A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A subclass of enzymes which includes all dehydrogenases acting on primary and secondary alcohols as well as hemiacetals. They are further classified according to the acceptor which can be NAD+ or NADP+ (subclass 1.1.1), cytochrome (1.1.2), oxygen (1.1.3), quinone (1.1.5), or another acceptor (1.1.99).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
S-Acyl coenzyme A. Fatty acid coenzyme A derivatives that are involved in the biosynthesis and oxidation of fatty acids as well as in ceramide formation.
The facilitation of biochemical reactions with the aid of naturally occurring catalysts such as ENZYMES.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A subclass of EXOPEPTIDASES that act on the free N terminus end of a polypeptide liberating a single amino acid residue. EC 3.4.11.
An exocellulase with specificity for a variety of beta-D-glycoside substrates. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal non-reducing residues in beta-D-glucosides with release of GLUCOSE.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
Enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of carboxylic acid esters with the formation of an alcohol and a carboxylic acid anion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Non-heme iron-containing enzymes that incorporate two atoms of OXYGEN into the substrate. They are important in biosynthesis of FLAVONOIDS; GIBBERELLINS; and HYOSCYAMINE; and for degradation of AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms with a valence of plus 2, which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Ligases that catalyze the joining of adjacent AMINO ACIDS by the formation of carbon-nitrogen bonds between their carboxylic acid groups and amine groups.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
Peptides composed of two amino acid units.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Electropositive chemical elements characterized by ductility, malleability, luster, and conductance of heat and electricity. They can replace the hydrogen of an acid and form bases with hydroxyl radicals. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.
EXOPEPTIDASES that specifically act on dipeptides. EC 3.4.13.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which use a metal such as ZINC in the catalytic mechanism.
Yeast-like ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES isolated from exuded tree sap.
The degree of 3-dimensional shape similarity between proteins. It can be an indication of distant AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and used for rational DRUG DESIGN.
One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
Synthetic or naturally occurring substances related to coumarin, the delta-lactone of coumarinic acid.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Activated form of factor X that participates in both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of blood coagulation. It catalyzes the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin in conjunction with other cofactors.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Methods used to measure the relative activity of a specific enzyme or its concentration in solution. Typically an enzyme substrate is added to a buffer solution containing enzyme and the rate of conversion of substrate to product is measured under controlled conditions. Many classical enzymatic assay methods involve the use of synthetic colorimetric substrates and measuring the reaction rates using a spectrophotometer.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylgalactosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylgalactosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A trace element with atomic symbol Mn, atomic number 25, and atomic weight 54.94. It is concentrated in cell mitochondria, mostly in the pituitary gland, liver, pancreas, kidney, and bone, influences the synthesis of mucopolysaccharides, stimulates hepatic synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids, and is a cofactor in many enzymes, including arginase and alkaline phosphatase in the liver. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1992, p2035)
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a methyl group from one compound to another. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.1.1.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Placing of a hydroxyl group on a compound in a position where one did not exist before. (Stedman, 26th ed)
An imperfect fungus causing smut or black mold of several fruits, vegetables, etc.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.
Glycoside hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha or beta linked MANNOSE.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The techniques used to produce molecules exhibiting properties that conform to the demands of the experimenter. These techniques combine methods of generating structural changes with methods of selection. They are also used to examine proposed mechanisms of evolution under in vitro selection conditions.
Enzymes catalyzing the transfer of an acetyl group, usually from acetyl coenzyme A, to another compound. EC 2.3.1.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the HYDROLYSIS of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-mannose residues in alpha-D-mannosides. The enzyme plays a role in the processing of newly formed N-glycans and in degradation of mature GLYCOPROTEINS. There are multiple isoforms of alpha-mannosidase, each having its own specific cellular location and pH optimum. Defects in the lysosomal form of the enzyme results in a buildup of mannoside intermediate metabolites and the disease ALPHA-MANNOSIDOSIS.
A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Tellurium. An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has the atomic symbol Te, atomic number 52, and atomic weight 127.60. It has been used as a coloring agent and in the manufacture of electrical equipment. Exposure may cause nausea, vomiting, and CNS depression.
Alkyl compounds containing a hydroxyl group. They are classified according to relation of the carbon atom: primary alcohols, R-CH2OH; secondary alcohols, R2-CHOH; tertiary alcohols, R3-COH. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Biological molecules that possess catalytic activity. They may occur naturally or be synthetically created. Enzymes are usually proteins, however CATALYTIC RNA and CATALYTIC DNA molecules have also been identified.
The art or process of comparing photometrically the relative intensities of the light in different parts of the spectrum.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the RECTUM and the VAGINA.
A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-
A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.
An intra-extracellular electrolyte exchange agent with a variety of effects.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
An enzyme catalyzing the hydrolysis of penicillin to penicin and a carboxylic acid anion. EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.

Prodigious substrate specificity of AAC(6')-APH(2"), an aminoglycoside antibiotic resistance determinant in enterococci and staphylococci. (1/34326)

BACKGROUND: High-level gentamicin resistance in enterococci and staphylococci is conferred by AAC(6')-APH(2"), an enzyme with 6'-N-acetyltransferase and 2"-O-phosphotransferase activities. The presence of this enzyme in pathogenic gram-positive bacteria prevents the successful use of gentamicin C and most other aminoglycosides as therapeutic agents. RESULTS: In an effort to understand the mechanism of aminoglycoside modification, we expressed AAC(6')-APH(2") in Bacillus subtilis. The purified enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 57 kDa and displays both the expected aminoglycoside N-acetyltransferase and O-phosphotransferase activities. Structure-function analysis with various aminoglycosides substrates reveals an enzyme with broad specificity in both enzymatic activities, accounting for AAC(6')-APH(2")'s dramatic negative impact on clinical aminoglycoside therapy. Both lividomycin A and paromomycin, aminoglycosides lacking a 6'-amino group, were acetylated by AAC(6')-APH(2"). The infrared spectrum of the product of paromomycin acetylation yielded a signal consistent with O-acetylation. Mass spectral and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the products of neomycin phosphorylation indicated that phosphoryl transfer occurred primarily at the 3'-OH of the 6-aminohexose ring A, and that some diphosphorylated material was also present with phosphates at the 3'-OH and the 3"'-OH of ring D, both unprecedented observations for this enzyme. Furthermore, the phosphorylation site of lividomycin A was determined to be the 5"-OH of the pentose ring C. CONCLUSIONS: The bifunctional AAC(6')-APH(2") has the capacity to inactivate virtually all clinically important aminoglycosides through N- and O-acetylation and phosphorylation of hydroxyl groups. The extremely broad substrate specificity of this enzyme will impact on future development of aminoglycosides and presents a significant challenge for antibiotic design.  (+info)

Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase. (2/34326)

BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics.  (+info)

A genetic model of substrate deprivation therapy for a glycosphingolipid storage disorder. (3/34326)

Inherited defects in the degradation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) cause a group of severe diseases known as GSL storage disorders. There are currently no effective treatments for the majority of these disorders. We have explored a new treatment paradigm, substrate deprivation therapy, by constructing a genetic model in mice. Sandhoff's disease mice, which abnormally accumulate GSLs, were bred with mice that were blocked in their synthesis of GSLs. The mice with simultaneous defects in GSL synthesis and degradation no longer accumulated GSLs, had improved neurologic function, and had a much longer life span. However, these mice eventually developed a late-onset neurologic disease because of accumulation of another class of substrate, oligosaccharides. The results support the validity of the substrate deprivation therapy and also highlight some limitations.  (+info)

Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530. (4/34326)

Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.  (+info)

Crystal structure of MHC class II-associated p41 Ii fragment bound to cathepsin L reveals the structural basis for differentiation between cathepsins L and S. (5/34326)

The lysosomal cysteine proteases cathepsins S and L play crucial roles in the degradation of the invariant chain during maturation of MHC class II molecules and antigen processing. The p41 form of the invariant chain includes a fragment which specifically inhibits cathepsin L but not S. The crystal structure of the p41 fragment, a homologue of the thyroglobulin type-1 domains, has been determined at 2.0 A resolution in complex with cathepsin L. The structure of the p41 fragment demonstrates a novel fold, consisting of two subdomains, each stabilized by disulfide bridges. The first subdomain is an alpha-helix-beta-strand arrangement, whereas the second subdomain has a predominantly beta-strand arrangement. The wedge shape and three-loop arrangement of the p41 fragment bound to the active site cleft of cathepsin L are reminiscent of the inhibitory edge of cystatins, thus demonstrating the first example of convergent evolution observed in cysteine protease inhibitors. However, the different fold of the p41 fragment results in additional contacts with the top of the R-domain of the enzymes, which defines the specificity-determining S2 and S1' substrate-binding sites. This enables inhibitors based on the thyroglobulin type-1 domain fold, in contrast to the rather non-selective cystatins, to exhibit specificity for their target enzymes.  (+info)

Substrate specificities of SR proteins in constitutive splicing are determined by their RNA recognition motifs and composite pre-mRNA exonic elements. (6/34326)

We report striking differences in the substrate specificities of two human SR proteins, SF2/ASF and SC35, in constitutive splicing. beta-Globin pre-mRNA (exons 1 and 2) is spliced indiscriminately with either SR protein. Human immunodeficiency virus tat pre-mRNA (exons 2 and 3) and immunoglobulin mu-chain (IgM) pre-mRNA (exons C3 and C4) are preferentially spliced with SF2/ASF and SC35, respectively. Using in vitro splicing with mutated or chimeric derivatives of the tat and IgM pre-mRNAs, we defined specific combinations of segments in the downstream exons, which mediate either positive or negative effects to confer SR protein specificity. A series of recombinant chimeric proteins consisting of domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 in various combinations was used to localize trans-acting domains responsible for substrate specificity. The RS domains of SF2/ASF and SC35 can be exchanged without effect on substrate specificity. The RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of SF2/ASF are active only in the context of a two-RRM structure, and RRM2 has a dominant role in substrate specificity. In contrast, the single RRM of SC35 can function alone, but its substrate specificity can be influenced by the presence of an additional RRM. The RRMs behave as modules that, when present in different combinations, can have positive, neutral, or negative effects on splicing, depending upon the specific substrate. We conclude that SR protein-specific recognition of specific positive and negative pre-mRNA exonic elements via one or more RRMs is a crucial determinant of the substrate specificity of SR proteins in constitutive splicing.  (+info)

Pseudouridine mapping in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) reveals that pseudouridine synthase pus1p exhibits a dual substrate specificity for U2 snRNA and tRNA. (7/34326)

Pseudouridine (Psi) residues were localized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae spliceosomal U small nuclear RNAs (UsnRNAs) by using the chemical mapping method. In contrast to vertebrate UsnRNAs, S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs contain only a few Psi residues, which are located in segments involved in intermolecular RNA-RNA or RNA-protein interactions. At these positions, UsnRNAs are universally modified. When yeast mutants disrupted for one of the several pseudouridine synthase genes (PUS1, PUS2, PUS3, and PUS4) or depleted in rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p were tested for UsnRNA Psi content, only the loss of the Pus1p activity was found to affect Psi formation in spliceosomal UsnRNAs. Indeed, Psi44 formation in U2 snRNA was abolished. By using purified Pus1p enzyme and in vitro-produced U2 snRNA, Pus1p is shown here to catalyze Psi44 formation in the S. cerevisiae U2 snRNA. Thus, Pus1p is the first UsnRNA pseudouridine synthase characterized so far which exhibits a dual substrate specificity, acting on both tRNAs and U2 snRNA. As depletion of rRNA-pseudouridine synthase Cbf5p had no effect on UsnRNA Psi content, formation of Psi residues in S. cerevisiae UsnRNAs is not dependent on the Cbf5p-snoRNA guided mechanism.  (+info)

The human F box protein beta-Trcp associates with the Cul1/Skp1 complex and regulates the stability of beta-catenin. (8/34326)

Ubiquitin-conjugation targets numerous cellular regulators for proteasome-mediated degradation. Thus, the identification of ubiquitin ligases and their physiological substrates is crucially important, especially for those cases in which aberrant levels of regulatory proteins (e.g., beta-catenin, p27) result from a deregulated ubiquitination pathway. In yeast, the proteolysis of several G1 regulators is controlled by ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins. Specific F-box proteins (Fbps) recruit different substrates to the SCF. Although many Fbps have been identified in mammals, their specific substrates and the existence of multiple SCFs have not yet been reported. We have found that one human Fbp, beta-Trcp (beta-Transducin repeat containing protein), does indeed form a novel SCF with human Skp1 and Cul1. Consistent with recent reports indicating that Xenopus and Drosophila beta-Trcp homologs act as negative regulators of the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway, we report here that human beta-Trcp interacts with beta-catenin in vivo. Furthermore, beta-catenin is specifically stabilized in vivo by the expression of a dominant negative beta-Trcp. These results indicate that the Cul1/Skp1/beta-Trcp complex forms a ubiquitin ligase that mediates the degradation of beta-catenin.  (+info)

