T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Inbred C57BLMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Cell SeparationBase Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.CD4-CD8 Ratio: Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.Mice, Inbred BALB CSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Antigens, CD56: The 140 kDa isoform of NCAM (neural cell adhesion molecule) containing a transmembrane domain and short cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed by all lymphocytes mediating non-MHC restricted cytotoxicity and is present on some neural tissues and tumors.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Antigens, CD3: Complex of at least five membrane-bound polypeptides in mature T-lymphocytes that are non-covalently associated with one another and with the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL). The CD3 complex includes the gamma, delta, epsilon, zeta, and eta chains (subunits). When antigen binds to the T-cell receptor, the CD3 complex transduces the activating signals to the cytoplasm of the T-cell. The CD3 gamma and delta chains (subunits) are separate from and not related to the gamma/delta chains of the T-cell receptor (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA).Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, gamma-delta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated gamma and delta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4-/CD8- T-cells. The receptors appear to be preferentially located in epithelial sites and probably play a role in the recognition of bacterial antigens. The T-cell receptor gamma/delta chains are separate and not related to the gamma and delta chains which are subunits of CD3 (see ANTIGENS, CD3).Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Monocytes: Large, phagocytic mononuclear leukocytes produced in the vertebrate BONE MARROW and released into the BLOOD; contain a large, oval or somewhat indented nucleus surrounded by voluminous cytoplasm and numerous organelles.Lectins, C-Type: A class of animal lectins that bind to carbohydrate in a calcium-dependent manner. They share a common carbohydrate-binding domain that is structurally distinct from other classes of lectins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Integrin alpha Chains: The alpha subunits of integrin heterodimers (INTEGRINS), which mediate ligand specificity. There are approximately 18 different alpha chains, exhibiting great sequence diversity; several chains are also spliced into alternative isoforms. They possess a long extracellular portion (1200 amino acids) containing a MIDAS (metal ion-dependent adhesion site) motif, and seven 60-amino acid tandem repeats, the last 4 of which form EF HAND MOTIFS. The intracellular portion is short with the exception of INTEGRIN ALPHA4.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Antigens, Differentiation: Antigens expressed primarily on the membranes of living cells during sequential stages of maturation and differentiation. As immunologic markers they have high organ and tissue specificity and are useful as probes in studies of normal cell development as well as neoplastic transformation.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Antigens, CD1: Glycoproteins expressed on cortical thymocytes and on some dendritic cells and B-cells. Their structure is similar to that of MHC Class I and their function has been postulated as similar also. CD1 antigens are highly specific markers for human LANGERHANS CELLS.NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily B: A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that includes both inhibitory and stimulatory members.Receptors, IgG: Specific molecular sites on the surface of various cells, including B-lymphocytes and macrophages, that combine with IMMUNOGLOBULIN Gs. Three subclasses exist: Fc gamma RI (the CD64 antigen, a low affinity receptor), Fc gamma RII (the CD32 antigen, a high affinity receptor), and Fc gamma RIII (the CD16 antigen, a low affinity receptor).Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Receptors, Chemokine: Cell surface glycoproteins that bind to chemokines and thus mediate the migration of pro-inflammatory molecules. The receptors are members of the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family. Like the CHEMOKINES themselves, the receptors can be divided into at least three structural branches: CR, CCR, and CXCR, according to variations in a shared cysteine motif.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Myeloid Cells: The classes of BONE MARROW-derived blood cells in the monocytic series (MONOCYTES and their precursors) and granulocytic series (GRANULOCYTES and their precursors).Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.HLA-DR Antigens: A subclass of HLA-D antigens that consist of alpha and beta chains. The inheritance of HLA-DR antigens differs from that of the HLA-DQ ANTIGENS and HLA-DP ANTIGENS.Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Palatine Tonsil: A round-to-oval mass of lymphoid tissue embedded in the lateral wall of the PHARYNX. There is one on each side of the oropharynx in the fauces between the anterior and posterior pillars of the SOFT PALATE.Receptors, Immunologic: Cell surface molecules on cells of the immune system that specifically bind surface molecules or messenger molecules and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Although these receptors were first identified in the immune system, many have important functions elsewhere.