tetrapetide motive within a target protein and introduces a peptide bond break following an aspartate residue, which is crucial for the hydrolysis. Theoretical speculations, based on a 3D model predictions have been made, pointing to the histidine 331 of the phytaspase peptide chain, that might interact with the Asp in the target peptide and thereby guide the recognition. The phytaspase displays a structure, common to the subtilisin-like ...
0078] The coating composition according to the instant invention may be applied to a substrate. Exemplary suitable substrates include, but are not limited to, sheet, non-woven material, woven material, film, foams, and the like. Such substrate may comprise organic based materials, inorganic materials, and combinations thereof. The substrate may, for example, comprise a cellulose based material, a natural polymeric based material, a synthetic polymeric based material, a metal based material, a mineral based, and combinations thereof. The substrate may be porous, for example, micro-porous. The coating composition may be applied to the substrate via a conventional method for applying a coating composition. Such methods are generally known, and include, but are not limited to spraying, dipping, roll coating, blade coating, curtain coating, printing techniques such as flexography and rotogravure, size press, metered size press, screen coating, rod coating combinations thereof, and the like. The ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, requires Mn2+ for activity. It shows strict substrate specificity toward L-arginine as the first (N-terminal) amino acid of the product. The second amino acid could be any standard protein-building amino acid except for L-proline ...
Galactokinase; Sugar-1-kinase with a strict substrate specificity for the alpha-anomeric configuration of D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA) and ATP. Involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA) from the salvaged GalA that is released during growth- dependent cell wall restructuring (424 aa ...
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that hydrolyzes diverse intracellular proteins during programmed cell death (known as apoptosis). It has been a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death for more than a decade. No approved caspase based drug, however, is available so far. Therefore, structural insights about the substrate recognition of caspase-3 are needed for the future development of caspase-3 based inhibitors and drugs. In this study, crystal structures of recombinant caspase-3 in complex with seven substrate analog inhibitors, including acetyl (Ac)-DEVD-aldehyde (Cho), Ac-DMQD-Cho, Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-VDVAD-Cho, and tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-D-fluoromethylketone (Fmk), have been analyzed in combination with enzyme kinetic data and computational models. Seven crystal structures were determined at resolutions of 1.7-2.6Å. The binding conformation of each inhibitor residue at P1-P4 position was analyzed. The negative P1 aspartic acid side chain is exclusively
Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
We are interested in the mechanistic and molecular relationships between catalytic activity, conformational changes and microenvironment of ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Pgp) is in the focus of our interest; we have currently extended our work to ABCG2 (BCRP) and plan to do similar studies on MRP1 (ABCC1). The members of the ABC superfamily of membrane transporters are involved in the regulation of the uptake into and distribution within our body of physiological substrates as well as various xenobiotics, drugs. Due to their wide substrate spectrum, a consequence of their preference for lipophylic compounds, they also play a critical role in the multidrug resistance phenomenon severely limiting therapeutical success in cancer. Our ambition is to understand the molecular details of their catalytic cycle and the intimate molecular interactions with their microenvironment, as well as to apply the knowledge obtained at the cell/molecule level in the context of the whole organism, in ...
Substrate specificity of hyaluronidases tested on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated chondroitin sulfate.Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in bracket
Has an unusual substrate specificity for synthetic organophosphate triesters and phosphorofluoridates. All of the phosphate triesters found to be substrates are synthetic compounds. The identity of any naturally occurring substrate for the enzyme is unknown. Has no detectable activity with phosphate monoesters or diesters and no activity as an esterase or protease. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the insecticide paraoxon at a rate approaching the diffusion limit and thus appears to be optimally evolved for utilizing this synthetic substrate ...
The primary specificity residue of a substrate or an inhibitor, called the P1 residue, is responsible for the proper recognition by the cognate enzyme. This residue enters the S1 pocket of the enzyme and establishes contacts (up to 50%) inside the proteinase substrate cavity, strongly affecting its specificity. To analyze the influence on bovine α-chymotrypsin substrate activity, aromatic non-proteinogenic amino acid residues in position P1 with the sequence Ac-Phe-Ala-Thr-XAnb 5,2-NH2 were introduced: L-pyridyl alanine (Pal), 4-nitrophenylalanine - Phe(p-NO2), 4-aminophenylalanine - Phe(p- NH2), 4-carboxyphenylalanine Phe(p-COOH), 4-guanidine phenylalanine - Phe(p-guanidine), 4-methyloxycarbonylphenylalanine - Phe(p-COOMe), 4-cyanophenylalanine - Phe(p-CN), Phe, Tyr. The effect of the additional substituent at the phenyl ring of the Phe residue was investigated. All peptides contained an amide of 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid, which served as a chromophore. Kinetic parameters (kcat, KM and ...
Many predicted (phospho)lipases are poorly characterized with regard to their substrate specificities and physiological functions. Here ...
To boost our understanding of Taspase1s substrate specificity we used our biosensor assay mixed with positional scanning mutagenesis
Motivation:In silico methods are being widely used for identifying substrates for various kinases and deciphering cell signaling networks. However, most of the available phosphorylation site prediction methods use motifs or profiles derived from a known data set of kinase substrates and hence, their applicability is limited to only those kinase families for which experimental substrate data is available. This prompted us to develop a novel multi-scale structure-based approach which does not require training using experimental substrate data.. Results:In this work, for the first time, we have used residue-based statistical pair potentials for scoring the binding energy of various substrate peptides in complex with kinases. Extensive benchmarking on Phospho.ELM data set indicate that our method outperforms other structure-based methods and has a prediction accuracy comparable to available sequence-based methods. We also demonstrate that the rank of the true substrate can be further improved, if ...
The RAS/MAPK pathway has been intensively studied [1-4], with constitutive activation of ERK1 and ERK2 found frequently in human cancer cells from a variety of tissues (e.g., lung, pancreas, colon, ovary, kidney, skin, and thyroid) [13]. Amplification, overexpression, or mutations in RTKs and genetic alterations in upstream components of the MAPK pathway, including KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, CRAF, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2, alter cell signaling in tumors. In clinical practice and clinical trials, small molecules targeting RTKs or components in the MAPK cascade are used to treat cancer [1, 3, 4]. MEK1 and MEK2 are ideal targets; not only do they play a key role in tumor development and progression [3, 4], they have narrow substrate specificities and distinctive structural characteristics.. MEK activation through the MAPK signaling cascade is necessary for mammalian cell transformation, and constitutively active MEK mutants promote transformation of fibroblast cells [14, 15]. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors inhibit ...
within the GH-J clan. Moreover, besides the effect of substrate entrance on its own, we strongly suggest that a highly conserved arginine residue (in the RDP motif) rather than the previously proposed Tyr motif (not conserved) provides the proton to increase the pKa of the acid-base catalyst ...
Chaetoviridins constitute a large family of structurally related secondary metabolites isolated from Chaetomium fungi. To elucidate the biosynthesis pathway and understand how the chemical diversity of chaetoviridins is generated, gene deletion and in vitro characterization of the four post-PKS modifications enzymes were undertaken. CazL and CazP were identified to have substrate promiscuity that facilitates the formation of nonchlorinated analogues. In addition, enzymatic oxidation and reduction combined with spontaneous dehydration and lactonization of the intermediates further expand the chemical diversity ...
Thus, when a great deal of substrate is altered by an enzyme every minute, the reaction is said to be proceeding at a rapid rate.. In enzyme reaction rates, the rate depends on the CONCENTRATION of the enzyme and the CONCENTRATION of the substrate (CONCENTRATION rather than AMOUNT). Concentration refers to amount in a given volume of solution. As previously mentioned, it has been calculated that enzyme mediated reactions occur 1 x 109 times faster than the same reactions without enzymes.. In most enzyme reactions, enzyme concentration is small compared to the substrate concentration. Therefore, the rate of the reaction becomes proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. If the enzyme concentration is doubled, the reaction rate is doubled. At low substrate concentrations, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the substrate concentration, but at higher substrate concentrations the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. That is, further increase in the amount of ...
An apparatus includes a first substrate; and a second substrate coupled to the first substrate, characterized in that, to control formation of a segregated phase domain structure within a chemical reaction product by controlling an amount of a constituent of a precursor that is present per unit surface area, at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first substrate and the second substrate defines a substantially regularly periodically varying relief with respect to basal spatial location.
Abstract Primary cilia are organelles necessary for proper implementation of developmental and homeostasis processes. To initiate their assembly, coordinated actions of multiple proteins are needed. Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) is a key player in the cilium assembly pathway, controlling final step of cilia initiation. The function of TTBK2 in ciliogenesisis critically dependent on its kinase activity, however, precise mechanism of action of this kinase is so far incompletely understood, in part due to very limited information about its relevant substrates. In this study we identify CEP83, CEP89, CCDC92, Rabin8 and DVL3 as substrates of TTBK2 kinase activity. Further, we characterise a set of phosphosites of the newly identified substrates and CEP164, induced by TTBK2 in vitro and in vivo and show that TTBK2 preferentially phosphorylates examined substrates at intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Intriguingly, we further show that identified TTBK2 phosphosites and consensus sequence ...
