Prostaglandins D: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They show pressor activity, are mediators of inflammation, and have potential antithrombotic effects.Prostaglandin D2: The principal cyclooxygenase metabolite of arachidonic acid. It is released upon activation of mast cells and is also synthesized by alveolar macrophages. Among its many biological actions, the most important are its bronchoconstrictor, platelet-activating-factor-inhibitory, and cytotoxic effects.Prostaglandins: A group of compounds derived from unsaturated 20-carbon fatty acids, primarily arachidonic acid, via the cyclooxygenase pathway. They are extremely potent mediators of a diverse group of physiological processes.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Intramolecular Oxidoreductases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the oxidation of one part of a molecule with a corresponding reduction of another part of the same molecule. They include enzymes converting aldoses to ketoses (ALDOSE-KETOSE ISOMERASES), enzymes shifting a carbon-carbon double bond (CARBON-CARBON DOUBLE BOND ISOMERASES), and enzymes transposing S-S bonds (SULFUR-SULFUR BOND ISOMERASES). (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.3.Receptors, Prostaglandin: Cell surface receptors that bind prostaglandins with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin receptor subtypes have been tentatively named according to their relative affinities for the endogenous prostaglandins. They include those which prefer prostaglandin D2 (DP receptors), prostaglandin E2 (EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors), prostaglandin F2-alpha (FP receptors), and prostacyclin (IP receptors).Prostaglandins E: (11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.Prostaglandins F: (9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-Trihydroxyprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGF(1 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11,alpha,13E,15S)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGF(2 alpha)); (5Z,9 alpha,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-9,11,15-trihydroxyprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGF(3 alpha)). A family of prostaglandins that includes three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. All naturally occurring PGF have an alpha configuration at the 9-carbon position. They stimulate uterine and bronchial smooth muscle and are often used as oxytocics.Hydantoins: Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.Dinoprostone: The most common and most biologically active of the mammalian prostaglandins. It exhibits most biological activities characteristic of prostaglandins and has been used extensively as an oxytocic agent. The compound also displays a protective effect on the intestinal mucosa.Prostaglandin Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit the action of prostaglandins.Prostaglandins H: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. The most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin H2.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Receptors, Prostaglandin E: Cell surface receptors which bind prostaglandins with a high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Prostaglandin E receptors prefer prostaglandin E2 to other endogenous prostaglandins. They are subdivided into EP1, EP2, and EP3 types based on their effects and their pharmacology.Prostaglandins A: (13E,15S)-15-Hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-10,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGA(1)); (5Z,13E,15S)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13-trien-1-oic acid (PGA(2)); (5Z,13E,15S,17Z)-15-hydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,10,13,17-tetraen-1-oic acid (PGA(3)). A group of naturally occurring secondary prostaglandins derived from PGE; PGA(1) and PGA(2) as well as their 19-hydroxy derivatives are found in many organs and tissues.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Prostaglandin H2: A cyclic endoperoxide intermediate produced by the action of CYCLOOXYGENASE on ARACHIDONIC ACID. It is further converted by a series of specific enzymes to the series 2 prostaglandins.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides: Precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. They are physiologically active compounds, having effect on vascular and airway smooth muscles, platelet aggregation, etc.Alprostadil: A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.Flushing: A transient reddening of the face that may be due to fever, certain drugs, exertion, stress, or a disease process.Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenases: Catalyzes reversibly the oxidation of hydroxyl groups of prostaglandins.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Prostaglandin Endoperoxides, Synthetic: Synthetic compounds that are analogs of the naturally occurring prostaglandin endoperoxides and that mimic their pharmacologic and physiologic activities. They are usually more stable than the naturally occurring compounds.Cyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP1 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GQ and the subsequently activates TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. Additional evidence has shown that the receptor can act through a calcium-dependent signaling pathway.Isomerases: A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.Prostaglandins, Synthetic: Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis that are analogs or derivatives of naturally occurring prostaglandins and that have similar activity.Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Prostaglandins E, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins E that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGE.Urticaria Pigmentosa: The most common form of cutaneous mastocytosis (MASTOCYTOSIS, CUTANEOUS) that occurs primarily in children. It is characterized by the multiple small reddish-brown pigmented pruritic macules and papules.Cyclooxygenase 1: A constitutively-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes.Prostanoic Acids: 2-Octylcyclopentaneheptanoic acids. The family of saturated carbon-20 cyclic fatty acids that represent the parent compounds of the prostaglandins.