One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Submandibular Gland Diseases refer to a group of medical conditions affecting the structure and function of the submandibular glands, leading to symptoms such as swelling, pain, difficulty swallowing, and reduced saliva production.
Submandibular Gland Neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors, which can be benign or malignant, originating from the glandular tissues of the submandibular salivary gland located beneath the mandible (jawbone).
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
"Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the function, structure, or health of the salivary glands, leading to symptoms such as dry mouth, swelling, pain, and abnormal secretions."
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC, TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC, and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC
Increased salivary flow.
Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Decreased salivary flow.
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
Quinuclidines are organic compounds consisting of a tricyclic structure with a three-membered ring fused to a piperidine ring, often used as building blocks in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals and bioactive molecules.
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (1/1221)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (2/1221)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

EGF precursor mRNA and membrane-associated EGF precursor protein in rat exorbital lacrimal gland. (3/1221)

This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. EGF precursor gene transcription was demonstrated first by RT-PCR analysis of lacrimal gland RNA using a set of specific primers and second by Northern blot analysis of rat lacrimal gland mRNA. A rabbit polyclonal antibody (rEGF2) directed against rat submaxillary gland EGF was used to detect EGF-containing proteins by RIA. Results indicate that the rat lacrimal gland does not contain detectable soluble and mature EGF but that the EGF immunoreactivity is associated with the membrane-enriched fraction. Analysis of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by gel filtration shows that membrane-associated EGF immunoreactivity was present as a high-molecular-mass protein. Moreover, as shown by Western blot analysis, a specific anti-rat EGF precursor antibody (ppEGF1) can immunoprecipitate a 152-kDa EGF-containing protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time both EGF precursor gene transcription and EGF precursor protein expression in a lacrimal tissue, i.e., the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. The demonstration that EGF appears to be stored only as its full-length membrane precursor may provide important information to study the regulation of its secretory process.  (+info)

Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) immunity: fimbriae-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-regulated IgA responses for the inhibition of bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. (4/1221)

To investigate the antibacterial activity of mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced nasally and orally, mice were immunized with mucosal vaccine containing fimbrial protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent for a destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, and cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant. Nasal vaccine containing low doses of fimbriae (10 micrograms) and CT (1 microgram) induced Ag-specific Th1/Th2-type response in CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector tissues, including nasal passage and submandibular glands, which accounted for the generation of Ag-specific IgA-producing cells. In contrast, oral immunization required higher amounts of fimbriae and CT for the induction of Ag-specific IgA responses. Fimbriae-specific IgA mAbs generated from submandibular glands of nasally immunized mice inhibited P. gingivalis attachment to and reduced subsequent inflammatory cytokine production from epithelial cells. These findings suggest that nasal vaccination is an effective immunization regimen for the induction of Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-driven IgA immune responses that possess the ability to inhibit bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Dynamics of parenchymal cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis in the young adult female mouse submandibular gland. (5/1221)

The submandibular salivary gland of the young adult female mouse has two secretory cell types, acinar and granular duct, which are separated by intercalated ducts. Based on the occurrence of autologous cell division in these cells, they have been traditionally classified as expanding populations. However, differentiation from stem or progenitor cells in the intercalated ducts, usually associated with renewing populations, has also been detected. The question of renewing or expanding populations is resolved by quantitating and integrating the rates of autologous cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis for each cell type. The integrated data shows that both acinar and granular duct cell populations exhibit a substantial positive growth index, whereas the growth index for the intercalated duct cells is moderately negative. On balance, it suggests that the submandibular gland of the young adult female mouse is still growing. Comparison of young female mice with older females suggests that, although overall parenchymal growth slows with age, there is no longer a net loss of intercalated duct cells. Comparison with young adult male submandibular glands indicates that gender differences exist in the rates and mechanisms used for maintaining the different cell populations. The acinar and granular duct cell populations in young adult female mouse submandibular glands are expanding at the expense of the intercalated duct cell population, which appears to be contracting.  (+info)

Caffeine does not inhibit substance P-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in rat salivary acinar cells. (6/1221)

We used the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2, together with measurements of intracellular D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to assess the inhibitory effects of caffeine on signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptor pathways in isolated rat mandibular salivary acinar cells. ACh, norepinephrine (NE), and substance P (SP) all evoked substantial increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Responses to ACh and NE were markedly inhibited by prior application of 20 mM caffeine. The inhibitory effect of caffeine was not reproduced by phosphodiesterase inhibition with IBMX or addition of cell-permeant dibutyryl cAMP. In contrast to the ACh and NE responses, the [Ca2+]i response to SP was unaffected by caffeine. Despite this, SP and ACh appeared to mobilize Ca2+ from a common intracellular pool. Measurements of agonist-induced changes in Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels confirmed that caffeine inhibited the stimulus-response coupling pathway at a point before Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation. Caffeine did not, however, inhibit [Ca2+]i responses evoked by direct activation of G proteins with 40 mM F-. These data show that caffeine inhibits G protein-coupled signal transduction in these cells at some element that is common to the muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic signaling pathways but is not shared by the SP signaling pathway. We suggest that this element might be a specific structural motif on the G protein-coupled muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic receptors.  (+info)