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BioAssay record AID 1078796 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human FER catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 9 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
BioAssay record AID 1078965 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human FGFR4 catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 0.06 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 是一种高度特异性的 Src 底物。Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 可以用来检测 Src 活性。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
Identifying the substrates of protein kinases to understand their modes of action has been undertaken by various approaches and remains an ongoing challenge
1UN4: Crystallographic Studies on Structural Features that Determine the Enzymatic Specificity and Potency of Human Angiogenin: Thr44, Thr80 and Residues 38-41
At the atomic scale, we are interested in providing detailed three-dimensional information about the nature of complex metallocofactors to help understand how protein environment modulates reactivity. At the protein scale, we are interested in seeing how enzymes are constructed to control substrate access and specificity, and how they prevent loss of reactive intermediates or damage to expensive cofactors. At the largest scale, that of protein complexes, we want to know how proteins interact and how those interactions explain the observed behavior. Protein complexes are often large, have multiple distinct states, and can have large inter- and intrasubunit motions; therefore a single snapshot usually does not tell the entire story.. ...
Multiplicity and substrate specificity". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology. 657 (2): 457-67. doi:10.1016/0005- ... Tachibana Y, Yamashita K, Kobata A (1982). "Substrate specificity of mammalian endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase: study with ... PNGase F lacks selectivity for outer carbohydrate structure, resulting in broad specificity, making it a useful tool for ... These endoglycosidases have more specificity in cleavage and are less sensitive to protein conformation than PNGase F. All of ...
"Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry 210, 1954, pp. 581-595. Robert K. Crane, Richard A ...
2005). "Substrate specificity of human ceramide kinase". J. Lipid Res. 46 (12): 2706-2716. doi:10.1194/jlr.M500313-JLR200. PMID ... Taha, T. A.; Argraves, K. M.; Obeid, L. M. (2004). "Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors: receptor specificity versus functional ... that act on ceramide as either a substrate or product. Regulation of ceramide levels can therefore be performed by one of these ...
1997). "Substrate specificities of three members of the human UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine:Polypeptide N- ... the enzymes have different substrate specificities. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000115339 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: ...
... the substrate specificity of Naa40p lies within the first 30-50 residues which are quite larger than the substrate specificity ... Table 1. The Composition and Substrate specificity of NATs. NatA is composed of two subunits, the catalytic subunit Naa10 and ... NatC complex acetylates the N-terminal methionine of substrates Met-Leu-, Met-Ile-, Met-Trp- or Met-Phe N-termini. NatD is only ... NatB acetylates the N-terminal methionine of substrates starting with Met-Glu-, Met-Asp-, Met-Asn- or Met-Gln- N termini. NatC ...
Substrate and inducer specificities". Journal of Molecular Biology. 36 (2): 247-260. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(68)90379-3. ISSN ... Fluorogenic substrates serve to increase the sensitivity of enzyme assays and many are commercially available. In 1966, Rotman ... The latter, fluorogenic substrates are non-fluorescent compounds yielding fluorescent products upon enzymatic action. ... Rotman, Boris; Zderic, John A.; Edelstein, Marvene (June 22, 1963). "Fluorogenic Substrates for β -D-galactosidases and ...
Substrate binding and specificity[edit]. The structures of several HAT domains bound to acetyl-CoA and histone substrate ... 4 Substrate binding and specificity *4.1 Lysine selectivity *4.1.1 GNAT family ... The formation of multisubunit complexes has been observed to modulate the substrate specificity of HATs.[10] In general, while ... For example, the lysine specificity of MYST family HATs toward their histone substrates becomes more restricted when they ...
Krishnaswamy S (January 2005). "Exosite-driven substrate specificity and function in coagulation". J. Thromb. Haemost. 3 (1): ... effect of factor Va and phospholipids on the formation of the enzyme-substrate complex". Biochemistry. 23 (20): 4557-64. doi: ...
It uses fatty acyl thioesters of ACP and CoA as substrates and has a specificity close to that of beta-ketoacyl-ACP synthase II ... Blacklock, Brenda J.; Jaworski, Jan G. (2006-07-28). "Substrate specificity of Arabidopsis 3-ketoacyl-CoA synthases". ... The donor substrate is then decarboxylated, forming a carbanion internmediate, which will attack C1 of the primer substrate, ... substrate specificity, and inhibition of the Streptococcus pneumoniae beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (FabH)". ...
PDEs have different substrate specificities. Some are cAMP-selective hydrolases (PDE4, 7 and 8); others are cGMP-selective ( ... The classification is based on: amino acid sequences substrate specificities regulatory properties pharmacological properties ... "Structural determinants for inhibitor specificity and selectivity in PDE2A using the wheat germ in vitro translation system". ...
"Substrate specificity of glycinamide ribonucleotide synthetase from chicken liver". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 ( ...
... s are able to dephosphorylate seemingly different sites on their substrates with great specificity. Identifying the ... Phosphatases are classified by substrate specificity and sequence homology in catalytic domains. Despite their classification ... In in-vitro experiments, phosphatase enzymes seem to recognize many different substrates, and one substrate may be recognized ... Docking Interactions Determine Substrate Specificity". Science Signaling. 2 (100): re9. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2100re9. PMID ...
PL Hurst; PA Sullivan; MG Sheperd (1978). "Substrate Specificity and Mode ofAction of a Celiulase" (PDF). Biochem. J. 169: 390 ...
The TGases, also have a very different substrate specificity in that they target specifically the middle Gln, in the sequence ' ... The general substrate specificity, i.e. the specific protein is due to the general structure of different TGases which targets ... substrate specificity, and inhibition". Biopolymers. 94 (4): 385-396. doi:10.1002/bip.21472. PMC 4648256. PMID 20593474. ... fuse the two substrates together for a larger repetitive process of linking and inter-linking the said substrates to form and ...
CDK7 is activated by the binding of cyclin H and its substrate specificity is altered by the binding of MAT1. The free form of ... "Regulation of CDK7 substrate specificity by MAT1 and TFIIH." The EMBO Journal 16.7 (1997): 1638-1646. Wallenfang, Matthew R., ... Whether CDK7 really displays dual-substrate specificity remains to be further explored, but there is no question that the CDK7- ... For all CDK substrates of CDK7, phosphorylation by CDK7 occurs following binding of the substrate kinase to its associated ...
The PDEs have different substrate specificities. Some are cAMP selective hydrolases (PDE 4, -7 and -8), others are cGMP ... However, a computerized docking model of the inhibitor EHNA and the substrates cAMP and cGMP bound in the catalytic site have ... The determinants of inhibitor specificity within the PDE2 active site are not very well known and with better understanding of ... Comparison of these inhibitors with the natural substrates of the enzyme, cAMP and cGMP reveal some common characteristics of ...
Substrate specificity and the mode of action of λ exonuclease". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 246 (8): 2505-2512. ... so this method is not limited in its targeted specificity. Meanwhile, dimerized λ gam binds to the host RecBCD and SbcCD ... sequence or the protospacer sequences within 12 base pairs of the PAM as this is the most important region for Cas9 specificity ...
The substrate specificity of the tRNA to the rare codon can affect the timing of translation, and in turn the co-translational ... polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity". Science. 315 (5811): 525-8. doi:10.1126/science.1135308. PMID ...
... polymorphism in the MDR1 gene changes substrate specificity". Science. 315 (5811): 525-8. Bibcode:2007Sci...315..525K. doi: ...
Abuelizz, Hatem A.; Mahmud, Taifo (2015). "Distinct Substrate Specificity and Catalytic Activity of the ...
Barre L, Fournel-Gigleux S, Finel M, Netter P, Magdalou J, Ouzzine M (March 2007). "Substrate specificity of the human UDP- ... 2007). "Substrate specificity of the human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT2B4 and UGT2B7. Identification of a critical aromatic ... Lévesque E, Beaulieu M, Hum DW, Bélanger A (1999). "Characterization and substrate specificity of UGT2B4 (E458): a UDP- ... These same bile acids are substrates for the UGT2B4 enzyme. Hence upregulation of UGT2B4 by activated FXR provides a mechanism ...