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP3 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GTP-BINDING PROTEIN ALPHA SUBUNIT, GI and subsequently inhibits ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Arachidonic AcidsThromboxane B2: A stable, physiologically active compound formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides. It is important in the platelet-release reaction (release of ADP and serotonin).Thromboxanes: Physiologically active compounds found in many organs of the body. They are formed in vivo from the prostaglandin endoperoxides and cause platelet aggregation, contraction of arteries, and other biological effects. Thromboxanes are important mediators of the actions of polyunsaturated fatty acids transformed by cyclooxygenase.Arachidonic Acid: An unsaturated, essential fatty acid. It is found in animal and human fat as well as in the liver, brain, and glandular organs, and is a constituent of animal phosphatides. It is formed by the synthesis from dietary linoleic acid and is a precursor in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.Mast Cells: Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.Eicosanoids: A class of compounds named after and generally derived from C20 fatty acids (EICOSANOIC ACIDS) that includes PROSTAGLANDINS; LEUKOTRIENES; THROMBOXANES, and HYDROXYEICOSATETRAENOIC ACIDS. They have hormone-like effects mediated by specialized receptors (RECEPTORS, EICOSANOID).Epoprostenol: A prostaglandin that is a powerful vasodilator and inhibits platelet aggregation. It is biosynthesized enzymatically from PROSTAGLANDIN ENDOPEROXIDES in human vascular tissue. The sodium salt has been also used to treat primary pulmonary hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PULMONARY).Lipocalin 1: A lipocalin that was orignally characterized from human TEARS. It is expressed primarily in the LACRIMAL GLAND and the VON EBNER GLANDS. Lipocalin 1 may play a role in olfactory transduction by concentrating and delivering odorants to the ODORANT RECEPTORS.Bulbourethral Glands: Glands situated on each side of the prostate that secrete a fluid component of the seminal fluid into the urethra.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Thromboxane A2: An unstable intermediate between the prostaglandin endoperoxides and thromboxane B2. The compound has a bicyclic oxaneoxetane structure. It is a potent inducer of platelet aggregation and causes vasoconstriction. It is the principal component of rabbit aorta contracting substance (RCS).Prostaglandins F, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandins F that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGF.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Prostaglandins B: Physiologically active prostaglandins found in many tissues and organs. They are potent pressor substances and have many other physiological activities.Prostaglandins G: A group of physiologically active prostaglandin endoperoxides. They are precursors in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Most frequently encountered member of this group is the prostaglandin G2.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Thromboxane-A Synthase: An enzyme found predominantly in platelet microsomes. It catalyzes the conversion of PGG(2) and PGH(2) (prostaglandin endoperoxides) to thromboxane A2. EC 5.3.99.5.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors: A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Niacin: A water-soluble vitamin of the B complex occurring in various animal and plant tissues. It is required by the body for the formation of coenzymes NAD and NADP. It has PELLAGRA-curative, vasodilating, and antilipemic properties.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Seminal Vesicles: A saclike, glandular diverticulum on each ductus deferens in male vertebrates. It is united with the excretory duct and serves for temporary storage of semen. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Histamine Release: The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.6-Ketoprostaglandin F1 alpha: The physiologically active and stable hydrolysis product of EPOPROSTENOL. Found in nearly all mammalian tissue.SRS-A: A group of LEUKOTRIENES; (LTC4; LTD4; and LTE4) that is the major mediator of BRONCHOCONSTRICTION; HYPERSENSITIVITY; and other allergic reactions. Earlier studies described a "slow-reacting substance of ANAPHYLAXIS" released from lung by cobra venom or after anaphylactic shock. The relationship between SRS-A leukotrienes was established by UV which showed the presence of the conjugated triene. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Leukotrienes: A family of biologically active compounds derived from arachidonic acid by oxidative metabolism through the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. They participate in host defense reactions and pathophysiological conditions such as immediate hypersensitivity and inflammation. They have potent actions on many essential organs and systems, including the cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system as well as the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system.Leukotriene C4: The conjugation product of LEUKOTRIENE A4 and glutathione. It is the major arachidonic acid metabolite in macrophages and human mast cells as well as in antigen-sensitized lung tissue. It stimulates mucus secretion in the lung, and produces contractions of nonvascular and some VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Meclofenamic Acid: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with antipyretic and antigranulation activities. It also inhibits prostaglandin biosynthesis.15-Hydroxy-11 alpha,9 alpha-(epoxymethano)prosta-5,13-dienoic Acid: A stable prostaglandin endoperoxide analog which serves as a thromboxane mimetic. Its actions include mimicking the hydro-osmotic effect of VASOPRESSIN and activation of TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES. (From J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1983;224(1): 108-117; Biochem J 1984;222(1):103-110)Phospholipases A2: Phospholipases that hydrolyze the acyl group attached to the 2-position of PHOSPHOGLYCERIDES.Leukotriene E4: A biologically active principle of SRS-A that is formed from LEUKOTRIENE D4 via a peptidase reaction that removes the glycine residue. The biological actions of LTE4 are similar to LTC4 and LTD4. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Phospholipases A: Phospholipases that hydrolyze one of the acyl groups of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.HydrazinesTime Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Saururaceae: A plant family of the order Piperales, subclass Magnoliidae class Magnoliopsida. Members contain sauristolactam, and aristololactam BII.Receptors, Thromboxane A2, Prostaglandin H2: A subclass of eicosanoid receptors that have specificity for THROMBOXANE A2 and PROSTAGLANDIN H2.Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are uniform in size and stainable by eosin.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Carbazoles: Benzo-indoles similar to CARBOLINES which are pyrido-indoles. In plants, carbazoles are derived from indole and form some of the INDOLE ALKALOIDS.Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.MaleatesGene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Calcimycin: An ionophorous, polyether antibiotic from Streptomyces chartreusensis. It binds and transports CALCIUM and other divalent cations across membranes and uncouples oxidative phosphorylation while inhibiting ATPase of rat liver mitochondria. The substance is used mostly as a biochemical tool to study the role of divalent cations in various biological systems.