The present invention relates to methods for the conversion of the substrate specificity of desaturases. Specifically, the present invention pertains to a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of a Δ4 desaturase, the method comprising: identifying regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of (i) the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase and (ii) the Δ4 desaturase; and replacing in the amino acid sequence of the mentioned Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, the regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase, by the corresponding regions and/or amino acid residues which control the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase, thereby converting the substrate specificity of the Δ5 and/or Δ6 desaturase to the substrate specificity of the Δ4 desaturase. The present invention further concerns a method for the conversion of the substrate specificity of a Δ4
Cysteine protease 1 precursor from Zea mays (zmCP1) is classified as a member of the C1A family of peptidases (papain-like cysteine protease) in MEROPS (the Peptidase Database). The 3D structure and substrate specificity of the zmCP1 is still unknown. This study is the first one to build the 3D structure of zmCP1 by computer-assisted homology modeling. In order to determine the substrate specificity of zmCP1, docking study is used for rapid and convenient analysis of large populations of ligand-enzyme complexes. Docking results show that zmCP1 has preference for P1 position and P2 position for Arg and a large hydrophobic residue (such as Phe). Gly147, Gly191, Cys189, and Asp190 are predicted to function as active residues at the S1 subsite, and the S2 subsite contains Leu283, Leu193, Ala259, Met194, and Ala286. SIFt results indicate that Gly144, Arg268, Trp308, and Ser311 play important roles in substrate binding. Then Molecular Mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) method was used to
Use:. This fluorescent ADAM substrate was originally described by us in the publication, Fluorescent substrates useful as high-throughput screening tools for ADAM9″. This ADAM substrate is based on the cleavage sequence of precursor TNF-alpha and has been used to assess activity of ADAM17 in single cell assays as well as standard in vitro enzymatic and cell based assays (See publications below). See our Product Sheets for the substrate specificity profile of this substrate. This ADAM substrate is also an excellent substrate for ADAM9 and ADAM10. This substrate is not specific for ADAM family members as it can also be processed by members of the MMP family of proteinases. BioZyme Inc, does sell specific substrates for ADAM or MMP family members (Please see our Product Sheets or Catalog, for the substrate specificity profile). It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against all of those enzymes, with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 4 x 103 to 4 x 105. ...
Results presented in this report show that caspase activation after TCR triggering is a physiological, tightly regulated, and early response that appears to be required for efficient T cell activation. Indeed, the selective processing of caspase-3, -6, -7, and -8 was detected within 24 h after anti-CD3 stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Caspase processing occurred in various T and B cell subsets, and was found in proliferating and nonapoptotic lymphocytes. Activation of caspases was confirmed through binding of caspase-3-processed forms to a specific substrate, and by showing that a cell-permeable substrate was cleaved in intact, activated lymphocytes. Importantly, activation of the caspase cascade was associated to restricted substrate specificity, with cleavage of PARP and Wee1 being observed while two other substrates, DFF45 and RFC140, remained unaffected. Caspase processing after T cell stimulation correlated with a defective lymphocyte activation in the presence of the caspase ...
Steric and hydrophobic effects on substrate specificity were probed by protein engineering of subtilisin. Subtilisin has broad peptidase specificity and contains a large hydrophobic substrate binding cleft. A conserved glycine (Gly166), located at the bottom of the substrate binding left, was replaced by 12 nonionic amino acids by the cassette mutagenesis method. Mutant enzymes showed large changes in specificity toward substrates of increasing size and hydrophobicity. In general, the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) toward small hydrophobic substrates was increased (up to 16 times) by hydrophobic substitutions at position 166 in the binding cleft. Exceeding the optimal binding volume of the cleft (∼160 Å3), by enlarging either the substrate side chain or the side chain at position 166, evoked precipitous drops in catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) (up to 5000 times) as a result of steric hindrance. ...
Protease-substrate interactions are governed by a variety of structural features. Although the substrate sequence specificities of numerous proteases have been established, topological specificities, whereby proteases may be classified based on recognition of distinct three-dimensional structural motifs, have not. The aggrecanase members of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family cleave a variety of proteins but do not seem to possess distinct sequence specificities. In the present study, the topological substrate specificity of ADAMTS-4 (aggrecanase-1) was examined using triple-helical or single-stranded poly(Pro) II helical peptides. Substrate topology modulated the affinity and sequence specificity of ADAMTS-4 with K(m) values indicating a preference for triple-helical structure. In turn, non-catalytic ADAMTS-4 domains were critical for hydrolysis of triple-helical and poly(Pro) II helical substrates. Comparison of ADAMTS-4 with MMP-1 (collagenase 1), MMP
X-converting enzyme (XCE) involved in nervous control of respiration, is a member of the M13 family of zinc peptidases, for which no natural substrate has been identified yet. In contrast, its well characterized homologue endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) showed broad substrate specificity and acts as endopeptidase as well as dipeptidase. To explore the structural differences between XCE and ECE-1, homology model of XCE was built using the complex structure of ECE-1 with phosphoramidon (pdb-id: 3DWB) as template. Phosphoramidon was docked into the binding site of XCE whereas phosphate oxygen of the inhibitor was used as water molecule to design the apo forms of both enzymes. Molecular dynamics simulation of both enzymes was performed to analyze the dynamic nature of their active site residues in the absence and presence of the inhibitor. Homology model of XCE explained the role of non-conserved residues of its S2 subsite. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations identified the flexible transitions of
An electronic device may include first, second, and third substrates wherein the second electronic substrate is between the first and second electronic substrates. A first electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the first and third electronic substrates, and a second electrical and mechanical connection may be provided between the second and third electronic substrates. In addition or in an alternative, an electronic device may include a printed circuit board, a first electronic substrate on the printed circuit board, a second electronic substrate on the first electronic substrate, and a third electronic substrate on the second electronic substrate. More particularly, the first electronic substrate may be between the printed circuit board and the second electronic substrate, and the second electronic substrate may be between the first and third electronic substrates. In addition, the second electronic substrate may be offset relative to the first and third electronic substrates so
UGT8 has been an outlier member of the UGT superfamily since its discovery in 1993 (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). Initially called ceramide galactosyl-transferase, the gene was identified by purification of the protein conferring ceramide-galactosyl-transferase activity and protein sequencing, followed by screening of a rat brain cDNA library with probes derived from the deduced nucleotide sequence (Schulte and Stoffel, 1993). In common with other UGTs, UGT8 has a molecular mass in the 50-60 kDa range and carries the UGT signature sequence and motifs associated with retention in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. Until now the substrate specificity of UGT8 has never been broadly investigated. We found that UGT8 had restricted substrate specificity and did not conjugate classic xenobiotic substrates common to most UGT1, 2, and 3 isoforms such as 4-methylumbelliferone and 4-nitrophenol (Uchaipichat et al., 2004), although it did conjugate one of the tested bioflavones (chrysin). The potent ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Substrate specificity of tor complex 2 is determined by a ubiquitin-fold domain of the sin1 subunit. AU - Tatebe, Hisashi. AU - Murayama, Shinichi. AU - Yonekura, Toshiya. AU - Hatano, Tomoyuki. AU - Richter, David. AU - Furuya, Tomomi. AU - Kataoka, Saori. AU - Furuita, Kyoko. AU - Kojima, Chojiro. AU - Shiozaki, Kazuhiro. PY - 2017/3/7. Y1 - 2017/3/7. N2 - The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase forms multi-subunit TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), which exhibit distinct substrate specificities. Sin1 is one of the TORC2-specific subunit essential for phosphorylation and activation of certain AGC-family kinases. Here, we show that Sin1 is dispensable for the catalytic activity of TORC2, but its conserved region in the middle (Sin1CRIM) forms a discrete domain that specifically binds the TORC2 substrate kinases. Sin1CRIM fused to a different TORC2 subunit can recruit the TORC2 substrate Gad8 for phosphorylation even in the sin1 null mutant of fission yeast. ...
2017. Trebosc, V. et al. Reversion of Antibiotic Resistance in Mycobacterium tubercolosis by spiroisoxazoline SMARt-420″. Science 2017. Mar 2017 Vol. 355, Issue 6330, pp. 1206-1211 doi: 10.1126/science.aag1006. A. Gilardi, S.P. Bhamidimarri, M. Broenstrup, U. Bilitewski, R.K.R. Marreddy, K.M. Pos, L. Benier, P. Gribbon, M. Winterhalter, B. Windshuegel. Biophysical characterization of E. coli TolC interaction with the known blocker hexaamminecobalt.Biochim Biophys Acta. 2017 Nov;1861(11 Pt A):2702-2709. Epub 2017 Jul 23. doi: 10.1016/j.bbagen.2017.07.014. Ramaswamy, V. K., Vargiu, A.V., Malloci, G., Dreier, J. G., & Ruggerone, P. Molecular rationale behind the differential substrate specificity of bacterial RND multi-drug transporters. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 8075(2017) doi:10.1038/s41598-017-08747-8. Harsha Bajaj, Silvia Acosta-Gutiérrez, Igor Bodrenko, Giuliano Malloci, Mariano Andrea Scorciapino, Mathias Winterhalter and Matteo Ceccarelli. Bacterial Outer Membrane Porins ...
We previously reported that the in vitro inhibitory effects of several OATP1B1 inhibitors showed remarkable substrate-dependence using prototypical substrates, E2G, E1S, and BSP (Izumi et al., 2013). In addition to the prototypical substrates, clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs could also serve as in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates, for which the potential substrate-dependent inhibition has not been comprehensively evaluated. To identify representative in vitro OATP1B1 probe substrates that could mitigate the risk of false-negative DDI prediction, this study investigated the impact of in vitro substrate selection on OATP1B1 inhibition and the subsequent DDI prediction for 12 clinically used OATP1B1 substrate drugs compared with the prototypical probe substrates.. Twelve OATP1B1 substrate drugs-including statins (pitavastatin, atorvastatin, fluvastatin, rosuvastatin, and pravastatin), antidiabetics (repaglinide, nateglinide, and glibenclamide), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist ...
A novel dynamic charge-charge interaction between B56 and a subset of PP2A-B56 substrates is essential for substrate specificity, dephosphorylation and, for KIF4A, binding condensin I.
Carboxylesterase is a serine-dependent esterase with wide substrate specificity. The enzyme is involved in the detoxification of XENOBIOTICS and the activation of ester and of amide PRODRUGS. . ...
The extended substrate specificity of granzyme B (GrB) was used to identify substrates among the chaperone superfamily. This approach identified Hsp90 and Bag1-L as novel GrB substrates, and an additional GrB cleavage site was identified in the Hsc70/Hsp70-Interacting Protein, Hip. Hsp90, Bag1L, and …
Dynamical properties of enzyme-substrate complexes disclose substrate specificity of the SARS-CoV-2 main protease as characterized by the electron density ...
Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes represent a large superfamily that displays extraordinarily diverse substrate specificities. After a concise review about CYPs of the CYP1A subfamily, which plays a crucial role in procarcinogen activation, this paper presents segment-directed mutagenesis. This approach generates a library of random combinatorial mutants limited to a precise region of human CYP1A1, namely amino acids 204-214 in which nine positions differ between CYP1A1 and CYP1A2. The resulting mutants present all combinations possible among these nine positions shifting mutated residues to their CYP1A2 counterpart. The mutants were cloned and expressed in an engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain that has a microsomal oxido-reduction environment optimized for CYPs. This procedure resulted in yeast transformants that express a library of mutant CYP1A1. A subset of transformants were chosen at random, assayed for a typical CYP1A1 activity and the plasmidic DNA of functional clones was rescued and
A calendar is formed of a plurality of substrates. A first substrate carries indicia thereon which identifies selected time periods, such as days or months of the year. A second substrate is positioned adjacent to the first substrate. The second substrate defines a plurality of cavities dimensioned to individually retain a respective information carrying article, such as a web. Each of the cavities is corresponding supplied with a respective information carrying article. Each indicia on the first substrate is positionally associated with a respective cavity in the second substrate. A third substrate, positioned adjacent to the second substrate, is positioned to retain the information carrying articles releasably within the second substrate. The third substrate provides a rupturable cover over each of the cavities of the second substrate whereby upon the application of a sufficient lateral force on the information carrying article within a selected cavity, the article passes through the cover to a
Kyani offers three different products. Those products are Kyäni Sunrise, Kyäni Sunset, and Kyäni Nitro. http://ushap.kyaniviral.com/
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Email: [email protected] Phone: (206) 667-5255. Currently, Dr. Chi is a staff scientist in the laboratory of Dr. Bruce Clurman in the Clinical Research Division of the Fred Hutch and is also affiliated with the laboratory of Dr. Robert Moritz at ISB. He has been developing proteomics-based tools to facilitate biological research. Specifically, he has pursued a proteomics approach to systematically identify the direct substrates of protein kinases. Mapping kinase and substrate relationships is critical for elucidating kinases functions and their signaling pathways. Despite the enormous interests and efforts in the field, it has remained a technical challenge, and the progress has been slow. He developed an in vitro-based method for proteome-wide identification of protein kinase substrates in cell lysates. This method utilized tools in biology, protein chemistry, and mass spectrometry and identified an unprecedented large number of candidate substrates for the human CDK2 kinase. Current in vitro ...
Substrate identification needed? These standardized kinase substrate identification services are ideal for detection of substrates which might be phosphorylated by your protein kinases
Precise Probing of Residue Roles by NRPS Code Swapping: Mutation, Enzymatic Characterization, Modeling, and Substrate Promiscuity of Aryl Acid Adenylation Domains
Dive into the research topics of Screening, substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of yeast strains, which reduce sterically hindered isopropyl ketones. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Article{pmid25409537, Author=Thibodeaux, C. J. and Ha, T. and van der Donk, W. A. , Title={{A} price to pay for relaxed substrate specificity: a comparative kinetic analysis of the class {I}{I} lanthipeptide synthetases {P}roc{M} and {H}al{M}2}, Journal=J. Am. Chem. Soc., Year=2014, Volume=136, Number=50, Pages=17513--17529, Month=Dec ...
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A technique for forming films of material (12) from a donor substrate (10). The technique has a step of introducing energetic particles (22) through a surface of a donor substrate (10) to a selected depth (20) underneath the surface, where the particles have a relatively high concentration to define donor substrate material (12) above the selected depth. Energy is provided to a selected region of the substrate to cleave a thin film of material from the donor substrate. Particles are introduced again into the donor substrate underneath a fresh surface of the donor substrate. A second thin film of material is then cleaved from the donor substrate.
TY - CONF. T1 - Substrate specificities of polyesterases. AU - Eberl, Anita. AU - Heumann, Sonja. AU - Liebminger, Stefan. AU - Almansa, Eva. AU - Gübitz, Georg. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. M3 - Poster. ER - ...
Carbonyl reductase BaSDR1 has been identified as a potential ortho-haloacetophenone-specific biocatalyst for the synthesis of chiral 1-(2-halophenyl)ethanols due to its excellent stereoselectivity. However, the catalytic efficiency of BaSDR1 is far below the required level for practical applications. Thus, fine-tun
A module substrate consists of a substrate mounting electronic parts on one surface thereof, a conductor for electrically conducting the electronic parts mounted on the substrate to the other surface of the substrate, a conductive solder for attaching the conductor to a base substrate movably contacting the other surface of the substrate to electrically connect the electronic parts with the base substrate, and a deformable bushing for holding the conductor to maintain the attachment of the conductor to the base substrate regardless of whether the base substrate is moved.
Mulvaney KM, Blomquist C, Acharya N, et al. Molecular basis for substrate recruitment to the PRMT5 methylosome. Mol Cell. 2021;81(17):3481-3495.e7. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2021.07.019. ...