... has been identified as a potential probe to use in mass spectrometry-based proteomics, because its substrate specificity ... Hwang BY, Varadarajan N, Li H, Rodriguez S, Iverson BL, Georgiou G (January 2007). "Substrate specificity of the Escherichia ... Dekker N, Cox RC, Kramer RA, Egmond MR (February 2001). "Substrate specificity of the integral membrane protease OmpT ... this area is thought to be associated with substrate specificity. Also, the barrel is relatively rigid, while the loops have ...
"Structural insights into aldosterone synthase substrate specificity and targeted inhibition". Molecular Endocrinology. 27 (2): ... In 21-hydroxylase deficiency, progesterone and 17α-hydroxyprogesterone accumulate and are the substrates of steroid 11β- ...
Implications for substrate specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21714-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34.21714. PMID 9705307.. ...
Use of Oriented Peptide Libraries to determine phosphopeptide binding specificity and protein kinase substrate specificity[edit ... 2.2 Use of Oriented Peptide Libraries to determine phosphopeptide binding specificity and protein kinase substrate specificity ... This approach was used to characterize the substrate specificity of a large number of protein kinases. The kinase specificity ... P as a substrate, in fact required PtdIns(5)P as a substrate to produce PtdIns(4,5)P2.[34] Further research demonstrated that ...
Rawal N, Rajpurohit R, Lischwe MA, Williams KR, Paik WK, Kim S (1995). "Structural specificity of substrate for S- ...
However, the substrate specificity of these enzymes has not been predicted. Some NMT1 RNAs apparently regulate genes that ... although it is not believed that this is their natural substrate. Proteins with similar sequences had mutations that resulted ... in uncertainty as to whether or not they would also use isoxanthopterin as a substrate. These ambiguous proteins are regulated ...
"Crystal structures of histone demethylase JMJD2A reveal basis for substrate specificity". Nature. 448 (7149): 87-91. Bibcode: ... as a co-substrate. The group are interested in understanding these enzymes for their ability to catalyse synthetically ... structural and mechanistic understanding of enzymes that employ oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate as a co-substrate. His work has ... and C-terminal Oxygen-dependent Degradation Domain Substrates Mediated by a Loop Region of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor Prolyl ...
At present there are limited studies for the hNEU substrate specificity. DANA is a pan-selective inhibitor for all hNEU ... In the beginning the X-ray crystallography did not have a very good resolution so the initial focus was on substrate derived ... With focus on positioning the double bond in the inhibitor to more closely resemble the transition state of the substrate and ... X-ray crystallography has shown a distorted half-chair arrangement of the Neu5Ac substrate in the active site. This distorted ...
Krishnaswamy S. (2005) Exosite-driven substrate specificity and function in coagulation. J Thromb Haemost 3: 54-67. Berg J., ... Krishnaswamy S. (2005) Exosite-driven substrate specificity and function in coagulation. J Thromb Haemost 3: 54-67. Berg J., ... as long as there is a non-polar region to interact with the hydrophobic part of the substrate. On the other hand, the fact that ...
When a substrate is thus "poly-ubiquitinated", it is targeted for destruction by the proteasome. Particular enzymes in the ... ubiquitin/proteasome pathway allow ubiquitination to be directed to some proteins but not others - specificity is gained by ... are targeted for destruction by the ligation of at least four copies of a small peptide called ubiquitin onto a substrate ... coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular set of substrates, ...
Nifene for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or enzyme substrates (e.g. 6-FDOPA for the AADC enzyme). These agents permit the ... indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and radiolabeled compounds known apriori to bind with specificity to ... used in PET imaging to determine the activity of the acetylcholinergic neurotransmitter system by acting as a substrate for ...
Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ... and gamma-secretase substrates". Neurobiol. Dis. 14 (2): 194-204. doi:10.1016/S0969-9961(03)00123-2. PMID 14572442.. ...
"Antioxidative function and substrate specificity of NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase. A new role for leukotriene B4 ... The 3 substrates of this enzyme are n-alkanal, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are alk-2-enal, NADH, NADPH, and H+. ...
... showed the specificity of Rho in the stimulation of focal adhesions and stress fibres formation in fibroblasts in the ... By plating SCG on plastic dishes in presence of different substrates, Hall realised that Ral was activated by laminin to induce ... providing specificity.[10] In the same year, Hall investigated the role of the small GTPase Ral in neurite branching. After ... yet very little investigation into the way in which specificity of the pathway is maintained. It was known at this point that ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... 1999). "The mixed lineage kinase DLK utilizes MKK7 and not MKK4 as substrate". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (15): 10195-202. doi:10.1074/ ... 1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... "Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2". Science. 268 (5208): 286-90. doi: ...
They offer the specificity required to separate similar compounds from each other, such as separating polymers in plastic waste ... allowing for relatively easy separation of products and/or unreacted substrate(s). Gas solubility follows the same trend, with ...
1990)։ «Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases»։ Biochemistry 29 (10): 2611-2617։ PMID ... 1993)։ «Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum»։ Biochemistry 32 (32): 8140-8145։ PMID 8347612 ... Evidence for an exosite determinant of factor Xa specificity in heparin-activated antithrombin»։ J. Biol. Chem. 276 (18): 14961 ... Chuang YJ, Swanson R. (2001)։ «Heparin enhances the specificity of antithrombin for thrombin and factor Xa independent of the ...
The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is ... It is therefore the E3 that confers substrate specificity to this system.[50] The number of E1, E2, and E3 proteins expressed ... and β5i with altered substrate specificity. The complex formed with the specialized β subunits is known as the immunoproteasome ... they have three distinct substrate specificities considered chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and peptidyl-glutamyl peptide- ...
Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... "Induction of type I interferon by RNA viruses: cellular receptors and their substrates". Amino Acids. 38 (5): 1283-99. doi ...
효소(酵素, 영어: enzyme)는 반응물인 기질(substrate)과 결합해서 효소-기질 복합체를 형성하여 화학 반응의 활성화 에너지 수준을 낮춤으로써 물질대사의 속도를 증가시키는 생체 촉매이거나 또는 속도를 조절하는 생체 ... "Conformational proofreading: the impact of conformational changes on the specificity of molecular recognition" (PDF). 》PLoS ONE ... The naming of enzymes by adding the suffix "-ase" to the substrate on which the enzyme acts, has been traced to French ... 보호기능을 수행한다.[1] 효소는 기질(substrate)을 생성물(probuct)로 알려진 다른 분자로 전환시킨다. 세포의 거의 모든 대사 과정은 생명을 유지할 수 있을 만큼의 빠른 속도로 일어나야 하기 때문에 효소 촉매작용을 ...
Esterase activity against N-acylated peptide ester substrates". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 165: 72-79. PMID 4441086. ... Spadari, S., Subramanian, A.R. and Kalnitsky, G. (1974). "Highly restricted specificity of the serine proteinase ... Hayashi, K. and Terada, M. (1972). "Some characteristics of hydrolysis of synthetic substrates and proteins by the alkaline ...
In some species, the flea lives in the nest or burrow and the eggs are deposited on the substrate,[8] but in others, the eggs ... In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species decreases. Another factor is the opportunities available ...
Touze, T., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2008). „Substrate specificity and membrane topology of Escherichia coli PgpB, an ...
The different hydrolyzing enzymes are activated by different types of bile salts and have distinct substrate specificities. For ...
An ideal SERS substrate must possess high uniformity and high field enhancement. Such substrates can be fabricated on a wafer ... Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... SERS substrates are used to detect the presence of low abundance biomolecules, and can therefore detect proteins in body fluids ... The ability to analyze the composition of a mixture on the nano scale makes the use of SERS substrates beneficial for ...
... absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody specificities ...
However, it is worth noting that in vitro, the various acyltransferases exhibit different substrate specificities with respect ... Whatever the mechanism is, such specificity is possible. It is seen in the pig testes DAGK that is specific for polyunsaturated ...
"The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66 (16): 2743-57 ... Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211-218. doi: ... The preferred in vitro substrates of AOC2 were found to be 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and p-tyramine instead of methylamine ... β-PEA would not be deaminated in the gut as it is a selective substrate for MAO-B which is not found in the gut .... Brain ...
The lack of other nuclear antigens in this organelle means that using C.luciliae as a substrate allows for the specific ... Some ANAs appear in several types of disease, resulting in lower specificity of the test. For example, IgM-rheumatoid factor ( ... Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... They are used as a substrate in immunofluorescence for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies. They possess an organelle known ...
Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity are evolutionarily closer to one another than to aaRSs of another specificity. However ... leucyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus complexed with a post-transfer editing substrate analogue ... Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity also belong to a single class. However, there are two distinct versions of the LysRS ...
Nomura, K. (1986). „Specificity of prolyl endopeptidase". FEBS Lett. 209: 235-237. PMID 3539636.. ... Moriyama, A., Nakanishi, M. and Sasaki, M. (1988). „Porcine muscle prolyl endopeptidase and its endogenous substrates". J. ...
