An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.
A family of biologically active peptides sharing a common conserved C-terminal sequence, -Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or a branched aliphatic amino acid. Members of this family have been found in mammals, amphibians, and mollusks. Tachykinins have diverse pharmacological actions in the central nervous system and the cardiovascular, genitourinary, respiratory, and gastrointestinal systems, as well as in glandular tissues. This diversity of activity is due to the existence of three or more subtypes of tachykinin receptors.
Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ B with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the BRONCHI.
An oligopeptide isolated from the skin of Physalaemus fuscumaculatus, a South American frog. It is a typical kinin, resembling SUBSTANCE P in structure and action and has been proposed as a sialagogue, antihypertensive, and vasodilator.
Cell surface proteins that bind TACHYKININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Three classes of tachykinin receptors have been characterized, the NK-1; NK-2; and NK-3; which prefer, respectively, SUBSTANCE P; NEUROKININ A; and NEUROKININ B.
A peptide extracted from the posterior salivary glands of certain small octopi (Eledone spp., Mollusca), or obtained by synthesis. Its actions resemble those of SUBSTANCE P; it is a potent vasodilator and increases capillary permeability. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1364)
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Cell surface receptors that bind signalling molecules released by neurons and convert these signals into intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Neurotransmitter is used here in its most general sense, including not only messengers that act to regulate ion channels, but also those which act on second messenger systems and those which may act at a distance from their release sites. Included are receptors for neuromodulators, neuroregulators, neuromediators, and neurohumors, whether or not located at synapses.
Quinuclidines are organic compounds consisting of a tricyclic structure with a three-membered ring fused to a piperidine ring, often used as building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules.
A mammalian neuropeptide of 10 amino acids that belongs to the tachykinin family. It is similar in structure and action to SUBSTANCE P and NEUROKININ A with the ability to excite neurons, dilate blood vessels, and contract smooth muscles, such as those in the URINARY BLADDER and UTERUS.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A highly basic, 28 amino acid neuropeptide released from intestinal mucosa. It has a wide range of biological actions affecting the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and respiratory systems and is neuroprotective. It binds special receptors (RECEPTORS, VASOACTIVE INTESTINAL PEPTIDE).
A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin B (neurokinin beta, neuromedin K) over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G-protein coupled receptor superfamily. They have been found in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.
Dodecapeptide tachykinin found in the central nervous system of the amphibian Kassina senegalensis. It is similar in structure and action to other tachykinins, but is especially effective in contracting smooth muscle tissue and stimulating the micturition reflex.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
Biphenyl compounds are organic substances consisting of two phenyl rings connected by a single covalent bond, and can exhibit various properties and uses, including as intermediates in chemical synthesis, components in plastics and dyes, and as additives in fuels.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A potent inhibitor of membrane metalloendopeptidase (ENKEPHALINASE). Thiorphan potentiates morphine-induced ANALGESIA and attenuates naloxone-precipitated withdrawal symptoms.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A tetradecapeptide originally obtained from the skins of toads Bombina bombina and B. variegata. It is also an endogenous neurotransmitter in many animals including mammals. Bombesin affects vascular and other smooth muscle, gastric secretion, and renal circulation and function.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of the endogenous pentapeptides with morphine-like activity. It differs from LEU-ENKEPHALIN by the amino acid METHIONINE in position 5. Its first four amino acid sequence is identical to the tetrapeptide sequence at the N-terminal of BETA-ENDORPHIN.
A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Organic matter in a state of advanced decay, after passing through the stages of COMPOST and PEAT and before becoming lignite (COAL). It is composed of a heterogenous mixture of compounds including phenolic radicals and acids that polymerize and are not easily separated nor analyzed. (E.A. Ghabbour & G. Davies, eds. Humic Substances, 2001).
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
Elements, compounds, mixtures, or solutions that are considered severely harmful to human health and the environment. They include substances that are toxic, corrosive, flammable, or explosive.
Sensory ganglia located on the dorsal spinal roots within the vertebral column. The spinal ganglion cells are pseudounipolar. The single primary branch bifurcates sending a peripheral process to carry sensory information from the periphery and a central branch which relays that information to the spinal cord or brain.
Enzyme that is a major constituent of kidney brush-border membranes and is also present to a lesser degree in the brain and other tissues. It preferentially catalyzes cleavage at the amino group of hydrophobic residues of the B-chain of insulin as well as opioid peptides and other biologically active peptides. The enzyme is inhibited primarily by EDTA, phosphoramidon, and thiorphan and is reactivated by zinc. Neprilysin is identical to common acute lymphoblastic leukemia antigen (CALLA Antigen), an important marker in the diagnosis of human acute lymphocytic leukemia. There is no relationship with CALLA PLANT.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the URETER to the KIDNEY CALICES.
The co-existence of a substance abuse disorder with a psychiatric disorder. The diagnostic principle is based on the fact that it has been found often that chemically dependent patients also have psychiatric problems of various degrees of severity.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Drugs obtained and often manufactured illegally for the subjective effects they are said to produce. They are often distributed in urban areas, but are also available in suburban and rural areas, and tend to be grossly impure and may cause unexpected toxicity.
Ganglia of the sympathetic nervous system including the paravertebral and the prevertebral ganglia. Among these are the sympathetic chain ganglia, the superior, middle, and inferior cervical ganglia, and the aorticorenal, celiac, and stellate ganglia.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
A potent mast cell degranulator. It is involved in histamine release.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
The escape of diagnostic or therapeutic material from the vessel into which it is introduced into the surrounding tissue or body cavity.
An antihypertensive agent that acts by inhibiting selectively transmission in post-ganglionic adrenergic nerves. It is believed to act mainly by preventing the release of norepinephrine at nerve endings and causes depletion of norepinephrine in peripheral sympathetic nerve terminals as well as in tissues.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The most anterior portion of the uveal layer, separating the anterior chamber from the posterior. It consists of two layers - the stroma and the pigmented epithelium. Color of the iris depends on the amount of melanin in the stroma on reflection from the pigmented epithelium.
The secretion of histamine from mast cell and basophil granules by exocytosis. This can be initiated by a number of factors, all of which involve binding of IgE, cross-linked by antigen, to the mast cell or basophil's Fc receptors. Once released, histamine binds to a number of different target cell receptors and exerts a wide variety of effects.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
One of two ganglionated neural networks which together form the ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myenteric (Auerbach's) plexus is located between the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the gut. Its neurons project to the circular muscle, to other myenteric ganglia, to submucosal ganglia, or directly to the epithelium, and play an important role in regulating and patterning gut motility. (From FASEB J 1989;3:127-38)
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Detection of drugs that have been abused, overused, or misused, including legal and illegal drugs. Urine screening is the usual method of detection.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The property of blood capillary ENDOTHELIUM that allows for the selective exchange of substances between the blood and surrounding tissues and through membranous barriers such as the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER; BLOOD-AQUEOUS BARRIER; BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER; BLOOD-NERVE BARRIER; BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER; and BLOOD-TESTIS BARRIER. Small lipid-soluble molecules such as carbon dioxide and oxygen move freely by diffusion. Water and water-soluble molecules cannot pass through the endothelial walls and are dependent on microscopic pores. These pores show narrow areas (TIGHT JUNCTIONS) which may limit large molecule movement.
Granulated cells that are found in almost all tissues, most abundantly in the skin and the gastrointestinal tract. Like the BASOPHILS, mast cells contain large amounts of HISTAMINE and HEPARIN. Unlike basophils, mast cells normally remain in the tissues and do not circulate in the blood. Mast cells, derived from the bone marrow stem cells, are regulated by the STEM CELL FACTOR.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification, such as cleavage, to produce the active functional protein or peptide hormone.

Activity-dependent metaplasticity of inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission in the lamprey spinal cord locomotor network. (1/2566)

Paired intracellular recordings have been used to examine the activity-dependent plasticity and neuromodulator-induced metaplasticity of synaptic inputs from identified inhibitory and excitatory interneurons in the lamprey spinal cord. Trains of spikes at 5-20 Hz were used to mimic the frequency of spiking that occurs in network interneurons during NMDA or brainstem-evoked locomotor activity. Inputs from inhibitory and excitatory interneurons exhibited similar activity-dependent changes, with synaptic depression developing during the spike train. The level of depression reached was greater with lower stimulation frequencies. Significant activity-dependent depression of inputs from excitatory interneurons and inhibitory crossed caudal interneurons, which are central elements in the patterning of network activity, usually developed between the fifth and tenth spikes in the train. Because these interneurons typically fire bursts of up to five spikes during locomotor activity, this activity-dependent plasticity will presumably not contribute to the patterning of network activity. However, in the presence of the neuromodulators substance P and 5-HT, significant activity-dependent metaplasticity of these inputs developed over the first five spikes in the train. Substance P induced significant activity-dependent depression of inhibitory but potentiation of excitatory interneuron inputs, whereas 5-HT induced significant activity-dependent potentiation of both inhibitory and excitatory interneuron inputs. Because these metaplastic effects are consistent with the substance P and 5-HT-induced modulation of the network output, activity-dependent metaplasticity could be a potential mechanism underlying the coordination and modulation of rhythmic network activity.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides in a biphasic membrane mimic. (2/2566)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in a TIP3P water/CCl4 biphasic solvent system as a mimic for the water-membrane system. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) in the equilibration stage of the simulation. The starting orientation/position of the peptides for the MD simulation was either parallel to the water/CCl4 interface or in a perpendicular/insertion mode. In both cases the peptides equilibrated and adopted a near-parallel orientation within approximately 250 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained in the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbone of nearly all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions with the hydrophobic phase come from the hydrophobic interactions of the side chains of Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, and Phe-7, Leu-10, Met-11 and, to a lesser extent, Tyr-8 in SP-Y8. Concerted conformational transitions took place in the time frame of hundreds of picoseconds. The concertedness of the transition was due to the tendency of the peptide to maintain the necessary secondary structure to position the peptide properly with respect to the water/CCl4 interface.  (+info)

Molecular dynamics study of substance P peptides partitioned in a sodium dodecylsulfate micelle. (3/2566)

Two neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and SP-tyrosine-8 (SP-Y8), have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in an explicit sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) micelle. Initially, distance restraints derived from NMR nuclear Overhauser enhancements (NOE) were incorporated in the restrained MD (RMD) during the equilibration stage of the simulation. It was shown that when SP-Y8 was initially placed in an insertion (perpendicular) configuration, the peptide equilibrated to a surface-bound (parallel) configuration in approximately 450 ps. After equilibration, the conformation and orientation of the peptides, the solvation of both the backbone and the side chain of the residues, hydrogen bonding, and the dynamics of the peptides were analyzed from trajectories obtained from the RMD or the subsequent free MD (where the NOE restraints were removed). These analyses showed that the peptide backbones of all residues are either solvated by water or are hydrogen-bonded. This is seen to be an important factor against the insertion mode of interaction. Most of the interactions come from the hydrophobic interaction between the side chains of Lys-3, Pro-4, Phe-7, Phe-8, Leu-10, and Met-11 for SP, from Lys-3, Phe-7, Leu-10, and Met-11 in SP-Y8, and the micellar interior. Significant interactions, electrostatic and hydrogen bonding, between the N-terminal residues, Arg-Pro-Lys, and the micellar headgroups were observed. These latter interactions served to affect both the structure and, especially, the flexibility, of the N-terminus. The results from simulation of the same peptides in a water/CCl4 biphasic cell were compared with the results of the present study, and the validity of using the biphasic system as an approximation for peptide-micelle or peptide-bilayer systems is discussed.  (+info)