Cloning of Trp1beta isoform from rat brain: immunodetection and localization of the endogenous Trp1 protein. (7/1221)

The Trp gene product has been proposed as a candidate protein for the store-operated Ca2+ channel, but the Trp protein(s) has not been identified in any nonexcitable cell. We report here the cloning of a rat brain Trp1beta cDNA and detection and immunolocalization of the endogenous and expressed Trp1 protein. A 400-bp product, with >95% homology to mouse Trp1, was amplified from rat submandibular gland RNA. Rat-specific primers were used for cloning of a full-length rat brain Trp1beta cDNA (rTrp1), encoding a protein of 759 amino acids. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the transcript in several rat and mouse tissues. The peptide (amino acids 523-536) was used to generate a polyclonal antiserum. The affinity-purified antibody 1) immunoprecipitated human Trp1 (hTrp1) from transfected HEK-293 cells, 2) reacted with a protein of approximately 92 kDa, but not with hTrp3, in membranes of hTrp3-expressing HEK-293 cells, and 3) reacted with proteins of 92 and 56 kDa in human and rat brain membranes. Confocal microscopy and cell fractionation demonstrated that endogenous and expressed hTrp1 and expressed hTrp3 proteins were localized in the plasma membrane of HEK-293 cells, consistent with their proposed role in Ca2+ influx. The data demonstrate for the first time the presence of Trp1 protein in a nonexcitable cell.  (+info)

Occurrence of permanent changes in vaginal and uterine epithelia in mice treated neonatally with progestin, estrogen and aromatizable or non-aromatizable androgens. (8/1221)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain were injected daily with 100 microng testosterone, 50 microng testosterone propionate (TP), 100 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 50 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), for 10 days from the day of birth. Two other groups of female mice were given neonatal injections with 20 microng estradiol-17 beta and 100 microng progesterone for 10 days, respectively. All mice were ovariectomized at 60 days of age and killed at 90 days. In 100% of neonatally estrogenized or androgenized, ovariectomized mice, the cranial part of the vagina was lined with stratified epithelium with either cornification or parakeratosis or mucification. Stratification only or stratification with superficial squamous metaplasia or cornification took place in the uterine epithelia of 18% of the TP-treated, 75% of the DHT-treated and 50% of the DHTP-treated, ovariectomized mice. In contrast, neonatally estrogenized, ovariectomized mice did not show the estrogen-independent, persistent uterine changes. Neonatal progesterone treatment failed to induce the permanent changes in the vaginal and uterine epithelia.  (+info)

The submandibular glands are one of the major salivary glands in the human body. They are located beneath the mandible (jawbone) and produce saliva that helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the oral cavity. The saliva produced by the submandibular glands contains enzymes like amylase and mucin, which aid in the digestion of carbohydrates and provide moisture to the mouth and throat. Any medical condition or disease that affects the submandibular gland may impact its function and could lead to problems such as dry mouth (xerostomia), swelling, pain, or infection.

Submandibular gland diseases refer to a group of disorders that affect the function or structure of the submandibular glands, which are salivary glands located beneath the jaw and produce saliva. These diseases can be categorized into inflammatory, infectious, obstructive, neoplastic (benign or malignant), and autoimmune disorders.

Some common submandibular gland diseases include:

1. Submandibular sialadenitis: Inflammation of the submandibular gland due to bacterial or viral infections, stones, or autoimmune conditions.
2. Salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis): Calcified deposits that obstruct the ducts leading from the submandibular gland, causing swelling and pain, especially during meals.
3. Submandibular gland tumors: Abnormal growths in the submandibular gland, which can be benign or malignant (cancerous). Malignant tumors may invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.
4. Sjögren's syndrome: An autoimmune disorder that affects the exocrine glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to dry mouth and eyes.
5. IgG4-related disease: A systemic inflammatory condition characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells into various organs, including the submandibular gland, causing swelling and damage.
6. Mikulicz's disease: A rare benign lymphoepithelial lesion that affects the salivary and lacrimal glands, including the submandibular gland, leading to enlargement and dryness of the affected glands.
7. Salivary gland dysfunction: Reduced or impaired saliva production due to aging, medications, radiation therapy, or systemic diseases, which can affect the submandibular gland.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of submandibular gland diseases require a thorough clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and sometimes biopsy or surgical intervention.

Submandibular gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the submandibular glands. These are one of the three pairs of major salivary glands located beneath the jaw and produce saliva that helps in digestion. Submandibular gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are typically slow-growing, do not invade surrounding tissues, and rarely spread to other parts of the body. Common types of benign submandibular gland neoplasms include pleomorphic adenomas and monomorphic adenomas.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, are aggressive and can invade nearby structures or metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Common types of malignant submandibular gland neoplasms include mucoepidermoid carcinoma, adenoid cystic carcinoma, and acinic cell carcinoma.

Symptoms of submandibular gland neoplasms may include a painless swelling or mass in the neck, difficulty swallowing, speaking, or breathing, numbness or tingling in the tongue or lips, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment options depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor but often involve surgical excision, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence or metastasis.