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.16,16-Dimethylprostaglandin E2: A synthetic prostaglandin E analog that protects the gastric mucosa, prevents ulceration, and promotes the healing of peptic ulcers. The protective effect is independent of acid inhibition. It is also a potent inhibitor of pancreatic function and growth of experimental tumors.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Selenium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.NitrobenzenesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Basophils: Granular leukocytes characterized by a relatively pale-staining, lobate nucleus and cytoplasm containing coarse dark-staining granules of variable size and stainable by basic dyes.Mice, Inbred C57BLReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the STOMACH. The two sacs are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Hematopoietic System: The blood-making organs and tissues, principally the bone marrow and lymph nodes.Arachidonate 5-Lipoxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of arachidonic acid to yield 5-hydroperoxyarachidonate (5-HPETE) which is rapidly converted by a peroxidase to 5-hydroxy-6,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoate (5-HETE). The 5-hydroperoxides are preferentially formed in leukocytes.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Acanthopanax: A plant genus of the family ARALIACEAE. Ciwujia extract, which is prepared from plants of this genus, contains ciwujianosides and is used to enhance PHYSICAL ENDURANCE.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Prostaglandins A, Synthetic: Analogs or derivatives of prostaglandin A that do not occur naturally in the body. They do not include the product of the chemical synthesis of hormonal PGA.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Aspirin: The prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)Tryptases: A family of neutral serine proteases with TRYPSIN-like activity. Tryptases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Mice, Inbred BALB CSkin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.beta-N-Acetylhexosaminidases: A hexosaminidase specific for non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Two specific mammalian isoenzymes of beta-N-acetylhexoaminidase are referred to as HEXOSAMINIDASE A and HEXOSAMINIDASE B. Deficiency of the type A isoenzyme causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Genitalia, Male: The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.Leukotriene D4: One of the biologically active principles of SRS-A. It is generated from LEUKOTRIENE C4 after partial hydrolysis of the peptide chain, i.e., cleavage of the gamma-glutamyl portion. Its biological actions include stimulation of vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, and increases in vascular permeability. (From Dictionary of Prostaglandins and Related Compounds, 1990)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.TritiumCloprostenol: A synthetic prostaglandin F2alpha analog. The compound has luteolytic effects and is used for the synchronization of estrus in cattle.Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Humic Substances: Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Polyphloretin Phosphate: A polymeric mixture of polyesters of phosphoric acid and phloretin. It blocks some cellular responses to prostaglandins.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Sleep: A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Testis: The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Hazardous Substances: Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Ibuprofen: A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.SOX9 Transcription Factor: A SOXE transcription factor that plays a critical role in regulating CHONDROGENESIS; OSTEOGENESIS; and male sex determination. Loss of function of the SOX9 transcription factor due to genetic mutations is a cause of CAMPOMELIC DYSPLASIA.Chemotaxis, Leukocyte: The movement of leukocytes in response to a chemical concentration gradient or to products formed in an immunologic reaction.Interleukin-1beta: An interleukin-1 subtype that is synthesized as an inactive membrane-bound pro-protein. Proteolytic processing of the precursor form by CASPASE 1 results in release of the active form of interleukin-1beta from the membrane.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Diagnosis, Dual (Psychiatry): The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Receptors, Epoprostenol: Cell surface receptors for EPOPROSTENOL. They are coupled to HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.5,8,11,14-Eicosatetraynoic Acid: A 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acid containing 4 alkyne bonds. It inhibits the enzymatic conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandins E(2) and F(2a).Tachykinins: A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Interleukin-1: A soluble factor produced by MONOCYTES; MACROPHAGES, and other cells which activates T-lymphocytes and potentiates their response to mitogens or antigens. Interleukin-1 is a general term refers to either of the two distinct proteins, INTERLEUKIN-1ALPHA and INTERLEUKIN-1BETA. The biological effects of IL-1 include the ability to replace macrophage requirements for T-cell activation.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate: A phorbol ester found in CROTON OIL with very effective tumor promoting activity. It stimulates the synthesis of both DNA and RNA.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Gastric Mucosa: Lining of the STOMACH, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. The surface cells produce MUCUS that protects the stomach from attack by digestive acid and enzymes. When the epithelium invaginates into the LAMINA PROPRIA at various region of the stomach (CARDIA; GASTRIC FUNDUS; and PYLORUS), different tubular gastric glands are formed. These glands consist of cells that secrete mucus, enzymes, HYDROCHLORIC ACID, or hormones.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Degranulation: The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.Street Drugs: Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Methacrylates: Acrylic acids or acrylates which are substituted in the C-2 position with a methyl group.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Uterine Contraction: Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Its derivatives are prostaglandins - physiologically active lipid substances. Prostanoic acid is not found in nature, but it ... Prostaglandin Saturated fat Fatty acid Fatty acid synthesis List of saturated fatty acids List of unsaturated fatty acids Hamon ... Prostaglandins. 12 (3): 399-401. doi:10.1016/0090-6980(76)90020-4. Suemune H, Kawahara T, Sakai K (February 1986). "Conversion ...