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Antigens, CD57: Oligosaccharide antigenic determinants found principally on NK cells and T-cells. Their role in the immune response is poorly understood.Leukocytes, Mononuclear: Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Antigens, CD5: Glycoproteins expressed on all mature T-cells, thymocytes, and a subset of mature B-cells. Antibodies specific for CD5 can enhance T-cell receptor-mediated T-cell activation. The B-cell-specific molecule CD72 is a natural ligand for CD5. (From Abbas et al., Cellular and Molecular Immunology, 2d ed, p156)Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Receptors, CCR7: CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL19 and CHEMOKINE CCL21. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; and DENDRITIC CELLS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Nerve Tissue ProteinsModels, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antigens, CD34: Glycoproteins found on immature hematopoietic cells and endothelial cells. They are the only molecules to date whose expression within the blood system is restricted to a small number of progenitor cells in the bone marrow.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Antigens, CD14: Glycolipid-anchored membrane glycoproteins expressed on cells of the myelomonocyte lineage including monocytes, macrophages, and some granulocytes. They function as receptors for the complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding protein.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell: IMMUNOGLOBULINS on the surface of B-LYMPHOCYTES. Their MESSENGER RNA contains an EXON with a membrane spanning sequence, producing immunoglobulins in the form of type I transmembrane proteins as opposed to secreted immunoglobulins (ANTIBODIES) which do not contain the membrane spanning segment.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Ligands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Leukocytes: White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Interleukins: Soluble factors which stimulate growth-related activities of leukocytes as well as other cell types. They enhance cell proliferation and differentiation, DNA synthesis, secretion of other biologically active molecules and responses to immune and inflammatory stimuli.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.GPI-Linked Proteins: A subclass of lipid-linked proteins that contain a GLYCOSYLPHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL LINKAGE which holds them to the CELL MEMBRANE.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Neoplasm Proteins: Proteins whose abnormal expression (gain or loss) are associated with the development, growth, or progression of NEOPLASMS. Some neoplasm proteins are tumor antigens (ANTIGENS, NEOPLASM), i.e. they induce an immune reaction to their tumor. Many neoplasm proteins have been characterized and are used as tumor markers (BIOMARKERS, TUMOR) when they are detectable in cells and body fluids as monitors for the presence or growth of tumors. Abnormal expression of ONCOGENE PROTEINS is involved in neoplastic transformation, whereas the loss of expression of TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEINS is involved with the loss of growth control and progression of the neoplasm.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Examples of these terms are acclimatized, adventive, naturalized, and immigrant species but those terms refer to a subset of ... Subset descriptions: Acclimatized species: Introduced species that have changed physically and/or behaviorally in order to ... Terminology: introduced species and subsets[edit]. The formal definition of an introduced species, from the United States ... There are many terms associated with introduced species that represent subsets of introduced species, and the terminology ...
Names and subsets[edit]. Due to its long history, Tongbeiquan has various names and subsets in different places. Baiyuan ... From Qi-style Baiyuan Tongbeiquan there are also a number of subsets such as, "Wu Xing" (5 Elements) Tongbeiquan and Five- ... Tongbeiquan has two subsets: Shi and Qi style. ... 2 Names and subsets. *3 Abridged Tongbeiquan lineage since the ...
Subsets of partial orders[edit]. *Cofinal and coinitial set, sometimes also called dense ...
More generally, given any subset S of G (S not necessarily a subgroup), we define a subset T of G to be conjugate to S if there ... A frequently used theorem is that, given any subset S of G, the index of N(S) (the normalizer of S) in G equals the order of Cl ... We can define Cl(S) as the set of all subsets T of G such that T is conjugate to S. ... so the subgroup of G generated by b contains p elements and thus is a proper subset of CG(b), because CG(b) includes all ...
Is seafood a subset of cuisine?. Should articles on seafood be given titles that restrict them to cuisines, as a user maintains ... or even a large subset) articles. -- Yzx (talk) 19:20, 29 April 2010 (UTC) I agree with that, basically. -innotata 19:31, 29 ...
... and where the vectors in W are a sub-set of those in V p. ×. L. {\displaystyle p\times L}. j. =. 1. …. p. {\displaystyle j=1\ ... Select a subset of the eigenvectors as basis vectors[edit]. *Save the first L columns of V as the p × L matrix W: ... in selecting a subset of variables from x, and in outlier detection. ...
This subset does indeed form a group; and for a finite set of groups Hi, the external direct sum is identical to the direct ... The external direct sum of a set of groups {Hi} (written as ∑E{Hi}) is the subset of ∏{Hi}, where, for each element g of ∑E{Hi ...
point subsets of A. {\displaystyle A}. ; i.e., ω. N. ⊂. A. {\displaystyle \omega _{N}\subset A}. . Configurations ω. N. {\ ... displaystyle A\subset \mathbb {R} ^{p}}. with the Lebesgue measure λ. (. A. ). ,. 0. {\displaystyle \lambda (A),0}. and s. ⩾. p ... displaystyle \omega _{N}=\{x_{1},\ldots ,x_{N}\}\subset \mathbb {R} ^{p}}. , the s. {\displaystyle s}. -energy of ω. N. {\ ...