The C-terminal is important for the substrate specificity and binding of Dot1 because the region carries a positive charge, ... Cofactor binding and substrate interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (5): 3128-36. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.5.3128. PMID 10652296.. ... In order for the reaction to proceed, S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) and the lysine residue of the substrate histone tail must ... The catalytic domain of PRMTs consists of a SAM binding domain and substrate binding domain (about 310 amino acids in total).[5 ...
... s can bind to other proteins as well as to small-molecule substrates. When proteins bind specifically to other copies of ... although the surrounding amino acids may determine the exact binding specificity). A large number of such motifs has been ... The molecules bound and acted upon by enzymes are called substrates. Although enzymes can consist of hundreds of amino acids, ... To scale in the top right-hand corner are two of its substrates, ATP and glucose. ...
The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ...
This complex is called an enzyme-substrate complex. For example, sucrase, 400 times the size of its substrate sucrose, splits ... "Application of a theory of enzyme specificity to protein synthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 44 (2): 98-104. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Substrate + Enzyme -, Substrate:Enzyme -, Product:Enzyme -, Product + Enzyme. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction ... This prevents or slows down an enzyme-substrate complex being formed. Denaturation[change , change source]. Denaturation is the ...
The E3 molecules responsible for substrate identification and binding are thus the mechanisms of substrate specificity in ... The E3 molecule is responsible for binding the target protein substrate and transferring the ubiquitin from the E2 cysteine to ...
Skoog MT, Mehdi S, Wiseman JS, Bey P (June 1989). "The specificity of two proteinases that cleave adjacent to arginine, C1 ... esterase and acrosin, for peptide p-nitroanilide substrates". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 996 (1-2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/0167 ...
Role of enzyme specificity and pH influence on the transamidation versus deamidation process". J Biol Chem. 277 (37): 34109- ... Skovbjerg H, Norén O, Anthonsen D, Moller J, Sjöström H (2002). "Gliadin is a good substrate of several transglutaminases: ... However, five findings have been associated with a high specificity for coeliac disease: scalloping of the small bowel folds ( ... Do sensitivity and specificity vary in different populations?" (PDF). Gastroenterology. 128 (4 Suppl 1): S25-32. doi:10.1053/j. ...
insulin receptor substrate binding. • ATP binding. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5- ... 2.7.12: protein-dual-specificity. *see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. 2.7.13: protein-histidine. *Protein-histidine ...
Molecular determinants of metalloproteinase substrate specificity. Matrix metalloproteinase substrate binding domains, modules ... substrate specificity, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase interaction. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 7608-7616.PubMedCrossRef ... cDNA cloning and deprivation of protein substrate specificity by autolytic degradation. Biochemistry 36, 7225-7238.PubMed ... identification of regions responsible for substrate specificity and general proteinase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 ...
... they showed enhanced substrate specificity relative to the native enzyme. This increased specificity was achieved by the ... Redesigning trypsin: alteration of substrate specificity.. Craik CS, Largman C, Fletcher T, Roczniak S, Barr PJ, Fletterick R, ... Computer graphic analysis suggested that these substitutions would differentially affect arginine and lysine substrate binding ... at position 226 exhibited an altered conformation that may be converted to a trypsin-like structure upon binding of a substrate ...
... Andrew M. Slupe, Ronald A. Merrill, and Stefan Strack ... Andrew M. Slupe, Ronald A. Merrill, and Stefan Strack, "Determinants for Substrate Specificity of Protein Phosphatase 2A," ...
Kinetic analysis reveals that the major source of the substrate specificity lies in changes in K(m) for the various substrates ... Substrate specificity of RdgB protein, a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase.. Burgis NE1, Cunningham RP. ... possess deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and that all four RdgB homologs have high specificity ...
Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in ... Structural basis of substrate specificity in the serine proteases Protein Sci. 1995 Mar;4(3):337-60. doi: 10.1002/pro. ... Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent ... Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in ...
Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates ... substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate ... Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains Biol Chem. 2012 Sep;393(9):853-71. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2012-0143 ... The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e ...
Anatomical context of Substrate Specificity. *The strict substrate specificity of this reaction suggests that L-arginine is the ... Gene context of Substrate Specificity. *The substrate specificity of the truncated RAD2 protein implicates branched DNA ... Disease relevance of Substrate Specificity. *Altered substrate specificity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase confers ... Substrate specificity and affinity of a protein modulated by bound water molecules. Quiocho, F.A., Wilson, D.K., Vyas, N.K. ...
188af) Exploring and Enhancing the Activity and Substrate Specificity of Amine Dehydrogenases. ... have increased activity across the board without affecting substrate. specificity. Finally, we have demonstrated for the first- ... chimeric amine dehydrogenase shows altered substrate specificity compared to. its parent enzymes. Chem Commun. (Camb) 2014, 50 ... ammonia, ketone, and NADH as substrates and release an (R)-amine, NAD+,. and water as products as seen in the reaction scheme ...
A "Silent" Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity. By Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim, Zuben ... A "Silent" Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity. By Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim, Zuben ... A Silent Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... mammalian membrane transport protein alters the substrate specificity. We hypothesize that when frequent codons are changed to ...
Peptide substrate specificity also depends on interactions of the peptide with the FPP co-substrate 28-30. As these findings ... These results improve the definition of prenyltransferase substrate specificity, test the efficacy of substrate algorithms, and ... Biochemical studies of prenyltransferase substrate specificity indicate that recognition of peptide substrates is more complex ... the MTO substrates, the STO substrates, and the non-substrate peptides. Wedges are labeled with the percentage representation ...
... Laadan, B. ... resulting in Adh1p-variants with different substrate specificities. ... Kinetic characterization with both aldehydes and the in vivo primary substrate acetaldehyde also enabled to correlate the ... of both native and mutated ADH1 genes was performed in order to identify the key amino acids involved in this substrate shift, ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
... Valsecchi, Isabel Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, ... All substrates were dephosphorylated by AtZDP, assuming that this enzyme could potentially be involved in double-strand DNA ...
Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition.. E Pizzi, ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ...
analogues-exploring the substrate specificity of PigC Suresh R. Chawrai,a Neil R. Williamson,b George P. C. Salmond*b and ... analogues-exploring the substrate specificity of PigC S. R. Chawrai, N. R. Williamson, G. P. C. Salmond and F. J. Leeper, Chem ...
The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF ... peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are ... When the substrate is a substrate for a protein-serine/threonine kinase, Xaa5 is Ser or Thr, whereas whenthe substrate is a ... This invention pertains to the substrate specificity of protein kinases and to peptides which are substrates for protein ...
In this work we employed a novel version of substrate phage display (21) to analyze the extended substrate specificity of OmpT ... We have analyzed the substrate specificity of OmpT by two complementary substrate filamentous phage display methods: (i) in ... Substrate Specificity of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protease OmpT. John D. McCarter, Daren Stephens, Kevin Shoemaker, ... Substrate Specificity of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protease OmpT. John D. McCarter, Daren Stephens, Kevin Shoemaker, ...
Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Crystal structure of the FTO protein reveals basis for its substrate specificity.. [Zhifu Han, Tianhui Niu, Junbiao Chang, ... Taken together, these results provide a structural basis for understanding FTO substrate-specificity, and serve as a foundation ...
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule ... Substrate Specificity. Known as: Specificities, Substrate, Specificity, Substrate, Substrate Specificities A characteristic ... Studies of the substrate specificity, enzyme-substrate interactions, and the function of lipid. ... Substrate specificity and redox potential of AhpC, a bacterial peroxiredoxin.. *Derek Parsonage, P. Andrew Karplus, Leslie B. ...
... Ilari A., ... Accordingly, a 15 fold increase in k(cat) and 100 fold decrease in K(m) for sarcosine as substrate has been achieved in MTOX ... The analysis of the substrate binding site highlights the structural determinants that favour the accommodation of the bulky N- ... located at the entrance of the active site appears to play a key role for the recognition of the amino acid substrate side ...
The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ...
Substrate Specificity of Acyl-Lipid Δ9-Desaturase from Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200, a Cyanobacterium with Unique Fatty Acid ... We cloned this gene and characterized its specificity to the length of the substrate using heterologous expression in Escheri ... Substrate specificity of acyl-lipid Δ9-desaturase from Prochlorothrix hollandica cyanobacterium producing myristoleic acid, ...
... thereby linking the substrate specificity to the known host tropism. The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. ... Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. ... The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting ... pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from S. agalactiae and S. pseudoporcinus cleaved human ...
... and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity ... To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and ... Title: Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains ... Accepted Manuscript: Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains ...