Prostaglandins are substances that can contribute to pain and swelling. Ibuprofen (Advil), paracetamol (Tylenol) and aspirin ... RWH could be caused by the release of prostaglandins which some people are not able to metabolize. ... are prostaglandin inhibitors. Aspirin and ibuprofen were shown to be effective at blocking both early and late stages of the ...
The resulting substances, called eicosanoids: prostaglandins (PG), leukotrienes (LT), lipoxins and thromboxane (TX); and ...
At normal conditions, traumatic acid is a solid, crystalline, water-insoluble substance. The salts and esters of traumatic acid ... Traumatic acid is used as an intermediate in prostaglandin synthesis. It is also a constituent of some pharmaceutical products ...
... this leads to decreased breakdown of prostaglandin E2 and elevated levels of this substance. The exact cause for sporadic ... The discovery of disorders in the prostaglandin metabolism in primary osteoarthropathy has led to suggestions that ...
... s are a class of physiologically active, lipid-like substances chemically related to prostaglandins. They occur ... The enzymes involved are at least partly the same as those responsible for prostaglandin synthesis. It is thought that ... For example, prostamide E2 is the ethanolamide of prostaglandin E2 (dinoprostone). The anti-glaucoma drug bimatoprost is a ... Woodward, D. F.; Liang, Y; Krauss, A. H. (2007). "Prostamides (prostaglandin-ethanolamides) and their pharmacology". British ...
Also, NSAIDs, such as aspirin, reduce a substance that protects the stomach called prostaglandin. These drugs used in a short ...
... a class of substances related to prostaglandins, but with an unknown mechanism of action. No prostamide receptor has been ... However, in contrast to these it does not act on the prostaglandin F receptor, nor on any other known prostaglandin receptor. ... see Prostaglandin F receptor#Clinical Significance).[verification needed] Side effects are similar to other prostaglandin ... The substance does not accumulate in the body. Plasma protein binding is 88%. Bimatoprost is metabolized by oxidation, N- ...
... s cause the hypothalamus to override a prostaglandin-induced increase in temperature. The body then works to lower ... Antipyretics (/ænti.paɪˈrɛ.tɪks/, from anti- 'against' and pyretic 'feverish') are substances that reduce fever. ...
Release of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators in the uterus cause the uterus to contract. These substances are ... Molecular compounds called prostaglandins are released during menstruation, due to the destruction of the endometrial cells, ...
Such substances include Prostaglandin-2 and Interleukin-1 which are both produced by the cyst itself. Epithelial cells will ... Substances released by the body's immune system as a result of the connective tissue breakdown, such as cytokines and growth ... Complementary response to inflammation Chemical reaction with Interleukin and Prostaglandin A non-vital tooth is necessary for ... b. Bone resorption caused by metabolism of acidic substances produced by cysts contributes to cyst growth. ...
"An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet ... "Indomethacin and Aspirin abolish Prostaglandin Release from the Spleen". Nature New Biology. 231 (25): 237-9. doi:10.1038/ ... "Identification of an enzyme in platelet microsomes which generates thromboxane A2 from prostaglandin endoperoxides". Nature. ... began at the Royal College of Surgeons where he collaborated in the discovery that aspirin-like drugs inhibit prostaglandin ...
One theory is that they inhibit the effects of substances, such as histamine, serotonin, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. As the ... the production of endogenous substances, such as endorphins, or interference with the production of interleukin-1 and tumour ...
Prostaglandins are hormone-like substances that affect the body in variety of ways, also regulating inflammatory mediation. An ... On its own, COX enzyme synthesizes prostaglandins, creating inflammation. In whole, the NSAIDs prevent the prostaglandins from ... That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue ... Anti-inflammatory, or antiinflammatory, refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation or ...
Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and other vasoactive substances have been hypothesized as powerful mediators of splanchnic ... Clewell JD, Walker-Renard P (1994). "Prostaglandins for the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome". Ann Pharmacother. 28 (1): 54-5 ...
"An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet ... This finding opened the door to a broader understanding of the role of prostaglandins in the body. Vane and a team from the ... During the 1960s a U.K. research team, headed by Professor John Vane began to explore the role of prostaglandins in anaphylaxis ... Vane discovered that aspirin and other oral anti-inflammatory drugs worked by inhibiting the synthesis of prostaglandins. ...
"An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet ... Prostacyclin (also called prostaglandin I2 or PGI2) is a prostaglandin member of the eicosanoid family of lipid molecules. It ... together with the prostaglandins and thromboxane). The series-3 prostaglandin PGH3 also follows the prostacyclin synthase ... prostaglandin I1, and prostaglandin I3". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 100 (24): 7690. doi:10.1021/ja00492a043. ...
Activated microglia release substances that excite pain-sensitive neurons, including prostaglandins and reactive oxygen species ... The following list contains a few of the numerous substances that are secreted when microglia are activated: Microglia activate ... As part of their response they secrete cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, and reactive oxygen species, which help to direct ... and prostaglandins. "Although LPS has been used as a classic activating agent, a recent study of rat microglia demonstrated ...
Several blood-borne substances, such as a few types of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, serotonin and bradykinin, are excreted ... Drugs and other substances can be absorbed, modified or excreted in the lungs. The lungs filter out small blood clots from ... They remove substances which deposit in the alveoli including loose red blood cells that have been forced out from blood vesels ... or other substances such as air (pneumothorax), blood (hemothorax), or rarer causes. These may be investigated using a chest X- ...
By 1971, Vane identified the chemical (which they called "rabbit-aorta contracting substance," or RCS) as a prostaglandin. In a ... Normally COX produces prostaglandins, most of which are pro-inflammatory, and thromboxanes, which promote clotting. Aspirin- ... Much of this is believed to be due to decreased production of prostaglandins and TXA2. Aspirin's ability to suppress the ... Vane, J. R. (23 June 1971). "Inhibition of Prostaglandin Synthesis as a Mechanism of Action for Aspirin-like Drug". Nature. 231 ...
99.8% of the substance are bound to plasma proteins. The enzyme mainly responsible for metabolization of bromfenac is CYP2C9, ... As an NSAID, bromfenac works by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis by blocking the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. It preferably ...
"for their discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances" [81]. Bengt I. Samuelsson Sweden ... "for his discoveries relating to synthetic compounds that inhibit the action of certain body substances, and especially their ...
However, the antibodies made in response to substances in semen attack one of the body's own cells, called T lymphocytes.[10] ... Prostaglandins - these help to stop the woman's immune system from rejecting the sperm. ... It is usually a white or yellowish, sticky substance made up of sperm (male cells for sexual reproduction) floating in a fluid ... Other substances such as citric acid, enzymes, flavins, phosphorylcholine, proteins and vitamin C. ...
... prostaglandins, tachykinins, substance P, and/or histamine, diarrhea, and heart problems. Because of serotonin's growth- ... This is due to the over-production of many substances, including serotonin, which are released into the systemic circulation, ... They do not produce sufficient hormonal substances to cause the carcinoid or other endocrine syndromes. In fact, they more ...
doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326.. *^ Matsuoka T, Narumiya S (2007). "Prostaglandin receptor signaling ... "Biological Roles of Resolvins and Related Substances in the Resolution of Pain". BioMed Research International. 2015: 830930. ... Cyclopentenone prostaglandins[edit]. Main article: Cyclopentenone prostaglandins. PGA1, PGA2, PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, and 15-deox-Δ12, ... Prostaglandin DP1 receptor 1, Prostaglandin DP2 receptor. allergy reactions; allodynia; hair growth. NSAIDs may target it to ...
There are foods and other substances that can interfere with absorption of thyroxine. Other substances that reduce absorption ... Certain other substances can cause adverse effects that may be severe. Combination of levothyroxine with ketamine may cause ...
PGX was 30 times more potent in this respect than prostaglandin E1. PGX contracted some gastrointestinal smooth muscle and ... to an unstable substance (PGX) that inhibited human platelet aggregation. ... An enzyme isolated from arteries transforms prostaglandin endoperoxides to an unstable substance that inhibits platelet ... A balance between formation of anti- and pro-aggregatory substances by enzymes could also contribute to the maintenance of the ...