Deleted: 'Formula' ('O,sub,3,/sub,' -, '', SET 'O,sub,3,/sub,'). *05:07:39 (4, 5, 5) (EDIT) User:67.176.164.55 (contribs, talk ... Changed: 'Formula' ('' -, 'O,sub,3,/sub,', SET 'O,sub,3,/sub,'). *05:08:44 (4, 4, 5) (EDIT) User:The High Fin Sperm Whale ( ... Changed: 'Formula' ('CO,/sub,N,sub,2,/sub,O' -, 'CO(NH,sub,2,/sub,),sub,2,/sub,', SET '(NH,sub,2,/sub,),sub,2,/sub,CO') ... Deleted: 'Formula' ('CO(NH,sub,2,/sub,),sub,2,/sub,' -, '', SET '(NH,sub,2,/sub,),sub,2,/sub,CO'). ...
Image of a subset[edit]. The image of a subset A ⊆ X under f is the subset f[A] ⊆ Y defined by (in set-builder notation): ... Given a function f : X → Y, for all subsets A, A1, and A2 of X and all subsets B, B1, and B2 of Y we have: *f(A1 ∪ A2) = f(A1 ... In mathematics, an image is the subset of a function's codomain which is the output of the function from a subset of its domain ... not just for pairs of subsets: *. f. (. ⋃. s. ∈. S. A. s. ). =. ⋃. s. ∈. S. f. (. A. s. ). {\displaystyle f\left(\bigcup _{s\in ...
The PMC open-access subset. You can search for open access articles in PMC by adding "AND open access[filter]" to the end of ...
displaystyle K\subset V}. is compact, then f. (. K. ). ⊂. W. {\displaystyle f(K)\subset W}. is also compact. ... displaystyle U\subset W}. , f. −. 1. (. U. ). ⊂. V. {\displaystyle f^{-1}(U)\subset V}. is also open. Given these definitions, ... has a finite subcover". The Heine-Borel theorem asserts that a subset of the real line is compact if and only if it is both ... this theorem states that a continuous function from a non-empty compact space to a subset of the real numbers attains a maximum ...
SPM is a subset of SRM. A simple way of expressing the difference between SPM and SRM is that the former is about ensuring the ...
The subsets created from splitting set S. {\displaystyle S}. by attribute A. {\displaystyle A}. such that S. =. ⋃. t. ∈. T. t. ... Recursion on a subset may stop in one of these cases: *every element in the subset belongs to the same class; in which case the ... Let Examples(vi) be the subset of examples that have the value vi for A If Examples(vi) is empty Then below this new branch add ... Entropy of subset t. {\displaystyle t}. In ID3, information gain can be calculated (instead of entropy) for each remaining ...
"Counting minimal puzzles: subsets, supersets, etc". Forum.enjoysudoku.com. 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2017-04-18.. ...
talk , contribs)‎ (→‎Terminology: introduced species and subsets). Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special: ...
Given a subset J. ⊂. I. e. {\displaystyle J\subset I_{e}}. of the edge index set, the partial hypergraph generated by J. {\ ... In one, the edges consist not only of a set of vertices, but may also contain subsets of vertices, subsets of subsets of ... is a set of non-empty subsets of X. {\displaystyle X}. called hyperedges or edges. Therefore, E. {\displaystyle E}. is a subset ... is an n-element set of subsets of V. ∗. {\displaystyle V^{*}}. . For v. j. ∗. ∈. V. ∗. {\displaystyle v_{j}^{*}\in V^{*}}. and ...
subset(S,T). : a predicate that tests whether the set S is a subset of set T. ... In particular a subset of the integers 1..n can be implemented efficiently as an n-bit bit array, which also support very ... Subtypes and subsets may be modeled by refinement types, and quotient sets may be replaced by setoids.) The characteristic ... returns the subset containing all elements of S that satisfy a given predicate P. ...
For instance, path length along a subset can be defined as a domain, the functions along which can then be defined later. The ... Users can define kinetic and electro-physiological functions across both subsets and sections. Neuron comes equipped with a ... ". "Specify subsets". "Set up a SubsetDomainIterator". "Specify geometry". Hodgkin-Huxley ionic current characterization " ...
License free subsetsEdit. To facilitate adoption of SNOMED CT and use of SNOMED CT in other standards, there are license free ... As of 2011, SNOMED CT content limits itself to a subset of the EL++ formalism, restricting itself to the following operators: * ... Global Patient Set (GPS) subsetEdit. GPS was released in Sep 2019 and contains 21 782 concepts.[33] ... subsets. For example, a set of 7 314 codes and descriptions is free for use by users of DICOM-compliant software (without ...
Often "accent" is a subset of "dialect".[1] Contents. *1 History. *2 Development ...