Two affinities for a single antagonist at the neuronal NK1 tachykinin receptor: evidence from quantitation of receptor endocytosis. (4/2566)

1. In smooth muscle contractility assays, many NK1 receptor (NK1r) antagonists inhibit responses to the neurotransmitter, substance P (SP), and its analogue, septide, with markedly different potency, leading to the proposal that there is a septide-preferring receptor related to the NK1r. 2. We used fluorescence immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy to visualize agonist-induced NK1r endocytosis and analyse agonist/antagonist interactions at native NK1r in neurons of the myenteric plexus of guinea-pig ileum. 3. SP and septide gave sigmoid log concentration-response curves and were equipotent in inducing NK1r endocytosis. 4. The NK1r antagonists, CP-99994 (2S,3S)-3-(2-methoxybenzyl)amino-2-phenylpiperidine dihydrochloride and MEN-10581, cyclo(Leu,[CH2NH]Lys(benzyloxycarbonyl)-Gln-Trp-Phe-betaAla) were both more potent in inhibiting endocytosis (50 x and 8 x greater respectively) against septide than against SP. 5. The results suggest that SP and septide interact differently with the NK1r, and that a single antagonist can exhibit different affinities at a single NK1r population, depending on the agonist with which it competes. Thus it may not be necessary to posit a separate septide-preferring tachykinin receptor.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive C-fiber-mediated protective responses in ozone inhalation in rats. (5/2566)

To assess the role of lung sensory C fibers during and after inhalation of 1 part/million ozone for 8 h, we compared breathing pattern responses and epithelial injury-inflammation-repair in rats depleted of C fibers by systemic administration of capsaicin as neonates and in vehicle-treated control animals. Capsaicin-treated rats did not develop ozone-induced rapid, shallow breathing. Capsaicin-treated rats showed more severe necrosis in the nasal cavity and greater inflammation throughout the respiratory tract than did control rats exposed to ozone. Incorporation of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (a marker of DNA synthesis associated with proliferation) into terminal bronchiolar epithelial cells was not significantly affected by capsaicin treatment in rats exposed to ozone. However, when normalized to the degree of epithelial necrosis present in each rat studied, there was less 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling in the terminal bronchioles of capsaicin-treated rats. These observations suggest that the ozone-induced release of neuropeptides does not measurably contribute to airway inflammation but may play a role in modulating basal and reparative airway epithelial cell proliferation.  (+info)

Real-time visualization of the cellular redistribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 and beta-arrestin 2 during homologous desensitization of the substance P receptor. (6/2566)

The substance P receptor (SPR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays a key role in pain regulation. The SPR desensitizes in the continued presence of agonist, presumably via mechanisms that implicate G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and beta-arrestins. The temporal relationship of these proposed biochemical events has never been established for any GPCR other than rhodopsin beyond the resolution provided by biochemical assays. We investigate the real-time activation and desensitization of the human SPR in live HEK293 cells using green fluorescent protein conjugates of protein kinase C, GRK2, and beta-arrestin 2. The translocation of protein kinase C betaII-green fluorescent protein to and from the plasma membrane in response to substance P indicates that the human SPR becomes activated within seconds of agonist exposure, and the response desensitizes within 30 s. This desensitization process coincides with a redistribution of GRK2 from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, followed by a robust redistribution of beta-arrestin 2 and a profound change in cell morphology that occurs after 1 min of SPR stimulation. These data establish a role for GRKs and beta-arrestins in homologous desensitization of the SPR and provide the first visual and temporal resolution of the sequence of events underlying homologous desensitization of a GPCR in living cells.  (+info)

Neurogenic plasma leakage in mouse airways. (7/2566)

1. This study sought to determine whether neurogenic inflammation occurs in the airways by examining the effects of capsaicin or substance P on microvascular plasma leakage in the trachea and lungs of male pathogen-free C57BL/6 mice. 2. Single bolus intravenous injections of capsaicin (0.5 and 1 micromol kg(-1), i.v.) or substance P (1, 10 and 37 nmol kg(-10, i.v.) failed to induce significant leakage in the trachea, assessed as extravasation of Evans blue dye, but did induce leakage in the urinary bladder and skin. 3. Pretreatment with captopril (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), either alone or in combination with phosphoramidon (2.5 mg kg(-1), i.v.), a selective inhibitor of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), increased baseline leakage of Evans blue in the absence of any exogenous inflammatory mediator. The increase was reversed by the bradykinin B2 receptor antagonist Hoe 140 (0.1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 4. After pretreatment with phosphoramidon and captopril, capsaicin increased the Evans blue leakage above the baseline in the trachea, but not in the lung. This increase was reversed by the tachykinin (NK1) receptor antagonist SR 140333 (0.7 mg kg(-1), i.v.), but not by the NK2 receptor antagonist SR 48968 (1 mg kg(-1), i.v.). 5. Experiments using Monastral blue pigment as a tracer localized the leakage to postcapillary venules in the trachea and intrapulmonary bronchi, although the labelled vessels were less numerous in mice than in comparably treated rats. Blood vessels of the pulmonary circulation were not labelled. 6. We conclude that neurogenic inflammation can occur in airways of pathogen-free mice, but only after the inhibition of enzymes that normally degrade inflammatory peptides. Neurogenic inflammation does not involve the pulmonary microvasculature.  (+info)

The novel analgesic compound OT-7100 (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimid ine) attenuates mechanical nociceptive responses in animal models of acute and peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia. (8/2566)

We investigated the effects of OT-7100, a novel analgesic compound (5-n-butyl-7-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoylamino)pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidi ne), on prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis in vitro, acute hyperalgesia induced by yeast and substance P in rats and hyperalgesia in rats with a chronic constriction injury to the sciatic nerve (Bennett model), which is a model for peripheral neuropathic pain. OT-7100 did not inhibit prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis at 10(-8)-10(-4) M. Single oral doses of 3 and 10 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by yeast. Single oral doses of 0.1, 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg OT-7100 were effective on the hyperalgesia induced by substance P in which indomethacin had no effect. Repeated oral administration of OT-7100 (10 and 30 mg/kg) was effective in normalizing the mechanical nociceptive threshold in the injured paw without affecting the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw in the Bennett model. Indomethacin had no effect in this model. While amitriptyline (10 and 30 mg/kg) and clonazepam (3 and 10 mg/kg) significantly normalized the nociceptive threshold in the injured paw, they also increased the nociceptive threshold in the uninjured paw. These results suggest that OT-7100 is a new type of analgesic with the effect of normalizing the nociceptive threshold in peripheral neuropathic hyperalgesia.  (+info)

Substance P is an undecapeptide neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, belonging to the tachykinin family of peptides. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and is primarily found in sensory neurons. Substance P plays a crucial role in pain transmission, inflammation, and various autonomic functions. It exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, which are expressed on the surface of target cells. Apart from nociception and inflammation, Substance P is also involved in regulating emotional behaviors, smooth muscle contraction, and fluid balance.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that bind to the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, neuroinflammation, and emesis (vomiting).

NK-1 receptors are activated by substance P, which binds to the receptor's extracellular domain and triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various intracellular signaling pathways. This activation can ultimately result in the modulation of neuronal excitability, neurotransmitter release, and gene expression.

In addition to their role in normal physiological processes, NK-1 receptors have also been implicated in a number of pathological conditions, including pain, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders. As such, NK-1 receptor antagonists have been developed as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of these conditions.

Tachykinins are a group of neuropeptides that share a common carboxy-terminal sequence and bind to G protein-coupled receptors, called tachykinin receptors. They are widely distributed in the nervous system and play important roles as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in various physiological functions, such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and inflammation. The most well-known tachykinins include substance P, neurokinin A, and neuropeptide K. They are involved in many pathological conditions, including chronic pain, neuroinflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that block the action of substance P, a neuropeptide involved in pain transmission and inflammation. These drugs work by binding to NK-1 receptors found on nerve cells, preventing substance P from activating them and transmitting pain signals. NK-1 receptor antagonists have been studied for their potential use in treating various conditions associated with pain and inflammation, such as migraine headaches, depression, and irritable bowel syndrome. Some examples of NK-1 receptor antagonists include aprepitant, fosaprepitant, and rolapitant.

Neurokinin A (NKA) is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin B. It is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and plays a role in various physiological functions such as pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and immune response regulation. NKA exerts its effects by binding to neurokinin 1 (NK-1) receptors, although it has lower affinity for these receptors compared to substance P. It is involved in several pathological conditions, including inflammation, neurogenic pain, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Physalaemin is defined as a polypeptide toxin that is derived from the skin of certain frog species, specifically in the genus Physalaemus. This peptide contains 24 amino acids and has been found to have various pharmacological effects, including acting as a potent vasodilator, smooth muscle relaxant, and hypotensive agent. It also interacts with opioid receptors in the brain and can produce analgesic (pain-relieving) and hyperalgesic (increased sensitivity to pain) effects. Physalaemin is primarily used in research settings for its pharmacological properties and as a tool to study the structure and function of opioid receptors.

Tachykinin receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that bind and respond to tachykinins, which are neuropeptides involved in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, smooth muscle contraction, vasodilation, and pain perception. There are three main subtypes of tachykinin receptors: NK1, NK2, and NK3.

NK1 receptors primarily bind substance P, a neuropeptide that plays a role in neurotransmission, inflammation, and pain signaling. NK2 receptors mainly bind neurokinin A (NKA) and are involved in smooth muscle contraction, particularly in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. NK3 receptors primarily bind neurokinin B (NKB) and are found in the central nervous system, where they play a role in regulating body temperature, feeding behavior, and sexual function.

Tachykinin receptors have been implicated in various pathological conditions such as chronic pain, inflammation, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders. As a result, tachykinin receptor antagonists are being developed as potential therapeutic agents for these conditions.

Eledoisin is a tachykinin peptide that is found in the venom of certain marine cephalopods, such as the octopus and squid. It is a potent vasodilator and smooth muscle stimulant, and has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in conditions such as asthma, bronchitis, and cardiovascular disease. However, it has not yet been approved for use in medical treatments.

Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide substance P, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including pain transmission, smooth muscle contraction, and neuroinflammation.

NK-2 receptors are involved in the development of hyperalgesia (an increased sensitivity to pain) and allodynia (pain caused by a stimulus that does not normally provoke pain). They have also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and neurodegenerative disorders.

NK-2 receptor antagonists have been developed and investigated for their potential therapeutic use in the treatment of various pain disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, and other medical conditions.

Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neurotransmitter and vasodilator peptide that is widely distributed in the nervous system. It is encoded by the calcitonin gene, which also encodes calcitonin and catestatin. CGRP is produced and released by sensory nerves and plays important roles in pain transmission, modulation of inflammation, and regulation of blood flow.