The sublingual glands are a pair of salivary glands located in the floor of the mouth, beneath the tongue. They are the smallest of the major salivary glands and produce around 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. The sublingual glands secrete saliva containing electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), and antibacterial compounds that help in digestion, lubrication, and protection against microorganisms.

The sublingual glands' secretions are released through multiple small ducts called the ducts of Rivinus or minor sublingual ducts, as well as a larger duct called the duct of Wharton, which is a common excretory duct for both sublingual and submandibular glands.

Sublingual gland dysfunction can lead to conditions such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dental caries, or oral infections.

Salivary ducts are the excretory tubules that transport saliva from the major and minor salivary glands to the oral cavity. The main function of these ducts is to convey the salivary secretions, which contain enzymes and lubricants, into the mouth to aid in digestion, speech, and swallowing.

There are two pairs of major salivary glands: the parotid glands and the submandibular glands. Each pair has its own set of ducts. The parotid gland's saliva is drained through the parotid duct, also known as Stensen's duct, which opens into the oral cavity opposite the upper second molar tooth. The submandibular gland's saliva is transported through the submandibular duct, or Wharton's duct, which empties into the floor of the mouth near the base of the tongue.

Minor salivary glands are scattered throughout the oral cavity and pharynx, and their secretions are drained via small ducts directly into the oral mucosa.

Salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva, which is secreted into the oral cavity to keep the mouth and throat moist, aid in digestion by initiating food breakdown, and help maintain dental health. There are three major pairs of salivary glands: the parotid glands located in the cheeks, the submandibular glands found beneath the jaw, and the sublingual glands situated under the tongue. Additionally, there are numerous minor salivary glands distributed throughout the oral cavity lining. These glands release their secretions through a system of ducts into the mouth.

The parotid gland is the largest of the major salivary glands. It is a bilobed, accessory digestive organ that secretes serous saliva into the mouth via the parotid duct (Stensen's duct), located near the upper second molar tooth. The parotid gland is primarily responsible for moistening and lubricating food to aid in swallowing and digestion.

Anatomically, the parotid gland is located in the preauricular region, extending from the zygomatic arch superiorly to the angle of the mandible inferiorly, and from the masseter muscle anteriorly to the sternocleidomastoid muscle posteriorly. It is enclosed within a fascial capsule and has a rich blood supply from the external carotid artery and a complex innervation pattern involving both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers.

Parotid gland disorders can include salivary gland stones (sialolithiasis), infections, inflammatory conditions, benign or malignant tumors, and autoimmune diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome.

Sialadenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the salivary gland. It can occur in any of the major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The inflammation may result from bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Acute sialadenitis is often caused by bacterial infections and can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. Chronic sialadenitis, on the other hand, may be caused by recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders like Sjogren's syndrome, or stones in the salivary ducts. Symptoms of chronic sialadenitis can include intermittent swelling, pain, and dry mouth.

Treatment for sialadenitis depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, hydration, and massage of the salivary glands. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove obstructions or damaged tissue in the salivary gland.

Salivation is the process of producing and secreting saliva by the salivary glands in the mouth. It is primarily a reflex response to various stimuli such as thinking about or tasting food, chewing, and speaking. Saliva plays a crucial role in digestion by moistening food and helping to create a food bolus that can be swallowed easily. Additionally, saliva contains enzymes like amylase which begin the process of digesting carbohydrates even before food enters the stomach. Excessive salivation is known as hypersalivation or ptyalism, while reduced salivation is called xerostomia.

Salivary gland calculi, also known as salivary duct stones or sialoliths, are small, hard deposits that form in the salivary glands or their ducts. These calculi typically consist of calcium salts and other minerals, and can vary in size from a few millimeters to over a centimeter in diameter.

Salivary gland calculi can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, swelling, and difficulty swallowing, particularly during meals. The obstruction of the salivary duct by the calculus can lead to infection or inflammation of the salivary gland (sialadenitis).

The most common location for salivary gland calculi is in the submandibular gland and its duct, followed by the parotid gland and then the sublingual gland. Treatment options for salivary gland calculi include conservative management with hydration, massage, and warm compresses, as well as more invasive procedures such as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, sialendoscopy, or surgical removal of the calculus.

Salivary proteins and peptides refer to the diverse group of molecules that are present in saliva, which is the clear, slightly alkaline fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. These proteins and peptides play a crucial role in maintaining oral health and contributing to various physiological functions.

Some common types of salivary proteins and peptides include:

1. **Mucins**: These are large, heavily glycosylated proteins that give saliva its viscous quality. They help to lubricate the oral cavity, protect the mucosal surfaces, and aid in food bolus formation.
2. **Amylases**: These enzymes break down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, initiating the digestive process even before food reaches the stomach.
3. **Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)**: PRPs contribute to the buffering capacity of saliva and help protect against tooth erosion by forming a protective layer on tooth enamel.
4. **Histatins**: These are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties, playing a significant role in maintaining oral microbial homeostasis and preventing dental caries.
5. **Lactoferrin**: An iron-binding protein that exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities, contributing to the overall oral health.
6. **Statherin and Cystatins**: These proteins regulate calcium phosphate precipitation, preventing dental calculus formation and maintaining tooth mineral homeostasis.