For those that are actually best CBD gummies seeking the greatest CBD gummies to purchase, it is important to recognize what the different products contain. There are several items out there that claim to have CBD; nevertheless, it is actually not constantly easy to tell which are going to be effective and which ones will certainly not. It could be incredibly challenging, especially if you are actually seeking an item that will certainly permit you to obtain the perks of the cannabinoids without putting any kind of cash into it.. Different products may have different parts that might aid with the ailments that you are actually struggling with. The greatest trait to do is actually find a product that contains a blend of various cannabinoids. This will certainly permit you to have the a variety of advantages without must utilize any type of products that contain just CBD.. Before you get a product, you should initially take some time to explore the possibility of making use of the achievable item ...
Controlling Docks:. Before spraying docks, farmers must look at why some fields are worse for docks than others and how docks can be prevented etc. Keeping a thick, dense and leafy sward will reduce or even eliminate docks as grass will out-compete the docks for space, light and nutrients. Topping and grazing tight swards will also help improve the density of regrowth of grass thus reducing dock populations.. When spraying for docks it is essential that you use the correct product, at the correct rate and at the correct time. Always spray when the docks are green, growing and are at the rosette stage. Avoid spraying on windy days etc. There are many different products and ingredients to consider when deciding what sprays to use. Being in contact with farmers over the last few weeks I have heard farmers using an array of different products to control docks, some of these include Dockstar Pro Fore Front T, Pasture Pack, and Hurler. Some of the main active ingredients to look out for when ...
According to the study, 86% of organizations are using between 1 and 20 security vendors, and 13% are using over 20 vendors. Managing all those vendors is seen as being very challenging by 28% of respondents which is up by 8% from the 2019 survey.. Munroe commented that there are often structural levels of complexity when looking to integrate data from different products. That complexity can solved in part by automation, but fundamentally he emphasized that there is a need to do things differently than they have been done in the past. Thats where the new Cisco SecureX service comes into play.. SecureX is a platform for integrating multiple security technologies inside of a single view that enables ease of control, unified policy across assets on-premises and in the cloud, automation and remediation capabilities, among other features.. We want to enable customers to do things and respond inside of this platform, so you dont have to go into ten different products, you can just see and act from ...
Intelligent selections of enzyme substrates in microtiter plates for liquid phase assays (substrates for kinases, proteases and phosphatases).
Its not quite because silly a query as we may think. When you apply an anti wrinkle face cream, or any general skincare or anti aging product to a skin, one of the elements youll notice is that after youve rubbed it into the face it disappears. All of them, including the number one face…
All readers of Zhou et al. and the companion article by Yang et al. will no doubt agree that this work from Yigong Shis group represents a tour de force in applying cryoEM to the structure of the γ-secretase complex with either of two key substrates cross-linked to it. The atomic resolution detailing the juxtaposition of many specific PS1 residues to those of the C83 fragment of APP or to an analogous transmembrane (TM) fragment of Notch elegantly extends certain biochemical studies of presenilin structure-function relationships reported over the last two decades. Some substrate-enzyme interactions previously postulated in biochemical analyses are now firmly established by the structural work. Two examples are the importance of the PS1 transmembrane domain (TMD) 1-2 loop in substrate recognition (Takagi-Niidome et al., 2015) and the pattern of the S1-S2-S3 pockets on the PS1 enzyme that respectively accept large-small-large side chains of APP to effect the tripeptide cleavages (Bolduc et ...
A method for fabricating an LCD includes the steps of (a) loading a first substrate and a second substrate having seals formed thereon on a bonding chamber, (b) bonding the first and second substrates, (c) fixing the bonded first and second substrates, and (d) unloading the fixed first and second substrates.
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Synthesis of P(1)-Citronellyl-P(2)-alpha-D-pyranosyl pyrophosphates as potential substrates for the E. coli undecaprenyl-pyrophosphoryl-N-acetylglucoseaminyl transferase MurG.
Enzyme- Enzymes are globular proteins, with a specific tertiary structure, which catalyse metabolic reactions in living organisms.. Enzymes are also known as biological catalysts because they speed up chemical reactions. They have a very specific 3D shape which is determined by their tertiary structure. The active site is the most important part of an enzyme. This is where the enzymes substrate binds. One theory of enzyme action is called the lock and key theory because the enzymes active site and the substrate are complementary in shape and charge.. Intacelluar Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions inside of cells. e.g Catalase, ATPsynthase, ATPase, DNA helicase, DNA polymerase, RNA polymerase, Lysosome hydrolytic enzymes. Extracellular Enzymes- Enzymes that catalyse reactions outside of cells.e.g digestive enymes. ...
JPT Peptide Technologies is a DIN ISO 9001:2015 certified and GCLP compliant integrated provider of innovative peptide based catalog products and custom services.
Press Release issued Jul 19, 2017: The biochemical reagents market is expanding at a rapid rate, due to use of these reagents in each and every section of health care and life sciences industries. A miscellaneous range of biochemical reagents is recognized for identification of specific enzymes in metabolism and for differentiation between bacteria and viruses. Classical biochemical tests are often used to identify microorganisms. Normally, the results are seen by change in color, formation of a specific product, or chemical reaction. In several cases, detection is based on the reaction of an enzyme with a certain substrate. Additionally, in order to detect specific enzymes or proteins by chemical reaction or complex building techniques are widely used, with the help of biochemical reagents. The end result leads to greater cognition of an unknown organism, protein, or assay.
Sigma-Aldrich provides many substrates to determine the activity of diverse enzymes. A wide range of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates detect enzymatic activity optically.
Everything you do in bonsai, and as such, also the choice of your substrate, should be based on your local growing conditions & your personal care skills & abilities.. In any case. In the very first year I started bonsai I had a few plants from other growers that were planted in Akadama, and I was disappointed. All of them died within 2 years of purchase. Upon checking the plants afterwards, the roots had died and turned mushy. In my garden Akadama broke down to airless clay within one year. The repeated frost-freeze cycles in winter just did too much damage to the structure. As I am not convinced a good substrate has to come from the Orient, and be shipped around the globe in order to be suitable, I started looking for alternatives. The first thing I wanted to know are the qualities a good substrate must have. From my trawling the internet combined with my own insights in plant physiology I came up with a shortlist of things a good bonsai substrate should have.. ...
Encoded by the genome of the viruses of the hepatitis C group, and contributes to the maturation of the precursor polyproteins. The enzyme is greatly activated by binding of the 54-residue NS4A cofactor protein also derived from the viral polyprotein. Type example of peptidase family S29. The crystallographic structure shows a chymotrypsin-like fold ...
Enzymes, commonly known as biocatalysts, are unique and highly specific globular proteins.. They accelerate chemical reactions without themselves undergoing any apparent change during the process.. They are produced within the cells but are capable of action outside the cells. The word enzyme was first introduced by Kuhne in 1878. Each enzyme usually acts on a single substrate and is said to be highly specific in its action.. According to lock and key hypothesis, the substrate molecules fit into the active sites located on the surface of the enzyme molecules just as one particu-lar key fits into one particular lock.. ...
This enzyme is synthesized as a proenzyme of 53 kDa that is converted to an active form of 22 kDa. cDNA sequences have been obtained for the mouse [3] and human [4] enzymes. In peptidase family M10 (interstitial collagenase family ...
The Industrie 4.0 production system is taking shape. The ambitious project from the Swiss Smart Factory shows how right now interconnected machines and applications can interact as one to build a variety of different products. Over 50 companies have joined this effort to create such a modern ecosystem that will exemplify the next step in industrial evolution.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reciprocal activation by cyclin-dependent kinases 2 and 7 is directed by substrate specificity determinants outside the T loop. AU - Garrett, S.. AU - Barton, W. A.. AU - Knights, R.. AU - Jin, P.. AU - Morgan, D. O.. AU - Fisher, R. P.. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - Cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7) is the catalytic subunit of the metazoan CDK-activating kinase (CAK), which activates CDKs, such as CDC2 and CDK2, through phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue in the T loop. Full activation of CDK7 requires association with a positive regulatory subunit, cyclin H, and phosphorylation of a conserved threonine residue at position 170 in its own T loop. We show that threonine-170 of CDK7 is phosphorylated in vitro by its targets, CDC2 and CDK2, which also phosphorylate serine-164 in the CDK7 T loop, a site that perfectly matches their consensus phosphorylation site. In contrast, neither CDK4 nor CDK7 itself can phosphorylate the CDK7 T loop in vitro. The ability of CDC2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - switching On Enzyme Substrate Specificity Analysis with a Fluorescent Competitive Inhibitor. AU - Strom, Alexander. AU - Shah, Rachit. AU - Wagner, Carston R.. N1 - Funding Information: This work was funded by the University of Minnesota Foundation with additional support from the American Foundation for Pharmaceutical Education predoctoral fellowship awarded to A.S. Publisher Copyright: © 2021 American Chemical Society. Copyright: Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2021/2/16. Y1 - 2021/2/16. N2 - Enzymatically driven change to the spectroscopic properties of a chemical substrate or product has been a linchpin in the development of continuous enzyme kinetics assays. These assays inherently necessitate substrates or products that naturally comply with the constraints of the spectroscopic technique being used, or they require structural changes to the molecules involved to make them observable. Here we demonstrate a new analytical kinetics approach with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - OXA-46, a new class D β-lactamase of narrow substrate specificity encoded by a blaVIM-1-containing integron from a Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. AU - Giuliani, Francesco. AU - Docquier, Jean Denis. AU - Riccio, Maria Letizia. AU - Pagani, Laura. AU - Rossolini, Gian Maria. PY - 2005/5. Y1 - 2005/5. N2 - A novel OXA-type enzyme, named OXA-46, was found to be encoded by a gene cassette inserted into a class 1 integron from a multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolate. The variable region of the integron also contained a blaVIM-1 metallo-β-lactamase cassette and a duplicated aacA4 aminoglycoside acetyltransferase cassette. OXA-46 belongs to the OXA-2 lineage of class D β-lactamases. It exhibits 78% sequence identity with OXA-2 and the highest similarity (around 92% identity) with another OXA-type enzyme detected in clinical isolates of Burkholderia cepacia and in unidentified bacteria from a wastewater plant. Expression of blaOXA-46 in Escherichia coli ...
What is enzyme substrate specificity? What are the importance of enzyme specificity? Classification of enzyme specificity, Different types of enzyme specificity: Bond specificity, Group specificity, Substrate specificity, Absolute Specificity, Optical or Stereo specificity, Geometrical specificity and Co-factor specificity. Learn more: Lecture Note in Specificity of Enzyme. You can DOWNLOAD the PPT by clicking on the download link below the preview…. ...
Use:. This mmp substrate can be used to assess activity of enzymes in the MMP family. The peptide sequence was described originally as a biosensor for MT1-MMP or MMP14 in Simultaneous visualization of protumorigenic Src and MT1-MMP activities with fluorescence resonance energy transfer. Ouyang M, et al. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15;70(6):2204-12. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-3698″. It demonstrates reasonably strong activity against MT1-MMP or MMP14 and MMP3, but has the highest activity against MMP9 with specificity constants, kcat/Km (M-1s-1), ranging from approximately 103 to 106. See also our Product Sheets for its substrate specificity profile. This substrate is not processed by ADAM family members. Typically, the peptide is dissolved in DMSO to make a stock solution of about 10mM concentration. When used for in vitro assays, the substrate is often used at about 10uM concentration. Remember to keep the DMSO concentration in the final reaction at 1% or below, to avoid DMSO effects on the ...
Novel glycine oxidase (GlyOX) from Marinomonas mediterranea depends on cysteine tryptophilquinone (CTQ) and catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glycine to produce a glyoxylate, ammonia, and hydrogen peroxide. M. mediterranea GlyOX genes (goxA and goxB) were cloned and recombinant GlyOX was heterologously expressed by E. coli. The purification of recombinant GlyOX was carried out by metal affinity and DEAE-Toyopearl 650M column chromatographies. M. mediterranea GlyOX was homotetramic with a molecular mass of 76kDa and showed optimum activity around 30°C and at pH 5.0, and stability below 50°C and between pH 5.0 to 9.0. M. mediterranea GlyOX shows a strict substrate specificity toward glycine, and the Michaelis constant for glycine was 0.5mM. M. mediterranea GlyOX could determine the quantity of glycine in human serum and human blood plasma with high sensitivity. This study revealed the catalytic and structural properties of M. mediterranea GlyOX with high substrate specificity. ...
Background: Our understanding of how fungi evolved to develop a variety of ecological niches, is limited but of fundamental biological importance. Specifically, the evolution of enzymes affects how well species can adapt to new environmental conditions. Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are enzymes able to hydrolyze the ester bonds linking ferulic acid to plant cell wall polysaccharides. The diversity of substrate specificities found in the FAE family shows that this family is old enough to have experienced the emergence and loss of many activities. Methodology/Principal Findings: In this study we evaluate the relative activity of FAEs against a variety of model substrates as a novel predictive tool for Ascomycota taxonomic classification. Our approach consists of two analytical steps; (1) an initial unsupervised analysis to cluster the FAEs substrate specificity data which were generated by cultivation of 34 Ascomycota strains and then an analysis of the produced enzyme cocktail against 10 substituted
AmpC BER is an extended substrate spectrum class C beta-lactamase with a two-amino-acid insertion in the R2 loop compared with AmpC EC2. The crystal structures of AmpC BER (S64A mutant) and AmpC EC2 were determined. Structural comparison of the two proteins revealed that the insertion increases the conformational flexibility of the R2 loop. Two citrate molecules originating from the crystallization solution were observed in the active site of the S64A mutant. One citrate molecule makes extensive interactions with active-site residues that are highly conserved among class C beta-lactamases, whereas the other one is weakly bound. Based on this structural observation, it is demonstrated that citrate, a primary metabolite that is widely used as a food additive, is a competitive inhibitor of two class C beta-lactamases (AmpC BER and CMY-10). Consequently, the data indicate enhancement of the flexibility of the R2 loop as an operative strategy for molecular evolution of extended-spectrum class C ...
Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their
Phytaspase is a member of the plant subtilisin-like protease family, and is commonly distinguished from the other members by its unusual and extremely high specificity towards its substrates, which resembles that of the animal caspases. Similarly to the animal caspases, the phytaspase is a cell death promoting protease. The name phytaspase comes from phyto- (lat. for plant) and -aspase (aspartate-directed protease), similarly to caspases. The phytaspase displays a strict substrate specificity, which resembles that of the animal caspase-3. It recognizes a tetrapetide motive within a target protein and introduces a peptide bond break following an aspartate residue, which is crucial for the hydrolysis. Theoretical speculations, based on a 3D model predictions have been made, pointing to the histidine 331 of the phytaspase peptide chain, that might interact with the Asp in the target peptide and thereby guide the recognition. The phytaspase displays a structure, common to the subtilisin-like ...
0078] The coating composition according to the instant invention may be applied to a substrate. Exemplary suitable substrates include, but are not limited to, sheet, non-woven material, woven material, film, foams, and the like. Such substrate may comprise organic based materials, inorganic materials, and combinations thereof. The substrate may, for example, comprise a cellulose based material, a natural polymeric based material, a synthetic polymeric based material, a metal based material, a mineral based, and combinations thereof. The substrate may be porous, for example, micro-porous. The coating composition may be applied to the substrate via a conventional method for applying a coating composition. Such methods are generally known, and include, but are not limited to spraying, dipping, roll coating, blade coating, curtain coating, printing techniques such as flexography and rotogravure, size press, metered size press, screen coating, rod coating combinations thereof, and the like. The ...
The enzyme, characterized from the bacterium Bacillus subtilis, requires Mn2+ for activity. It shows strict substrate specificity toward L-arginine as the first (N-terminal) amino acid of the product. The second amino acid could be any standard protein-building amino acid except for L-proline ...
Galactokinase; Sugar-1-kinase with a strict substrate specificity for the alpha-anomeric configuration of D-galacturonic acid (D-GalA) and ATP. Involved in the biosynthesis of UDP-galacturonic acid (UDP-GalA) from the salvaged GalA that is released during growth- dependent cell wall restructuring (424 aa ...