CGRP exists as two forms, α-CGRP and β-CGRP, which differ slightly in their amino acid sequences but have similar biological activities. α-CGRP is found primarily in the central and peripheral nervous systems, while β-CGRP is expressed mainly in the gastrointestinal tract.

CGRP exerts its effects by binding to specific G protein-coupled receptors, which are widely distributed in various tissues, including blood vessels, smooth muscles, and sensory neurons. Activation of CGRP receptors leads to increased intracellular cyclic AMP levels, activation of protein kinase A, and subsequent relaxation of vascular smooth muscle, resulting in vasodilation.

CGRP has been implicated in several clinical conditions, including migraine, cluster headache, and inflammatory pain. Inhibition of CGRP signaling has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of these disorders.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Capsaicin is defined in medical terms as the active component of chili peppers (genus Capsicum) that produces a burning sensation when it comes into contact with mucous membranes or skin. It is a potent irritant and is used topically as a counterirritant in some creams and patches to relieve pain. Capsaicin works by depleting substance P, a neurotransmitter that relays pain signals to the brain, from nerve endings.

Here is the medical definition of capsaicin from the Merriam-Webster's Medical Dictionary:

caпсаісіn : an alkaloid (C18H27NO3) that is the active principle of red peppers and is used in topical preparations as a counterirritant and analgesic.

Neurotransmitter receptors are specialized protein molecules found on the surface of neurons and other cells in the body. They play a crucial role in chemical communication within the nervous system by binding to specific neurotransmitters, which are chemicals that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons).

When a neurotransmitter binds to its corresponding receptor, it triggers a series of biochemical events that can either excite or inhibit the activity of the target neuron. This interaction helps regulate various physiological processes, including mood, cognition, movement, and sensation.

Neurotransmitter receptors can be classified into two main categories based on their mechanism of action: ionotropic and metabotropic receptors. Ionotropic receptors are ligand-gated ion channels that directly allow ions to flow through the cell membrane upon neurotransmitter binding, leading to rapid changes in neuronal excitability. In contrast, metabotropic receptors are linked to G proteins and second messenger systems, which modulate various intracellular signaling pathways more slowly.

Examples of neurotransmitters include glutamate, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, and norepinephrine, among others. Each neurotransmitter has its specific receptor types, which may have distinct functions and distributions within the nervous system. Understanding the roles of these receptors and their interactions with neurotransmitters is essential for developing therapeutic strategies to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders.

Quinuclidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a unique cage-like structure consisting of a tetrahydrofuran ring fused to a piperidine ring. The name "quinuclidine" is derived from the Latin word "quinque," meaning five, and "clidis," meaning key or bar, which refers to the five-membered ring system that forms the core of these compounds.

Quinuclidines have a variety of biological activities and are used in pharmaceuticals as well as agrochemicals. Some quinuclidine derivatives have been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. They can also act as inhibitors of various enzymes and receptors, making them useful tools for studying biological systems and developing new drugs.

It is worth noting that quinuclidines are not typically used in medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather serve as building blocks for the development of new pharmaceutical compounds.

Neurokinin B is a neuropeptide belonging to the tachykinin family, which also includes substance P and neurokinin A. It is encoded by the TAC3 gene in humans and is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neurokinin B exerts its effects by binding to the neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) and plays a role in various physiological processes, including the regulation of feeding behavior, reproduction, and nociception (pain perception). It has also been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases, chronic pain, and certain types of cancer.

Isoindoles are not typically considered in the context of medical definitions, as they are organic compounds that do not have direct relevance to medical terminology or human disease. However, isoindole is a heterocyclic compound that contains two nitrogen atoms in its structure and can be found in some naturally occurring substances and synthetic drugs.

Isoindoles are aromatic compounds, which means they have a stable ring structure with delocalized electrons. They can form the core structure of various bioactive molecules, including alkaloids, which are nitrogen-containing compounds that occur naturally in plants and animals and can have various pharmacological activities.

Some isoindole derivatives have been synthesized and studied for their potential medicinal properties, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer activities. However, these compounds are still in the early stages of research and development and have not yet been approved for medical use.

Therefore, while isoindoles themselves do not have a specific medical definition, they can be relevant to the study of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.

Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is a 28-amino acid polypeptide hormone that has potent vasodilatory, secretory, and neurotransmitter effects. It is widely distributed throughout the body, including in the gastrointestinal tract, where it is synthesized and released by nerve cells (neurons) in the intestinal mucosa. VIP plays a crucial role in regulating various physiological functions such as intestinal secretion, motility, and blood flow. It also has immunomodulatory effects and may play a role in neuroprotection. High levels of VIP are found in the brain, where it acts as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator and is involved in various cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and social behavior.

Neurokinin-3 (NK-3) receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds the neuropeptide neurokinin B, which is a member of the tachykinin family. These receptors are widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems and play important roles in various physiological functions, including the regulation of nociception (pain perception), inflammation, and reproduction.

NK-3 receptors have been identified as key mediators of female reproductive function, particularly in the hypothalamus where they are involved in the control of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Dysregulation of NK-3 receptor signaling has been implicated in several reproductive disorders, including polycystic ovary syndrome and endometriosis.

In addition to their role in reproduction, NK-3 receptors have also been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as anxiety, depression, and drug addiction. As a result, NK-3 receptor antagonists have emerged as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of these disorders.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that are used by neurons to communicate with each other and with other cells in the body. They are produced in the cell body of a neuron, processed from larger precursor proteins, and then transported to the nerve terminal where they are stored in secretory vesicles. When the neuron is stimulated, the vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents into the extracellular space.

Neuropeptides can act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators, depending on their target receptors and the duration of their effects. They play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including pain perception, appetite regulation, stress response, and social behavior. Some neuropeptides also have hormonal functions, such as oxytocin and vasopressin, which are produced in the hypothalamus and released into the bloodstream to regulate reproductive and cardiovascular function, respectively.

There are hundreds of different neuropeptides that have been identified in the nervous system, and many of them have multiple functions and interact with other signaling molecules to modulate neural activity. Dysregulation of neuropeptide systems has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as chronic pain, addiction, depression, and anxiety.

Substance abuse treatment centers are healthcare facilities that provide a range of services for individuals struggling with substance use disorders (SUDs), including addiction to alcohol, illicit drugs, prescription medications, and other substances. These centers offer comprehensive, evidence-based assessments, interventions, and treatments aimed at helping patients achieve and maintain sobriety, improve their overall health and well-being, and reintegrate into society as productive members.

The medical definition of 'Substance Abuse Treatment Centers' encompasses various levels and types of care, such as:

1. **Medical Detoxification:** This is the first step in treating substance abuse, where patients are closely monitored and managed for withdrawal symptoms as their bodies clear the harmful substances. Medical detox often involves the use of medications to alleviate discomfort and ensure safety during the process.
2. **Inpatient/Residential Treatment:** This level of care provides 24-hour structured, intensive treatment in a controlled environment. Patients live at the facility and receive various therapeutic interventions, such as individual therapy, group counseling, family therapy, and psychoeducation, to address the underlying causes of their addiction and develop coping strategies for long-term recovery.
3. **Partial Hospitalization Programs (PHP):** Also known as day treatment, PHPs offer structured, intensive care for several hours a day while allowing patients to return home or to a sober living environment during non-treatment hours. This level of care typically includes individual and group therapy, skill-building activities, and case management services.
4. **Intensive Outpatient Programs (IOP):** IOPs provide flexible, less intensive treatment than PHPs, with patients attending sessions for a few hours per day, several days a week. These programs focus on relapse prevention, recovery skills, and addressing any co-occurring mental health conditions.
5. **Outpatient Treatment:** This is the least restrictive level of care, where patients attend individual or group therapy sessions on a regular basis while living at home or in a sober living environment. Outpatient treatment often serves as step-down care after completing higher levels of treatment or as an initial intervention for those with milder SUDs.
6. **Aftercare/Continuing Care:** Aftercare or continuing care services help patients maintain their recovery and prevent relapse by providing ongoing support, such as 12-step meetings, alumni groups, individual therapy, and case management.

Each treatment modality has its unique benefits and is tailored to meet the specific needs of individuals at various stages of addiction and recovery. It's essential to consult with a healthcare professional or an addiction specialist to determine the most appropriate level of care for each person's situation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kassinin" does not appear to be a recognized term in medical science or physiology. It's possible there may be a spelling mistake or it could be a term specific to certain research or context. If you have more information or if there's a different term you had in mind, I'd be happy to help further!

Neurogenic inflammation is a type of inflammatory response that is initiated by the nervous system and involves the release of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nitric oxide. These substances cause vasodilation, increased vascular permeability, and recruitment of immune cells to the site of injury or damage.

Neurogenic inflammation can occur in response to a variety of stimuli, including tissue injury, infection, and chemical or physical irritants. It is thought to play a role in the development and maintenance of various clinical conditions, such as migraine headaches, neuropathic pain, asthma, and allergies.

In contrast to classical inflammation, which is mediated by the immune system, neurogenic inflammation is primarily driven by the nervous system and can occur independently of traditional immune responses. However, the two processes often interact and amplify each other, leading to a more robust and prolonged inflammatory response.

The spinal cord is a major part of the nervous system, extending from the brainstem and continuing down to the lower back. It is a slender, tubular bundle of nerve fibers (axons) and support cells (glial cells) that carries signals between the brain and the rest of the body. The spinal cord primarily serves as a conduit for motor information, which travels from the brain to the muscles, and sensory information, which travels from the body to the brain. It also contains neurons that can independently process and respond to information within the spinal cord without direct input from the brain.

The spinal cord is protected by the bony vertebral column (spine) and is divided into 31 segments: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. Each segment corresponds to a specific region of the body and gives rise to pairs of spinal nerves that exit through the intervertebral foramina at each level.

The spinal cord is responsible for several vital functions, including:

1. Reflexes: Simple reflex actions, such as the withdrawal reflex when touching a hot surface, are mediated by the spinal cord without involving the brain.
2. Muscle control: The spinal cord carries motor signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling voluntary movement and muscle tone regulation.
3. Sensory perception: The spinal cord transmits sensory information, such as touch, temperature, pain, and vibration, from the body to the brain for processing and awareness.
4. Autonomic functions: The sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system originate in the thoracolumbar and sacral regions of the spinal cord, respectively, controlling involuntary physiological responses like heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and respiration.

Damage to the spinal cord can result in various degrees of paralysis or loss of sensation below the level of injury, depending on the severity and location of the damage.

Biphenyl compounds, also known as diphenyls, are a class of organic compounds consisting of two benzene rings linked by a single carbon-carbon bond. The chemical structure of biphenyl compounds can be represented as C6H5-C6H5. These compounds are widely used in the industrial sector, including as intermediates in the synthesis of other chemicals, as solvents, and in the production of plastics and dyes. Some biphenyl compounds also have biological activity and can be found in natural products. For example, some plant-derived compounds that belong to this class have been shown to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer properties.