Salivary proteins and peptides have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Alterations in the composition of these molecules can provide valuable insights into various oral and systemic diseases, making them promising biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring.

Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) is a type of aquaporin, which is a family of water channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water molecules across cell membranes. Specifically, AQP5 is found in various tissues, including the lungs, salivary and lacrimal glands, sweat glands, and cornea. It plays a crucial role in maintaining water homeostasis and lubrication in these tissues.

In the lungs, AQP5 helps regulate airway surface liquid volume and composition, contributing to proper lung function. In the salivary and lacrimal glands, it aids in fluid secretion, ensuring adequate moisture in the mouth and eyes. In sweat glands, AQP5 facilitates water transport during sweating, helping to regulate body temperature. Lastly, in the cornea, AQP5 helps maintain transparency and hydration, contributing to clear vision.

Defects or dysfunctions in AQP5 can lead to various conditions, such as dry mouth (xerostomia), dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca), and potentially impaired lung function.

Salivary gland diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the function and structure of the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication, and protection of the mouth and throat. The major salivary glands include the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.

There are several types of salivary gland diseases, including:

1. Salivary Gland Infections: These are usually caused by bacteria or viruses that infect the gland, ducts, or surrounding tissues. The most common infection is called sialadenitis, which can cause pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing.

2. Salivary Gland Stones (Sialolithiasis): These are small, hard deposits that form in the ducts of the salivary glands, causing blockages and leading to swelling, pain, and infection.

3. Salivary Gland Tumors: Both benign and malignant tumors can develop in the salivary glands. Benign tumors are usually slow-growing and cause localized swelling, while malignant tumors may be more aggressive and spread to other parts of the body.

4. Salivary Gland Dysfunction: This refers to conditions that affect the production or flow of saliva, such as Sjogren's syndrome, radiation therapy, dehydration, or certain medications.

5. Autoimmune Disorders: Conditions like Sjogren's syndrome, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis can affect the salivary glands and cause inflammation, dry mouth, and other symptoms.

6. Salivary Gland Trauma: Injuries to the face or neck can damage the salivary glands and lead to swelling, bleeding, or decreased function.

Proper diagnosis and treatment of salivary gland diseases require a thorough evaluation by a healthcare professional, often involving imaging studies, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options may include antibiotics, surgery, radiation therapy, or changes in medication or lifestyle.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

The Parasympathetic Nervous System (PNS) is the part of the autonomic nervous system that primarily controls vegetative functions during rest, relaxation, and digestion. It is responsible for the body's "rest and digest" activities including decreasing heart rate, lowering blood pressure, increasing digestive activity, and stimulating sexual arousal. The PNS utilizes acetylcholine as its primary neurotransmitter and acts in opposition to the Sympathetic Nervous System (SNS), which is responsible for the "fight or flight" response.

The lingual nerve is a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V). It provides general sensory innervation to the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, including taste sensation from the same region. It also supplies sensory innervation to the floor of the mouth and the lingual gingiva (gum tissue). The lingual nerve is closely associated with the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands and their ducts.

Exocrine glands are a type of gland in the human body that produce and release substances through ducts onto an external or internal surface. These glands are responsible for secreting various substances such as enzymes, hormones, and lubricants that help in digestion, protection, and other bodily functions.

Exocrine glands can be further classified into three types based on their mode of secretion:

1. Merocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by exocytosis, where the secretory product is enclosed in a vesicle that fuses with the cell membrane and releases its contents outside the cell. Examples include sweat glands and mucous glands.
2. Apocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by pinching off a portion of the cytoplasm along with the secretory product. An example is the apocrine sweat gland found in the armpits and genital area.
3. Holocrine glands: These glands release their secretions by disintegrating and releasing the entire cell, including its organelles and secretory products. An example is the sebaceous gland found in the skin, which releases an oily substance called sebum.

Kallikreins are a group of serine proteases, which are enzymes that help to break down other proteins. They are found in various tissues and body fluids, including the pancreas, kidneys, and saliva. In the body, kallikreins play important roles in several physiological processes, such as blood pressure regulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis (the breakdown of blood clots).

There are two main types of kallikreins: tissue kallikreins and plasma kallikreins. Tissue kallikreins are primarily involved in the activation of kininogen, a protein that leads to the production of bradykinin, a potent vasodilator that helps regulate blood pressure. Plasma kallikreins, on the other hand, play a key role in the coagulation cascade by activating factors XI and XII, which ultimately lead to the formation of a blood clot.

Abnormal levels or activity of kallikreins have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inflammatory disorders. For example, some studies suggest that certain tissue kallikreins may promote tumor growth and metastasis, while others indicate that they may have protective effects against cancer. Plasma kallikreins have also been linked to the development of thrombosis (blood clots) and inflammation in cardiovascular disease.

Overall, kallikreins are important enzymes with diverse functions in the body, and their dysregulation has been associated with various pathological conditions.

Sialorrhea is the medical term for excessive drooling or saliva production. It's not necessarily a condition where the person produces too much saliva, but rather, they are unable to control the normal amount of saliva in their mouth due to various reasons such as neurological disorders, developmental disabilities, or structural issues that affect swallowing and oral motor function.