... changes to proportions of subsets of PBMCs; changes in the prevalence of T cell subtypes across organs; and changes to ...
is not constrained and arbitrary subsets of T. W. {\displaystyle T_{W}}. must be considered. ...
displaystyle \{x_{N}\}\subset X}. converging to x. ¯. {\displaystyle {\overline {x}}}. it follows that g. ^. N. (. x. N. ). {\ ... displaystyle {\hat {S}}_{N}\subset C}. with probability 1. *if x. N. ∈. X. N. {\displaystyle x_{N}\in X_{N}}. and x. N. {\ ... is a nonempty closed subset of R. n. {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{n}}. , ξ. {\displaystyle \xi }. is a random vector whose ... displaystyle \Xi \subset \mathbb {R} ^{d}}. , and Q. :. X. ×. Ξ. →. R. {\displaystyle Q:X\times \Xi \rightarrow \mathbb {R} }. ...
... it has 2n distinct terms corresponding to all the subsets of S, each subset giving the product of the corresponding variables ... More formally, a k-combination of a set S is a subset of k distinct elements of S. If the set has n elements, the number of k- ... These combinations (subsets) are enumerated by the 1 digits of the set of base 2 numbers counting from 0 to 2n − 1, where each ... The number of k-combinations for all k is the number of subsets of a set of n elements. There are several ways to see that this ...
displaystyle \{T=t\}\subset V\subset U,}. ,. P. (. A. ∩. V. ). P. (. V. ). −. L. ,. ,. ϵ. ,. {\displaystyle \left,{\frac {P(A\ ...
The biology of human natural killer-cell subsets. Trends Immunol 2001; 22(11): 633-640 doi: 10.1016/S1471-4906(01)02060-9 pmid: ... Preferential apoptosis of CD56dim natural killer cell subset in patients with cancer. Eur J Immunol 2003; 33(1): 119-124 doi: ... Peritt D, Robertson S, Gri G, Showe L, Aste-Amezaga M, Trinchieri G. Differentiation of human NK cells into NK1 and NK2 subsets ... Effects of the administration of high-dose interleukin-2 on immunoregulatory cell subsets in patients with advanced melanoma ...
Human Th17 subsets.. Sallusto F1, Zielinski CE, Lanzavecchia A.. Author information. 1. Institute for Research in Biomedicine, ...
T-lymphocyte subsets in acute illness.. Feeney C1, Bryzman S, Kong L, Brazil H, Deutsch R, Fritz LC. ... To determine the range of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8, and CD4/CD8 ratios) in acutely ill, hospitalized patients and to ... but no relationship was found between total lymphocyte or lymphocyte subset counts and APACHE II score, predicted mortality ... predicted mortality rate with T-lymphocyte subsets. ...
SMART will generate data for subset analyses on quality of life, cost effectiveness, HIV transmission risk ... ... Data for a given subset analysis will be gathered only from those sites preselected for the particular question. Quality of ... In addition to the primary study question, SMART will generate data for subset analyses on quality of life, cost effectiveness ...
... subset of monocytes produces high levels of TNF, suggesting that this subset of monocytes may be closely related to liver ... The frequency of classical monocytes was higher than the other subsets. The expression of HLA-DR, IL-6, TNF-α, and TGF-β was ... Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis. Jamille Souza Fernandes,1 Maria Ilma Araujo,1,2,3 Diego ... The subsets of monocytes from individuals with different degrees of periportal fibrosis were evaluated regarding the expression ...
... Jamille Souza Fernandes,1 Maria Ilma Araujo,1,2,3 Diego ... "Monocyte Subsets in Schistosomiasis Patients with Periportal Fibrosis," Mediators of Inflammation, vol. 2014, Article ID 703653 ...
my $subset = Mail::Message::Head::Subset-,new(...) $subset-,isa(Mail::Message::Head) # true $subset-,guessBodySize # integer ... Mail::Message::Head::Subset - subset of header information of a message. INHERITANCE Mail::Message::Head::Subset realizes a ... Mail::Message::Head::Subset-,build( [PAIR,$field]-LIST ). Inherited, see Constructors in Mail::Message::Head ... Mail::Message::Head::Subset-,log( [$level, [$strings]] ). Inherited, see Error handling in Mail::Reporter ...
The distribution of human DC subsets is summarized in Fig. 2.. Blood/precursor DCs Blood DCs are well defined in humans, and ... CD14+DCs found in tissues and lymph nodes are a third subset of CD11c+ myeloid cells originally described as interstitial DCs ... Pre-cDCs are blood mDCs in all but name and comprise multiple subsets that may correspond to the two human myeloid blood DCs.21 ... Human dendritic cell subsets from spleen and blood are similar in phenotype and function but modified by donor health statusJ ...