... release of prostaglandin-like substance and the inhibitory effect of prostacyclin on the output of [3H]-norepinephrine ... Sympathetic nerve stimulation of the isolated rat heart release of a prostaglandin like substance and the inhibitory effect of ... Inhibitory effect of prostaglandin i 2 and prostaglandin e 2 on the release of tritiated norepinephrine evoked by potassium or ... Release of prostaglandin i 2 and prostaglandin e 2 from the perfused mesenteric arterial bed of normotensive and hypertensive ...
MeSH terms, Substances. MeSH terms. *Animals. *Bone and Bones/drug effects*. *Bone and Bones/enzymology ... Treatment with prostaglandin E2, a potent bone anabolic agent, for 11 days also increased expression of the transgene in bone, ... Parathyroid hormone and prostaglandin E2 preferentially increase luciferase levels in bone of mice harboring a luciferase ...
MeSH terms, Substances. MeSH terms. *3T3 Cells/metabolism. *Animals. *Cell Survival/drug effects ... Activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1 by minoxidil as a possible explanation for its hair growth-stimulating ... These NSAIDs are well-known inhibitors of both the cytoprotective isoform of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-1 (PGHS-1) and ...
Substances * Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit * Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myb ... Prostaglandin E2 regulates vertebrate haematopoietic stem cell homeostasis Nature. 2007 Jun 21;447(7147):1007-11. doi: 10.1038/ ... Here, we show that chemicals that enhance prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis increased HSC numbers, and those that block ... The conserved role for PGE2 in the regulation of vertebrate HSC homeostasis indicates that modulation of the prostaglandin ...
Growth Substances. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Hypoglycemic Agents. Bone Density Conservation Agents. Anti-Ulcer Agents. ... decreased prostaglandin E2 expression in Barretts esophagus [ Time Frame: after 2 or 12 weeks of vitamin D supplement ]. To ... Vitamin D Supplementation on 15-Prostaglandin Dehydrogenase Expression in Barretts Esophagus. This study has been completed. ... 15-Prostaglandin dehydrogenase expression differences between RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry [ Time Frame: after 2 or 12 weeks ...
Substances : Soup : CK(91) : AC(10), Vitamin C : CK(3397) : AC(792) ... 83 Curated Medical Research astracts associated with Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. FRIEND membership. $8 / month $75 / ... PRO MEMBERS get Unlimited Access to downloadable documents like this, with curated research on Prostaglandin PGE2 ... Some Example Abstracts on Prostaglandin PGE2 downregulation. These findings suggest that myricetin has therapeutic effects in ...
For instance, people viewing substances are generally most interested in viewing diseases that these substances have shown to ... Substances : Ginger. Diseases : Brain: Microglial Activation, Brain Inflammation , Inflammation, Lipopolysaccharide-Induced ... 13 Abstracts with Prostaglandin Antagonists Research. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ... Mangosteen inhibits histamine and inflammatory prostaglandin E2 synthesis.Sep 01, 2002. Click here to read the entire abstract ...
1997) CSF levels of prostaglandins, especially the level of prostaglandin D2, are correlated with increasing propensity towards ... 1989) Endogenous sleep-promoting substances and sleep regulation. Physiol Rev 69:605-670. ... 1994) Prostaglandin D2-sensitive, sleep-promoting zone defined in the ventral surface of the rostral basal forebrain. Proc Natl ... 1997) Expression of messenger RNA for the prostaglandin D receptor in the leptomeninges of the mouse brain. FEBS Lett 417:53-56 ...
In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays ... Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed step in prostanoid synthesis. Involved in the constitutive ... A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such ... In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays ...
... prostaglandins; anti-depressants; anti-psychotic substances; anti-emetics; imaging agents; biocidal/biostatic sugars such as ... anti-AIDS substances; anti-cancer substances; antimicrobials and/or antibiotics such as erythromycin, bacitracin, neomycin, ... anti-viral substances such as substances effective against hepatitis; enzyme inhibitors; hormones; neurotoxins; opioids; ... Any of a variety of medically and/or surgically useful optional substances can be added to, or associated with, the collagen ...
For use in cell culture applications for the study of prostaglandin regulated cell signaling and gene regulation. ... Prostaglandin E2 γ-irradiated, powder, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture Synonym: (5Z,11α,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta ... Prostaglandin E2 has been used to determine its effects on collagen gel contraction mediated by alveolar cell carcinoma cell ... Biochemicals and Reagents, Cell Culture, Eicosanoids (Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes), Fatty Acyls, Hormones, Lipids, ...
The role of prostaglandins (PGs) and the efficacy of PGE1 were investigated in hepatic resection. Patients who underwent ... No./Substance: 0/Lipid Peroxides; 363-24-6/Dinoprostone; 54397-85-2/Thromboxane B2; 57576-52-0/Thromboxane A2; 58962-34-8/6- ... Title: Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids Volume: 50 ISSN: 0952-3278 ISO Abbreviation: Prostaglandins ... The role of prostaglandins (PGs) and the efficacy of PGE1 were investigated in hepatic resection. Patients who underwent ...