Common causes include cerebral palsy, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Down syndrome, stroke, intellectual disability, and certain medications. Treatment options vary depending on the cause and severity of the condition and may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, oral devices, or even surgical procedures in severe cases.

Sialography is a medical imaging technique used to examine the ducts (salivary glands) that carry saliva from the salivary glands to the mouth. In this procedure, a radiopaque contrast material is injected into the salivary gland, and then X-rays or other forms of imaging are taken to visualize the shape and any abnormalities in the ducts.

The contrast material outlines the ducts on the images, allowing healthcare professionals to identify any blockages, narrowing, dilations, stones, or other abnormalities that may be present in the salivary glands. Sialography is typically used to diagnose and manage conditions such as salivary gland inflammation, obstruction, or infection.

It's worth noting that sialography has been largely replaced by newer imaging techniques, such as ultrasound, CT scans, and MRI, which do not require the injection of a contrast material and are generally considered safer and more comfortable for patients. However, sialography may still be used in certain cases where these other methods are not sufficient to make an accurate diagnosis.

Salivary gland neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the salivary glands. These glands are responsible for producing saliva, which helps in digestion, lubrication of food and maintaining oral health. Salivary gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms are slow-growing and typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as swelling, painless lumps, or difficulty swallowing if they grow large enough to put pressure on surrounding tissues.

Malignant neoplasms, on the other hand, can be aggressive and have the potential to invade nearby structures and metastasize (spread) to distant organs. Symptoms of malignant salivary gland neoplasms may include rapid growth, pain, numbness, or paralysis of facial nerves.

Salivary gland neoplasms can occur in any of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands) or in the minor salivary glands located throughout the mouth and throat. The exact cause of these neoplasms is not fully understood, but risk factors may include exposure to radiation, certain viral infections, and genetic predisposition.

Xerostomia is a medical term that describes the subjective feeling of dryness in the mouth due to decreased or absent saliva flow. It's also commonly referred to as "dry mouth." This condition can result from various factors, including medications, dehydration, radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and other medical disorders. Prolonged xerostomia may lead to oral health issues such as dental caries, oral candidiasis, and difficulty with speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

Parasympathectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the interruption or removal of part of the parasympathetic nervous system, which is a division of the autonomic nervous system. This type of surgery is typically performed to help manage certain medical conditions such as hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating), Raynaud's disease, and some types of chronic pain.

The parasympathetic nervous system helps regulate many automatic functions in the body, including heart rate, digestion, and respiration. By interrupting or removing portions of this system, a parasympathectomy can help to reduce excessive sweating, improve circulation, or alleviate pain. However, it's important to note that this type of surgery carries risks and potential complications, and is typically only considered as a last resort when other treatments have failed.

Salivary cystatins are a group of proteins that belong to the cystatin superfamily and are found in saliva. They function as inhibitors of cysteine proteases, which are enzymes that break down other proteins. Specifically, salivary cystatins help regulate the activity of these proteases in the oral cavity and protect the soft tissues of the mouth from degradation. There are several types of salivary cystatins, including cystatin A, B, C, D, SN, S, SA, and SB, each with different properties and functions. Some salivary cystatins have been studied for their potential role in oral health and disease, such as caries prevention and protection against oral cancer.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

The lacrimal apparatus is a complex system in the eye that produces, stores, and drains tears. It consists of several components including:

1. Lacrimal glands: These are located in the upper outer part of the eyelid and produce tears to keep the eye surface moist and protected from external agents.
2. Tear ducts (lacrimal canaliculi): These are small tubes that drain tears from the surface of the eye into the lacrimal sac.
3. Lacrimal sac: This is a small pouch-like structure located in the inner part of the eyelid, which collects tears from the tear ducts and drains them into the nasolacrimal duct.
4. Nasolacrimal duct: This is a tube that runs from the lacrimal sac to the nose and drains tears into the nasal cavity.

The lacrimal apparatus helps maintain the health and comfort of the eye by keeping it lubricated, protecting it from infection, and removing any foreign particles or debris.

Proline-rich protein domains are segments within proteins that contain an unusually high concentration of the amino acid proline. These domains are often involved in mediating protein-protein interactions and can play a role in various cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene regulation, and protein folding. They are also commonly found in extracellular matrix proteins and may be involved in cell adhesion and migration. The unique chemical properties of proline, including its ability to form rigid structures and disrupt alpha-helices, contribute to the functional specificity of these domains.

Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own moisture-producing glands, particularly the tear and salivary glands. This can lead to symptoms such as dry eyes, dry mouth, and dryness in other areas of the body. In some cases, it may also affect other organs, leading to a variety of complications.

There are two types of Sjögren's syndrome: primary and secondary. Primary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when the condition develops on its own, while secondary Sjögren's syndrome occurs when it develops in conjunction with another autoimmune disease, such as rheumatoid arthritis or lupus.

The exact cause of Sjögren's syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Treatment typically focuses on relieving symptoms and may include artificial tears, saliva substitutes, medications to stimulate saliva production, and immunosuppressive drugs in more severe cases.

Dihydroergotamine is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called ergot alkaloids. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of ergotamine, which is found naturally in the ergot fungus. Dihydroergotamine is used to treat migraines and cluster headaches.