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
SandeepWeb is a blog for research and reviews of different products that will help users to decide if the product is best for them or not.
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Progression through S phase of the eukaryotic cell cycle is regulated by the action of the cyclin dependent protein kinase 2 (CDK2) in association with cyclin A. CDK2/cyclin A phosphorylates numerous substrates. Substrate specificity often employs a dual recognition strategy in which the sequence flanking the phospho-acceptor site (Ser.Pro.X.Arg/Lys) is recognized by CDK2, while the cyclin A component of the complex contains a hydrophobic site that binds Arg/Lys.X.Leu (RXL or KXL) substrate recruitment motifs. To determine additional sequence specificity motifs around the RXL sequence, we have performed X-ray crystallographic studies at 2.3 A resolution and isothermal calorimetry measurements on complexes of phospho-CDK2/cyclin A with a recruitment peptide derived from E2F1 and with shorter 11-mer peptides from p53, pRb, p27, E2F1, and p107. The results show that the cyclin recruitment site accommodates a second hydrophobic residue either immediately C-terminal or next adjacent to the ...
Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that hydrolyzes diverse intracellular proteins during programmed cell death (known as apoptosis). It has been a popular target for drug design against abnormal cell death for more than a decade. No approved caspase based drug, however, is available so far. Therefore, structural insights about the substrate recognition of caspase-3 are needed for the future development of caspase-3 based inhibitors and drugs. In this study, crystal structures of recombinant caspase-3 in complex with seven substrate analog inhibitors, including acetyl (Ac)-DEVD-aldehyde (Cho), Ac-DMQD-Cho, Ac-IEPD-Cho, Ac-YVAD-Cho, Ac-WEHD-Cho, Ac-VDVAD-Cho, and tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-D-fluoromethylketone (Fmk), have been analyzed in combination with enzyme kinetic data and computational models. Seven crystal structures were determined at resolutions of 1.7-2.6Å. The binding conformation of each inhibitor residue at P1-P4 position was analyzed. The negative P1 aspartic acid side chain is exclusively
Identification of Crucial Amino Acids in Mouse Aldehyde Oxidase 3 That Determine Substrate Specificity. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
We are interested in the mechanistic and molecular relationships between catalytic activity, conformational changes and microenvironment of ABC transporters. P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, Pgp) is in the focus of our interest; we have currently extended our work to ABCG2 (BCRP) and plan to do similar studies on MRP1 (ABCC1). The members of the ABC superfamily of membrane transporters are involved in the regulation of the uptake into and distribution within our body of physiological substrates as well as various xenobiotics, drugs. Due to their wide substrate spectrum, a consequence of their preference for lipophylic compounds, they also play a critical role in the multidrug resistance phenomenon severely limiting therapeutical success in cancer. Our ambition is to understand the molecular details of their catalytic cycle and the intimate molecular interactions with their microenvironment, as well as to apply the knowledge obtained at the cell/molecule level in the context of the whole organism, in ...
Substrate specificity of hyaluronidases tested on polyacrylamide gel with incorporated chondroitin sulfate.Protein content per 2 µl dot is indicated in bracket
Has an unusual substrate specificity for synthetic organophosphate triesters and phosphorofluoridates. All of the phosphate triesters found to be substrates are synthetic compounds. The identity of any naturally occurring substrate for the enzyme is unknown. Has no detectable activity with phosphate monoesters or diesters and no activity as an esterase or protease. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of the insecticide paraoxon at a rate approaching the diffusion limit and thus appears to be optimally evolved for utilizing this synthetic substrate ...
The primary specificity residue of a substrate or an inhibitor, called the P1 residue, is responsible for the proper recognition by the cognate enzyme. This residue enters the S1 pocket of the enzyme and establishes contacts (up to 50%) inside the proteinase substrate cavity, strongly affecting its specificity. To analyze the influence on bovine α-chymotrypsin substrate activity, aromatic non-proteinogenic amino acid residues in position P1 with the sequence Ac-Phe-Ala-Thr-XAnb 5,2-NH2 were introduced: L-pyridyl alanine (Pal), 4-nitrophenylalanine - Phe(p-NO2), 4-aminophenylalanine - Phe(p- NH2), 4-carboxyphenylalanine Phe(p-COOH), 4-guanidine phenylalanine - Phe(p-guanidine), 4-methyloxycarbonylphenylalanine - Phe(p-COOMe), 4-cyanophenylalanine - Phe(p-CN), Phe, Tyr. The effect of the additional substituent at the phenyl ring of the Phe residue was investigated. All peptides contained an amide of 5-amino-2-nitrobenzoic acid, which served as a chromophore. Kinetic parameters (kcat, KM and ...
Many predicted (phospho)lipases are poorly characterized with regard to their substrate specificities and physiological functions. Here ...
To boost our understanding of Taspase1s substrate specificity we used our biosensor assay mixed with positional scanning mutagenesis
Motivation:In silico methods are being widely used for identifying substrates for various kinases and deciphering cell signaling networks. However, most of the available phosphorylation site prediction methods use motifs or profiles derived from a known data set of kinase substrates and hence, their applicability is limited to only those kinase families for which experimental substrate data is available. This prompted us to develop a novel multi-scale structure-based approach which does not require training using experimental substrate data.. Results:In this work, for the first time, we have used residue-based statistical pair potentials for scoring the binding energy of various substrate peptides in complex with kinases. Extensive benchmarking on Phospho.ELM data set indicate that our method outperforms other structure-based methods and has a prediction accuracy comparable to available sequence-based methods. We also demonstrate that the rank of the true substrate can be further improved, if ...
The RAS/MAPK pathway has been intensively studied [1-4], with constitutive activation of ERK1 and ERK2 found frequently in human cancer cells from a variety of tissues (e.g., lung, pancreas, colon, ovary, kidney, skin, and thyroid) [13]. Amplification, overexpression, or mutations in RTKs and genetic alterations in upstream components of the MAPK pathway, including KRAS, NRAS, HRAS, CRAF, BRAF, MEK1, and MEK2, alter cell signaling in tumors. In clinical practice and clinical trials, small molecules targeting RTKs or components in the MAPK cascade are used to treat cancer [1, 3, 4]. MEK1 and MEK2 are ideal targets; not only do they play a key role in tumor development and progression [3, 4], they have narrow substrate specificities and distinctive structural characteristics.. MEK activation through the MAPK signaling cascade is necessary for mammalian cell transformation, and constitutively active MEK mutants promote transformation of fibroblast cells [14, 15]. Furthermore, MEK inhibitors inhibit ...
within the GH-J clan. Moreover, besides the effect of substrate entrance on its own, we strongly suggest that a highly conserved arginine residue (in the RDP motif) rather than the previously proposed Tyr motif (not conserved) provides the proton to increase the pKa of the acid-base catalyst ...
Chaetoviridins constitute a large family of structurally related secondary metabolites isolated from Chaetomium fungi. To elucidate the biosynthesis pathway and understand how the chemical diversity of chaetoviridins is generated, gene deletion and in vitro characterization of the four post-PKS modifications enzymes were undertaken. CazL and CazP were identified to have substrate promiscuity that facilitates the formation of nonchlorinated analogues. In addition, enzymatic oxidation and reduction combined with spontaneous dehydration and lactonization of the intermediates further expand the chemical diversity ...
Thus, when a great deal of substrate is altered by an enzyme every minute, the reaction is said to be proceeding at a rapid rate.. In enzyme reaction rates, the rate depends on the CONCENTRATION of the enzyme and the CONCENTRATION of the substrate (CONCENTRATION rather than AMOUNT). Concentration refers to amount in a given volume of solution. As previously mentioned, it has been calculated that enzyme mediated reactions occur 1 x 109 times faster than the same reactions without enzymes.. In most enzyme reactions, enzyme concentration is small compared to the substrate concentration. Therefore, the rate of the reaction becomes proportional to the concentration of the enzyme. If the enzyme concentration is doubled, the reaction rate is doubled. At low substrate concentrations, the rate of the reaction is proportional to the substrate concentration, but at higher substrate concentrations the reaction rate is independent of substrate concentration. That is, further increase in the amount of ...
An apparatus includes a first substrate; and a second substrate coupled to the first substrate, characterized in that, to control formation of a segregated phase domain structure within a chemical reaction product by controlling an amount of a constituent of a precursor that is present per unit surface area, at least one member selected from the group consisting of the first substrate and the second substrate defines a substantially regularly periodically varying relief with respect to basal spatial location.
By Janine Mok, Philip M. Kim, Hugo Y. K. Lam, Stacy Piccirillo, Xiuqiong Zhou, Grace R. Jeschke, Douglas L. Sheridan, Sirlester A. Parker, Ved Desai, Miri Jwa, Elisabetta Cameroni, Hengyao Niu, Matthew Good, Attila Remenyi, Jia-Lin Nianhan Ma, Yi-Jun Sheu, Holly E. Sassi, Richelle Sopko, Clarence S. M. Chan, Claudio De Virgilio, Nancy M. Hollingsworth, Wendell A. Lim, David F. Stern, Bruce Stillman, Brenda J. Andrews, Mark B. Gerstein, Michael Snyder, Benjamin E. Turk. Science Signaling ...
Abstract Primary cilia are organelles necessary for proper implementation of developmental and homeostasis processes. To initiate their assembly, coordinated actions of multiple proteins are needed. Tau tubulin kinase 2 (TTBK2) is a key player in the cilium assembly pathway, controlling final step of cilia initiation. The function of TTBK2 in ciliogenesisis critically dependent on its kinase activity, however, precise mechanism of action of this kinase is so far incompletely understood, in part due to very limited information about its relevant substrates. In this study we identify CEP83, CEP89, CCDC92, Rabin8 and DVL3 as substrates of TTBK2 kinase activity. Further, we characterise a set of phosphosites of the newly identified substrates and CEP164, induced by TTBK2 in vitro and in vivo and show that TTBK2 preferentially phosphorylates examined substrates at intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs). Intriguingly, we further show that identified TTBK2 phosphosites and consensus sequence ...
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BioAssay record AID 1078669 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human P70S6K catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 70 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
BioAssay record AID 1078796 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of human FER catalytic domain expressed in baculovirus assessed as substrate phosphorylation using fluorescence-labelled peptides as substrate at 9 uM after 90 mins by microfluidic peptide phosphorylation assay.
Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 是一种高度特异性的 Src 底物。Src Optimal Peptide Substrate 可以用来检测 Src 活性。- 高纯度,全球文献引用。
Identifying the substrates of protein kinases to understand their modes of action has been undertaken by various approaches and remains an ongoing challenge
1UN4: Crystallographic Studies on Structural Features that Determine the Enzymatic Specificity and Potency of Human Angiogenin: Thr44, Thr80 and Residues 38-41
The more the enzyme of a particular substrate, the faster the rate of breakdown and therefore the more CO2 is produced. This will help me to test how much CO2 each substrate produces. Yeast can also respire aerobically and anerobically depending on the availability of O2.
At the atomic scale, we are interested in providing detailed three-dimensional information about the nature of complex metallocofactors to help understand how protein environment modulates reactivity. At the protein scale, we are interested in seeing how enzymes are constructed to control substrate access and specificity, and how they prevent loss of reactive intermediates or damage to expensive cofactors. At the largest scale, that of protein complexes, we want to know how proteins interact and how those interactions explain the observed behavior. Protein complexes are often large, have multiple distinct states, and can have large inter- and intrasubunit motions; therefore a single snapshot usually does not tell the entire story.. ...
Substrate binding and specificity[edit]. The structures of several HAT domains bound to acetyl-CoA and histone substrate ... 4 Substrate binding and specificity *4.1 Lysine selectivity *4.1.1 GNAT family ... The formation of multisubunit complexes has been observed to modulate the substrate specificity of HATs.[10] In general, while ... For example, the lysine specificity of MYST family HATs toward their histone substrates becomes more restricted when they ...
Implications for substrate specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21714-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34.21714. PMID 9705307.. ...
Use of Oriented Peptide Libraries to determine phosphopeptide binding specificity and protein kinase substrate specificity[edit ... 2.2 Use of Oriented Peptide Libraries to determine phosphopeptide binding specificity and protein kinase substrate specificity ... This approach was used to characterize the substrate specificity of a large number of protein kinases. The kinase specificity ... P as a substrate, in fact required PtdIns(5)P as a substrate to produce PtdIns(4,5)P2.[34] Further research demonstrated that ...
Retrieved from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: [1] Miller FD, Chapman JL, Queener SW (1992). "Substrate specificity of ... This allows for the binding of the substrate ACV to the deprotonated thiol group of the cysteine residue. This ligation of the ... and two water molecules in the absence of a bound substrate. Just two histidine residues and one aspartic acid residue are ... "Structure of isopenicillin N synthase complexed with substrate and the mechanism of penicillin formation". Nature. 387 (6635): ...
These enzymes halogenate without substrate specificity and regioselectivity. The first tryptophan 7-halogenase was isolated in ... These results suggest that for larger substrates, perhaps the entirety of the substrate molecule is not enclosed in the active ... Enzyme activity was evolved with a known substrate that bears structural similarity to the target substrate, then variants with ... Site-directed mutagenesis has also been employed for expanding substrate scope. Tryptophan substrate interacts with numerous ...
It is now known that isomerases have broad substrate specificity. Most pentoses and some hexoses are all substrates for D- ... Metal site 1 binds the substrate tightly, while metal site two binds the substrate loosely. Both share an acid residue Glutamic ... The first metal, mentioned earlier, coordinates to O3 and O4, and is used to dock the substrate. In the isomerization of xylose ... state consists of a high energy carbonium ion that is stabilized through all the metal interactions with the sugar substrate. ...
Substrate specificities. Preferred cofactor. Catalytic preference. Tissue distribution. Expression profile. Pathology 1. ... HSD17B10: Also known as 2-methyl-3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (MHBD). Substrates include steroids, neurosteroids, fatty ...
A second precaution with respect to predicting FMO enzyme substrate specificity is that factors other than size and charge must ... substrate specificity and role in drug metabolism". Curr. Drug Metab. 1 (2): 181-191. doi:10.2174/1389200003339135. PMID ... This enzyme has a wide substrate specificity, including the dietary-derived tertiary amines trimethylamine, tyramine and ... Other drug substrates have been used for both in vitro and in vivo analyses. ... FMO3 is the most abundantly expressed FMO in ...
... comparison of its substrate specificity with that of other SAP kinases". The EMBO Journal. 16 (12): 3563-71. doi:10.1093/emboj/ ... Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 6 also known as MAP kinase kinase 6 (MAPKK 6) or MAPK/ERK kinase 6 is ... MAPKK 6 is a member of the dual specificity protein kinase family, which functions as a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase ... "Nuclear export of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 mediated by its substrate MAPKAP kinase-2". Current Biology. 8 (19): ...
Implications for substrate specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 273 (34): 21714-20. doi:10.1074/jbc.273.34.21714. PMID 9705307. ... and is also found in a variety of proteins with phosphorylated substrates. These include ATP synthase (α and β subunits), ...
Multiplicity and substrate specificity". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Enzymology. 657 (2): 457-67. doi:10.1016/0005- ... Tachibana Y, Yamashita K, Kobata A (1982). "Substrate specificity of mammalian endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase: study with ... PNGase F lacks selectivity for outer carbohydrate structure, resulting in broad specificity, making it a useful tool for ... These endoglycosidases have more specificity in cleavage and are less sensitive to protein conformation than PNGase F. All of ...
Substrate and inhibitor specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 254 (7): 2346-52. PMID 218934. Cass CE, Selner M, ... Compounds that are substrates for AdK include the N-nucleosides toyocamycin, tubercidin and 6-methylmecaptopurine riboside; the ... identification of a novel motif implicated in phosphate and magnesium ion binding and substrate inhibition". Biochemistry. 41 ( ...
Substrate and cofactor specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 234 (8): 2129-32. PMID 13673025. Moorefield HH (1956). "Purification of DDT ... this enzyme has one substrate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, and two products, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(4- ...
"Dynamin is a minibrain kinase/dual specificity Yak1-related kinase 1A substrate". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (20 ... "Specificity of the binding of synapsin I to Src homology 3 domains". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (38): 29857-67. ... bind to the proline-rich region of synaptojanin 1 at distinct sites that display an unconventional binding specificity". The ...