2010) A novel subset of CD4(+) T(H)2 memory/effector cells that produce inflammatory IL‐17 cytokine and promote the ... Bouchery T, Kyle R, Ronchese F and Le Gros G (2014) The differentiation of CD4(+) T‐helper cell subsets in the context of ... 1999) Two subsets of memory T lymphocytes with distinct homing potentials and effector functions. Nature 401 (6754): 708-712. ... T Lymphocytes: Plasticity of Subsets. Tim R Mosmann, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York, USA Jonathan ...
This study uses a multivariate subset selection procedure to make simultaneous distinctions across inequality measures at a pre ... Keywords: income distribution; inference; poverty; subset selection; Other versions of this item:. * William Horrace & Joseph ... "Identifying technically efficient fishing vessels: a non-empty, minimal subset approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John ... "Identifying Technically Efficient Fishing Vessels: A Non-Empty, Minimal Subset Approach," Center for Policy Research Working ...
... Chen M., Huang L., Shabier Z., Wang J. ... Significant differences in the lifespan have been reported for various DC subsets, however, the molecular mechanisms for ... Our data suggest that differential expression of apoptosis signaling molecules regulates the lifespan of different DC subsets. ... regulating such differences between DC subsets remain unclear. In this study, we compared the apoptosis signaling molecules in ...
Subsets of Sets is the 2001 debut album by New Zealand post-rock band Jakob. Jesse Booher, vocals on Ryan Steve Gibbs, cello on ... "Jakob - Subsets of Sets". Rip It Up. Archived from the original on 25 July 2002. Retrieved 2012-11-05. Francois, Natasha (28 ... "Subsets of Sets". midiumrecords.com. Midium Records. Retrieved 9 August 2009. Kara, Scott (23 September 2006). "Jakob: Solace ... July 2003), "Jakob: Subsets of Sets", Fresh Cut - Reviews of NZ Albums, New Zealand Musician, archived from the original on 28 ...
The search is still on to define specific markers that distinguish the subsets of CD4+ suppressor subsets (78, 83, 84). This ... T cell subsets. Each of the regulatory T cell subsets expresses distinct receptors, employs different effector mechanisms, and ... CD4+ T-cell subsets: regulation of differentiation and function [review]. Res. Immunol. 1991. 142:7-9. View this article via: ... The role of helper T cell subsets in autoimmune diseases. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 1998. 9:139-151. View this article via: ...
A subset of products of the plurality of products is designated, where the number of products in the subset of products is less ... Prices for the products in the subset of products are optimized, while maintaining the initial prices of products of the ... A method for computing a preferred set of prices for products in a subset of a plurality of products is provided. Generally, ... plurality of products that are not in the subset of products. ... A subset constraint is selected. The subset constraint is sent ...
Home » Modeling » UML2 » Extract a Subset of Communication Diagram (Extract a Subset of Communication Diagram ) Show: Todays ... Extract a Subset of Communication Diagram [message #1101388]. Wed, 04 September 2013 11:50 ... I am trying to cut a subset of UML2.2 to get the communication diagram only. Because communication diagram use a lot of ...
... out genetic rescue experiments that revealed the functional importance of neuronal octopamine and identified a small subset of ... A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression. *Chuan Zhou1,2. , ... Zhou, C., Rao, Y. & Rao, Y. A subset of octopaminergic neurons are important for Drosophila aggression. Nat Neurosci 11, 1059- ... out genetic rescue experiments that revealed the functional importance of neuronal octopamine and identified a small subset of ...
GO subsets available. Maintained GO subsets. The GO subsets in this list are maintained as part of the GO flat file. The files ... What is a GO subset?. GO subsets (also known as GO slims) are cut-down versions of the GO ontologies containing a subset of the ... Maintained GO subsets for download Organism or Usage Download GO slim AGR subset Developed by GO Consortium for the Alliance of ... Schizosaccharomyces pombe subset Developed by PomBase OBO format Yeast subset Developed by Saccharomyces Genome Database OBO ...
If S and T are subsets of a group G, then their product is the subset of G defined by S T = { s t : s ∈ S and t ∈ T } . {\ ... of subsets) and multiplication as product of subsets. Central product Double coset Adolfo Ballester-Bolinches; Ramon Esteban- ... If G is a finite group and S and T are subgroups of G, then ST is a subset of G of size ,ST, given by the product formula: , S ... The product of group subsets therefore defines a natural monoid structure on the power set of G. A lot more can be said in the ...
T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 63 primary lung cancer patients (23 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with squamous cell ... T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 63 primary lung cancer patients (23 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with squamous cell ... Correlations between T-lymphocyte subset values and stages or cell types of disease were sought. Total lymphocytes in the ...
Towards Predicting Optimal Subsets of Base-Experts in Biometric Authentication Task ... Towards Predicting Optimal Subsets of Base-Experts in Biometric Authentication Task (0) by N Poh, S Bengio ...