... about SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY SWITCH. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... substrate specificity switch. Showing result 1 - 5 of 7 swedish dissertations containing the words substrate specificity ... Keywords : NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; Yersinia; type III secretion; YscU; substrate specificity switch; heat shock ... Substrate specificity; Biotechnology; Bioteknologi; Abstract : Biocatalysis is an ever evolving field that uses enzymes or ...
Highlights • The origin of specificity of the LeuRS editing domain was until now unresolved. • Ground-state binding does not... ... Kinetic Origin of Substrate Specificity in Post-Transfer Editing by Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase. ... Kinetic Origin of Substrate Specificity in Post-Transfer Editing by Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase ... Kinetic Origin of Substrate Specificity in Post-Transfer Editing by Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase ...
Nucleoside Ester Prodrug Substrate Specificity of Liver Carboxylesterase. Christopher P. Landowski, Philip L. Lorenzi, Xueqin ... Nucleoside Ester Prodrug Substrate Specificity of Liver Carboxylesterase. Christopher P. Landowski, Philip L. Lorenzi, Xueqin ... Nucleoside Ester Prodrug Substrate Specificity of Liver Carboxylesterase. Christopher P. Landowski, Philip L. Lorenzi, Xueqin ... Nucleoside Ester Prodrug Substrate Specificity of Liver Carboxylesterase Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ...
... lipases are poorly characterized with regard to their substrate specificities and physiological functions. Here ... ... Presently, it seems more feasible to explore substrate specificities for groups of enzymes where at least one substrate is ... Defining Substrate Specificities for Lipase and Phospholipase Candidates. Diana X. Sahonero-Canavesi1, Maritza Zavaleta-Pastor1 ... The definition of substrate specificities for new enzymes, often provides hypotheses for a potential physiological role of ...
Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the ... Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the ... This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the ... The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the ...
  • Although the mutant enzymes were reduced in catalytic rate, they showed enhanced substrate specificity relative to the native enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Bommarius, A. S., A novel chimeric amine dehydrogenase shows altered substrate specificity compared to its parent enzymes. (aiche.org)
  • The exquisite substrate specificity of Dus enzymes is therefore controlled by a relatively simple mechanism involving major reorientation of the whole tRNA molecule. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2 pm (A 2 pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. (osti.gov)
  • Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. (osti.gov)
  • To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. (osti.gov)
  • Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. (osti.gov)
  • The broad specificity of these enzymes makes them amenable for designing prodrugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. (mdpi.com)
  • DUB activity is usually assayed using full-length ubiquitin, and these enzymes generally show low activity towards small substrates that constitute the P4-P1 LRGG (Lys-Arg-Gly-Gly) C-terminal motif of ubiquitin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our results show how gene loss can drive the evolution of substrate specificity from retained enzymes. (elifesciences.org)
  • To overcome this limitation, we propose to use a bifunctional enzyme to study the evolution of substrate specificity after gene loss, as these enzymes may continue to operate when only one of their associated metabolic pathways becomes dispensable. (elifesciences.org)
  • Kinetic and inhibitor studies using cDNA-expressed enzymes and human liver microsomes have characterized the specificity of a range of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A substrate and inhibitor probes towards the two isoforms comprising this subfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Identification and further prioritizing new substrates are important for the study of the enzymology of the selected enzymes and the next generation of drug targets ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Substrate specificities of these enzymes are discussed, along with structure-function relationships, based on their crystal structures and homology modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enzymes were tested for their substrate preference towards chitin, lipo-chitooligosaccharide Nod factors of Rhizobium, and bacterial peptidoglycans (lysozyme activity) as well as for their capacity to inhibit hyphal growth of Trichoderma viride. (deepdyve.com)
  • Patterns of substrate affinity showed that Leu-AMC (at both sampling sites) and Arg-AMC (at Bogue Sound) were primarily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than leucyl-aminopeptidase and arginyl-aminopeptidase, respectively. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • In vitro assays for N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase and glucuronosyl transferase II were developed and utilized to determine kinetic parameters which define the substrate specificity of the enzymes toward a series of different ('3)H-oligosaccharide substrates. (illinois.edu)
  • How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates? (plantcell.org)
  • Elucidation of the structure of 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia fruticosa (Sf - CinS1) combined with analysis of functional and phylogenetic relationships of enzymes within Salvia species identified active-site residues responsible for product specificity. (plantcell.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases of families 32 (GH32) and 68 (GH68) belong to clan GH-J, containing hydrolytic enzymes (sucrose/ fructans as donor substrates) and fructosyltransferases (sucrose/fructans as donor and acceptor substrates). (kuleuven.be)
  • Based on the available 3D structures of enzymes and enzyme-ligand complexes as well as docking simulations, we calculated the pKa of the acid-base before and after substrate binding. (kuleuven.be)
  • The binding of substrates to heme enzymes has been widely assumed to occur at the so-called delta-heme edge. (le.ac.uk)
  • In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis of both native and mutated ADH1 genes was performed in order to identify the key amino acids involved in this substrate shift, resulting in Adh1p-variants with different substrate specificities. (diva-portal.org)
  • Tanzanian subjects homozygous for the CYP2D6*17 allele were slower metabolizers when debrisoquine or dextromethorphan was used as the probe drug than when codeine or metoprolol was used, showing a different substrate specificity of CYP2D6.17 than of CYP2D6.1 and CYP2D6.2. (pubfacts.com)
  • We have analyzed the substrate specificity of OmpT by two complementary substrate filamentous phage display methods: (i) in situ cleavage of phage that display protease-susceptible peptides by Escherichia coli expressing OmpT and (ii) in vitro cleavage of phage-displayed peptides using purified enzyme. (asm.org)
  • To assess the origin of specificity of Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) against the cognate aminoacylation product in editing, we followed binding and catalysis independently using cognate leucyl- and non-cognate norvalyl-tRNA Leu and their non-hydrolyzable analogues. (elsevier.com)
  • We describe a rapid genome-scale approach, MORE (mapping by overexpression of an RNase in Escherichia coli) RNA-seq, for defining the cleavage specificity of endoribonucleolytic toxins. (uniprot.org)
  • To gain insight into substrate binding by rhomboid proteases, we have synthesised a series of novel peptidyl‐chloromethylketone (CMK) inhibitors and analysed their interactions with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG enzymologically and structurally. (embopress.org)
  • Based on comparison of known prenylated proteins, both FTase and GGTase-I have been proposed to recognize protein or peptide substrates containing a C-terminal "Ca 1 a 2 X" sequence 11-17 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1992) "Synthetic Peptide Libraries in the Determination of T Cell Epitopes and Peptide Binding Specificity of Class I Molecules" Eur. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1991) "Peptide-Binding Specificity of the Molecular Chaperone BiP" Nature 353:726-730. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases. (patentgenius.com)
  • When coupled with high-throughput quantitative proteomics technique, this simplified model enabled the accurate determination of catalytic efficiencies for 2369 peptide substrates of a protease by using only one enzymatic reaction experiment. (mcponline.org)
  • Highly complex substrate libraries including the synthetic oligonucleotide or peptide mixture ( 9 , 10 ), the peptide library derived from the digestion of proteins in total cell lysate ( 11 , 12 ) and the proteins in total cell lysate ( 13 , 14 ) were used for substrate screening. (mcponline.org)
  • Results: Using a combination of peptide library selection, phosphorylation of opitmal peptide variants, and screening of a phosphosite array, we found that Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated serine over threonine and required an arginine three residues upstream of the phosphorylated serine in its substrate. (caltech.edu)
  • This requirement for arginine in peptide substrates could not be substituted with the similarly charged lysine. (caltech.edu)
  • This specificity determined for peptide substrates was also evident in many of the proteins phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in a proteome chip analysis. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion: We have determined by peptide library selection and phosphosite array screening that the protein kinase Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated substrates that contain an RXXS motif. (caltech.edu)
  • Direct insights into substrate binding and catalytic mechanism of an intramembrane protease now come from X‐ray structures of the bacterial rhomboid protease GlpG complexed to substrate‐derived peptide inhibitors. (embopress.org)
  • We report a systematic analysis of the P1 and P2 substrate specificity of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) using a peptide library and a novel analytical method, and we use the substrate specificity information to design novel reverse hydroxamate inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Based on this result, 1000 different peptide substrates of the form Biotin-LAQA-P1-P2- SSK(DNP)-NH2 were prepared, with 50 different natural and unnatural amino acids at P1 in combination with 20 different amino acids at P2. (eurekaselect.com)
  • In this model, "C" refers to a cysteine three residues removed from the C-terminus that is prenylated at the thiol group to form a thioether, "a" refers to any aliphatic amino acid, and "X" refers to a subset of amino acids that are proposed to determine specificity for FTase (methionine, serine, glutamine, alanine) or GGTase-I (leucine, phenylalanine). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • OmpT and its homologues cleave synthetic substrates between dibasic residues with high catalytic efficiency ( 14 , 19 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that various substitutions of residues Phe143 and Phe306 of Bmr not only reduce its sensitivity to reserpine inhibition but also significantly change its substrate specificity. (asm.org)