Afferent neurons, also known as sensory neurons, are a type of nerve cell that conducts impulses or signals from peripheral receptors towards the central nervous system (CNS), which includes the brain and spinal cord. These neurons are responsible for transmitting sensory information such as touch, temperature, pain, sound, and light to the CNS for processing and interpretation. Afferent neurons have specialized receptor endings that detect changes in the environment and convert them into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the CNS via synapses with other neurons. Once the signals reach the CNS, they are processed and integrated with other information to produce a response or reaction to the stimulus.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Thiorphan is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a synthetic medication. It is a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound metalloendopeptidases, also known as neprilysin enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for breaking down certain peptides in the body, including some hormones and neurotransmitters.

Thiorphan has been used in research to study the role of these enzymes in various physiological processes. It is also being investigated as a potential therapeutic agent for conditions such as hypertension, heart failure, and Alzheimer's disease. However, it is not currently approved for clinical use in humans.

Therefore, there is no medical definition of 'Thiorphan' as a condition or disease.

Piperidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a class of organic compounds that have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Medically relevant piperidines include various drugs such as some antihistamines, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants.

A piperidine is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The structure can be described as a cyclic secondary amine. Piperidines are found in some natural alkaloids, such as those derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), which gives piperidines their name.

In a medical context, it is more common to encounter specific drugs that belong to the class of piperidines rather than the term itself.

Bradykinin is a naturally occurring peptide in the human body, consisting of nine amino acids. It is a potent vasodilator and increases the permeability of blood vessels, causing a local inflammatory response. Bradykinin is formed from the breakdown of certain proteins, such as kininogen, by enzymes called kininases or proteases, including kallikrein. It plays a role in several physiological processes, including pain transmission, blood pressure regulation, and the immune response. In some pathological conditions, such as hereditary angioedema, bradykinin levels can increase excessively, leading to symptoms like swelling, redness, and pain.

Smooth muscle, also known as involuntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and functions without conscious effort. These muscles are found in the walls of hollow organs such as the stomach, intestines, bladder, and blood vessels, as well as in the eyes, skin, and other areas of the body.

Smooth muscle fibers are shorter and narrower than skeletal muscle fibers and do not have striations or sarcomeres, which give skeletal muscle its striped appearance. Smooth muscle is controlled by the autonomic nervous system through the release of neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, which bind to receptors on the smooth muscle cells and cause them to contract or relax.

Smooth muscle plays an important role in many physiological processes, including digestion, circulation, respiration, and elimination. It can also contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypertension, gastrointestinal disorders, and genitourinary dysfunction, when it becomes overactive or underactive.

Bombesin is a type of peptide that occurs naturally in the body. It is a small protein-like molecule made up of amino acids, and it is involved in various physiological processes, including regulating appetite and digestion. Bombesin was first discovered in the skin of a frog species called Bombina bombina, hence its name. In the human body, bombesin-like peptides are produced by various tissues, including the stomach and brain. They bind to specific receptors in the body, triggering a range of responses, such as stimulating the release of hormones and increasing gut motility. Bombesin has been studied for its potential role in treating certain medical conditions, including cancer, although more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy.

Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) is not a medical term per se, but rather a method used to measure lipid peroxidation in biological samples. Lipid peroxidation is a process by which free radicals steal electrons from lipids, leading to cellular damage and potential disease progression.

The TBARS assay measures the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA), a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, that reacts with thiobarbituric acid (TBA) to produce a pink-colored complex. The concentration of this complex is then measured and used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation in the sample.

While TBARS has been widely used as a measure of oxidative stress, it has limitations, including potential interference from other compounds that can react with TBA and produce similar-colored complexes. Therefore, more specific and sensitive methods for measuring lipid peroxidation have since been developed.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Enkephalins are naturally occurring opioid peptides in the body that bind to opiate receptors and help reduce pain and produce a sense of well-being. There are two major types of enkephalins: Leu-enkephalin and Met-enkephalin, which differ by only one amino acid at the N-terminus.

Methionine-enkephalin (Met-enkephalin) is a type of enkephalin that contains methionine as its N-terminal amino acid. Its chemical formula is Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met, and it is derived from the precursor protein proenkephalin. Met-enkephalin has a shorter half-life than Leu-enkephalin due to its susceptibility to enzymatic degradation by aminopeptidases.

Met-enkephalin plays an essential role in pain modulation, reward processing, and addiction. It is also involved in various physiological functions, including respiration, cardiovascular regulation, and gastrointestinal motility. Dysregulation of enkephalins has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as chronic pain, drug addiction, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid, also known as Proline or Prolinic acid, is an organic compound with the formula N-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid. It is a cyclic amino acid, which means that its side chain is bonded to the rest of the molecule in a ring structure.

Proline is an important constituent of many proteins and plays a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of the protein. It is classified as a non-essential amino acid because it can be synthesized by the human body from other amino acids, such as glutamic acid.

Pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid has a variety of uses in medicine and industry, including as a chiral auxiliary in organic synthesis, a building block for pharmaceuticals, and a component in cosmetics and personal care products. It is also used as a buffering agent and a stabilizer in various medical and industrial applications.

Muscle contraction is the physiological process in which muscle fibers shorten and generate force, leading to movement or stability of a body part. This process involves the sliding filament theory where thick and thin filaments within the sarcomeres (the functional units of muscles) slide past each other, facilitated by the interaction between myosin heads and actin filaments. The energy required for this action is provided by the hydrolysis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Muscle contractions can be voluntary or involuntary, and they play a crucial role in various bodily functions such as locomotion, circulation, respiration, and posture maintenance.

Neurotensin is a neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. It is composed of 13 amino acids and plays a role as a neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in various physiological functions, including pain regulation, temperature regulation, and feeding behavior. Neurotensin also has been shown to have potential roles in the development of certain diseases such as cancer and neurological disorders. It exerts its effects by binding to specific receptors, known as neurotensin receptors (NTSR1, NTSR2, and NTSR3), which are widely distributed throughout the body.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Humic Substances" are not considered medical terms with a specific clinical definition. They are organic compounds that are commonly found in soil, sediments, and water, formed by the decomposition and transformation of plant and animal materials over time. Humic substances can have various complex structures and properties, and they play important roles in nutrient cycling, soil fertility, and water quality. However, they are not typically discussed in the context of medical definitions or healthcare.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Nerve fibers are specialized structures that constitute the long, slender processes (axons) of neurons (nerve cells). They are responsible for conducting electrical impulses, known as action potentials, away from the cell body and transmitting them to other neurons or effector organs such as muscles and glands. Nerve fibers are often surrounded by supportive cells called glial cells and are grouped together to form nerve bundles or nerves. These fibers can be myelinated (covered with a fatty insulating sheath called myelin) or unmyelinated, which influences the speed of impulse transmission.

Neurotransmitter agents are substances that affect the synthesis, storage, release, uptake, degradation, or reuptake of neurotransmitters, which are chemical messengers that transmit signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron to another. These agents can be either agonists, which mimic the action of a neurotransmitter and bind to its receptor, or antagonists, which block the action of a neurotransmitter by binding to its receptor without activating it. They are used in medicine to treat various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and Parkinson's disease.

Hazardous substances, in a medical context, refer to agents that pose a risk to the health of living organisms. These can include chemicals, biological agents (such as bacteria or viruses), and physical hazards (like radiation). Exposure to these substances can lead to a range of adverse health effects, from acute symptoms like irritation and poisoning to chronic conditions such as cancer, neurological disorders, or genetic mutations.

The classification and regulation of hazardous substances are often based on their potential for harm, the severity of the associated health risks, and the conditions under which they become dangerous. These assessments help inform safety measures, exposure limits, and handling procedures to minimize risks in occupational, environmental, and healthcare settings.

Spinal ganglia, also known as dorsal root ganglia, are clusters of nerve cell bodies located in the peripheral nervous system. They are situated along the length of the spinal cord and are responsible for transmitting sensory information from the body to the brain. Each spinal ganglion contains numerous neurons, or nerve cells, with long processes called axons that extend into the periphery and innervate various tissues and organs. The cell bodies within the spinal ganglia receive sensory input from these axons and transmit this information to the central nervous system via the dorsal roots of the spinal nerves. This allows the brain to interpret and respond to a wide range of sensory stimuli, including touch, temperature, pain, and proprioception (the sense of the position and movement of one's body).

Neprilysin (NEP), also known as membrane metallo-endopeptidase or CD10, is a type II transmembrane glycoprotein that functions as a zinc-dependent metalloprotease. It is widely expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, brain, heart, and vasculature. Neprilysin plays a crucial role in the breakdown and regulation of several endogenous bioactive peptides, such as natriuretic peptides, bradykinin, substance P, and angiotensin II. By degrading these peptides, neprilysin helps maintain cardiovascular homeostasis, modulate inflammation, and regulate neurotransmission. In the context of heart failure, neprilysin inhibitors have been developed to increase natriuretic peptide levels, promoting diuresis and vasodilation, ultimately improving cardiac function.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

The kidney pelvis, also known as the renal pelvis, is the funnel-shaped part of the upper end of the ureter in the kidney. It receives urine from the minor and major calyces, which are extensions of the renal collecting tubules, and then drains it into the ureter, which carries it to the bladder for storage and eventual elimination from the body. The kidney pelvis is lined with transitional epithelium, which is designed to stretch and accommodate changes in urine volume.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter, a type of chemical messenger that transmits signals across a chemical synapse from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell. It is involved in both peripheral and central nervous system functions.

In the peripheral nervous system, acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter at the neuromuscular junction, where it transmits signals from motor neurons to activate muscles. Acetylcholine also acts as a neurotransmitter in the autonomic nervous system, where it is involved in both the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems.

In the central nervous system, acetylcholine plays a role in learning, memory, attention, and arousal. Disruptions in cholinergic neurotransmission have been implicated in several neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Acetylcholine is synthesized from choline and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme choline acetyltransferase and is stored in vesicles at the presynaptic terminal of the neuron. When a nerve impulse arrives, the vesicles fuse with the presynaptic membrane, releasing acetylcholine into the synapse. The acetylcholine then binds to receptors on the postsynaptic membrane, triggering a response in the target cell. Acetylcholine is subsequently degraded by the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which terminates its action and allows for signal transduction to be repeated.

The trachea, also known as the windpipe, is a tube-like structure in the respiratory system that connects the larynx (voice box) to the bronchi (the two branches leading to each lung). It is composed of several incomplete rings of cartilage and smooth muscle, which provide support and flexibility. The trachea plays a crucial role in directing incoming air to the lungs during inspiration and outgoing air to the larynx during expiration.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Somatostatin is a hormone that inhibits the release of several hormones and also has a role in slowing down digestion. It is produced by the body in various parts of the body, including the hypothalamus (a part of the brain), the pancreas, and the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin exists in two forms: somatostatin-14 and somatostatin-28, which differ in their length. Somatostatin-14 is the predominant form found in the brain, while somatostatin-28 is the major form found in the gastrointestinal tract.