The purpose of this study was to compare prostaglandin E2 gel and a low-dose infusion of oxytocin for cervical ripening before ... No./Substance: 0/Gels; 363-24-6/Dinoprostone; 50-56-6/Oxytocin ... 933107 - The use of oral prostaglandin e2 to induce labor at ... OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare prostaglandin E2 gel and a low-dose infusion of oxytocin for cervical ... STUDY DESIGN: A total of 158 women were randomized to receive either two intracervical doses of 0.5 mg prostaglandin E2 gel 6 ...
... prostaglandin explanation free. What is prostaglandin? Meaning of prostaglandin medical term. What does prostaglandin mean? ... Looking for online definition of prostaglandin in the Medical Dictionary? ... The new investigation proved unequivocally the presence of a prostaglandin ([PGA.. Prostaglandins and related substances in ... Related to prostaglandin: Prostaglandin analogue, prostaglandin E1, Prostaglandin E2. prostaglandin. [pros″tah-glan´din] any of ...
Prostaglandin agonist that selectively mimics effects of naturally occurring substances, prostamides. Exact mechanism of action ... Prostaglandin analogs. Class Summary. Increase uveoscleral outflow of aqueous. One mechanism of action may be through induction ... Prostaglandin F2-alpha analog and selective FP prostanoid receptor agonist. Exact mechanism of action unknown but believed to ... Prostaglandin F2-alpha analog and selective FP prostanoid receptor agonist. Exact mechanism of action unknown but believed to ...
Both substances are biosynthetized in living organisms from arachidonic acid via endoperoxide (PGH2). Thromboxans are formed in ... The prostaglandin derivatives of the invention which are 13-oxa-prostaglandins, can be represented by the general formula: ## ... This thus shows that when the oxa-prostaglandin of the invention was used there was a 77%-decrease in thromboxane B2 and a 47%- ... G. Preparation of the 13-oxa-prostaglandins of formula I. Synthon B or Synthon F is first treated with boron hydride in ...
substance P. investigational. unknown. inducer. Details. DB00041. Aldesleukin. approved. unknown. inducer. Details. ... Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2. Gene Name. PTGS2. Organism. Human. Amino acid sequence. ,lcl,BSEQ0021832,Prostaglandin G ... Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase activity. Specific Function. Converts arachidonate to prostaglandin H2 (PGH2), a committed ... prostaglandin metabolic process / positive regulation of prostaglandin biosynthetic process / bone mineralization / cellular ...
... substances that integrate the group of the prostaglandins. (Because of this, one of the best treatments for menstrual cramps is ... It is widely known that, at the somatic level, the uterine menstrual contractions are really caused by substances produced in ... We must remember that many toxic substances are continuously produced in the human body, from which they are also continuously ... The formation in the menstrual or even premenstrual endometrium of a group of substances named menstrual toxins or ...
Prostaglandin, any of a group of physiologically active substances having diverse hormonelike effects in animals. ... Prostaglandins were discovered in human semen in 1935 by the Swedish physiologist Ulf von Euler, who named them, thinking that ... biologically active substances is called prostaglandins. Prostaglandins are a complex group of fatty acid derivatives that are ... The inhibition of prostaglandin biosynthesis and the decrease in the production of thromboxane A2, a substance secreted by ...
Prostaglandin F2α was present in samples of blood obtained during normal spontaneous labour. The appearance of this substance ... Appearance of Prostaglandin F2α in Human Blood during Labour Br Med J 1968; 4 :618 ... Whether prostaglandins play a part in the process of normal labour is still conjectural. ... Blood samples from over 70 pregnant women have been examined for the presence of four prostaglandins. Samples obtained from ...
Prostaglandins- A substance released by uterine cells that cause uterine contractions.. Umbilical cord- The cord that attaches ... which cause the hormone-like substances known as prostaglandins. Prostaglandins contribute to the contraction of the uterus ... Prostaglandins -A substance released by uterine cells that cause contraction of the uterus. ... which stimulate the production of hormonelike substances known as prostaglandins that contribute to the contraction of the ...
These substances promote uterine contractions which help propel sperm towards an egg during sexual intercourse. Prostaglandins ... 1. A substance that is manufactured and secreted in very small quantities into the bloodstream by an endocrine gland or a ... hormone, secretory substance carried from one gland or organ of the body via the bloodstream to more or less specific tissues, ... a regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood or sap to stimulate specific ...
Release of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators in the uterus cause the uterus to contract. These substances are ... including prostaglandin I2 (prostacyclin; PGI2), prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α ... is generated from the action of prostaglandin E synthases on prostaglandin H2 (prostaglandin H2, PGH2). Several prostaglandin E ... Prostaglandin E synthaseEdit. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) - the most abundant prostaglandin[7] - ...