  • This result strongly suggests that Bmr interacts with its transported drugs directly, with residues Phe143 and Phe306 likely to be involved in substrate recognition. (asm.org)
  • Role of multiple basic residues in determining the substrate specificity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In fact, although the nature and geometry of the catalytic residues within the first contact shell of the FAD moiety appear to be virtually superposable in MTOX and MSOX, the presence of a Thr residue in position 239 in MTOX (Met245 in MSOX) located at the entrance of the active site appears to play a key role for the recognition of the amino acid substrate side chain. (uniprot.org)
  • The critical acidic residues are conserved in plants and animals with the corresponding mutations impairing the enzyme activity of both JMJ14 and human KDM5B, indicating a common substrate recognition mechanism for KDM5 subfamily demethylases shared by plants and animals and further informing efforts to design targeted inhibitors of human KDM5. (plantcell.org)
  • PepB is a broad specificity aminopeptidase with a unique ability to remove Asp residues and a very efficient ability to remove Glu residues from the N-termini of peptides in than PepA and PepN. (illinois.edu)
  • The essential role of hemopexin carboxyl-domain exosites in the cleavage of noncollagenous substrates such as chemokines has also been recently revealed. (springer.com)
  • This article updates a previous review of the role of substrate recognition by MMP exosites in both preparing complex substrates, such as collagen, for cleavage and for tethering noncollagenous substrates to MMPs for more efficient proteolysis. (springer.com)
  • The potential role of collagen binding in regulating MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activation at the cell surface reveals unexpected consequences of substrate interactions that can lead to collagen cleavage and regulation of the activation and activity of downstream proteinases necessary to complete the collagenolytic cascade. (springer.com)
  • More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. (nih.gov)
  • An RNA-seq method for defining endoribonuclease cleavage specificity identifies dual rRNA substrates for toxin MazF-mt3. (uniprot.org)
  • Defining the physiological targets of a MazF toxin first requires the identification of its cleavage specificity, yet the current toolkit is antiquated and limited. (uniprot.org)
  • This work included chemical relaxation of specificities towards very frequent cleavage of DNA by Tsp GWI (Zylicz-Stachula et al. (springer.com)
  • While the relaxed cleavage was not as intense as in the previous cases, we discovered and characterised the inherent Secondary-Cognate-Specificity (SCS) of Tso I, which is further highly stimulated by the presence of SAC-an analogue, which is not a methyl group donor, thus can be considered both an analogue of the reaction product-S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and the cofactor SAM. (springer.com)
  • Other endoglycosidases, similar to PNGase F, include endoglycosidase F1, endoglycosidase F2, endoglycosidase F3, and endoglycosidase H. These endoglycosidases have more specificity in cleavage and are less sensitive to protein conformation than PNGase F. All of these endoglycosidases, including PNGase F, can be purified from an almond emulsion or flavobacterium meningosepticum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. (nih.gov)
  • Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. (pnas.org)
  • Such reprogramming of the enzymatic specificity appears to be a unique evolutionary solution for altering tRNA recognition by the same protein fold. (uniprot.org)
  • The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of LC/F substrate recognition provides insights into the development of antitoxins and engineering novel BoNTs to optimize current therapy and extend therapeutic interventions. (biochemj.org)
  • Together with previous data, the results indicate that the majority of human CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes are nonspecific in their recognition of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, although selectivity is apparent for some compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To date, the details of substrate recognition and catalysis by FUT8 remain unknown. (sebbm.es)
  • Here, we report the crystal structure of FUT8 complexed with GDP and a biantennary complex N -glycan ( G0 ), which provides insight into both substrate recognition and catalysis. (sebbm.es)
  • The specific substrate-recognition function is conserved in human Sin1CRIM, which may represent a potential target for novel anticancer drugs that prevent activation of the mTORC2 substrates such as AKT. (elifesciences.org)
  • The structures reveal that the jumonji and C5HC2 domains contribute to the specific recognition of the H3R2 and H3Q5 to facilitate H3K4me3 substrate specificity. (plantcell.org)
  • Chemistry was successfully developed to replace the phosphate with a sulphonamide, but the compound was neither a substrate or an inhibitor, confirming the importance of the phosphate for molecular recognition. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of substrate recognition by CaMKPase, we chemically synthesized a variety of phosphopeptide analogs and carried out kinetic analysis using them as CaMKPase substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The importance of discrete MMP substrate binding sites termed exosites on domains located outside the catalytic domain was first demonstrated for native collagenolysis. (springer.com)
  • This increased specificity was achieved by the unexpected differential effects on the catalytic activity toward arginine and lysine substrates. (nih.gov)
  • A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. (osti.gov)
  • Based on this striking observation, a simplified model was developed to determine the catalytic efficiencies of numerous competing substrates presented in the complex enzyme reaction system. (mcponline.org)
  • A study of substrate-inhibitor specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the hepatopancreas of the adult Kamchatka crab Paralithodes camtschaticus revealed specific catalytic properties of the enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that Sin1 is dispensable for the catalytic activity of TORC2, but its conserved region in the middle (Sin1CRIM) forms a discrete domain that specifically binds the TORC2 substrate kinases. (elifesciences.org)
  • Substrate structure may explain the catalytic efficiencies observed. (caltech.edu)
  • Here, we report the crystal structures of the JMJ14 catalytic domain in both substrate-free and bound forms. (plantcell.org)
  • The obtained results strongly suggest that most GH-J members show an acid-base catalyst that is not sufficiently protonated before ligand entrance, while the acid-base can be fully protonated when a substrate, but not an inhibitor, enters the catalytic pocket. (kuleuven.be)
  • HeLa cells expressing double- and triple-haplotype mutants also revealed results similar to those for the single mutants ( Fig. 1, A to C ). However, the P-gp inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and verapamil (fig. S1) were less effective against all the substrates in cells expressing the double or triple haplotypes carrying C3435T relative to the wild type, the SNPs, or the haplotype that does not carry C3435T. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1976) "Synthetic Hexapeptide Substrates and Inhibitors of 3':5'-Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Taken together, these results provide a structural basis for understanding FTO substrate-specificity, and serve as a foundation for the rational design of FTO inhibitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Other putative human CYP1A xenobiotic substrates and inhibitors, including caffeine, 5- and 8-methoxypsoralen, nifedipine, paraxanthine, propranolol and theophylline similarly inhibited CYP1A1- and 1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation and the high-affinity human liver phenacetin O-deethylase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1. Substrate-specificity of the main protease of SARS coronavirus was systematically profiled at P5 to P3' positions, which provided insights into a rational design of peptidomimetic inhibitors. (hkmj.org)
  • Additionally, we have characterized the kinetics governing the specificity and discrimination of several widely administered Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's) used to combat HIV infection including 3TC (Lamivudine), FTC (Emtricitabine), and AZT (Zidovudine) for the wild-type polymerase and mutants with clinical resistance to these compounds. (utexas.edu)
  • Peptidyl chloromethylketones are substrate‐mimicking, mechanism‐based inhibitors of rhomboid protease. (embopress.org)
  • However, this compound became sensitive to the stereochemistry of the glycoside linkage (the β-anomer was neither substrate or inhibitor) and the structure of the lipid moiety (the hexadecyl derivatives were inhibitors). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • These findings add significantly to our understanding of substrate and inhibitor binding to the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase enzyme and will have a bearing on the design of future inhibitors. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In GH32 members, some of the sugar substrates can also function as inhibitors, this regulatory aspect further adding to the complexity in enzyme functionalities within this family. (kuleuven.be)
  • These substrate preferences were used in the design of novel reverse hydroxamate TACE inhibitors with phenethyl and 5-methyl-thiophene-methyl side-chains at P1, and threonine and nitro-arginine at P2. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The results show that CYP2D6.17 exhibits altered substrate specificity compared with CYP2D6.1 and CYP2D6.2. (pubfacts.com)
  • The X-ray structure of N-methyltryptophan oxidase reveals the structural determinants of substrate specificity. (uniprot.org)
  • The analysis of the substrate binding site highlights the structural determinants that favour the accommodation of the bulky N-methyltryptophan residue in MTOX. (uniprot.org)
  • Expanding upon the "Ca 1 a 2 X" box paradigm, bioinformatic analysis and biochemical studies of known substrates and related proteins indicate that sequences immediately upstream of the conserved cysteine residue may also play a role in substrate selectivity 8,18,19 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, as the total complement of prenylated proteins is unknown, the FTase substrates responsible for FTI efficacy are not yet understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Understanding the in vivo substrate selectivity of FTase and GGTase-I constitutes an important step towards characterizing the prenylated proteins involved in these pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To generate this library, we searched the human genome database for proteins that contain a cysteine four amino acids from the C-terminus as a minimal specificity requirement. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 300 peptides screened, FTase catalyzed multipleturnover farnesylation of 106 peptides, consistent with the parent proteins serving as FTase substrates in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These different classes of FTase substrates may reflect an unanticipated mechanism for regulating farnesylation, with potential impact on the localization, trafficking, and activity of prenylated proteins within the cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1990) "Identification of Major Nucleolar Proteins As Candidate Mitotic Substrates of cdc2 Kinase" Cell 60:791-801. (patentgenius.com)