Somatostatin has a wide range of effects on various physiological processes, including:

* Inhibiting the release of several hormones such as growth hormone, insulin, glucagon, and gastrin
* Slowing down digestion by inhibiting the release of digestive enzymes from the pancreas and reducing blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract
* Regulating neurotransmission in the brain

Somatostatin is used clinically as a diagnostic tool for detecting certain types of tumors that overproduce growth hormone or other hormones, and it is also used as a treatment for some conditions such as acromegaly (a condition characterized by excessive growth hormone production) and gastrointestinal disorders.

"Street drugs" is a colloquial term rather than medical jargon, but it generally refers to illegal substances or medications that are used without a prescription. These can include a wide variety of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroin, methamphetamines, ecstasy, LSD, and many others. They are called "street drugs" because they are often bought and sold on the street or in clandestine settings, rather than through legitimate pharmacies or medical professionals. It's important to note that these substances can be highly dangerous and addictive, with serious short-term and long-term health consequences.

Sympathetic ganglia are part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls involuntary bodily functions. These ganglia are clusters of nerve cell bodies located outside the central nervous system, along the spinal cord. They serve as a relay station for signals sent from the central nervous system to the organs and glands. The sympathetic ganglia are responsible for the "fight or flight" response, releasing neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine that prepare the body for action in response to stress or danger.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Serotonin, also known as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine neurotransmitter that is found primarily in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, blood platelets, and the central nervous system (CNS) of humans and other animals. It is produced by the conversion of the amino acid tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), and then to serotonin.

In the CNS, serotonin plays a role in regulating mood, appetite, sleep, memory, learning, and behavior, among other functions. It also acts as a vasoconstrictor, helping to regulate blood flow and blood pressure. In the GI tract, it is involved in peristalsis, the contraction and relaxation of muscles that moves food through the digestive system.

Serotonin is synthesized and stored in serotonergic neurons, which are nerve cells that use serotonin as their primary neurotransmitter. These neurons are found throughout the brain and spinal cord, and they communicate with other neurons by releasing serotonin into the synapse, the small gap between two neurons.

Abnormal levels of serotonin have been linked to a variety of disorders, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and migraines. Medications that affect serotonin levels, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), are commonly used to treat these conditions.

4-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (also known as 4-MeO-N-MEPEA or 4-MeO-PMA) is a synthetic psychoactive substance that belongs to the phenethylamine class. It is a designer drug, which means it is manufactured and distributed for recreational use as an alternative to illegal drugs.

It acts as a stimulant and entactogen, producing effects similar to those of MDMA (ecstasy) but with less potency. The compound has been linked to several cases of severe intoxication, including fatalities, due to its ability to increase heart rate and blood pressure, cause dehydration, hyperthermia, and serotonin syndrome.

It is important to note that the use of 4-Methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine and other designer drugs can be dangerous and illegal in many jurisdictions. Always consult a medical professional for accurate information regarding specific substances.

Histamine is defined as a biogenic amine that is widely distributed throughout the body and is involved in various physiological functions. It is derived primarily from the amino acid histidine by the action of histidine decarboxylase. Histamine is stored in granules (along with heparin and proteases) within mast cells and basophils, and is released upon stimulation or degranulation of these cells.

Once released into the tissues and circulation, histamine exerts a wide range of pharmacological actions through its interaction with four types of G protein-coupled receptors (H1, H2, H3, and H4 receptors). Histamine's effects are diverse and include modulation of immune responses, contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle, increased vascular permeability, stimulation of gastric acid secretion, and regulation of neurotransmission.

Histamine is also a potent mediator of allergic reactions and inflammation, causing symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, and wheezing. Antihistamines are commonly used to block the actions of histamine at H1 receptors, providing relief from these symptoms.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is a highly sensitive analytical technique used in clinical and research laboratories to measure concentrations of various substances, such as hormones, vitamins, drugs, or tumor markers, in biological samples like blood, urine, or tissues. The method relies on the specific interaction between an antibody and its corresponding antigen, combined with the use of radioisotopes to quantify the amount of bound antigen.

In a typical RIA procedure, a known quantity of a radiolabeled antigen (also called tracer) is added to a sample containing an unknown concentration of the same unlabeled antigen. The mixture is then incubated with a specific antibody that binds to the antigen. During the incubation period, the antibody forms complexes with both the radiolabeled and unlabeled antigens.

After the incubation, the unbound (free) radiolabeled antigen is separated from the antibody-antigen complexes, usually through a precipitation or separation step involving centrifugation, filtration, or chromatography. The amount of radioactivity in the pellet (containing the antibody-antigen complexes) is then measured using a gamma counter or other suitable radiation detection device.

The concentration of the unlabeled antigen in the sample can be determined by comparing the ratio of bound to free radiolabeled antigen in the sample to a standard curve generated from known concentrations of unlabeled antigen and their corresponding bound/free ratios. The higher the concentration of unlabeled antigen in the sample, the lower the amount of radiolabeled antigen that will bind to the antibody, resulting in a lower bound/free ratio.

Radioimmunoassays offer high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, making them valuable tools for detecting and quantifying low levels of various substances in biological samples. However, due to concerns about radiation safety and waste disposal, alternative non-isotopic immunoassay techniques like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, which includes peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. NPY plays important roles in various physiological functions such as energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, anxiety, memory, and cardiovascular regulation. It is involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and neural development. NPY is synthesized from a larger precursor protein called prepro-NPY, which is post-translationally processed to generate the mature NPY peptide. The NPY system has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as obesity, depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension, and drug addiction.

Salivation is the process of producing and secreting saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. It is primarily a reflex response to various stimuli such as thinking about or tasting food, chewing, and speaking. Saliva plays a crucial role in digestion by moistening food and helping to create a food bolus that can be swallowed easily. Additionally, saliva contains enzymes like amylase which begin the process of digesting carbohydrates even before food enters the stomach. Excessive salivation is known as hypersalivation or ptyalism, while reduced salivation is called xerostomia.

Extravasation of diagnostic and therapeutic materials refers to the unintended leakage or escape of these substances from the intended vasculature into the surrounding tissues. This can occur during the administration of various medical treatments, such as chemotherapy, contrast agents for imaging studies, or other injectable medications.

The extravasation can result in a range of complications, depending on the type and volume of the material that has leaked, as well as the location and sensitivity of the surrounding tissues. Possible consequences include local tissue damage, inflammation, pain, and potential long-term effects such as fibrosis or necrosis.

Prompt recognition and management of extravasation are essential to minimize these complications. Treatment may involve local cooling or heating, the use of hyaluronidase or other agents to facilitate dispersion of the extravasated material, or surgical intervention in severe cases.

Guanethidine is an antihypertensive medication that belongs to the class of drugs known as ganglionic blockers or autonomic nervous system (ANS) inhibitors. It works by blocking the action of certain chemicals (neurotransmitters) in the body, which results in decreased blood pressure and heart rate.

Guanethidine is not commonly used today due to its side effects and the availability of safer and more effective antihypertensive medications. Its medical definition can be stated as:

A synthetic antihypertensive agent that acts by depleting norepinephrine stores in postganglionic adrenergic neurons, thereby blocking their activity. Guanethidine is used primarily in the treatment of hypertension and occasionally in the management of sympathetic nervous system-mediated conditions such as essential tremor or neurogenic pain.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

In medical terms, the iris refers to the colored portion of the eye that surrounds the pupil. It is a circular structure composed of thin, contractile muscle fibers (radial and circumferential) arranged in a regular pattern. These muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system and can adjust the size of the pupil in response to changes in light intensity or emotional arousal. By constricting or dilating the iris, the amount of light entering the eye can be regulated, which helps maintain optimal visual acuity under various lighting conditions.

The color of the iris is determined by the concentration and distribution of melanin pigments within the iris stroma. The iris also contains blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissue that support its structure and function. Anatomically, the iris is continuous with the ciliary body and the choroid, forming part of the uveal tract in the eye.

Histamine release is the process by which mast cells and basophils (types of white blood cells) release histamine, a type of chemical messenger or mediator, into the surrounding tissue fluid in response to an antigen-antibody reaction. This process is a key part of the body's immune response to foreign substances, such as allergens, and helps to initiate local inflammation, increase blood flow, and recruit other immune cells to the site of the reaction.

Histamine release can also occur in response to certain medications, physical trauma, or other stimuli. When histamine is released in large amounts, it can cause symptoms such as itching, sneezing, runny nose, watery eyes, and hives. In severe cases, it can lead to anaphylaxis, a life-threatening allergic reaction that requires immediate medical attention.

Nociceptors are specialized peripheral sensory neurons that detect and transmit signals indicating potentially harmful stimuli in the form of pain. They are activated by various noxious stimuli such as extreme temperatures, intense pressure, or chemical irritants. Once activated, nociceptors transmit these signals to the central nervous system (spinal cord and brain) where they are interpreted as painful sensations, leading to protective responses like withdrawing from the harmful stimulus or seeking medical attention. Nociceptors play a crucial role in our perception of pain and help protect the body from further harm.

The myenteric plexus, also known as Auerbach's plexus, is a component of the enteric nervous system located in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. It is a network of nerve cells (neurons) and supporting cells (neuroglia) that lies between the inner circular layer and outer longitudinal muscle layers of the digestive system's muscularis externa.

The myenteric plexus plays a crucial role in controlling gastrointestinal motility, secretion, and blood flow, primarily through its intrinsic nerve circuits called reflex arcs. These reflex arcs regulate peristalsis (the coordinated muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract) and segmentation (localized contractions that mix and churn the contents within a specific region of the gut).

Additionally, the myenteric plexus receives input from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, allowing for central nervous system regulation of gastrointestinal functions. Dysfunction in the myenteric plexus has been implicated in various gastrointestinal disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, achalasia, and intestinal pseudo-obstruction.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

Substance abuse detection refers to the process of identifying the use or misuse of psychoactive substances, such as alcohol, illicit drugs, or prescription medications, in an individual. This can be done through various methods, including:

1. Physical examination: A healthcare professional may look for signs of substance abuse, such as track marks, enlarged pupils, or unusual behavior.
2. Laboratory tests: Urine, blood, hair, or saliva samples can be analyzed to detect the presence of drugs or their metabolites. These tests can provide information about recent use (hours to days) or longer-term use (up to several months).
3. Self-report measures: Individuals may be asked to complete questionnaires or interviews about their substance use patterns and behaviors.
4. Observational assessments: In some cases, such as in a treatment setting, healthcare professionals may observe an individual's behavior over time to identify patterns of substance abuse.

Substance abuse detection is often used in clinical, workplace, or legal settings to assess individuals for potential substance use disorders, monitor treatment progress, or ensure compliance with laws or regulations.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin that is primarily found in certain species of pufferfish, blue-ringed octopuses, and other marine animals. It blocks voltage-gated sodium channels in nerve cell membranes, leading to muscle paralysis and potentially respiratory failure. TTX has no known antidote, and medical treatment focuses on supportive care for symptoms. Exposure can occur through ingestion, inhalation, or skin absorption, depending on the route of toxicity.