The drug works by narrowing blood vessels around the brain, which helps to reduce the pain and other symptoms associated with migraines and cluster headaches. It can be administered via injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet. Dihydroergotamine may cause serious side effects, including medication overuse headache, ergotism, and cardiovascular events such as heart attack or stroke. Therefore, it is important to use this medication only as directed by a healthcare provider.

Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is a radioactive pharmaceutical preparation used in medical diagnostic imaging. It is a technetium-99m radiopharmaceutical, where technetium-99m is a metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99, which emits gamma rays and has a half-life of 6 hours. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m is used as a contrast agent in various diagnostic procedures, such as imaging of the thyroid, salivary glands, or the brain, to evaluate conditions like inflammation, tumors, or abnormalities in blood flow. It is typically administered intravenously, and its short half-life ensures that the radiation exposure is limited.

The chorda tympani nerve is a branch of the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) that has both sensory and taste functions. It carries taste sensations from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and sensory information from the oral cavity, including touch, temperature, and pain.

Anatomically, the chorda tympani nerve originates from the facial nerve's intermediate nerve, which is located in the temporal bone of the skull. It then travels through the middle ear, passing near the tympanic membrane (eardrum) before leaving the skull via the petrotympanic fissure. From there, it joins the lingual nerve, a branch of the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (cranial nerve V), which carries the taste and sensory information to the brainstem for processing.

Clinically, damage to the chorda tympani nerve can result in loss of taste sensation on the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and altered sensations in the oral cavity. This type of injury can occur during middle ear surgery or as a result of various medical conditions that affect the facial nerve or its branches.

Pilocarpine is a cholinergic agonist, which means it stimulates the parasympathetic nervous system by binding to muscarinic receptors. It is primarily used in the treatment of dry mouth (xerostomia) caused by radiation therapy or Sjögren's syndrome, as well as in the management of glaucoma due to its ability to construct the pupils and reduce intraocular pressure. Pilocarpine can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions and chronic bronchitis. It is available in various forms, including tablets, ophthalmic solutions, and topical gels.

Minor salivary glands are numerous small exocrine glands that produce saliva and are distributed throughout the oral cavity, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, and paranasal sinuses. They are classified as "minor" due to their smaller size compared to the three pairs of major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual). The minor salivary glands are primarily mucous glands, although some contain serous cells. They are responsible for producing approximately 5-10% of the total saliva in the mouth. These glands help moisten the oral cavity, protect the mucosal lining, and facilitate speaking, chewing, and swallowing.

A pleomorphic adenoma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) tumor that typically develops in the salivary glands, although they can also occur in other areas such as the nasopharynx and skin. "Pleomorphic" refers to the diverse appearance of the cells within the tumor, which can vary in size, shape, and arrangement.

Pleomorphic adenomas are composed of a mixture of epithelial and mesenchymal cells, which can form glandular structures, squamous (scale-like) cells, and areas that resemble cartilage or bone. These tumors tend to grow slowly and usually do not spread to other parts of the body.

While pleomorphic adenomas are generally not dangerous, they can cause problems if they become large enough to press on surrounding tissues or structures. In some cases, these tumors may also undergo malignant transformation, leading to a cancerous growth known as carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma. Surgical removal is the standard treatment for pleomorphic adenomas, and the prognosis is generally good with proper management.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "autonomic agents" is not a medical term or concept that has a specific definition in the field of medicine. The term "autonomic" refers to the part of the nervous system that regulates involuntary physiological functions, such as heart rate, digestion, and respiratory rate. The term "agents," on the other hand, is often used in computer science and artificial intelligence to refer to software entities that can act on behalf of a user or another entity.

Therefore, "autonomic agents" might refer to software programs that are designed to regulate physiological functions autonomously, but this would be more related to the field of biomedical engineering or artificial intelligence than to medicine itself. If you have more context or information about where you encountered this term, I may be able to provide a more specific answer.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Morphogenesis is a term used in developmental biology and refers to the process by which cells give rise to tissues and organs with specific shapes, structures, and patterns during embryonic development. This process involves complex interactions between genes, cells, and the extracellular environment that result in the coordinated movement and differentiation of cells into specialized functional units.

Morphogenesis is a dynamic and highly regulated process that involves several mechanisms, including cell proliferation, death, migration, adhesion, and differentiation. These processes are controlled by genetic programs and signaling pathways that respond to environmental cues and regulate the behavior of individual cells within a developing tissue or organ.

The study of morphogenesis is important for understanding how complex biological structures form during development and how these processes can go awry in disease states such as cancer, birth defects, and degenerative disorders.

Sweat glands are specialized tubular structures in the skin that produce and secrete sweat, also known as perspiration. They are part of the body's thermoregulatory system, helping to maintain optimal body temperature by releasing water and heat through evaporation. There are two main types of sweat glands: eccrine and apocrine.

1. Eccrine sweat glands: These are distributed throughout the body, with a higher concentration on areas like the palms, soles, and forehead. They are responsible for producing a watery, odorless sweat that primarily helps to cool down the body through evaporation.

2. Apocrine sweat glands: These are mainly found in the axillary (armpit) region and around the anogenital area. They become active during puberty and produce a thick, milky fluid that does not have a strong odor on its own but can mix with bacteria on the skin's surface, leading to body odor.