  • These proteins are enriched for RXXS motifs, and may include substrates that mediate the function of Dbf2-Mob1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion/Significance: The good correlation with the FAEs substrate specificities that we have defined via our phylogenetic analysis not only suggests that FAEs are phylogenetically informative proteins but it is also a considerable step towards improved FAEs functional prediction. (chalmers.se)
  • This study places us closer to understanding the complex task of accommodating multiple substrate specificities in proteins of the thioredoxin superfamily and underscores the general applicability of ligand-induced stability to probe substrate specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • In mammals, thirteen aquaporins (AQP0-12) have been characterized, but in lower vertebrates, such as fish, the diversity, structure and substrate specificity of these membrane channel proteins are largely unknown. (uib.no)
  • The results are discussed in terms of our more general understanding of substrate oxidation across other heme proteins, and the emerging role of the heme propionates at the gamma-heme edge. (le.ac.uk)
  • Ras subcellular localization defines extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 substrate specificity through distinct utilization of scaffold proteins. (hud.ac.uk)
  • We present evidence indicating that the underlying mechanism of this substrate selectivity is governed by the participation of different scaffold proteins that distinctively couple ERK1/2, activated at defined microlocalizations, to specific substrates. (hud.ac.uk)
  • These results disclose an unprecedented spatial regulation of ERK1/2 substrate specificity, dictated by the microlocalization from which Ras signals originate and by the selection of specific scaffold proteins. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Acquired mutations in the MXR/BCRP/ABCP gene alter substrate specificity in MXR/BCRP/ABCP-overexpressing cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In light of the fact that mutations in Pgp derived from drug selection have been shown to alter substrate specificity (11) , the MXR/BCRP/ABCP mRNA from 11 cell lines was sequenced to determine whether mutations could explain the differing substrate specificities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. (k-state.edu)
  • These results suggest that amino acid 482 has a crucial role in MXR/BCRP/ABCP function and that mutation of a single amino acid residue significantly changes substrate specificity, thus altering the drug resistance phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding sites that have been designed to interact quite strongly with specific substrates are unlikely to bind nonspecifically to other substrates. (uu.nl)
  • PNGase F lacks selectivity for outer carbohydrate structure, resulting in broad specificity, making it a useful tool for investigating glycoprotein structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because of the well-developed enzyme kinetics theories and assay methods, the screening for optimal substrates is often performed by using the in vitro enzymatic reaction system involving an enzyme and a substrate ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr. (asm.org)
  • Molecular Characterization and Substrate Specificity of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase from Comamonas sp. (asm.org)
  • The biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by aerobic bacteria is often initiated by multicomponent dioxygenase systems that catalyze the addition of both atoms of molecular oxygen to the substrate. (asm.org)
  • Finally, using molecular dynamics, we generate a model of the Michaelis complex of the substrate bound in the active site of GlpG. (embopress.org)
  • Structure‐based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations allow generating a model of the Michaelis complex with the substrate. (embopress.org)
  • A substrate-inhibitory analysis with the use of deprenyl and chloroginyl provides an indirect evidence for the existence of a sole MAO molecular form in the Kamchatka crab hepatopancreas. (springer.com)
  • Surprisingly, of the remaining peptides, 67 % were farnesylated under single-turnover conditions, suggesting that there are two classes of substrates for FTase with distinct reactivity profiles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of the sequence preferences for these two classes of substrates illustrates a significant difference in FTase selectivity for the multiple- and single-turnover substrates, with the multiple-turnover substrates adhering closely to the current Ca 1 a 2 X model for FTase selectivity while the singleturnover substrates show distinct sequence preferences. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neuronal palmitoyl acyl transferases exhibit distinct substrate specificity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human paraoxonases (PON1, PON2, and PON3) are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The relatively low degree of sequence restriction at the site of phosphorylation suggests that Dbf2 achieves specificity by docking its substrates at a site that is distinct from the phosphorylation site. (caltech.edu)
  • The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase forms multi-subunit TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), which exhibit distinct substrate specificities. (elifesciences.org)
  • G262V, S121G, F218Y, and F218I improve conversion of type I substrates, whereas G262A and IMP-1 improve conversion of type II substrates, indicating two distinct evolutionary adaptations from IMP-6. (caltech.edu)
  • Although these substrates resemble each other structurally, they are transported by distinct coupling mechanisms. (embopress.org)
  • Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in addressing biological function and in establishing a basis for targeted design efforts. (nih.gov)
  • We have built a model of the specificity pocket of the protease of hepatitis C virus on the basis of the known structures of trypsin-like serine proteases and of the conservation pattern of the protease sequences among various hepatitis C strains. (pnas.org)
  • The model allowed us to predict that the substrate of this protease should have a cysteine residue in position P1. (pnas.org)
  • Substrate preferences at P5 to P3 positions were important in enhancing the main protease activity. (hkmj.org)
  • We show that peptidyl‐CMKs derived from the natural rhomboid substrate TatA from bacterium Providencia stuartii bind GlpG in a substrate‐like manner, and their co‐crystal structures with GlpG reveal the S1 to S4 subsites of the protease. (embopress.org)
  • Despite valuable insights from inhibitor‐bound rhomboid proteases, full understanding of intramembrane proteolysis requires structural views of protease‐substrate complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanisms of intramembrane proteases are incompletely understood due to the lack of structural data on substrate complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Here we present a detailed study of substrate preferences of all three proteases. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 2012). Substrate specificity of Staphylococcus aureus cysteine proteases - Staphopains A, B and C. Biochimie , 94 (2), 318-327. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Substrate specificity of Staphylococcus aureus cysteine proteases - Staphopains A, B and C". Biochimie 94.2 (2012): 318-327. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • We further established the critical role for the A76 3′-OH group of the tRNA Leu in post-transfer editing, which supports the substrate-assisted deacylation mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the mechanism of action and substrate specificity of BoNTs is a prerequisite to develop antitoxin and novel BoNT-derived protein therapy. (biochemj.org)
  • The specificity of staphopain A, B and C substrate-binding subsites was mapped using different synthetic substrate libraries, inhibitor libraries and a protein substrate combinatorial library. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • Dependent on the initial staurosporine scaffold the organoruthenium complexes have provided marked specificity for the GSK3 and PIM kinases by the introduction of the metallic centre coordinated by a cyclopentadienyl ring and a CO ligand. (wallinside.com)
  • The similarity of the substrate and inhibitor specificity of human and mouse ABCG2 supports interpretation of mouse models in understanding the clinical, pharmacological, and physiologic roles of ABCG2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lirias: pKa modulation of the acid/base catalyst within GH32 and GH68: a role in substrate/inhibitor specificity? (kuleuven.be)
  • Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para -phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. (mdpi.com)
  • The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. (mdpi.com)
  • This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para -phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para- phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para -phenol oxidases. (mdpi.com)
  • The state of art high throughput assay approaches like mass spectrometry-based proteomics are able to monitor the changing of substrates or products during the course of this type of complex enzymatic reactions. (mcponline.org)
  • The enzyme oxidizes a wide range of substrates, and relative reaction rates with partially purified Oxygenase NBZ revealed a preference for 3-nitrotoluene, which was shown to be a growth substrate for JS765. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we have extended preliminary studies that showed that NBDO can oxidize a wide range of substrates ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family comprises secondary carriers that facilitate the transport of a wide range of substrates that bear trimethylammonium groups ([‐N + (CH 3 ) 3 ]), such as betaine, choline, l ‐carnitine and γ‐butyrobetaine ( Ziegler et al , 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • Nevertheless, the enzyme's high thermostability and broad acceptor specificity makes it a valuable candidate for industrial disaccharide synthesis. (ugent.be)
  • Moreover, a single amino acid substitution enlarged the active-site cavity enough to accommodate the larger farnesyl pyrophosphate substrate and led to the efficient synthesis of sesquiterpenes, while alternate single substitutions of this critical amino acid yielded five additional terpene synthases. (plantcell.org)
  • Design, chemical synthesis and kinetic studies of trypsin chromogenic substrates based on the proteinase binding loop of Cucurbita maxima trypsin inhibitor (CMTI-III). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • 1991) "Protein Kinase C Substrate and Inhibitor Characteristics of Peptides Derived From the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Protein Phosphorylation Site Domain" The Journal of Biological Chemistry266(22):14390-14398. (patentgenius.com)