Vasodilation is the widening or increase in diameter of blood vessels, particularly the involuntary relaxation of the smooth muscle in the tunica media (middle layer) of the arteriole walls. This results in an increase in blood flow and a decrease in vascular resistance. Vasodilation can occur due to various physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, such as local metabolic demands, neural signals, or pharmacological agents. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood pressure, tissue perfusion, and thermoregulation.

Capillary permeability refers to the ability of substances to pass through the walls of capillaries, which are the smallest blood vessels in the body. These tiny vessels connect the arterioles and venules, allowing for the exchange of nutrients, waste products, and gases between the blood and the surrounding tissues.

The capillary wall is composed of a single layer of endothelial cells that are held together by tight junctions. The permeability of these walls varies depending on the size and charge of the molecules attempting to pass through. Small, uncharged molecules such as water, oxygen, and carbon dioxide can easily diffuse through the capillary wall, while larger or charged molecules such as proteins and large ions have more difficulty passing through.

Increased capillary permeability can occur in response to inflammation, infection, or injury, allowing larger molecules and immune cells to enter the surrounding tissues. This can lead to swelling (edema) and tissue damage if not controlled. Decreased capillary permeability, on the other hand, can lead to impaired nutrient exchange and tissue hypoxia.

Overall, the permeability of capillaries is a critical factor in maintaining the health and function of tissues throughout the body.

Mast cells are a type of white blood cell that are found in connective tissues throughout the body, including the skin, respiratory tract, and gastrointestinal tract. They play an important role in the immune system and help to defend the body against pathogens by releasing chemicals such as histamine, heparin, and leukotrienes, which help to attract other immune cells to the site of infection or injury. Mast cells also play a role in allergic reactions, as they release histamine and other chemicals in response to exposure to an allergen, leading to symptoms such as itching, swelling, and redness. They are derived from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and mature in the tissues where they reside.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Carbachol is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by mimicking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that is involved in transmitting signals between nerves and muscles. Carbachol binds to both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors, but its effects are more pronounced on muscarinic receptors.

Carbachol is used in medical treatments to produce miosis (pupil constriction), lower intraocular pressure, and stimulate gastrointestinal motility. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to test for certain conditions such as Hirschsprung's disease.

Like any medication, carbachol can have side effects, including sweating, salivation, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, bradycardia (slow heart rate), and bronchoconstriction (narrowing of the airways in the lungs). It should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Protein precursors, also known as proproteins or prohormones, are inactive forms of proteins that undergo post-translational modification to become active. These modifications typically include cleavage of the precursor protein by specific enzymes, resulting in the release of the active protein. This process allows for the regulation and control of protein activity within the body. Protein precursors can be found in various biological processes, including the endocrine system where they serve as inactive hormones that can be converted into their active forms when needed.