These DC subsets differ in the cytokine profiles they induce in T cells in vivo. The lymphoid-related subset induces high ... Mechanism of T-Cell Cytokine Skewing by Distinct DC Subsets.. The precise mechanism by which these DC subsets mediate their ... 3). Thus, the lymphoid-related subset induced no detectable IL-4 whereas the myeloid-related subset induced high levels of IL-4 ... subset (Fig. 1). This myeloid-related DC subset appears to be similar to that generated by FL-treatment, in so far as it failed ...
As our appreciation of different T cell subsets and their plasticity increases, the initial simplistic view that restoring Th1/ ... increasing Th1 responses can ameliorate food allergy is being enhanced by a more complex model involving other T cell subsets, ...
In this paper we consider a more general and difficult version of the problem, named Subset Feedback Vertex Set (Subset-FVS in ... These two facts allow us to give a 2 O(klogk) n O(1) time algorithm solving the Subset Feedback Vertex Set problem, proving ... Even, G., Naor, J., Zosin, L.: An 8-approximation algorithm for the subset feedback vertex set problem. SIAM J. Comput. 30(4), ... Because of its applications in circuit testing and genetic linkage analysis Subset-FVS was studied from the approximation ...
Transcription and enhancer profiling in human monocyte subsets. Christian Schmidl, Kathrin Renner, Katrin Peter, Ruediger Eder ... Transcription and enhancer profiling in human monocyte subsets. Christian Schmidl, Kathrin Renner, Katrin Peter, Ruediger Eder ... Transcription and enhancer profiling in human monocyte subsets. Christian Schmidl, Kathrin Renner, Katrin Peter, Ruediger Eder ... Transcription and enhancer profiling in human monocyte subsets Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
  • We carried out genetic rescue experiments that revealed the functional importance of neuronal octopamine and identified a small subset of octopaminergic neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion as being important for aggression. (nature.com)
  • Figure 6: A small subset of octopaminergic neurons involved in aggression. (nature.com)
  • Not everyone's asthma is caused by bacteria - it's a small subset of maybe 30 - 50%, but it's worth looking into. (healingwell.com)
  • A small subset of cells that tells the immune system whether to attack may be a future target for therapies to help patients fight tumors and keep transplanted organs, a Medical College of Georgia researcher says. (innovations-report.com)
  • This surprising synergy was mediated by a small subset of tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cells that express the high-affinity Fcγ receptor for IgG (FcγRI) in both mouse and human patients. (jci.org)
  • Suppression of Jmjd3 expression during retinal development resulted in the failure of differentiation of retinal cell subsets. (pnas.org)
  • Lowered expression of genes essential for differentiation of the subsets by loss of expression of Jmjd3 was observed. (pnas.org)
  • Diverse activation and differentiation of multiple B-cell subsets in patients with atopic dermatitis but not in patients with psoriasis. (sciencemag.org)
  • As assessed by mRNA analysis and in vitro antigen restimulation for IFN-γ, Ii −/− mice had normal induction of Th1 subset differentiation even though antigen-dependent proliferation of their lymph node cells was substantially compromised. (rupress.org)
  • These experiments demonstrate that activation of T helper cells to a threshold required for IL-2 production or proliferation is not required to achieve induction of disease-regulating T helper cell effector functions, and that pathogen-associated secondary activation signals may facilitate the full differentiation of T helper subsets during limiting presentation of antigenic peptides. (rupress.org)
  • T-cell subsets in the peripheral blood of 63 primary lung cancer patients (23 with adenocarcinoma, 23 with squamous cell carcinoma and 17 with small cell carcinoma) and 24 normal healthy controls were determined by indirect immunofluorescence, using the monoclonal antibody reagents OKT3, OKT4 and OKT8. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In particular, a subset of septic patients has physiologic characteristics akin to macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). (chp.edu)
  • Bethesda, MD (Aug. 28, 2014) -- A subset of patients with stage III colon cancer had improved survival rates when treated with irinotecan-based therapy, according to a new study in Gastroenterology 1 , the official journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. (eurekalert.org)
  • This analysis serves to increase our understanding of which subset of patients might benefit from irinotecan adjuvant therapy. (eurekalert.org)
  • For the majority of patients with diabetes, gastric bypass surgery leads to improved glucose control, but a subset of patients develop post-meal hypoglycemia--associated with too much of an insulin response--several years after surgery," says Salehi, also a physician with UC Health. (eurekalert.org)
  • ORLANDO FL In a subset of patients suffering heart attack adding st. (bio-medicine.org)
  • ORLANDO, FL In a subset of patients suffering heart attack, adding stents to clot-busting medical therapy after the optimal treatment window ends isn't justified, say researchers from Duke University Medical Center. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Focusing on a representative subset of 951 patients in the OAT trial, Dr. Daniel Mark, a cardiologist and director of outcomes research at the Duke Clinical Research Institute, led a team that measured various aspects of quality of life, including physical functioning, emotional and social well-being, activity level and the presence and intensity of pain. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The good news is that we discovered that a subset of patients who had both high tumor mutation burden and high PDL-1 positive status did experience a significant benefit from immunotherapy," says Carbone. (eurekalert.org)