Villiers BR, Hollfelder F (March 2009). "Mapping the limits of substrate specificity of the adenylation domain of TycA". ... whereas the ability to act upon different substrates is called substrate promiscuity or substrate ambiguity. The term latent ... Enzymes are evolved to catalyse a particular reaction on a particular substrate with a high catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM, cf. ... When the specificity of enzyme was probed, it was found that it was highly selective against natural amino acids that were not ...
In addition to controlling activity, the allosteric mechanism also regulates the substrate specificity and ensures the enzyme ... RNR1 contains both allosteric sites, mediating regulation of substrate specificity and activity. Depending on the allosteric ... Reduction of NDP substrates occurs under aerobic conditions. Class I reductases are divided into IA and IB due to differences ... The substrates for RNR are ADP, GDP, CDP and UDP. dTDP (deoxythymidine diphosphate) is synthesized by another enzyme ( ...
Specificity[edit]. Proteolysis can be highly promiscuous such that a wide range of protein substrates are hydrolysed. This is ... Promiscuous proteases typically bind to a single amino acid on the substrate and so only have specificity for that residue. For ... TopFIND - database of protease specificity, substrates, products and inhibitors. *MEROPS - Database of protease evolutionary ... have high specificity and only cleave very restricted set of substrate sequences. They are therefore a common target for ...
Lipid composition and substrate specificity". Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. 190 (2): 514-22. doi:10.1016/0003-9861( ... Goss R (September 2003). "Substrate specificity of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase of the primitive green alga Mantoniella ...
... the enzyme possesses a high degree of substrate specificity, with the indole moiety of tryptamine required for substrate ... McCoy E, Galan MC, O'Connor SE (2006). "Substrate specificity of strictosidine synthase". Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16 (9): 2475 ... have suggested that strictosidine synthase can be easily manipulated to have a broader range of substrate specificity. For ... Upon substrate binding, secologanin's position is located at the pocket's entrance, where the positively charged residues His ...
... has broad substrate specificity. EPHX1 detoxifies low molecular weight chemicals, e.g., butadiene, benzene, styrene, etc ... Oesch F (1974). "Purification and specificity of a human microsomal epoxide hydratase". Biochem. J. 139 (1): 77-88. doi:10.1042 ... Androstene oxide and epoxyestratrienol have been shown as endogenous EPHX1 substrates. EPHX1 also metabolizes endocannabinoid 2 ... Structure-activity relationships for substrates and inhibitors". Biochemistry. 10 (26): 4858-66. doi:10.1021/bi00802a005. PMID ...
Substrate specificity and mechanistic implications". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (40): 23540-5. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.40.23540. PMID ... the two substrates of this enzyme are L-tryptophan and O2, whereas its two products are alpha,beta-didehydrotryptophan and H2O2 ...
Implication for a substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (12): 9158-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009250200. ...
Marsh IR, Bradley M (1997). "Substrate specificity of trypanothione reductase". Eur. J. Biochem. 243 (3): 690-4. doi:10.1111/j. ... the two substrates of this enzyme are trypanothione and NADP+, whereas its 3 products are trypanothione disulfide, NADPH, and ... Subversive Substrates and Antitrypanosomal Properties". ChemMedChem. 2 (12): 1708-12. doi:10.1002/cmdc.200700172. PMID 17918760 ...
Sols, Alberto; Crane, Robert (1954). "Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry. 210 (2): 581 ... "The Kinetics of Yeast Hexokinase in the Light of the Induced Fit Involved in the Binding of its Sugar Substrate". European ...
"Substrate specificity of brain hexokinase". Journal of Biological Chemistry 210, 1954, pp. 581-595. Robert K. Crane, Richard A ...
"Polypeptide substrate specificity of PsLSMT. A set domain protein methyltransferase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 282 ...
McLarin, Mark-Anthony; Leung, Ivanhoe K. H. (2020). "Substrate Specificity of Polyphenol Oxidase". Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. ... Because the substrates of these PPO reactions are located in the vacuoles of plant cells damaged mainly by improper harvesting ... PPO may accept monophenols and/or o-diphenols as substrates. The enzyme works by catalyzing the o-hydroxylation of monophenol ... The two isoenzymes prefer different substrates, as jr PPO1 shows a higher activity towards monophenols, whereas jr PPO2 is more ...
Implication for a substrate specificity". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (12): 9158-65. doi:10.1074/jbc.M009250200. PMID 11124260. Spurway ... substrate proteins associate with the transamidase subunit gpi8p". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (19): 15975-82. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Structural basis for substrate specificity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 272 (30): 18558-63. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.30. ... Active-site amino acid sequence explains substrate specificity compared with liver isozymes". The Journal of Biological ... Members of this family metabolize a wide variety of substrates, including ethanol, retinol, other aliphatic alcohols, ...
McCormick DB; Butler RC (1962). "Substrate specificity of liver flavokinase". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 65 (2): 326-332. doi: ... the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and riboflavin, whereas its two products are ADP and FMN. Riboflavin is converted ...
When a substrate is thus "poly-ubiquitinated", it is targeted for destruction by the proteasome. Particular enzymes in the ... ubiquitin/proteasome pathway allow ubiquitination to be directed to some proteins but not others - specificity is gained by ... are targeted for destruction by the ligation of at least four copies of a small peptide called ubiquitin onto a substrate ... coupling targeted proteins to an "E3 ubiquitin ligase". Each E3 ubiquitin ligase binds to a particular set of substrates, ...
Nifene for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors or enzyme substrates (e.g. 6-FDOPA for the AADC enzyme). These agents permit the ... indirectly by competition studies between unlabeled drug and radiolabeled compounds known apriori to bind with specificity to ... used in PET imaging to determine the activity of the acetylcholinergic neurotransmitter system by acting as a substrate for ...
Tanahashi H, Tabira T (February 1999). "Isolation of human delta-catenin and its binding specificity with presenilin 1". ... and gamma-secretase substrates". Neurobiol. Dis. 14 (2): 194-204. doi:10.1016/S0969-9961(03)00123-2. PMID 14572442.. ...
"Antioxidative function and substrate specificity of NAD(P)H-dependent alkenal/one oxidoreductase. A new role for leukotriene B4 ... The 3 substrates of this enzyme are n-alkanal, NAD+, and NADP+, whereas its 4 products are alk-2-enal, NADH, NADPH, and H+. ...
... showed the specificity of Rho in the stimulation of focal adhesions and stress fibres formation in fibroblasts in the ... By plating SCG on plastic dishes in presence of different substrates, Hall realised that Ral was activated by laminin to induce ... providing specificity.[10] In the same year, Hall investigated the role of the small GTPase Ral in neurite branching. After ... yet very little investigation into the way in which specificity of the pathway is maintained. It was known at this point that ...
Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the MAP2K4 gene. This gene ... 1999). "The mixed lineage kinase DLK utilizes MKK7 and not MKK4 as substrate". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (15): 10195-202. doi:10.1074/ ... 1996). "Eph receptors and ligands comprise two major specificity subclasses and are reciprocally compartmentalized during ... "Identification of a dual specificity kinase that activates the Jun kinases and p38-Mpk2". Science. 268 (5208): 286-90. doi: ...
They offer the specificity required to separate similar compounds from each other, such as separating polymers in plastic waste ... allowing for relatively easy separation of products and/or unreacted substrate(s). Gas solubility follows the same trend, with ...
1990)։ «Examination of the substrate specificity of heparin and heparan sulfate lyases»։ Biochemistry 29 (10): 2611-2617։ PMID ... 1993)։ «Specificity studies on the heparin lyases from Flavobacterium heparinum»։ Biochemistry 32 (32): 8140-8145։ PMID 8347612 ... Evidence for an exosite determinant of factor Xa specificity in heparin-activated antithrombin»։ J. Biol. Chem. 276 (18): 14961 ... Chuang YJ, Swanson R. (2001)։ «Heparin enhances the specificity of antithrombin for thrombin and factor Xa independent of the ...
The proteasome assembled with these alternative subunits is known as the immunoproteasome, whose substrate specificity is ... It is therefore the E3 that confers substrate specificity to this system.[50] The number of E1, E2, and E3 proteins expressed ... and β5i with altered substrate specificity. The complex formed with the specialized β subunits is known as the immunoproteasome ... they have three distinct substrate specificities considered chymotrypsin-like, trypsin-like, and peptidyl-glutamyl peptide- ...
Pathogen-specificity[edit]. The parts of the innate immune system have different specificity for different pathogens. ... "Induction of type I interferon by RNA viruses: cellular receptors and their substrates". Amino Acids. 38 (5): 1283-99. doi ...
효소(酵素, 영어: enzyme)는 반응물인 기질(substrate)과 결합해서 효소-기질 복합체를 형성하여 화학 반응의 활성화 에너지 수준을 낮춤으로써 물질대사의 속도를 증가시키는 생체 촉매이거나 또는 속도를 조절하는 생체 ... "Conformational proofreading: the impact of conformational changes on the specificity of molecular recognition" (PDF). 》PLoS ONE ... The naming of enzymes by adding the suffix "-ase" to the substrate on which the enzyme acts, has been traced to French ... 보호기능을 수행한다.[1] 효소는 기질(substrate)을 생성물(probuct)로 알려진 다른 분자로 전환시킨다. 세포의 거의 모든 대사 과정은 생명을 유지할 수 있을 만큼의 빠른 속도로 일어나야 하기 때문에 효소 촉매작용을 ...
Esterase activity against N-acylated peptide ester substrates". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 165: 72-79. PMID 4441086. ... Spadari, S., Subramanian, A.R. and Kalnitsky, G. (1974). "Highly restricted specificity of the serine proteinase ... Hayashi, K. and Terada, M. (1972). "Some characteristics of hydrolysis of synthetic substrates and proteins by the alkaline ...
In some species, the flea lives in the nest or burrow and the eggs are deposited on the substrate,[8] but in others, the eggs ... In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species decreases. Another factor is the opportunities available ...
Touze, T., Blanot, D. and Mengin-Lecreulx, D. (2008). „Substrate specificity and membrane topology of Escherichia coli PgpB, an ...
The different hydrolyzing enzymes are activated by different types of bile salts and have distinct substrate specificities. For ...
An ideal SERS substrate must possess high uniformity and high field enhancement. Such substrates can be fabricated on a wafer ... Using antibodies and gold particles this approach can quantify proteins in serum with high sensitivity and specificity.[43] ... SERS substrates are used to detect the presence of low abundance biomolecules, and can therefore detect proteins in body fluids ... The ability to analyze the composition of a mixture on the nano scale makes the use of SERS substrates beneficial for ...
... absence of glycosyltransferases which dictates which blood group antigens are presented and hence what antibody specificities ...
However, it is worth noting that in vitro, the various acyltransferases exhibit different substrate specificities with respect ... Whatever the mechanism is, such specificity is possible. It is seen in the pig testes DAGK that is specific for polyunsaturated ...
"The unique substrate specificity of human AOC2, a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase". Cell. Mol. Life Sci. 66 (16): 2743-57 ... Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211-218. doi: ... The preferred in vitro substrates of AOC2 were found to be 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine and p-tyramine instead of methylamine ... β-PEA would not be deaminated in the gut as it is a selective substrate for MAO-B which is not found in the gut .... Brain ...
The lack of other nuclear antigens in this organelle means that using C.luciliae as a substrate allows for the specific ... Some ANAs appear in several types of disease, resulting in lower specificity of the test. For example, IgM-rheumatoid factor ( ... Typically, HEp-2 cells are used as a substrate to detect the antibodies in human serum. Microscope slides are coated with HEp-2 ... They are used as a substrate in immunofluorescence for the detection of anti-dsDNA antibodies. They possess an organelle known ...
Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity are evolutionarily closer to one another than to aaRSs of another specificity. However ... leucyl-tRNA synthetase from Thermus thermophilus complexed with a post-transfer editing substrate analogue ... Most of the aaRSs of a given specificity also belong to a single class. However, there are two distinct versions of the LysRS ...
Nomura, K. (1986). „Specificity of prolyl endopeptidase". FEBS Lett. 209: 235-237. PMID 3539636.. ... Moriyama, A., Nakanishi, M. and Sasaki, M. (1988). „Porcine muscle prolyl endopeptidase and its endogenous substrates". J. ...
The C-terminal is important for the substrate specificity and binding of Dot1 because the region carries a positive charge, ... Cofactor binding and substrate interactions". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (5): 3128-36. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.5.3128. PMID 10652296.. ... In order for the reaction to proceed, S-Adenosyl methionine (SAM) and the lysine residue of the substrate histone tail must ... The catalytic domain of PRMTs consists of a SAM binding domain and substrate binding domain (about 310 amino acids in total).[5 ...
... s can bind to other proteins as well as to small-molecule substrates. When proteins bind specifically to other copies of ... although the surrounding amino acids may determine the exact binding specificity). A large number of such motifs has been ... The molecules bound and acted upon by enzymes are called substrates. Although enzymes can consist of hundreds of amino acids, ... To scale in the top right-hand corner are two of its substrates, ATP and glucose. ...
The pathogen had five ABC-type transporters with overlapping substrate specificities that together work to pump toxic chemicals ...
This complex is called an enzyme-substrate complex. For example, sucrase, 400 times the size of its substrate sucrose, splits ... "Application of a theory of enzyme specificity to protein synthesis". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 44 (2): 98-104. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... Substrate + Enzyme -, Substrate:Enzyme -, Product:Enzyme -, Product + Enzyme. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction ... This prevents or slows down an enzyme-substrate complex being formed. Denaturation[change , change source]. Denaturation is the ...
The E3 molecules responsible for substrate identification and binding are thus the mechanisms of substrate specificity in ... The E3 molecule is responsible for binding the target protein substrate and transferring the ubiquitin from the E2 cysteine to ...
Skoog MT, Mehdi S, Wiseman JS, Bey P (June 1989). "The specificity of two proteinases that cleave adjacent to arginine, C1 ... esterase and acrosin, for peptide p-nitroanilide substrates". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 996 (1-2): 89-94. doi:10.1016/0167 ...
Role of enzyme specificity and pH influence on the transamidation versus deamidation process". J Biol Chem. 277 (37): 34109- ... Skovbjerg H, Norén O, Anthonsen D, Moller J, Sjöström H (2002). "Gliadin is a good substrate of several transglutaminases: ... However, five findings have been associated with a high specificity for coeliac disease: scalloping of the small bowel folds ( ... Do sensitivity and specificity vary in different populations?" (PDF). Gastroenterology. 128 (4 Suppl 1): S25-32. doi:10.1053/j. ...
insulin receptor substrate binding. • ATP binding. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5- ... 2.7.12: protein-dual-specificity. *see serine/threonine-specific protein kinases. 2.7.13: protein-histidine. *Protein-histidine ...
Molecular determinants of metalloproteinase substrate specificity. Matrix metalloproteinase substrate binding domains, modules ... substrate specificity, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase interaction. J. Biol. Chem. 272, 7608-7616.PubMedCrossRef ... cDNA cloning and deprivation of protein substrate specificity by autolytic degradation. Biochemistry 36, 7225-7238.PubMed ... identification of regions responsible for substrate specificity and general proteinase activity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90 ...
... they showed enhanced substrate specificity relative to the native enzyme. This increased specificity was achieved by the ... Redesigning trypsin: alteration of substrate specificity.. Craik CS, Largman C, Fletcher T, Roczniak S, Barr PJ, Fletterick R, ... Computer graphic analysis suggested that these substitutions would differentially affect arginine and lysine substrate binding ... at position 226 exhibited an altered conformation that may be converted to a trypsin-like structure upon binding of a substrate ...
... Andrew M. Slupe, Ronald A. Merrill, and Stefan Strack ... Andrew M. Slupe, Ronald A. Merrill, and Stefan Strack, "Determinants for Substrate Specificity of Protein Phosphatase 2A," ...
Kinetic analysis reveals that the major source of the substrate specificity lies in changes in K(m) for the various substrates ... Substrate specificity of RdgB protein, a deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase.. Burgis NE1, Cunningham RP. ... possess deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and that all four RdgB homologs have high specificity ...
The specificity and accuracy of the ligation depends upon ligase selection and careful optimization of reaction conditions. ... Substrate specificity and mismatch discrimination in DNA ligases. by Greg Lohman, Ph.D., New England Biolabs, Inc.. DNA ligases ... Ligase Specificity. DNA ligases generally prefer fully Watson-Crick base-paired dsDNA substrates to those containing one or ... Home Tools & Resources Feature Articles Substrate specificity and mismatch discrimination in DNA ligases ...
Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in ... Structural basis of substrate specificity in the serine proteases Protein Sci. 1995 Mar;4(3):337-60. doi: 10.1002/pro. ... Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent ... Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in ...
Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates ... substrate specificities, including a preference for sequences over secondary structures and the existence of a substrate ... Understanding the substrate specificity of conventional calpains Biol Chem. 2012 Sep;393(9):853-71. doi: 10.1515/hsz-2012-0143 ... The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e ...