Sweat glands are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, meaning they function involuntarily in response to various stimuli such as emotions, physical activity, or changes in environmental temperature.

Histochemistry is the branch of pathology that deals with the microscopic localization of cellular or tissue components using specific chemical reactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques to identify and locate specific biomolecules within tissues, cells, and subcellular structures. This is achieved through the use of various staining methods that react with specific antigens or enzymes in the sample, allowing for their visualization under a microscope. Histochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to identify different types of tissues, cells, and structures, as well as in research to study cellular and molecular processes in health and disease.

Atropine is an anticholinergic drug that blocks the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the central and peripheral nervous system. It is derived from the belladonna alkaloids, which are found in plants such as deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), Jimson weed (Datura stramonium), and Duboisia spp.

In clinical medicine, atropine is used to reduce secretions, increase heart rate, and dilate the pupils. It is often used before surgery to dry up secretions in the mouth, throat, and lungs, and to reduce salivation during the procedure. Atropine is also used to treat certain types of nerve agent and pesticide poisoning, as well as to manage bradycardia (slow heart rate) and hypotension (low blood pressure) caused by beta-blockers or calcium channel blockers.

Atropine can have several side effects, including dry mouth, blurred vision, dizziness, confusion, and difficulty urinating. In high doses, it can cause delirium, hallucinations, and seizures. Atropine should be used with caution in patients with glaucoma, prostatic hypertrophy, or other conditions that may be exacerbated by its anticholinergic effects.

Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca, also known as dry eye syndrome, is a condition characterized by decreased quality and/or quantity of tears to lubricate and nourish the eye. This can result in discomfort, visual disturbance, and potentially damage to the ocular surface. It is often associated with inflammation of the conjunctiva and the cornea. The symptoms may include dryness, scratchiness, burning, foreign body sensation, pain, redness, blurred vision, and light sensitivity.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Sebaceous glands are microscopic, exocrine glands that are found in the dermis of mammalian skin. They are attached to hair follicles and produce an oily substance called sebum, which is composed of triglycerides, wax esters, squalene, and metabolites of fat-producing cells (fatty acids, cholesterol). Sebum is released through a duct onto the surface of the skin, where it forms a protective barrier that helps to prevent water loss, keeps the skin and hair moisturized, and has antibacterial properties.

Sebaceous glands are distributed throughout the body, but they are most numerous on the face, scalp, and upper trunk. They can also be found in other areas of the body such as the eyelids (where they are known as meibomian glands), the external ear canal, and the genital area.

Abnormalities in sebaceous gland function can lead to various skin conditions, including acne, seborrheic dermatitis, and certain types of skin cancer.

Tissue kallikreins are a group of serine proteases that are involved in various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including blood pressure regulation, inflammation, and tissue remodeling. They are produced by various tissues throughout the body and are secreted as inactive precursors called kallikrein precursor proteins or zymogens.

Once activated, tissue kallikreins cleave several substrates, including kininogens, to generate bioactive peptides that mediate a variety of cellular responses. For example, the activation of the kinin-kallikrein system leads to the production of bradykinin, which is a potent vasodilator and inflammatory mediator.

Tissue kallikreins have been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. They are also potential targets for therapeutic intervention, as inhibiting their activity has shown promise in preclinical studies for the treatment of various diseases.

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Methacholine compounds are medications that are used as a diagnostic tool to help identify and confirm the presence of airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with respiratory symptoms such as cough, wheeze, or shortness of breath. These compounds act as bronchoconstrictors, causing narrowing of the airways in individuals who have heightened sensitivity and reactivity of their airways, such as those with asthma.

Methacholine is a synthetic derivative of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that mediates nerve impulse transmission in the body. When inhaled, methacholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the smooth muscle surrounding the airways, leading to their contraction and narrowing. The degree of bronchoconstriction is then measured to assess the patient's airway responsiveness.

It is important to note that methacholine compounds are not used as therapeutic agents but rather as diagnostic tools in a controlled medical setting under the supervision of healthcare professionals.

Taste disorders, also known as dysgeusia, refer to conditions that affect a person's ability to taste or distinguish between different tastes. These tastes include sweet, sour, salty, bitter, and umami (savory). Taste disorders can result from damage to the taste buds, nerves that transmit taste signals to the brain, or areas of the brain responsible for processing taste information.

Taste disorders can manifest in several ways, including:

1. Hypogeusia: Reduced ability to taste
2. Ageusia: Complete loss of taste
3. Dysgeusia: Distorted or altered taste perception
4. Phantogeusia: Tasting something that is not present
5. Parageusia: Unpleasant or metallic tastes in the mouth

Taste disorders can be caused by various factors, including damage to the tongue or other areas of the mouth, certain medications, infections, exposure to chemicals or radiation, and neurological conditions such as Bell's palsy or multiple sclerosis. In some cases, taste disorders may be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, such as diabetes or kidney disease.

Treatment for taste disorders depends on the underlying cause. If a medication is causing the disorder, adjusting the dosage or switching to a different medication may help. In other cases, treating the underlying medical condition may resolve the taste disorder. If the cause cannot be identified or treated, various therapies and strategies can be used to manage the symptoms of taste disorders.