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... may often accompany a substance use disorder (SUD); if persistent substance-related problems exist, SUD ... Substance intoxication is a transient condition of altered consciousness and behavior associated with recent use of a substance ... multiple drug use and use of other psychoactive substances The discussion over whether the coffee (caffeine) "buzz" counted as ... doi:10.1093/bjc/azi053.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Look up substance intoxication in ...
Substances are classified according to schedules and consist primarily of potentially psychoactive substances and anabolic ... Has limited exemptions to some Directory E substances, but which substances are covered and what the exemption allows depends ... A further misconception is that controlled substances laws simply list a few hundred substances (e.g. MDMA, Fentanyl, ... have statutes against health care providers self-prescribing and/or administering substances listed in the Controlled Substance ...
... is the tenth full-length album by the punk rock band Bad Religion. It was the band's third (or fourth, if the ... No Substance was anticipated by both music critics and fans as a result of the band's previous worldwide successes with their ... "Review: No Substance". Wall of Sound. Archived from the original on April 15, 2001. Retrieved October 30, 2020. "Kristen ... Citations archive No Substance at AllMusic Thompson 2000, p. 170 "CG: bad religion". Robert Christgau. Retrieved March 3, 2012 ...
This, along with Substance Abuse are considered Substance Use Disorders." In the DSM-5 (released in 2013), substance abuse and ... The dependence potential of a drug varies from substance to substance, and from individual to individual. Dose, frequency, ... Psychological stress may also result if the substance is not re-introduced. Infants also experience substance withdrawal, known ... "When an individual persists in use of alcohol or other drugs despite problems related to use of the substance, substance ...
The properties that the substance has are said to inhere in the substance. Another primitive concept in substance theory is the ... The bundle theorist's principal objections to substance theory concern the bare particulars of a substance, which substance ... "substance" has this effect, defining "substance" as follows: [T]he idea of ours to which we give the general name substance, ... "Locke on Substance and Our Ideas of Substances". In Paul Lodge; Tom Stoneham (eds.). Locke and Leibniz on Substance. Routledge ...
... may refer to: Anterior perforated substance Posterior perforated substance This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Perforated substance. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to ...
Step transaction doctrine Substance over form Gregory v. Helvering Offshore Economic Substance The Economic Substance Doctrine ... Economic substance is a doctrine in the tax law of the United States under which a transaction must have both a substantial ... The economic substance doctrine was originally a common law doctrine. The doctrine was codified in subsection (o) of section ... 1029, 1067 (March 30, 2010). Black, Stephen (2008). "A Daddy-Daughter Chat About Economic Substance". doi:10.2139/ssrn.1282195 ...
... , according to the idea held by dualists and idealists, is a non-physical substance of which minds are composed ... that a substance is something which can exist without the existence of any other substance. For many philosophers, this word or ... This substance is often referred to as consciousness. This is opposed to the materialists, who hold that what we normally think ... He describes his theory of mental substance (which he calls res cogitans distinguishing it from the res extensa) in the Second ...
Substance 1989 is the video version of Substance that first appeared in 1989 on VHS; it was released on LaserDisc in Japan in ... Substance (also known as Substance 1987) is a compilation album by English alternative dance band New Order. It was released in ... Type Substance in the "Search BPI Awards" field and then press Enter. "American album certifications - New Order - Substance". ... " - New Order - Substance". Hung Medien. Retrieved 18 February 2020. " - New Order - Substance". Hung ...
... is a potent vasodilator. Substance P-induced vasodilation is dependent on nitric oxide release. Substance P is ... Substance P has been known to stimulate cell growth in normal and cancer cell line cultures, and it was shown that substance P ... "Receptor binding sites for substance P, but not substance K or neuromedin K, are expressed in high concentrations by arterioles ... Substance P is released from the terminals of specific sensory nerves. It is found in the brain and spinal cord and is ...
"Substance" (stylized in all uppercase) is a song by American singer Demi Lovato. She co-wrote the track with Jutes, Laura Veltz ... "Substance" was performed on July 14, 2022, the day prior to the song's release, on Jimmy Kimmel Live. Obtained from Lovato's ... "Demi Lovato's 'Substance' Video Is Chaotic Perfection". Paper. July 15, 2022. Retrieved July 17, 2022. "Demi Lovato muestra su ... The "rock" genre has also been used as a descriptor for "Substance". Lovato sings loudly over guitars and drums inspired by the ...
... or just substance storage. Ergastic substances may appear in the protoplasm, in vacuoles, or in the cell wall. Reserve ... Substances related to fats-waxes, suberin, and cutin-occur as protective layers in or on the cell wall. Animals eliminate ... Ergastic substances are non-protoplasmic materials found in cells. The living protoplasm of a cell is sometimes called the ... Cellulose and starch are the main ergastic substances of plant cells. Cellulose is the chief component of the cell wall, and ...
The molar mass of a substance is the ratio of the mass of a sample of that substance to its amount of substance. The amount of ... Another important derived quantity is the amount of substance concentration (also called amount concentration, or substance ... The amount of substance is also a convenient concept in thermodynamics. For example, the pressure of a certain quantity of a ... The number of moles of a substance in a sample is obtained by dividing the mass of the sample by the molar mass of the compound ...
... is a studio album by American rapper C-Rayz Walz. It was released on Definitive Jux in 2003. David ... Ravipops (The Substance) at Discogs (list of releases) (Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... "Ravipops (The Substance) - C-Rayz Walz". AllMusic. Retrieved November 28, 2014. Quinlan, Thomas (September 2003). "C-Rayz Walz ... Pemberton, Rollie (October 8, 2003). "C-Rayz Walz: Ravipops (The Substance)". Pitchfork. Retrieved November 28, 2014. Behmaram- ...
The mission of the Oklahoma Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services is to promote healthy communities and ... there are safe, effective and lifesaving tools to help people experiencing substance use. OK IM READY is a resource to help.. ... ODMHSAS is the state agency that oversees all prevention, treatment and education of mental health and substance abuse in the ... a values-based approach to empowering pregnant and postpartum individuals with a substance use disorder. ...
Using pain meds, alcohol, and other legal substances the wrong way can also harm your health. ... Signs of a Substance Use Problem. When you first start taking a substance, you may think you can control how much you use. But ... Substance abuse differs from addiction. Many people with substance abuse problems are able to quit or can change their ... What Is Substance Abuse?. Medically Reviewed by Smitha Bhandari, MD. on November 28, 2022 ...
Although the aerosol of e-cigarettes generally has fewer harmful substances than cigarette smoke, e-cigarettes and other ...
Recognize drug addiction and signs of substance abuse. Learn about the causes of substance abuse disorders as well as substance ...
Substance Abuse in Pregnancy see Pregnancy and Substance Use * Substance use see Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD); Drug Use and ...
Important information about toxic substances and how they affect our health. ... Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ... Priority List of Hazardous Substances Prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and ... The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of ...
CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances. ... of substances that are most commonly found at facilities on the National Priorities List (NPL) and which are determined to pose ... 2003 CERCLA Priority List of Hazardous Substances. The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ( ... Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ...
When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. ...
Substance Use & Substance Use Disorders. CDC Yellow Book 2024. Travelers with Additional Considerations ... Travelers should be aware of policies and risks associated with substance use in nations where they are traveling. Substances ... In addition, travelers could encounter substances in other countries that are less common in the United States, or substances ... Substance Use Disorder Treatment. A subtype of "medical tourism" (see Sec. 6, Ch. 4, Medical Tourism) involves travel to ...
Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2001. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences. 4770 Buford Highway. ... Further information about other hazardous substances my be obtained by visiting the ATSDR ToxFAQs™, which provide answers to ...
Data supports the notion that the ED serves an important role in identifying and helping patients with alcohol and substance ... regularly encounter patients seeking treatment for alcohol or substance abuse problems. ... encoded search term (Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation) and Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation What to Read Next on ... Alcohol and Substance Abuse Evaluation. Updated: Nov 11, 2021 * Author: Richard S Krause, MD; Chief Editor: Barry E Brenner, MD ...
Factsheet The bare facts We know what can and needs to be done to help reduce the burden of psychoactive substance use. ... Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. One of ... Other psychoactive substances Recent estimates are that in 2008, 155 to 250 million people, or 3.5% to 5.7% of the worlds ... Other substances that were used by children and youth surveyed in Sierra Leone, included benzodiazepines such as diazepam, ...
Disclaimer: The information and views set out on this website are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Parties to the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the Parties to the Protocol to Eliminate Illicit Trade in Tobacco Products, or the Secretariat of the WHO FCTC ...
Review: Uncontrolled Substance (Review is for Wu-Chronicles AND Uncontrolled Substance [dead link]. Rolling Stone. Retrieved on ... Review: Uncontrolled Substance. AllMusic. Retrieved on January 24, 2010. Rabin, Nathan. Review: Uncontrolled Substance. The A.V ... "Review: Uncontrolled Substance". Los Angeles Times. Columnist. "Review: Uncontrolled Substance". Q: November 1999. Lewis, Miles ... "Review: Uncontrolled Substance". Spin: September 1999. Wilson, Elliot. Review: Uncontrolled Substance. Vibe. Retrieved on ...
Learn how to leverage these 3D lighting techniques for any 3D design project. These different 3D lighting models can create a more realistic 3D environment.
The Substance 3D Collection offers everything you need to create models, texture assets, design materials and render scenes ...
Substance abuse is the abuse of prescription medicines, over-the-counter medicines, illegal drugs, tobacco, and alcohol. ... Thats when substance abuse becomes substance addiction.. You can avoid substance abuse by only using medicines as theyre ... Using these substances improperly can seem OK because they can make you feel good. You may want to feel that feeling again. But ... Using substances like this can affect your brain. A powerful urge to use the drugs, alcohol, and tobacco can control your ...
Source for information on substance P: A Dictionary of Biology dictionary. ... substance P A neuropeptide comprising 11 amino-acid residues that is found widely in tissues, especially in the nervous system ... Prostag… Substance , No common statement on the nature of substance is acceptable to all philosophers, the more famous of whom ... Hyaluronic acid binds cells together and helps to lubr… ground substance , ground substance The matrix of connective tissue, in ...
Mental health and substance ...
Geographic profile for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers. National estimates for Mental Health and Substance ... National estimates for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers. Industry profile for Mental Health and Substance Abuse ... 21-1023 Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers. Assess and treat individuals with mental, emotional, or substance ... Psychiatric and Substance Abuse Hospitals 8,970. 3.87. $ 29.96. $ 62,320. Outpatient Care Centers 25,740. 2.52. $ 28.21. $ ...
Working in the Substance Toolset. Of course, Substance is one of my favorite 3D programs; it brings soul to my models. I use ... I used bitmaps to create the material in Substance Alchemist. Through Substance Alchemist I was able to create a real-time 3D ... and this is how I found out about Substance. When I tried the Substance tools they imbued my pair of jeans with life. Ive ... Ive been practicing Substance on a daily basis, but I still feel theres a lot to learn about this amazing software and its ...
WebMD Substance Abuse and Addiction Health Center: Find in-depth information about causes, symptoms, risks, prevention, and ... Substance Abuse & Addiction Resource Center. Trusted, comprehensive information and resources on substance use disorders.. ...
Substance use disorders. In: Rakel RE, Rakel DP, eds. Textbook of Family Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016: ... Hashish is a substance taken from the tops of female marijuana plants. It contains the highest amount of THC. ... Substance abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ...
... and treat various substance abuse disorders with this quick quiz. ... Fast Five Quiz: Substance Use Disorder - Medscape - Sep 19, ... Substance use disorders (SUDs), including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and opioid use disorders, are all recognized patterns of ... with other substances adding to that figure substantially. ... problematic substance dependence and/or abuse included in the ...
... is a series of summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division of Toxicology. Information for this series ... Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. Agency for Toxic Substance and Disease Registration. ... The Toxic Substances Portal has been migrated to a new format. If you have pages linking to our site, you will need to update ... Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences. 4770 Buford Highway. ...
It is not uncommon to see a co-occurrence of PTSD and heavy use of substances, which can rise to the level of a substance use ... content/rand/blog/jcr:content/par/bloglist .topic.substance-use-disorders The RAND Blog. Substance Use Disorders. ... Substance Use Disorder Treatment. essay. Americas Opioid Crisis: Adopting an Ecosystem Approach. The opioid crisis is ... Theres Help for Veterans with Mental Health and Substance Use Disorders. Many post-9/11 veterans who have PTSD or depression ...
Reentry services may help stabilize substance use risks after mass prison release After the release of more than 2,000 ... They found the risk of overdose or death in individuals with substance use disorder after the mass prison release in 2020 ... Contrary to expectations, the risk for relapses, overdoses and deaths related to substance use disorder didnt increase after a ... "New Jersey has robust reentry supports for incarcerated people with substance use disorder, which may have lowered post-release ...
More on active substance approval. Types of active substances Standard chemical Active substances that are either organic or ... Basic substances. A basic substance is an active substance that is not placed on the market primarily as a plant protection ... More on basic substances.. Regulations. Great Britain. Active substances in Great Britain must meet the requirements and ... Pesticide active substances: introduction An active substance is a chemical, plant extract, pheromone or micro-organism that ...
European Union Ecolabel program data shows this substance has moderate acute toxicity to aquatic life ... European Union Ecolabel program data shows this substance has low chronic toxicity to aquatic life ... The European Union Ecolabel program reports this substance is not anaerobically degradable. ...
  • Trusted, comprehensive information and resources on substance use disorders. (
  • Substance use disorders (SUDs), including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and opioid use disorders, are all recognized patterns of problematic substance dependence and/or abuse included in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition from 2014. (
  • The large-scale release posed concerns regarding the capacity of reentry services and a potential increased risk for relapse or drug overdose for individuals with substance use disorders, according to researchers. (
  • The researchers analyzed prison releases among incarcerated individuals with substance use disorders in New Jersey from 2019 to 2020 and examined hospital and death records within 45 days after their release from prison. (
  • There are many treatment options available for substance use disorders. (
  • - this locator provides information on state-licensed providers who specialize in treating substance use disorders and mental illness. (
  • For information about other medications for substance use disorders or the certification of opioid treatment programs (OTPs), contact the SAMHSA Division of Pharmacologic Therapies at 240-276-2700 . (
  • The discovery of these mechanisms may be useful in developing therapeutics to treat substance use disorders. (
  • There was no recognition that mental health and substance use disorders are every bit as important as physical health, and that going without effective treatment can be debilitating and even life threatening. (
  • Impact: Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has been linked to unfavorable human health, including metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (
  • Today I want to talk about the co-occurrence of substance abuse disorders with mood disorders, a common clinical problem. (
  • While this discussion could also be relevant to substance abuse co-occurring with anxiety or other mental health conditions, I will use mood disorders as my primary example. (
  • Substance use disorders very commonly co-occur with mood disorders, particularly bipolar disorder , where rates are as high as 40%-60% at some point in patients' lives. (
  • In depressive disorders, substance use rates are not quite as high, but at 30%-40% are about twice the rate in the general population. (
  • Substance abuse refers to the harmful or hazardous use of psychoactive substances, including alcohol and illicit drugs. (
  • We know what can and needs to be done to help reduce the burden of psychoactive substance use. (
  • Alcohol is a psychoactive substance with dependence-producing properties that has been widely used in many cultures for centuries. (
  • Psychoactive drugs are substances that, when taken in or administered into one's system, affect mental processes, e.g. perception, consciousness, cognition or mood and emotions. (
  • This paper is an integrative literature review that analyzes the scientific production of psychoactive substances use, as well as the demographic and clinical characteristics of elderly that use psychoactive substances. (