  • The peptides were pooled, treated with purified microsomal TACE, and the reaction mixtures were passed over a streptavidin affinity column to remove unreacted substrate and the Nterminal biotinylated product. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 25 of the substrates were resynthesized as discrete peptides and assayed with recombinant TACE. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Studies of the substrate specificity, enzyme-substrate interactions, and the function of lipid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These results were rationalized based on the enzyme-substrate interactions observed in a homology model with a docked ligand. (ugent.be)
  • Kinetic characterization with both aldehydes and the in vivo primary substrate acetaldehyde also enabled to correlate the alterations in substrate affinity with the different amino acid substitutions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vascular peroxidase 1 catalyzes the formation of hypohalous acids: characterization of its substrate specificity and enzymatic properties. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Biochemical analysis of a purified peptidase that was expressed by the Argonne group showed it to be a novel aminopeptidase with specificity for N-terminal cysteine, a function not previously observed in peptidses. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • As the size of the ('3)H-oligosaccharide acceptor increases, the maximum velocity of the enzyme increases for chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin substrates. (illinois.edu)
  • The contributions of side chains that provide key interactions with the acceptor substrate, defining its specificity, have also been quantitated. (ubc.ca)
  • Probing the substrate specificity of Trypanosom. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Many important experiments in proteomics including protein digestion, enzyme substrate screening, enzymatic labeling, etc., involve the enzymatic reactions in a complex system where numerous substrates coexists with an enzyme. (mcponline.org)
  • In such experiments, an enzyme was incubated with numerous competing substrates for enzymatic reaction which would generate numerous different products. (mcponline.org)
  • Enzymatic properties and substrate sp. (ugent.be)
  • Van der Borght J, Chen C, Hoflack L, Van Renterghem L, Desmet T, Soetaert W. Enzymatic properties and substrate specificity of the trehalose phosphorylase from Caldanaerobacter subterraneus. (ugent.be)
  • Opposing mechanisms govern substrate selectivity in the synthetic and editing site. (elsevier.com)
  • Computer graphic analysis suggested that these substitutions would differentially affect arginine and lysine substrate binding of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • The novel human protein arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT6 is a nuclear enzyme displaying unique substrate specificity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In most cases the results show flexibility in the P4 position, very high specificity for arginine in the P3 position and glycine in the P2 position, in accord with the sequence of the natural substrate, ubiquitin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Moreover, besides the effect of substrate entrance on its own, we strongly suggest that a highly conserved arginine residue (in the RDP motif) rather than the previously proposed Tyr motif (not conserved) provides the proton to increase the pKa of the acid-base catalyst. (kuleuven.be)
  • By exploiting the fact that the conformational stabilization of a protein is altered upon ligand binding due to specific interactions, and using an array of selectively chosen ligand analogs, one can quantify the contribution individual interactions have on specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, the absence of these stabilizing interactions with type II substrates may result in poor conversion. (caltech.edu)
  • Kinetic analyses of mutants of ST3Gal-I, in conjunction with structural studies, have confirmed the mechanistic roles of His302 and His319 as general acid and base catalysts, respectively, and have quantitated other interactions with the cytosine monophosphate-N-acetyl beta-neuraminic acid donor substrate. (ubc.ca)
  • Here we show that RdgB protein and RdgB homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mouse, and human all possess deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and that all four RdgB homologs have high specificity for dHAPTP and deoxyinosine triphosphate compared with the four canonical dNTPs and several other noncanonical (d)NTPs. (nih.gov)
  • Substrate specificity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase: kinetic studies using synthetic phosphopeptides as model substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Two independent drug-selected cell line pairs expressing human or mouse ABCG2 were compared for efflux of fluorescent substrates using flow cytometry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis demonstrated that the most efficiently hydrolyzed sites, using Schechter and Berger nomenclature, comprise a P2-Gly down arrow Ala(Ser) sequence motif, where P2 distinguishes the specificity of staphopain A (Leu) from that of both staphopains B and C (Phe/Tyr). (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • This provides a new mechanistic insight aiming at understanding the complex substrate and inhibitor specificities observed within the GH-J clan. (kuleuven.be)
  • Overall, the results presented in this work indicate that in addition to the P1 and P1′ positions, additional amino acids within a six-residue window (between P4 and P2′) contribute to the binding of substrate polypeptides to the OmpT binding site. (asm.org)
  • Substrate specificity and redox potential of AhpC, a bacterial peroxiredoxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that a bacterial PAL from Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL) displays significantly higher activity towards a series of non-natural substrates than previously described eukaryotic PALs. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase with a substrate specificity. (mysciencework.com)
  • Bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase with a substrate specificity of the rho protein disassembles the Golgi apparatus in Vero cells and mimics the action of brefeldin A. (mysciencework.com)
  • Machine learning has also elucidated information about the properties of calpains' substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate specificity difference between two similar conventional calpains, which has never been indicated biochemically. (nih.gov)
  • Super-reactive' substrate sequences were engineered, with more than a 2-fold increase in activity, by combining the best residue choices at P5 to P3 positions. (hkmj.org)
  • The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase), and UDP- N -acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be distinguished both by their amino acid sequences and by differences in substrate specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, we show that at the same time the overall specificity of staphopains is relaxed, insofar as multiple substrates that diverge from the sequences described above are also efficiently hydrolyzed. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • To investigate the fundamental differences in substrate specificity between BMO and MMO, single amino acid substitutions were made to the hydroxylase α-subunit of BMO (BMOH-α). (oregonstate.edu)
  • Clear differences in substrate specificity among the transporters were observed because of different tolerances toward the R substituents at the C2 atom. (pasteur.fr)
  • Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. (asm.org)
  • This change in specificity occurs even though residue 262 is remote from the active site. (caltech.edu)
  • We investigated the substrate specificities of five other point mutants resulting from single-nucleotide substitutions at positions near residue 262: G262A, G262V, S121G, F218Y, and F218I. (caltech.edu)
  • The MDR 1 gene product, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 or P-gp, is an ATP-driven efflux pump contributing to the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates and to the multidrug resistance of cancer cells ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We cloned this gene and characterized its specificity to the length of the substrate using heterologous expression in Escheriсhia coli . (springer.com)
  • We observe that the dual-substrate phosphoribosyl isomerase A or priA gene, at which these pathways converge, appears to coevolve with the occurrence of trp and his genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Despite the increase in gene copy number, zebrafish aquaporins mostly retain the substrate specificity characteristic of the tetrapod counterparts. (uib.no)
  • This improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants. (k-state.edu)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that the microenvironment from which Ras signals emanate determines which substrates will be preferentially phosphorylated by the activated ERK1/2. (hud.ac.uk)
  • These oligosaccharides were utilized as substrates in glucuronosyl transferase II assays. (illinois.edu)
  • The oligosaccharide substrates were quantitatively reduced and radiolabeled with NaB('3)H(,4) and then purified to homogeneity by high performance liquid chromatography for use in the enzyme assays. (illinois.edu)
  • Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent to which binding subsites are interdependent, and the roles of polypeptide chain flexibility and distal structural elements in contributing to specificity profiles. (nih.gov)
  • Structures of inhibitor‐bound complexes reveal the S1 to S4 subsites and explain GlpG substrate specificity. (embopress.org)
  • The results described herein are a first step toward the systematic evaluation of a panel of dog P450s and the development of dog P450 isoenzyme-selective marker substrates, as well as providing useful information on prediction and extrapolation of the results from in vitro to in vivo and from dog to human. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Alteration of a single amino acid changes the substrate specificity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sin1CRIM fused to a different TORC2 subunit can recruit the TORC2 substrate Gad8 for phosphorylation even in the sin1 null mutant of fission yeast. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mechanistic insight into the substrate specificity of 1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylase from Lachnoclostridium phytofermentans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The components of MEN that act upstream of Dbf2-Mob1 have been characterized, but physiological substrates for Dbf2-Mob1 have yet to be identified. (caltech.edu)
  • The d-myo-inositol in the physiological substrate was successfully replaced by cyclohexanediol and is still a substrate for T. brucei GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The 2-hydroxycarboxylate motif R1R2COHCOOH, common to the physiological substrates, was found to be essential for transport although some 2-oxocarboxylates could be transported to a lesser extent. (pasteur.fr)
  • The substrate specificities are discussed in the context of the physiological function of the transporters. (pasteur.fr)