  • Vertex, however, still said that a pre-specified subset of patients 18 and over-a group that represented a majority of the patients in the study-did show enough of an improvement for the company to see if the FDA will approve the drug for patients in that age group with an R117H mutation. (xconomy.com)
  • Specifically, Vertex said 50 of the 69 patients in the study were in this subset, and saw a relative improvement in lung function-as measured by their ability to force air out of their lungs for one second-of about 9.1 percent over the course of the 24-week study. (xconomy.com)
  • While we are disappointed that the study in people with the R117H mutation did not meet its primary endpoint, we are encouraged by the significant improvements in lung function and other measures of CF observed in the subset of patients ages 18 and older who had established lung disease. (xconomy.com)
  • Now, Czarnowicki and colleagues quantify, in healthy controls versus patients with atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, the frequencies of several B cell subsets such as plasmablasts and naïve, memory, transitional, and activated B cells. (sciencemag.org)
  • Further characterization of the B cell compartment in these patients revealed that it housed fewer CD27 - memory B cells relative to healthy controls, although IgE production was highest in this subset. (sciencemag.org)
  • Interpretation: These results indicate that leucocyte subsets predict the clinical outcome of patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in high efficiency. (ssrn.com)
  • There are significant alterations in the T helper cell subsets in severe HT, and Th17 cells are elevated in the circulation of all patients with AITD, although those with GD in remission appear to have lower levels of these cells. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • Other issues which require addressing in future studies would include the fact that the cells were polyclonally activated and thus not in the ex vivo state (such activation is necessary to amplify the cytokine signal), also that the patients were not followed sequentially, and finally that there are no absolute numbers given for the T cell subsets, but only relative proportions. (thyroidmanager.org)
  • Tol patients presented a different signature of Treg subset markers compared with non-Tol patients with increased expression of HELIOS and FOXP3 and a higher proportion of latency-associated peptide (LAP)+ Tregs and CD45RA- human leukocyte antigen D related (HLA-DR)+ activated effector-memory Tregs. (cun.es)
  • Both subsets appear equally competent at stimulating antigen-specific T cell proliferation in vitro (E.M., B.P., C.M., K.B., E. Daro, M. Teepe, and H. McKenna, unpublished work). (pnas.org)
  • DSN: CC36.SNATAL86 CC36.SNATAL87 ABSTRACT Subsets of the NCHS Natality Data have been created for use by CDC staff. (cdc.gov)
  • Human Th17 subsets. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, many intermediates between established subsets have been reported, for example Th1/Th17 cells expressing both IFNγ (interferon‐gamma) and IL (interleukin)‐17. (els.net)
  • A recently identified additional subset has been termed Th17, because such T cells are characterised by the production of the cytokine interleukin-17 (1L-17). (thyroidmanager.org)
  • On the basis of a patient with a vague clinical presentation and an unclear situation after primary investigations, we highlight the diagnostic challenge of this rare subset of paragangliomas. (scirp.org)
  • On the basis of this case, we show the diagnostic challenge of this rare subset of paragangliomas. (scirp.org)
  • Rare subset of diseases involving the lympha. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 2. The method of claim 1, wherein modifying the portion of the network fabric comprises modifying the first fabric subset such that the modified first fabric subset does not include the first networked device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 1, wherein modifying the portion of the network fabric comprises creating a second fabric subset that includes the second networked device. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The method of claim 3, wherein modifying the portion of the network fabric further comprises deleting the first fabric subset from among the plurality of fabric subsets. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and the plurality of fabric subsets comprises a plurality of zones. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Each subset comprises all of the cases in one of two summary levels: whole census tracts (summary level 140) and census tracts in places (summary level 158). (umich.edu)
  • We identified differential regulatory elements (including promoters and putative enhancers) that were associated with subset-specific motif signatures corresponding to different transcription factor activities and exemplarily validated novel downstream enhancer elements at the CD14 locus. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The reactive subpopulation largely overlaps with the JRA + subset, which was previously shown to possess regulatory properties in functional assays. (jimmunol.org)
  • Significant differences in the lifespan have been reported for various DC subsets, however, the molecular mechanisms for regulating such differences between DC subsets remain unclear. (uniprot.org)