Anatomical context of Substrate Specificity. *The strict substrate specificity of this reaction suggests that L-arginine is the ... Gene context of Substrate Specificity. *The substrate specificity of the truncated RAD2 protein implicates branched DNA ... Disease relevance of Substrate Specificity. *Altered substrate specificity of herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase confers ... Substrate specificity and affinity of a protein modulated by bound water molecules. Quiocho, F.A., Wilson, D.K., Vyas, N.K. ...
188af) Exploring and Enhancing the Activity and Substrate Specificity of Amine Dehydrogenases. ... have increased activity across the board without affecting substrate. specificity. Finally, we have demonstrated for the first- ... chimeric amine dehydrogenase shows altered substrate specificity compared to. its parent enzymes. Chem Commun. (Camb) 2014, 50 ... ammonia, ketone, and NADH as substrates and release an (R)-amine, NAD+,. and water as products as seen in the reaction scheme ...
A "Silent" Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity. By Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim, Zuben ... A "Silent" Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity. By Chava Kimchi-Sarfaty, Jung Mi Oh, In-Wha Kim, Zuben ... A Silent Polymorphism in the MDR1 Gene Changes Substrate Specificity Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... mammalian membrane transport protein alters the substrate specificity. We hypothesize that when frequent codons are changed to ...
Peptide substrate specificity also depends on interactions of the peptide with the FPP co-substrate 28-30. As these findings ... These results improve the definition of prenyltransferase substrate specificity, test the efficacy of substrate algorithms, and ... Biochemical studies of prenyltransferase substrate specificity indicate that recognition of peptide substrates is more complex ... the MTO substrates, the STO substrates, and the non-substrate peptides. Wedges are labeled with the percentage representation ...
... Laadan, B. ... resulting in Adh1p-variants with different substrate specificities. ... Kinetic characterization with both aldehydes and the in vivo primary substrate acetaldehyde also enabled to correlate the ... of both native and mutated ADH1 genes was performed in order to identify the key amino acids involved in this substrate shift, ...
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... Valsecchi, Isabel Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, ... All substrates were dephosphorylated by AtZDP, assuming that this enzyme could potentially be involved in double-strand DNA ...
Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition.. E Pizzi, ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ... Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. ...
analogues-exploring the substrate specificity of PigC Suresh R. Chawrai,a Neil R. Williamson,b George P. C. Salmond*b and ... analogues-exploring the substrate specificity of PigC S. R. Chawrai, N. R. Williamson, G. P. C. Salmond and F. J. Leeper, Chem ...
Substrate specificity and affinity of a protein modulated by bound water molecules.. Quiocho, F.A., Wilson, D.K., Vyas, N.K.. ( ... SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY AND AFFINITY OF A PROTEIN MODULATED BY BOUND WATER MOLECULES. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1ABF/pdb ... can govern substrate specificity and affinity. The atoms common to the three sugars are identically positioned in the binding ...
Thr103 and Leu194 indeed contribute to substrate specificity and in addition suggest that the integrity of the specificity ... Probing the Substrate Specificity of the Intracellular Brain Platelet-Activating Factor Acetylhydrolase. Ho, Y.S., Sheffield, P ... PROBING THE SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY OF THE INTRACELLULAR BRAIN PLATELET-ACTIVATING FACTOR ACETYLHYDROLASE. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1BWP/ ... PAF-AH at 1.7 A resolution paved the way for a detailed examination of the molecular basis of substrate specificity in this ...
The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF ... peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are ... When the substrate is a substrate for a protein-serine/threonine kinase, Xaa5 is Ser or Thr, whereas whenthe substrate is a ... This invention pertains to the substrate specificity of protein kinases and to peptides which are substrates for protein ...
In this work we employed a novel version of substrate phage display (21) to analyze the extended substrate specificity of OmpT ... We have analyzed the substrate specificity of OmpT by two complementary substrate filamentous phage display methods: (i) in ... Substrate Specificity of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protease OmpT. John D. McCarter, Daren Stephens, Kevin Shoemaker, ... Substrate Specificity of the Escherichia coli Outer Membrane Protease OmpT. John D. McCarter, Daren Stephens, Kevin Shoemaker, ...
Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr.. K A Klyachko, S Schuldiner, A A ... Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr. Message Subject (Your Name) has ...
Crystal structure of the FTO protein reveals basis for its substrate specificity.. [Zhifu Han, Tianhui Niu, Junbiao Chang, ... Taken together, these results provide a structural basis for understanding FTO substrate-specificity, and serve as a foundation ...
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule ... Substrate Specificity. Known as: Specificities, Substrate, Specificity, Substrate, Substrate Specificities A characteristic ... Studies of the substrate specificity, enzyme-substrate interactions, and the function of lipid. ... Substrate specificity and redox potential of AhpC, a bacterial peroxiredoxin.. *Derek Parsonage, P. Andrew Karplus, Leslie B. ...
... Ilari A., ... Accordingly, a 15 fold increase in k(cat) and 100 fold decrease in K(m) for sarcosine as substrate has been achieved in MTOX ... The analysis of the substrate binding site highlights the structural determinants that favour the accommodation of the bulky N- ... located at the entrance of the active site appears to play a key role for the recognition of the amino acid substrate side ...
The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ... The Akt1-eNOS Axis Illustrates the Specificity of Kinase-Substrate Relationships in Vivo ...
Substrate Specificity of Acyl-Lipid Δ9-Desaturase from Cyanobacterium sp. IPPAS B-1200, a Cyanobacterium with Unique Fatty Acid ... We cloned this gene and characterized its specificity to the length of the substrate using heterologous expression in Escheri ... Substrate specificity of acyl-lipid Δ9-desaturase from Prochlorothrix hollandica cyanobacterium producing myristoleic acid, ...
... thereby linking the substrate specificity to the known host tropism. The novel IgdE family proteases of S. agalactiae, S. ... Porcine IgG subtype specificities of the IgdE family proteases of S. porcinus and S. pseudoporcinus remain to be determined. ... The IgG subtype specificity of bacterial proteases indicates the special importance of these IgG subtypes in counteracting ... pseudoporcinus and S. equi showed IgG subtype specificity, i.e. IgdE from S. agalactiae and S. pseudoporcinus cleaved human ...
Substrate specificity of glutamyl endopeptidase (GE): hydrolysis studies with a bovine α-casein preparation. Kalyankar P, Zhu Y ... Substrate specificity of glutamyl endopeptidase (GE): hydrolysis studies with a bovine α-casein preparation. in Food Chemistry ... Home , Substrate specificity of glutamyl endopeptidase (GE): hydrolysis studies with a bovine α-casein preparation. ...
... and modulate substrate specificity. Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity ... To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. Our biochemical and ... Title: Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains ... Accepted Manuscript: Insights into substrate specificity of NlpC/P60 cell wall hydrolases containing bacterial SH3 domains ...
... about SUBSTRATE SPECIFICITY SWITCH. Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations. Full text. Free. ... substrate specificity switch. Showing result 1 - 5 of 7 swedish dissertations containing the words substrate specificity ... Keywords : NATURVETENSKAP; NATURAL SCIENCES; Yersinia; type III secretion; YscU; substrate specificity switch; heat shock ... Substrate specificity; Biotechnology; Bioteknologi; Abstract : Biocatalysis is an ever evolving field that uses enzymes or ...
  • Although the mutant enzymes were reduced in catalytic rate, they showed enhanced substrate specificity relative to the native enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • Bommarius, A. S., A novel chimeric amine dehydrogenase shows altered substrate specificity compared to its parent enzymes. (aiche.org)
  • The exquisite substrate specificity of Dus enzymes is therefore controlled by a relatively simple mechanism involving major reorientation of the whole tRNA molecule. (uniprot.org)
  • In addition, these enzymes all have γ-d-Glu-A 2 pm (A 2 pm is diaminopimelic acid) cysteine amidase (ordl-endopeptidase) activities but with different substrate specificities. (osti.gov)
  • Two amino acid differences at the domain interface alter the substrate binding specificity in favor of stem peptides in recycling enzymes, whereas the SH3b domain may extend the peptidoglycan binding surface in the cell wall lysins. (osti.gov)
  • To avoid cleavage of unintended substrates, these enzymes have very selective substrate specificities. (osti.gov)
  • Our biochemical and structural analysis of three modular NlpC/P60 hydrolases, one lysin, and two recycling enzymes, show that they may have evolved from a common molecular architecture, where the substrate preference is modulated by local changes. (osti.gov)
  • The broad specificity of these enzymes makes them amenable for designing prodrugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. (mdpi.com)
  • DUB activity is usually assayed using full-length ubiquitin, and these enzymes generally show low activity towards small substrates that constitute the P4-P1 LRGG (Lys-Arg-Gly-Gly) C-terminal motif of ubiquitin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Our results show how gene loss can drive the evolution of substrate specificity from retained enzymes. (elifesciences.org)
  • To overcome this limitation, we propose to use a bifunctional enzyme to study the evolution of substrate specificity after gene loss, as these enzymes may continue to operate when only one of their associated metabolic pathways becomes dispensable. (elifesciences.org)
  • Kinetic and inhibitor studies using cDNA-expressed enzymes and human liver microsomes have characterized the specificity of a range of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A substrate and inhibitor probes towards the two isoforms comprising this subfamily. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Identification and further prioritizing new substrates are important for the study of the enzymology of the selected enzymes and the next generation of drug targets ( 4 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Substrate specificities of these enzymes are discussed, along with structure-function relationships, based on their crystal structures and homology modeling. (frontiersin.org)
  • The enzymes were tested for their substrate preference towards chitin, lipo-chitooligosaccharide Nod factors of Rhizobium, and bacterial peptidoglycans (lysozyme activity) as well as for their capacity to inhibit hyphal growth of Trichoderma viride. (deepdyve.com)
  • Patterns of substrate affinity showed that Leu-AMC (at both sampling sites) and Arg-AMC (at Bogue Sound) were primarily hydrolyzed by enzymes other than leucyl-aminopeptidase and arginyl-aminopeptidase, respectively. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
  • In vitro assays for N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase and glucuronosyl transferase II were developed and utilized to determine kinetic parameters which define the substrate specificity of the enzymes toward a series of different ('3)H-oligosaccharide substrates. (illinois.edu)
  • How do these enzymes, which all appear to share a common terpene synthase fold, specify the many different products made almost entirely from one of only three substrates? (plantcell.org)
  • Elucidation of the structure of 1,8-cineole synthase from Salvia fruticosa (Sf - CinS1) combined with analysis of functional and phylogenetic relationships of enzymes within Salvia species identified active-site residues responsible for product specificity. (plantcell.org)
  • Glycoside hydrolases of families 32 (GH32) and 68 (GH68) belong to clan GH-J, containing hydrolytic enzymes (sucrose/ fructans as donor substrates) and fructosyltransferases (sucrose/fructans as donor and acceptor substrates). (kuleuven.be)
  • Based on the available 3D structures of enzymes and enzyme-ligand complexes as well as docking simulations, we calculated the pKa of the acid-base before and after substrate binding. (kuleuven.be)
  • The binding of substrates to heme enzymes has been widely assumed to occur at the so-called delta-heme edge. (le.ac.uk)
  • In this model, "C" refers to a cysteine three residues removed from the C-terminus that is prenylated at the thiol group to form a thioether, "a" refers to any aliphatic amino acid, and "X" refers to a subset of amino acids that are proposed to determine specificity for FTase (methionine, serine, glutamine, alanine) or GGTase-I (leucine, phenylalanine). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These results are consistent with the model in which residues Leu48, Thr103 and Leu194 indeed contribute to substrate specificity and in addition suggest that the integrity of the specificity pocket is critical for the expression of full catalytic function, thus conferring very high substrate selectivity on the enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • OmpT and its homologues cleave synthetic substrates between dibasic residues with high catalytic efficiency ( 14 , 19 , 30 ). (asm.org)
  • Here we demonstrate that various substitutions of residues Phe143 and Phe306 of Bmr not only reduce its sensitivity to reserpine inhibition but also significantly change its substrate specificity. (asm.org)
  • This result strongly suggests that Bmr interacts with its transported drugs directly, with residues Phe143 and Phe306 likely to be involved in substrate recognition. (asm.org)
  • Role of multiple basic residues in determining the substrate specificity of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In fact, although the nature and geometry of the catalytic residues within the first contact shell of the FAD moiety appear to be virtually superposable in MTOX and MSOX, the presence of a Thr residue in position 239 in MTOX (Met245 in MSOX) located at the entrance of the active site appears to play a key role for the recognition of the amino acid substrate side chain. (uniprot.org)
  • Thereafter, insects lost all but one kinase, dNK (EC, which subsequently, through remodelling of a limited number of amino acid residues, gained a broad substrate specificity. (ruc.dk)
  • Results: Using a combination of peptide library selection, phosphorylation of opitmal peptide variants, and screening of a phosphosite array, we found that Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated serine over threonine and required an arginine three residues upstream of the phosphorylated serine in its substrate. (caltech.edu)
  • The critical acidic residues are conserved in plants and animals with the corresponding mutations impairing the enzyme activity of both JMJ14 and human KDM5B, indicating a common substrate recognition mechanism for KDM5 subfamily demethylases shared by plants and animals and further informing efforts to design targeted inhibitors of human KDM5. (plantcell.org)
  • PepB is a broad specificity aminopeptidase with a unique ability to remove Asp residues and a very efficient ability to remove Glu residues from the N-termini of peptides in than PepA and PepN. (illinois.edu)
  • In contrast replacing a small cassette of residues 338-341 produced a small increase in the specificity factor. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Based on comparison of known prenylated proteins, both FTase and GGTase-I have been proposed to recognize protein or peptide substrates containing a C-terminal "Ca 1 a 2 X" sequence 11-17 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1992) "Synthetic Peptide Libraries in the Determination of T Cell Epitopes and Peptide Binding Specificity of Class I Molecules" Eur. (patentgenius.com)
  • 1991) "Peptide-Binding Specificity of the Molecular Chaperone BiP" Nature 353:726-730. (patentgenius.com)
  • In the method of the invention, a protein kinase is contacted with an oriented degenerate peptide library, peptides within the library which are substrates for the kinase are converted to phosphopeptides and the phosphopeptides are separated from non-phosphorylated peptides. (patentgenius.com)
  • The invention also provides peptide substrates for protein kinase A, cell cycle control kinases, src family kinases, the EGF receptor and p92.sup.c-fps/fes based upon amino acid sequence motifs for the phosphorylation sites of these kinases. (patentgenius.com)
  • When coupled with high-throughput quantitative proteomics technique, this simplified model enabled the accurate determination of catalytic efficiencies for 2369 peptide substrates of a protease by using only one enzymatic reaction experiment. (mcponline.org)
  • Highly complex substrate libraries including the synthetic oligonucleotide or peptide mixture ( 9 , 10 ), the peptide library derived from the digestion of proteins in total cell lysate ( 11 , 12 ) and the proteins in total cell lysate ( 13 , 14 ) were used for substrate screening. (mcponline.org)
  • This requirement for arginine in peptide substrates could not be substituted with the similarly charged lysine. (caltech.edu)
  • This specificity determined for peptide substrates was also evident in many of the proteins phosphorylated by Dbf2-Mob1 in a proteome chip analysis. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion: We have determined by peptide library selection and phosphosite array screening that the protein kinase Dbf2-Mob1 preferentially phosphorylated substrates that contain an RXXS motif. (caltech.edu)
  • Direct insights into substrate binding and catalytic mechanism of an intramembrane protease now come from X‐ray structures of the bacterial rhomboid protease GlpG complexed to substrate‐derived peptide inhibitors. (embopress.org)
  • To address these interesting observations, we have synthesized a library of substrates containing different peptide scaffolds functionalized with a number of N - ε -acyl moieties. (dtu.dk)
  • We report a systematic analysis of the P1 and P2 substrate specificity of TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) using a peptide library and a novel analytical method, and we use the substrate specificity information to design novel reverse hydroxamate inhibitors. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Based on this result, 1000 different peptide substrates of the form Biotin-LAQA-P1-P2- SSK(DNP)-NH2 were prepared, with 50 different natural and unnatural amino acids at P1 in combination with 20 different amino acids at P2. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The importance of discrete MMP substrate binding sites termed exosites on domains located outside the catalytic domain was first demonstrated for native collagenolysis. (springer.com)