  • Use Data System (SIDUC), to improve the collection of comparable statistical information on the consumption of psychoactive substances. (
  • The hope is expressed that the findings of this survey wil contribute in many ways to a better approach of the problem of abuse of psychoactive substances and that it will permit regional comparison within the OAS states of this common threat to society. (
  • SAMHSA's mission is to lead public health and service delivery efforts that promote mental health, prevent substance misuse, and provide treatments and supports to foster recovery while ensuring equitable access and better outcomes. (
  • Spielberg noted that while substance misuse "is linked to impulsivity at initial stages (e.g., before physiological dependence kicks in), the brain switches to a compulsive pattern once one becomes dependent on the drug. (
  • It is a collection of review essays on specific, relevant topics in adolescent substance misuse, rather than the usual assortment of empirical reports that belong properly in journals. (
  • Does one's economic background or ethnicity play a role in their avoidance or involvement in substance misuse? (
  • Substance Misuse in Adolescence explores these questions and untangles widely held beliefs about substance abuse issues using historical, clinical, and research data. (
  • This volume begins with an introduction to the social history of tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin and then examines individual, family, peer, and community variables that may contribute to substance misuse as well as resiliency factors that enable some teens to avoid such problems. (
  • It also discusses substance misuse in rural and urban settings, the pharmacological effects of specific substances, and current treatment approaches for substance-misusing youth. (
  • Researchers, graduate students, and practitioners who want the latest synthesis and view on adolescent substance misuse will find this volume a useful addition to their libraries and classrooms. (
  • SBIRT is an approach to screening and recommending early intervention to help prevent serious substance misuse. (
  • If we don't, and our substance misuse is a risk to ourselves or others, disciplinary action can follow. (
  • If we take time off because of substance misuse, we may have to undergo a fitness assessment before returning to work. (
  • That's when substance abuse becomes substance addiction. (
  • Substance addiction is dangerous. (
  • Substance addiction is different for everybody. (
  • Treatment for substance abuse and addiction can include medicines, therapy, or support groups. (
  • Furthermore, for people living with HIV, substance use and addiction can hasten HIV progression and its consequences. (
  • A confidential and anonymous source of information for persons seeking treatment facilities in the United States or U.S. Territories for substance use/addiction and/or mental health problems. (
  • The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) of 2008 requires health insurers and group health plans that offer mental health and substance use disorder benefits to provide the same level of benefits for mental and/or substance use treatment and services that they do for medical/surgical care. (
  • Learn about treatment and support options for substance use and addiction. (
  • Addiction (which is called a substance use disorder when medically diagnosed) is a treatable medical condition that affects your brain. (
  • Medications can help you with various substance use issues or addiction. (
  • OTTAWA, June 18, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- A new resource on how the connection between humans and animals can reduce stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic has been released by the Canadian Centre on Substance Use and Addiction (CCSA), in partnership with the University of Saskatchewan's PAWS Your Stress Therapy Dog Program and the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC). (
  • CEHPs include information about specific types of exposures to hazardous substances, exposure routes and pathways, health effects, and how to prevent and minimize exposures. (
  • The MRL is an estimate of the daily human exposure to a hazardous substance that is likely to be without appreciable risk of adverse, non-cancer health effects over a specified duration of exposure. (
  • Prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. (
  • Answers are provided to the most frequently asked questions (FAQs) about exposure to hazardous substances found around hazardous waste sites and the effects of exposure on human health. (
  • Quick reference guide providing information such as chemical and physical properties, sources of exposure, routes of exposure, minimal risk levels, children's health, and health effects for a substance. (
  • The listing algorithm prioritizes substances based on frequency of occurrence at NPL sites, toxicity, and potential for human exposure to the substances found at NPL sites. (
  • It should be noted that this priority list is not a list of "most toxic" substances, but rather a prioritization of substances based on a combination of their frequency, toxicity, and potential for human exposure at NPL sites. (
  • Thus, it is possible for substances with low toxicity but high NPL frequency of occurrence and exposure to be on this priority list. (
  • Specialists in these clinics can recognize, evaluate, and treat illnesses resulting from exposure to hazardous substances. (
  • Researchers knew from previous data that continued exposure to addictive substances makes the activity of direct-pathway medium spiny neurons (dMSNs) more potent. (
  • ACE may also assist in collecting and analyzing clinical samples if a laboratory test is available to determine exposure to the substance. (
  • The Toxic Substances Portal has been migrated to a new format. (
  • Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in the African Region. (
  • Alcohol is the most common drug used by people this age, followed by the abuse of medication, however, the use of illicit substances is increasing. (
  • The abuse of licit and illicit substances is a global problem that is influenced by a wide variety of factors that span social, economic, political and psychosocial arenas. (
  • Fast Five Quiz: Substance Use Disorder - Medscape - Sep 19, 2023. (
  • As such once the IUCLID format change begins on 19th May 2023 we will no longer update REACH registered substance factsheets. (
  • The purpose of this funding opportunity is to support research examining the potential contributions of mobile DNA elements and addictive substances in HIV integration, reservoir formation, and maintenance in the brain. (
  • The relationship between the brain and certain addictive substances is still not fully understood. (
  • The data provides insight into some of the potential mechanisms behind why addictive substances inhibit cognitive flexibility. (
  • The objective of this priority list is to rank substances across all NPL hazardous waste sites to provide guidance in selecting which substances will be the subject of toxicological profiles prepared by ATSDR. (
  • The ATSDR ToxFAQs™ are summaries about hazardous substances developed by the ATSDR Division of Toxicology and Human Health Sciences. (
  • The ATSDR ToxFAQs™ is a series of summaries about hazardous substances. (
  • Each substance on the list is a candidate to become the subject of a toxicological profile prepared by ATSDR. (
  • Summary about a hazardous substance taken from Chapter One of its respective ATSDR Toxicological Profile. (
  • Of course, we see abuse of alcohol and marijuana , but currently, epidemics of opiate and cocaine abuse and abuse of other substances have become common, reflecting community use. (
  • When toxic substance spills or chemical emergencies happen, ATSDR helps state and local health departments by providing ACE resources to perform a rapid epidemiologic assessment. (
  • MD Anderson is committed to maintaining an environment that is free from substance abuse, and its primary concern related to substance abuse among students is prevention and treatment. (
  • Possession, use of controlled substance - Penalty - Referral to assessment and services - Possession of useable cannabis, cannabis concentrates, or cannabis-infused products - Delivery. (
  • It also provides tips for how pets and therapy animals can help reduce the harms associated with using alcohol, cannabis and other substances. (
  • Coping with Stress, Anxiety and Substance Use During COVID-19: How Animals Can Help includes examples of simple activities to do with a pet to cope, as well as information on how to access the University of Saskatchewan's PAWS Your Stress virtual therapy dog program. (
  • Coping with Stress, Anxiety and Substance Use During COVID-19 and Managing Stress, Anxiety and Substance Use During Covid-19: A Resource for Healthcare Providers are tip sheets to help people recognize and cope with stress, anxiety and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic. (
  • Many young people who seek help with substance abuse problems also suffer from depression, anxiety and stress. (
  • What is the Substance Priority List (SPL)? (
  • In CERCLA, it is called the priority list of hazardous substances that will be candidates for toxicological profiles. (
  • This substance priority list is generally revised and published every two years, with an informal review and revision each year. (
  • Where can I find more information on the Substance Priority List? (
  • A good treatment program should also include ways to reduce your harms from substance use in case you use substances again. (
  • SAMHSA's National Helpline - provides 24-hour, free, and confidential mental and substance use disorder information and treatment referral in English and Spanish. (
  • For too long, insurance coverage was overly complex, hard to access, and discriminatory towards individuals with mental and substance use conditions. (
  • Physicians in the emergency department (ED) regularly encounter patients seeking treatment for alcohol or substance abuse problems. (
  • For general information, providers can contact SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) at 1-866-287-2728 or email [email protected] . (
  • Despite its significant impact on HIV, the intersection of substance use and HIV prevention and treatment has been an underdeveloped research area. (
  • MD Anderson recognizes that substance abuse is a treatable condition and, as an institution dedicated to health, facilitates the treatment and rehabilitation of this condition. (
  • Some substance use can have negative impacts on your life and loves ones, but there are treatment options available to help you. (
  • This is why many treatment options for substance use include other supports like therapy. (
  • The choice of treatment depends on your own circumstances and the substances you use. (
  • The Substance Abuse Rehabilitation Program (SARP) provides substance abuse screening, treatment, continuing care and referral for active-duty military personnel. (
  • Treatment is designed to assist the patient with the development of a responsible drinking plan, as well as provide information on healthy alternatives to substance use and abuse. (
  • A four-week program designed for patients who are diagnosed with Substance Abuse Disorder Moderate or severe and/or are determined to be in need of an abstinence based treatment program. (
  • Target 3.5: Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol. (
  • Although the aerosol of e-cigarettes generally has fewer harmful substances than cigarette smoke, e-cigarettes and other products containing nicotine are not safe to use during pregnancy. (
  • This funding opportunity will support pilot, feasibility, or exploratory research in priority areas in substance use epidemiology, prevention, and health services. (
  • Evidence-based programs for prevention and intervention in substance abuse are increasing. (
  • After the ACE investigation identified the issue, the Department of Emergency Management modified their procedure for notification of the state health department to include any incident involving a biological, chemical, radiological, or nuclear substance. (
  • The institution provides educational programs to inform its community about the physical and psychological problems associated with substance abuse, as well as pertinent state and federal laws. (
  • Psychological supports like therapy and counselling are talk-based approaches that can help you reduce or stop using substances. (
  • Counselling is also a type of psychological support where you will receive professional help and advice to help you deal with your substance use. (
  • Succinctly characterizes the toxicologic and adverse health effects information for mixtures of hazardous substances. (
  • Industries with the highest published employment and wages for Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers are provided. (
  • For a list of all industries with employment in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Social Workers, see the Create Customized Tables function. (
  • The SU-SWG consists of Texas D-CFAR and affiliate members, including basic science, clinical, public health and health services researchers, with the expertise needed to address a wide range of areas relevant to research in the overlapping epidemics of substance use and HIV. (
  • This research should address the needs and resources of SSP settings (e.g., standalone centers, locations affiliated with community-based organizations or AIDS service organizations, federally qualified health centers, and health department-based locations) and delivery models (e.g., fixed-site and mobile) that partner in the research, as well as what is feasible given the local or regional organization of substance use and HIV services. (
  • Webpage references posted funding opportunities of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). (
  • Behavioral health and substance abuse issues often go hand in hand. (
  • Health plans and insurers that offer mental health and substance use disorder benefits must provide those benefits comparable to their coverage for general medical and surgical care. (
  • The Consumer Guide to Disclosure Rights helps you understand what information to request to help determine which mental health or substance use disorder benefits will be paid for by your health plan, what information your plan relies on to approve or deny benefits, and what information is available to help you determine if your plan's mental health and substance use disorder benefits are offered at parity. (
  • The Know Your Rights: Parity for Mental Health and Substance Use Disorder Benefits brochure lists some of the common limits placed on mental health and substance use disorder benefits and services and includes additional information on parity. (
  • Talk to a health care provider if you're concerned about your substance use. (
  • Community needs assessments and health rankings provide descriptions of local behavioral health needs but do not provide public health practitioners and policy makers with guidelines on the number of programs, health care practitioners, or interventions needed in the local substance abuse care system. (
  • We reviewed 212 articles to produce an inventory of community and social correlates of behavioral health, components of a substance abuse care system, and numerical values for guidelines for estimating community needs. (
  • CAST can assist public health practitioners in evaluation and improvement of the capacity of community-based, substance abuse care systems. (
  • Substances we take in through food and water or through the air we breathe may influence our health. (
  • Social workers and other health care professionals who use SBIRT can quickly assess a person's level of risk for substance abuse and take action. (
  • The training is funded by a grant from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, led by Principal Investigator Shawn Lawrence, Ph.D., LCSW, a member of the school's faculty. (
  • An active substance is a chemical, plant extract, pheromone or micro-organism that has action against plant pests, weeds or diseases. (
  • The CAS number is the substance numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service, a division of the American Chemical Society, to substances registered in the CAS registry database. (
  • The EC Number is the numerical identifier for substances in the EC Inventory. (
  • They found the risk of overdose or death in individuals with substance use disorder after the mass prison release in 2020 didn't increase compared with earlier periods of time. (
  • Arsenic is a poisonous substance, which is released both from certain human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. (
  • The EC Inventory is a combination of three independent European lists of substances from the previous EU chemicals regulatory frameworks (EINECS, ELINCS and the NLP-list). (
  • A basic substance is an active substance that is not placed on the market primarily as a plant protection product but which may be of value for plant protection. (
  • A substance identified primarily by an EC or list number may be linked with more than one CAS number, or with CAS numbers that have been deleted. (
  • A two-week program designed primarily for patients diagnosed with Substance Abuse Disorder Mild. (
  • Counterfeit substances - Penalties - Referral to assessment and services. (
  • Other substances that were used by children and youth surveyed in Sierra Leone, included benzodiazepines such as diazepam, chlorpromazine and different inhalants, while 3.7% were injecting drugs. (
  • Distribution to others of drugs or controlled substances obtained pursuant to a prescription, except by a duly licensed and certified person, while in or on premises or property owned or controlled by the university. (
  • We come to work free from alcohol, drugs, or other substances which could affect our performance. (
  • New Jersey has robust reentry supports for incarcerated people with substance use disorder, which may have lowered post-release risks," said Treitler. (
  • The idea that people are using substances to medicate themselves is in fact true only in a small number of patients. (
  • Use of alcohol, an illegal drug or a controlled substance that occurs while not on university property or in university vehicles, but that adversely affects the safety of other students, employees, visitors or patients. (
  • CCSA was created by Parliament to provide national leadership to address substance use in Canada. (
  • By 2015, combined alcohol and tobacco use cost humans more than one quarter billion disability-adjusted life-years , with other substances adding to that figure substantially. (
  • Contrary to expectations, the risk for relapses, overdoses and deaths related to substance use disorder didn't increase after a large-scale prison release in New Jersey, according to a Rutgers study. (
  • Substance use is a well-established risk factor for HIV transmission. (
  • CERCLA also requires this list to be revised periodically to reflect additional information on hazardous substances. (
  • Is the list of fragrance substances that have to be identified on consumer products sufficient, or are there more that should be added to the list? (
  • If the substance was not covered by the EC Inventory, ECHA attributes a list number in the same format, starting with the numbers 6, 7, 8 or 9. (
  • The EC or list number is the primary substance identifier used by ECHA. (
  • substance P A neuropeptide comprising 11 amino-acid residues that is found widely in tissues, especially in the nervous system and gut. (
  • This pushed me to seek out the appropriate tools with which I could create that perfect denim virtually - and this is how I found out about Substance. (
  • This research found that dMSN activation by substance use reduces CIN function, reducing flexibility via a collateral projection from dMSNs to CINs. (