  • Consistent with the notion, the latest research has suggested that although normal MaSC subsets mainly stay in a quiescent state, they differ in their reconstituting ability, spatial localization, and molecular and epigenetic signatures in response to physiological stimuli within the respective microenvironment during the stages of mammary gland development. (mdpi.com)
  • Integrative Analysis Identifies Four Molecular and Clinical Subsets in Uveal Melanoma. (osu.edu)
  • ABC transporters and NR4A1 identify a quiescent subset of tissue-resident memory T cells," J Clin Invest. (scitechdaily.com)
  • Poor-prognosis M3-UM divide into subsets with divergent genomic aberrations, transcriptional features, and clinical outcomes. (osu.edu)
  • These effects can be minimized by bioinformatic strategies based on gene set enrichment analysis in which subset-specific signatures are identified or tissue-specific gene sets are removed before analysis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • GO subsets are particularly useful for giving a summary of the results of GO annotation of a genome, microarray, or cDNA collection when broad classification of gene product function is required. (geneontology.org)
  • Given a GO subset file, and a current ontology (in one or more files), the Map2Slim script will map a gene association file (containing annotations to the full GO) to the terms in the GO subset. (geneontology.org)
  • In addition to known subset-specific features, pathway analysis revealed marked differences in metabolic gene signatures. (bloodjournal.org)
  • RefSeq HGMD (subset) - Subset of RefSeq Curated, transcripts annotated by the Human Gene Mutation Database. (ucsc.edu)
  • Further, the correlations between leucocyte subsets and inflammation related factors associated with clinical outcome were subsequently investigated. (ssrn.com)
  • More recently, the taxonomy of DC populations and their homology to mouse DC subsets have been scrutinized by transcriptional profiling. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A method for computing a preferred set of prices for products in a subset of a plurality of products is provided. (google.co.uk)
  • A subset of products of the plurality of products is designated, where the number of products in the subset of products is. (google.co.uk)
  • A subset of products of the plurality of products is designated, where the number of products in the subset of products is less than the number of products in the plurality of products. (google.co.uk)
  • Prices for the products in the subset of products are optimized, while maintaining the initial prices of products of the plurality of products that are not in the subset of products. (google.co.uk)
  • The aim of this review is to present a coherent framework for understanding human DC subsets and their functional roles in vivo . (biomedsearch.com)
  • All subsets contributed to the vaccine-specific responses and were characterized by in vivo proliferation and activation. (jcvi.org)
  • 1. CD4 counts were linearly related to total lymphocyte concentrations (Pearson correlation coefficient = 0.948), but no relationship was found between total lymphocyte or lymphocyte subset counts and APACHE II score, predicted mortality rate, or survival rate. (nih.gov)
  • Discovering Behavioural Patterns within Customer Population by using Temporal Data Subsets. (igi-global.com)
  • Chapter represents discovering behavioural patterns within non-temporal and temporal data subsets related to customer churn. (igi-global.com)
  • Data for a given subset analysis will be gathered only from those sites preselected for the particular question. (thebody.com)
  • The book also introduces the reader to probabilistic failure analysis and reliability-based sensitivity analysis, which are laid out in a context that can be efficiently tackled with Subset Simulation or Monte Carlo simulation in general. (wiley.com)
  • Engraftment test provides percentage of donor DNA in purified CD3 subset from post-transplant recipient blood sample by quantitative analysis of 1 STR locus. (uiowa.edu)
  • Together, these data nominate ADAR1 as a potential therapeutic target in a subset of cancers. (nature.com)
  • Injection of mice with the cytokine Flt3-ligand (FL) dramatically expands mature lymphoid and myeloid-related DC subsets. (pnas.org)
  • We have investigated mechanisms that regulate metabolic adaptation upon TLR-stimulation in human blood DC subsets, CD1c + myeloid DCs (mDCs) and plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). (frontiersin.org)
  • The Mouse ON-TARGET plus RTF Ubiquitin Conjugation Subset 2 siRNA Library targets F-box and SOCS box E3 ubiquitin ligases, which are substrate recognition elements for Cul-1 and Cul-2 containing ubiquitin ligases. (horizondiscovery.com)
  • Prepared by the Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, this data collection consists of selected subsets extracted from the Census of Population and Housing, 2000, Summary File 3 (SF3). (umich.edu)
  • As a type of ZCZ sequence set, an A-ZCZ sequence set consists of multiple sequence subsets. (aimsciences.org)
  • In addition to the primary study question, SMART will generate data for subset analyses on quality of life, cost effectiveness, HIV transmission risk behavior, and probably metabolic complications. (thebody.com)
  • A networking device includes a port, and a management module that identifies fabric subsets that include networked devices that can exchange information with each other, detects that a networked device was uncoupled from the networking device, and modifies the fabric subsets. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The state subset was generated by extracting from the merged file all cases with a given value for SUMLEV, the variable that identifies the summary level. (umich.edu)
  • The diagnostic performance of the leucocyte subsets and other parameters were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value (AUC). (ssrn.com)