  • This increased specificity was achieved by the unexpected differential effects on the catalytic activity toward arginine and lysine substrates. (nih.gov)
  • The recent solution of the crystal structure of the alpha(1) catalytic subunit of isoform Ib of bovine brain intracellular PAF-AH at 1.7 A resolution paved the way for a detailed examination of the molecular basis of substrate specificity in this enzyme. (rcsb.org)
  • A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interestingly, loops from the first SH3b domain dock into the ends of the active site groove of the catalytic domain, remodel the substrate binding site, and modulate substrate specificity. (osti.gov)
  • Based on this striking observation, a simplified model was developed to determine the catalytic efficiencies of numerous competing substrates presented in the complex enzyme reaction system. (mcponline.org)
  • A study of substrate-inhibitor specificity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidase (MAO) in the hepatopancreas of the adult Kamchatka crab Paralithodes camtschaticus revealed specific catalytic properties of the enzyme. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that Sin1 is dispensable for the catalytic activity of TORC2, but its conserved region in the middle (Sin1CRIM) forms a discrete domain that specifically binds the TORC2 substrate kinases. (elifesciences.org)
  • Substrate structure may explain the catalytic efficiencies observed. (caltech.edu)
  • Here, we report the crystal structures of the JMJ14 catalytic domain in both substrate-free and bound forms. (plantcell.org)
  • The obtained results strongly suggest that most GH-J members show an acid-base catalyst that is not sufficiently protonated before ligand entrance, while the acid-base can be fully protonated when a substrate, but not an inhibitor, enters the catalytic pocket. (kuleuven.be)
  • This article updates a previous review of the role of substrate recognition by MMP exosites in both preparing complex substrates, such as collagen, for cleavage and for tethering noncollagenous substrates to MMPs for more efficient proteolysis. (springer.com)
  • Studies show that certain sequence preferences influence calpain substrate recognition, and some properties of amino acids have been related successfully to substrate specificity and to the calpains' 3D structure. (nih.gov)
  • Such reprogramming of the enzymatic specificity appears to be a unique evolutionary solution for altering tRNA recognition by the same protein fold. (uniprot.org)
  • Molecular model of the specificity pocket of the hepatitis C virus protease: implications for substrate recognition. (pnas.org)
  • The crystal structure suggests that the side chains of Thr103, Leu48 and Leu194 are involved in substrate recognition. (rcsb.org)
  • The understanding of the molecular mechanisms of LC/F substrate recognition provides insights into the development of antitoxins and engineering novel BoNTs to optimize current therapy and extend therapeutic interventions. (biochemj.org)
  • Together with previous data, the results indicate that the majority of human CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes are nonspecific in their recognition of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2, although selectivity is apparent for some compounds. (aspetjournals.org)
  • To date, the details of substrate recognition and catalysis by FUT8 remain unknown. (sebbm.es)
  • Here, we report the crystal structure of FUT8 complexed with GDP and a biantennary complex N -glycan ( G0 ), which provides insight into both substrate recognition and catalysis. (sebbm.es)
  • The specific substrate-recognition function is conserved in human Sin1CRIM, which may represent a potential target for novel anticancer drugs that prevent activation of the mTORC2 substrates such as AKT. (elifesciences.org)
  • The structures reveal that the jumonji and C5HC2 domains contribute to the specific recognition of the H3R2 and H3Q5 to facilitate H3K4me3 substrate specificity. (plantcell.org)
  • Chemistry was successfully developed to replace the phosphate with a sulphonamide, but the compound was neither a substrate or an inhibitor, confirming the importance of the phosphate for molecular recognition. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • In order to elucidate the mechanism of substrate recognition by CaMKPase, we chemically synthesized a variety of phosphopeptide analogs and carried out kinetic analysis using them as CaMKPase substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We hypothesize that the presence of a rare codon, marked by the synonymous polymorphism, affects the timing of cotranslational folding and insertion of P-gp into the membrane, thereby altering the structure of substrate and inhibitor interaction sites. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1991) "Protein Kinase C Substrate and Inhibitor Characteristics of Peptides Derived From the Myristoylated Alanine-Rich C Kinase Substrate (MARCKS) Protein Phosphorylation Site Domain" The Journal of Biological Chemistry266(22):14390-14398. (patentgenius.com)
  • To this end, we developed and characterized a new mouse Abcg2-expressing subline that demonstrated efflux of known fluorescent ABCG2 substrates and increased resistance to mitoxantrone, which is reduced in the presence of the ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The similarity of the substrate and inhibitor specificity of human and mouse ABCG2 supports interpretation of mouse models in understanding the clinical, pharmacological, and physiologic roles of ABCG2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Specificity of substrate and inhibitor probes for human cytochromes P450 1A1 and 1A2. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The prototypic CYP1A xenobiotic inhibitor and substrate probes alpha-naphthoflavone, ellipticine, 7-ethoxycoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin all inhibited CYP1A1- and CYP1A2-mediated phenacetin O-deethylation as well as the high-affinity component of human liver phenacetin O-deethylase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Despite valuable insights from inhibitor‐bound rhomboid proteases, full understanding of intramembrane proteolysis requires structural views of protease‐substrate complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Structures of inhibitor‐bound complexes reveal the S1 to S4 subsites and explain GlpG substrate specificity. (embopress.org)
  • However, this compound became sensitive to the stereochemistry of the glycoside linkage (the β-anomer was neither substrate or inhibitor) and the structure of the lipid moiety (the hexadecyl derivatives were inhibitors). (lancs.ac.uk)
  • We also replaced the glucosamine by an acyclic analogue, but this also was inactive, both as a substrate and inhibitor. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • These findings add significantly to our understanding of substrate and inhibitor binding to the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase enzyme and will have a bearing on the design of future inhibitors. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Lirias: pKa modulation of the acid/base catalyst within GH32 and GH68: a role in substrate/inhibitor specificity? (kuleuven.be)
  • This provides a new mechanistic insight aiming at understanding the complex substrate and inhibitor specificities observed within the GH-J clan. (kuleuven.be)
  • The essential role of hemopexin carboxyl-domain exosites in the cleavage of noncollagenous substrates such as chemokines has also been recently revealed. (springer.com)
  • The potential role of collagen binding in regulating MMP-2 (gelatinase A) activation at the cell surface reveals unexpected consequences of substrate interactions that can lead to collagen cleavage and regulation of the activation and activity of downstream proteinases necessary to complete the collagenolytic cascade. (springer.com)
  • More advanced bioinformatics techniques were used recently to identify the substrate specificities of calpains and to develop a predictor for calpain cleavage sites, demonstrating the potential of combining empirical data acquisition and machine learning. (nih.gov)
  • We have analyzed the substrate specificity of OmpT by two complementary substrate filamentous phage display methods: (i) in situ cleavage of phage that display protease-susceptible peptides by Escherichia coli expressing OmpT and (ii) in vitro cleavage of phage-displayed peptides using purified enzyme. (asm.org)
  • An RNA-seq method for defining endoribonuclease cleavage specificity identifies dual rRNA substrates for toxin MazF-mt3. (uniprot.org)
  • Defining the physiological targets of a MazF toxin first requires the identification of its cleavage specificity, yet the current toolkit is antiquated and limited. (uniprot.org)
  • We describe a rapid genome-scale approach, MORE (mapping by overexpression of an RNase in Escherichia coli) RNA-seq, for defining the cleavage specificity of endoribonucleolytic toxins. (uniprot.org)
  • This work included chemical relaxation of specificities towards very frequent cleavage of DNA by Tsp GWI (Zylicz-Stachula et al. (springer.com)
  • While the relaxed cleavage was not as intense as in the previous cases, we discovered and characterised the inherent Secondary-Cognate-Specificity (SCS) of Tso I, which is further highly stimulated by the presence of SAC-an analogue, which is not a methyl group donor, thus can be considered both an analogue of the reaction product-S-adenosyl-homocysteine (SAH) and the cofactor SAM. (springer.com)
  • Other endoglycosidases, similar to PNGase F, include endoglycosidase F1, endoglycosidase F2, endoglycosidase F3, and endoglycosidase H. These endoglycosidases have more specificity in cleavage and are less sensitive to protein conformation than PNGase F. All of these endoglycosidases, including PNGase F, can be purified from an almond emulsion or flavobacterium meningosepticum. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the fundamental differences in substrate specificity between BMO and MMO, single amino acid substitutions were made to the hydroxylase α-subunit of BMO (BMOH-α). (oregonstate.edu)
  • The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase), and UDP- N -acetyl glucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be distinguished both by their amino acid sequences and by differences in substrate specificity. (frontiersin.org)
  • To assess the origin of specificity of Escherichia coli leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS) against the cognate aminoacylation product in editing, we followed binding and catalysis independently using cognate leucyl- and non-cognate norvalyl-tRNA Leu and their non-hydrolyzable analogues. (elsevier.com)
  • To gain insight into substrate binding by rhomboid proteases, we have synthesised a series of novel peptidyl‐chloromethylketone (CMK) inhibitors and analysed their interactions with Escherichia coli rhomboid GlpG enzymologically and structurally. (embopress.org)
  • HeLa cells expressing double- and triple-haplotype mutants also revealed results similar to those for the single mutants ( Fig. 1, A to C ). However, the P-gp inhibitors cyclosporin A (CsA) and verapamil (fig. S1) were less effective against all the substrates in cells expressing the double or triple haplotypes carrying C3435T relative to the wild type, the SNPs, or the haplotype that does not carry C3435T. (sciencemag.org)
  • 1976) "Synthetic Hexapeptide Substrates and Inhibitors of 3':5'-Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase" Proc. (patentgenius.com)
  • Taken together, these results provide a structural basis for understanding FTO substrate-specificity, and serve as a foundation for the rational design of FTO inhibitors. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Other putative human CYP1A xenobiotic substrates and inhibitors, including caffeine, 5- and 8-methoxypsoralen, nifedipine, paraxanthine, propranolol and theophylline similarly inhibited CYP1A1- and 1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation and the high-affinity human liver phenacetin O-deethylase. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 1. Substrate-specificity of the main protease of SARS coronavirus was systematically profiled at P5 to P3' positions, which provided insights into a rational design of peptidomimetic inhibitors. (hkmj.org)
  • Additionally, we have characterized the kinetics governing the specificity and discrimination of several widely administered Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTI's) used to combat HIV infection including 3TC (Lamivudine), FTC (Emtricitabine), and AZT (Zidovudine) for the wild-type polymerase and mutants with clinical resistance to these compounds. (utexas.edu)
  • Peptidyl chloromethylketones are substrate‐mimicking, mechanism‐based inhibitors of rhomboid protease. (embopress.org)
  • In GH32 members, some of the sugar substrates can also function as inhibitors, this regulatory aspect further adding to the complexity in enzyme functionalities within this family. (kuleuven.be)
  • These substrate preferences were used in the design of novel reverse hydroxamate TACE inhibitors with phenethyl and 5-methyl-thiophene-methyl side-chains at P1, and threonine and nitro-arginine at P2. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The results show that CYP2D6.17 exhibits altered substrate specificity compared with CYP2D6.1 and CYP2D6.2. (pubfacts.com)
  • Expanding upon the "Ca 1 a 2 X" box paradigm, bioinformatic analysis and biochemical studies of known substrates and related proteins indicate that sequences immediately upstream of the conserved cysteine residue may also play a role in substrate selectivity 8,18,19 . (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • However, as the total complement of prenylated proteins is unknown, the FTase substrates responsible for FTI efficacy are not yet understood. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Understanding the in vivo substrate selectivity of FTase and GGTase-I constitutes an important step towards characterizing the prenylated proteins involved in these pathways. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To generate this library, we searched the human genome database for proteins that contain a cysteine four amino acids from the C-terminus as a minimal specificity requirement. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 300 peptides screened, FTase catalyzed multipleturnover farnesylation of 106 peptides, consistent with the parent proteins serving as FTase substrates in vivo. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • These different classes of FTase substrates may reflect an unanticipated mechanism for regulating farnesylation, with potential impact on the localization, trafficking, and activity of prenylated proteins within the cell. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 1990) "Identification of Major Nucleolar Proteins As Candidate Mitotic Substrates of cdc2 Kinase" Cell 60:791-801. (patentgenius.com)
  • 2. Assay of jejunal transglutaminase activity with a variety of dietary proteins as acceptors showed high activity with gliadin, comparable with that of the standard substrate, dimethylcasein. (portlandpress.com)
  • These proteins are enriched for RXXS motifs, and may include substrates that mediate the function of Dbf2-Mob1 in mitotic exit and cytokinesis. (caltech.edu)
  • Conclusion/Significance: The good correlation with the FAEs substrate specificities that we have defined via our phylogenetic analysis not only suggests that FAEs are phylogenetically informative proteins but it is also a considerable step towards improved FAEs functional prediction. (chalmers.se)
  • This study places us closer to understanding the complex task of accommodating multiple substrate specificities in proteins of the thioredoxin superfamily and underscores the general applicability of ligand-induced stability to probe substrate specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • Recent studies have highlighted lysine acetylation as a general post-translational modification (PTM), andagrowing list of non-histone proteins has been identified as substrates for the KDACs, thereby extending their potential impactoncellular function. (dtu.dk)
  • In mammals, thirteen aquaporins (AQP0-12) have been characterized, but in lower vertebrates, such as fish, the diversity, structure and substrate specificity of these membrane channel proteins are largely unknown. (uib.no)
  • The results are discussed in terms of our more general understanding of substrate oxidation across other heme proteins, and the emerging role of the heme propionates at the gamma-heme edge. (le.ac.uk)
  • Ras subcellular localization defines extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 substrate specificity through distinct utilization of scaffold proteins. (hud.ac.uk)
  • We present evidence indicating that the underlying mechanism of this substrate selectivity is governed by the participation of different scaffold proteins that distinctively couple ERK1/2, activated at defined microlocalizations, to specific substrates. (hud.ac.uk)
  • These results disclose an unprecedented spatial regulation of ERK1/2 substrate specificity, dictated by the microlocalization from which Ras signals originate and by the selection of specific scaffold proteins. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The Walker A motif is best known for its presence in ATP- and GTP-binding proteins, and is also found in a variety of proteins with phosphorylated substrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanistic insight into the substrate specificity of 1,2-β-oligoglucan phosphorylase from Lachnoclostridium phytofermentans. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Acquired mutations in the MXR/BCRP/ABCP gene alter substrate specificity in MXR/BCRP/ABCP-overexpressing cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In light of the fact that mutations in Pgp derived from drug selection have been shown to alter substrate specificity (11) , the MXR/BCRP/ABCP mRNA from 11 cell lines was sequenced to determine whether mutations could explain the differing substrate specificities. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This extreme substrate specificity of EaDAcT distinguishes it from all other MBOATs which typically catalyze the transfer of much longer acyl groups. (k-state.edu)
  • These results suggest that amino acid 482 has a crucial role in MXR/BCRP/ABCP function and that mutation of a single amino acid residue significantly changes substrate specificity, thus altering the drug resistance phenotype. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Binding sites that have been designed to interact quite strongly with specific substrates are unlikely to bind nonspecifically to other substrates. (uu.nl)
  • Kinetic characterization with both aldehydes and the in vivo primary substrate acetaldehyde also enabled to correlate the alterations in substrate affinity with the different amino acid substitutions. (diva-portal.org)