A prostaglandin, not NO, mediates endothelium-dependent dilation in ventral aorta of shark (Squalus acanthias). David H. Evans ... 1993) Vasodilator and vasoconstrictor substances produced by the endothelium. Rev. Physiol. Biochem. Pharmacol. 122:1-67. ... 1986) Hemodynamic, renal, and steroidogenic actions of prostaglandins E1, E2, A2 and F2∂ in European eel. Gen. Comp. Endocrinol ... 1988) Hormone studies in Myxine glutinosa: effects of the eicosanoids arachidonic acid, prostaglandin E1, E2, A2, F2∂, ...
  • The conserved role for PGE2 in the regulation of vertebrate HSC homeostasis indicates that modulation of the prostaglandin pathway may facilitate expansion of HSC number for therapeutic purposes. (nih.gov)
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  • In gastric epithelial cells, it is a key step in the generation of prostaglandins, such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays an important role in cytoprotection. (uniprot.org)
  • The types of prostaglandins are abbreviated PGE2, PGF2α, and so on. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In cancer cells, PTGS2 is a key step in the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), which plays important roles in modulating motility, proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. (drugbank.ca)
  • The appearance of this substance in the blood preceded the uterine contraction. (bmj.com)
  • It is widely known that, at the somatic level, the uterine menstrual contractions are really caused by substances produced in the endometrium during its regression and necrosis, substances that integrate the group of the prostaglandins. (mum.org)
  • Sarah Stock note that the findings that intracervical placement of a Foley catheter induces cervical ripening without inducing uterine contractions and is as successful as prostaglandin for inducing labor, could have important implications for women with a prior cesarean section. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Certain prostaglandins have a role in stimulating the uterine contractions of labor and birth. (medindia.net)
  • abstract = 'Prostaglandins are known to be involved in the regulation of local blood flow within human skeletal muscles during exercise, and the concentration of prostaglandins increases locally and systemically in response to exercise. (ku.dk)
  • In mammals, the vascular endothelium releases a variety of paracrine factors, including the vasodilatory prostaglandin (PG)I 2 and nitric oxide (NO), which is generally accepted as the major endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) in mammals. (physiology.org)
  • Nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) signaling pathways involved in endothelium-dependent responses of vascular smooth muscle cells in mammals. (physiology.org)
  • To elucidate the possible mechanisms of action, we investigated the involvement of the nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) groups, nitric oxide and prostaglandins. (hindawi.com)
  • These results support the alternative medicine use of geopropolis as gastroprotective and the activities observed show to be related to nitric oxide and prostaglandins production. (hindawi.com)
  • Peptic ulcers are the imbalance between the aggressive agents ( Helicobacter pylori and anti-inflammatory drugs, among others) and the protective agents (prostaglandins and nitric oxide, among others) [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The study revealed that infusion of NSAID reduced local prostaglandin E(2) concentration by approximately 30-50{\%} (4 cm away from the infusion) and 85{\%} (1 cm away from the infusion) compared with the contralateral (unblocked) thigh muscle. (ku.dk)
  • The CAS number is the substance numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstract Service, a division of the American Chemical Society, to substances registered in the CAS registry database. (europa.eu)
  • Besides, indications suggesting the production of other still non-precisely identified substances in the regressive and necrotic endometrium continue existing. (mum.org)
  • These results extend previous in vivo studies of abnormal renal vascular reactivity in SHR and more directly localize defective coupling of the prostaglandin and β-adrenergic receptors to a stimulatory G protein and cAMP production in freshly isolated preglomerular arteriolar cells of young SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • One hypothesis suggests that substances within the ejaculate may boost survival or offspring production. (biologists.org)
  • Infection of mammals by African trypanosomes is characterized by an upregulation of prostaglandin (PG) production in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. (rupress.org)
  • What type of drug is more likely to inhibit production of the pathological prostaglandins, while sparing the production of beneficial ones? (studystack.com)
  • Descriptions of eicosanoid and oxylipin production by eukaryotic microbes have been scattered through the literature for decades, but they have begun to receive significant attention in the last few years following reports of prostaglandins and prostaglandin-like molecules being produced by pathogenic helminths, protozoa, and fungi. (asm.org)
  • Men with male pattern baldness have higher levels of a molecule called prostaglandin D2 in the bald parts of their scalps than in parts still covered in hair, a new study shows. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The molecular formula identifies each type of element by its chemical symbol and identifies the number of atoms of each element found in one discrete molecule of the substance. (europa.eu)
  • Heavily studied in recent years, prostaglandin A1 has been demonstrated to dilate the blood vessels present in the kidneys and to increase the amount of sodium excreted with the urine. (fsu.edu)
  • Using the Texas field cricket, Gryllus texensis , we investigated the sexual transfer of prostaglandin E 2 , an important mediator of invertebrate reproduction. (biologists.org)