  • Vascular peroxidase 1 catalyzes the formation of hypohalous acids: characterization of its substrate specificity and enzymatic properties. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular Characterization and Substrate Specificity of Nitrobenzene Dioxygenase from Comamonas sp. (asm.org)
  • Surprisingly, of the remaining peptides, 67 % were farnesylated under single-turnover conditions, suggesting that there are two classes of substrates for FTase with distinct reactivity profiles. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Analysis of the sequence preferences for these two classes of substrates illustrates a significant difference in FTase selectivity for the multiple- and single-turnover substrates, with the multiple-turnover substrates adhering closely to the current Ca 1 a 2 X model for FTase selectivity while the singleturnover substrates show distinct sequence preferences. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Neuronal palmitoyl acyl transferases exhibit distinct substrate specificity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Human paraoxonases (PON1, PON2, and PON3) are lactonases with overlapping and distinct substrate specificities. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We have previously speculated that this architecture might enable the Firmicutes BY-kinases to interact with alternative activators, and thus account for the observed ability of these kinases to phosphorylate several distinct classes of protein substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • The relatively low degree of sequence restriction at the site of phosphorylation suggests that Dbf2 achieves specificity by docking its substrates at a site that is distinct from the phosphorylation site. (caltech.edu)
  • The target of rapamycin (TOR) protein kinase forms multi-subunit TOR complex 1 (TORC1) and TOR complex 2 (TORC2), which exhibit distinct substrate specificities. (elifesciences.org)
  • G262V, S121G, F218Y, and F218I improve conversion of type I substrates, whereas G262A and IMP-1 improve conversion of type II substrates, indicating two distinct evolutionary adaptations from IMP-6. (caltech.edu)
  • Although these substrates resemble each other structurally, they are transported by distinct coupling mechanisms. (embopress.org)
  • PNGase F lacks selectivity for outer carbohydrate structure, resulting in broad specificity, making it a useful tool for investigating glycoprotein structure and function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons and related compounds by aerobic bacteria is often initiated by multicomponent dioxygenase systems that catalyze the addition of both atoms of molecular oxygen to the substrate. (asm.org)
  • Finally, using molecular dynamics, we generate a model of the Michaelis complex of the substrate bound in the active site of GlpG. (embopress.org)
  • Structure‐based modeling and molecular dynamics simulations allow generating a model of the Michaelis complex with the substrate. (embopress.org)
  • A substrate-inhibitory analysis with the use of deprenyl and chloroginyl provides an indirect evidence for the existence of a sole MAO molecular form in the Kamchatka crab hepatopancreas. (springer.com)
  • Because of the well-developed enzyme kinetics theories and assay methods, the screening for optimal substrates is often performed by using the in vitro enzymatic reaction system involving an enzyme and a substrate ( 5 ⇓ ⇓ - 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Mutations affecting substrate specificity of the Bacillus subtilis multidrug transporter Bmr. (asm.org)
  • The X-ray structure of N-methyltryptophan oxidase reveals the structural determinants of substrate specificity. (uniprot.org)
  • The analysis of the substrate binding site highlights the structural determinants that favour the accommodation of the bulky N-methyltryptophan residue in MTOX. (uniprot.org)
  • Opposing mechanisms govern substrate selectivity in the synthetic and editing site. (elsevier.com)
  • Structure-based mutational analysis of serine protease specificity has produced a large database of information useful in addressing biological function and in establishing a basis for targeted design efforts. (nih.gov)
  • We have built a model of the specificity pocket of the protease of hepatitis C virus on the basis of the known structures of trypsin-like serine proteases and of the conservation pattern of the protease sequences among various hepatitis C strains. (pnas.org)
  • The model allowed us to predict that the substrate of this protease should have a cysteine residue in position P1. (pnas.org)
  • Substrate preferences at P5 to P3 positions were important in enhancing the main protease activity. (hkmj.org)
  • We show that peptidyl‐CMKs derived from the natural rhomboid substrate TatA from bacterium Providencia stuartii bind GlpG in a substrate‐like manner, and their co‐crystal structures with GlpG reveal the S1 to S4 subsites of the protease. (embopress.org)
  • We further established the critical role for the A76 3′-OH group of the tRNA Leu in post-transfer editing, which supports the substrate-assisted deacylation mechanism. (elsevier.com)
  • Understanding the mechanism of action and substrate specificity of BoNTs is a prerequisite to develop antitoxin and novel BoNT-derived protein therapy. (biochemj.org)
  • Bacterial protein-tyrosine kinases (BY-kinases) are known to regulate different aspects of bacterial physiology, by phosphorylating cellular protein substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • This observation may contribute to explaining how specificity is established in the seemingly promiscuous interactions of BY-kinases with their cellular substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleoside kinases, which catalyse the phosphorylation of deoxyribonucleosides, are present in several copies in most multicellular organisms and therefore represent an excellent model to study gene duplication and specialisation of the duplicated copies through partitioning of substrate specificity. (ruc.dk)
  • Dependent on the initial staurosporine scaffold the organoruthenium complexes have provided marked specificity for the GSK3 and PIM kinases by the introduction of the metallic centre coordinated by a cyclopentadienyl ring and a CO ligand. (wallinside.com)
  • Nevertheless, the enzyme's high thermostability and broad acceptor specificity makes it a valuable candidate for industrial disaccharide synthesis. (ugent.be)
  • As the size of the ('3)H-oligosaccharide acceptor increases, the maximum velocity of the enzyme increases for chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin substrates. (illinois.edu)
  • The contributions of side chains that provide key interactions with the acceptor substrate, defining its specificity, have also been quantitated. (ubc.ca)
  • Critical issues examined include the function of water molecules in providing strength and specificity of binding, the extent to which binding subsites are interdependent, and the roles of polypeptide chain flexibility and distal structural elements in contributing to specificity profiles. (nih.gov)
  • Porcine liver carboxylesterase 1 specificity for amino acid esters of three nucleoside analogs [floxuridine, gemcitabine, and 2-bromo-5,6-dichloro-1-(β- d -ribofuranosyl) benzimidazole] was evaluated to assess optimal structural preferences for prodrug design. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mechanisms of intramembrane proteases are incompletely understood due to the lack of structural data on substrate complexes. (embopress.org)
  • Kinetic analyses of mutants of ST3Gal-I, in conjunction with structural studies, have confirmed the mechanistic roles of His302 and His319 as general acid and base catalysts, respectively, and have quantitated other interactions with the cytosine monophosphate-N-acetyl beta-neuraminic acid donor substrate. (ubc.ca)
  • Here, we show that the closely related cytochrome c peroxidase enzyme can duplicate the substrate binding properties of ascorbate peroxidase through the introduction of relatively modest structural changes at Tyr36 and Asn184. (le.ac.uk)
  • The enzyme oxidizes a wide range of substrates, and relative reaction rates with partially purified Oxygenase NBZ revealed a preference for 3-nitrotoluene, which was shown to be a growth substrate for JS765. (asm.org)
  • In addition, we have extended preliminary studies that showed that NBDO can oxidize a wide range of substrates ( 18 ). (asm.org)
  • The betaine-choline-carnitine (BCC) transporter family comprises secondary carriers that facilitate the transport of a wide range of substrates that bear trimethylammonium groups ([‐N + (CH 3 ) 3 ]), such as betaine, choline, l ‐carnitine and γ‐butyrobetaine ( Ziegler et al , 2010 ). (embopress.org)
  • It will also efficiently ligate many undesirable structures, including substrates containing gaps of one or more nucleotides and nicked substrates that contain DNA base pair mismatches (12-15). (neb.com)
  • Moreover, a single amino acid substitution enlarged the active-site cavity enough to accommodate the larger farnesyl pyrophosphate substrate and led to the efficient synthesis of sesquiterpenes, while alternate single substitutions of this critical amino acid yielded five additional terpene synthases. (plantcell.org)
  • The peptides were pooled, treated with purified microsomal TACE, and the reaction mixtures were passed over a streptavidin affinity column to remove unreacted substrate and the Nterminal biotinylated product. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 25 of the substrates were resynthesized as discrete peptides and assayed with recombinant TACE. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Studies of the substrate specificity, enzyme-substrate interactions, and the function of lipid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results suggest that the respective interactions of SalA and TkmA with PtkA favor phosphorylation of different protein substrates in vivo and in vitro . (frontiersin.org)
  • These results were rationalized based on the enzyme-substrate interactions observed in a homology model with a docked ligand. (ugent.be)
  • By exploiting the fact that the conformational stabilization of a protein is altered upon ligand binding due to specific interactions, and using an array of selectively chosen ligand analogs, one can quantify the contribution individual interactions have on specificity. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast, the absence of these stabilizing interactions with type II substrates may result in poor conversion. (caltech.edu)
  • Substrate specificity and redox potential of AhpC, a bacterial peroxiredoxin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that a bacterial PAL from Anabaena variabilis (AvPAL) displays significantly higher activity towards a series of non-natural substrates than previously described eukaryotic PALs. (manchester.ac.uk)
  • Kinetic analysis reveals that the major source of the substrate specificity lies in changes in K(m) for the various substrates. (nih.gov)
  • The substrate specificity was investigated in detail by measuring the relative activity on a range of alternative acceptors, applied in the reverse synthetic reaction, and determination of the kinetic parameters for the best acceptors. (ugent.be)
  • Kinetic analysis of OXA-46 revealed a specificity for narrow-spectrum substrates, including oxacillin, other penicillins (but not temocillin), and narrow-spectrum cephalosporins. (asm.org)
  • Substrate specificity of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase phosphatase: kinetic studies using synthetic phosphopeptides as model substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The MDR 1 gene product, the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter ABCB1 or P-gp, is an ATP-driven efflux pump contributing to the pharmacokinetics of drugs that are P-gp substrates and to the multidrug resistance of cancer cells ( 1 , 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • We cloned this gene and characterized its specificity to the length of the substrate using heterologous expression in Escheriсhia coli . (springer.com)
  • We observe that the dual-substrate phosphoribosyl isomerase A or priA gene, at which these pathways converge, appears to coevolve with the occurrence of trp and his genes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Despite the increase in gene copy number, zebrafish aquaporins mostly retain the substrate specificity characteristic of the tetrapod counterparts. (uib.no)
  • Many important experiments in proteomics including protein digestion, enzyme substrate screening, enzymatic labeling, etc., involve the enzymatic reactions in a complex system where numerous substrates coexists with an enzyme. (mcponline.org)
  • In such experiments, an enzyme was incubated with numerous competing substrates for enzymatic reaction which would generate numerous different products. (mcponline.org)
  • The state of art high throughput assay approaches like mass spectrometry-based proteomics are able to monitor the changing of substrates or products during the course of this type of complex enzymatic reactions. (mcponline.org)
  • Enzymatic properties and substrate sp. (ugent.be)
  • Van der Borght J, Chen C, Hoflack L, Van Renterghem L, Desmet T, Soetaert W. Enzymatic properties and substrate specificity of the trehalose phosphorylase from Caldanaerobacter subterraneus. (ugent.be)
  • The results described herein are a first step toward the systematic evaluation of a panel of dog P450s and the development of dog P450 isoenzyme-selective marker substrates, as well as providing useful information on prediction and extrapolation of the results from in vitro to in vivo and from dog to human. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Thus, both the in vitro and in vivo substrate specificity of Pho85 is determined by the cyclin partner. (asm.org)
  • Interestingly, the abrogation of the LeuRS specificity determinant threonine 252 did not improve the affinity of the editing site for the cognate leucine as expected, but instead substantially enhanced the rate of leucyl-tRNA Leu hydrolysis. (elsevier.com)
  • In doing so, we define the role of induced-fit in nucleotide specificity and mismatch discrimination. (utexas.edu)
  • Computer graphic analysis suggested that these substitutions would differentially affect arginine and lysine substrate binding of the enzyme. (nih.gov)
  • The novel human protein arginine N-methyltransferase PRMT6 is a nuclear enzyme displaying unique substrate specificity. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In most cases the results show flexibility in the P4 position, very high specificity for arginine in the P3 position and glycine in the P2 position, in accord with the sequence of the natural substrate, ubiquitin. (portlandpress.com)
  • Moreover, besides the effect of substrate entrance on its own, we strongly suggest that a highly conserved arginine residue (in the RDP motif) rather than the previously proposed Tyr motif (not conserved) provides the proton to increase the pKa of the acid-base catalyst. (kuleuven.be)
  • Sin1CRIM fused to a different TORC2 subunit can recruit the TORC2 substrate Gad8 for phosphorylation even in the sin1 null mutant of fission yeast. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here we show that RdgB protein and RdgB homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mouse, and human all possess deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase activity and that all four RdgB homologs have high specificity for dHAPTP and deoxyinosine triphosphate compared with the four canonical dNTPs and several other noncanonical (d)NTPs. (nih.gov)
  • Two independent drug-selected cell line pairs expressing human or mouse ABCG2 were compared for efflux of fluorescent substrates using flow cytometry. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para -phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. (mdpi.com)
  • The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. (mdpi.com)
  • In the present study, site-directed mutagenesis of both native and mutated ADH1 genes was performed in order to identify the key amino acids involved in this substrate shift, resulting in Adh1p-variants with different substrate specificities. (diva-portal.org)
  • Overall, the results presented in this work indicate that in addition to the P1 and P1′ positions, additional amino acids within a six-residue window (between P4 and P2′) contribute to the binding of substrate polypeptides to the OmpT binding site. (asm.org)
  • Calpains are intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent Cys proteases that play important roles in a wide range of biological phenomena via the limited proteolysis of their substrates. (nih.gov)
  • The result is a polymerase that is kinetically indistinguishable from the wild-type enzyme, but provides a signal to monitor changes in enzyme structure that result from conformational changes induced by substrate binding. (utexas.edu)
  • Super-reactive' substrate sequences were engineered, with more than a 2-fold increase in activity, by combining the best residue choices at P5 to P3 positions. (hkmj.org)
  • This change in specificity occurs even though residue 262 is remote from the active site. (caltech.edu)
  • We investigated the substrate specificities of five other point mutants resulting from single-nucleotide substitutions at positions near residue 262: G262A, G262V, S121G, F218Y, and F218I. (caltech.edu)
  • Their function is to regulate different cellular processes via phosphorylation of protein substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • That study had, however, not established whether MinD-dependent activation of PtkA can lead to specific phosphorylation of any of the PtkA substrates. (frontiersin.org)
  • The full spectrum of this substrate specificity, however, has not been clarified using standard sequence analysis algorithms, e.g., the position-specific scoring-matrix method. (nih.gov)
  • The components of MEN that act upstream of Dbf2-Mob1 have been characterized, but physiological substrates for Dbf2-Mob1 have yet to be identified. (caltech.edu)
  • The d-myo-inositol in the physiological substrate was successfully replaced by cyclohexanediol and is still a substrate for T. brucei GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This improved understanding of EaDAcT specificity confirms that the enzyme preferentially utilizes acetyl-CoA to acetylate sn-1,2-DAGs and will be helpful in engineering the production of acetyl-TAG with improved functionality in transgenic plants. (k-state.edu)
  • Herein, we demonstrate that the microenvironment from which Ras signals emanate determines which substrates will be preferentially phosphorylated by the activated ERK1/2. (hud.ac.uk)
  • These oligosaccharides were utilized as substrates in glucuronosyl transferase II assays. (illinois.edu)
  • The oligosaccharide substrates were quantitatively reduced and radiolabeled with NaB('3)H(,4) and then purified to homogeneity by high performance liquid chromatography for use in the enzyme assays. (illinois.edu)
  • Substrate specificity of glutamyl endopeptidase (GE): hydrolysis studies with a bovine α-casein preparation. (ul.ie)
  • Probing the substrate specificity of Trypanosom. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Alteration of a single amino acid changes the substrate specificity of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase. (semanticscholar.org)