Quinuclidines are a class of organic compounds that contain a unique cage-like structure consisting of a tetrahydrofuran ring fused to a piperidine ring. The name "quinuclidine" is derived from the Latin word "quinque," meaning five, and "clidis," meaning key or bar, which refers to the five-membered ring system that forms the core of these compounds.

Quinuclidines have a variety of biological activities and are used in pharmaceuticals as well as agrochemicals. Some quinuclidine derivatives have been found to exhibit anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. They can also act as inhibitors of various enzymes and receptors, making them useful tools for studying biological systems and developing new drugs.

It is worth noting that quinuclidines are not typically used in medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather serve as building blocks for the development of new pharmaceutical compounds.

A serous membrane is a type of thin, smooth tissue that lines the inside of body cavities and surrounds certain organs. It consists of two layers: an outer parietal layer that lines the cavity wall, and an inner visceral layer that covers the organ. Between these two layers is a small amount of fluid called serous fluid, which reduces friction and allows for easy movement of the organs within the body cavity.

Serous membranes are found in several areas of the body, including the pleural cavity (around the lungs), the pericardial cavity (around the heart), and the peritoneal cavity (around the abdominal organs). They play an important role in protecting these organs and allowing them to move smoothly within their respective cavities.

The Harderian gland is a specialized exocrine gland located in many vertebrate species, including birds and mammals. In humans, it is rudimentary and not fully developed. However, in other animals like rodents, lagomorphs (rabbits and hares), and some reptiles, this gland plays a significant role.

The Harderian gland is primarily responsible for producing and secreting lipids, which help to lubricate the eye's surface and the nictitating membrane (third eyelid). This lubrication ensures that the eyes remain moist and protected from dryness and external irritants. Additionally, the secretions of the Harderian gland contain immunoglobulins, which contribute to the animal's immune defense system by providing protection against pathogens.

In some animals, the Harderian gland also has a role in pheromone production and communication. The study and understanding of this gland are particularly important in toxicological research, as it is often used as an indicator of environmental pollutant exposure and their effects on wildlife.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Gastric mucins refer to the mucin proteins that are produced and secreted by the mucus-secreting cells in the stomach lining, also known as gastric mucosa. These mucins are part of the gastric mucus layer that coats and protects the stomach from damage caused by digestive acids and enzymes, as well as from physical and chemical injuries.

Gastric mucins have a complex structure and are composed of large glycoprotein molecules that contain both protein and carbohydrate components. They form a gel-like substance that provides a physical barrier between the stomach lining and the gastric juices, preventing acid and enzymes from damaging the underlying tissues.

There are several types of gastric mucins, including MUC5AC and MUC6, which have different structures and functions. MUC5AC is the predominant mucin in the stomach and is produced by surface mucous cells, while MUC6 is produced by deeper glandular cells.

Abnormalities in gastric mucin production or composition can contribute to various gastrointestinal disorders, including gastritis, gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Amylases are enzymes that break down complex carbohydrates, such as starch and glycogen, into simpler sugars like maltose, glucose, and maltotriose. There are several types of amylases found in various organisms, including humans.

In humans, amylases are produced by the pancreas and salivary glands. Pancreatic amylase is released into the small intestine where it helps to digest dietary carbohydrates. Salivary amylase, also known as alpha-amylase, is secreted into the mouth and begins breaking down starches in food during chewing.

Deficiency or absence of amylases can lead to difficulties in digesting carbohydrates and may cause symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. Elevated levels of amylase in the blood may indicate conditions such as pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer, or other disorders affecting the pancreas.

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is a rare type of cancer that can occur in various glands and tissues of the body, most commonly in the salivary glands. AdCC is characterized by its slow growth and tendency to spread along nerves. It typically forms solid, cystic, or mixed tumors with distinct histological features, including epithelial cells arranged in tubular, cribriform, or solid patterns.

The term "carcinoma" refers to a malignant tumor originating from the epithelial cells lining various organs and glands. In this case, adenoid cystic carcinoma is a specific type of carcinoma that arises in the salivary glands or other glandular tissues.

The primary treatment options for AdCC include surgical resection, radiation therapy, and sometimes chemotherapy. Despite its slow growth, adenoid cystic carcinoma has a propensity to recur locally and metastasize to distant sites such as the lungs, bones, and liver. Long-term follow-up is essential due to the risk of late recurrences.

Lacrimal apparatus diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the lacrimal system, which is responsible for producing, storing, and draining tears. The lacrimal apparatus includes the lacrimal glands, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct.

Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus can cause a range of symptoms, including watery eyes, redness, pain, swelling, and discharge. Some common conditions that affect the lacrimal apparatus include:

1. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the lacrimal glands do not produce enough tears or the tears are of poor quality, leading to dryness, irritation, and inflammation of the eyes.
2. Dacryocystitis: An infection of the lacrimal sac that can cause pain, swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
3. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A blockage in the nasolacrimal duct that can cause watery eyes, discharge, and recurrent infections.
4. Epiphora: Excessive tearing or watering of the eyes due to overflow of tears from the eye because of blocked tear ducts or increased production of tears.
5. Canaliculitis: An infection of the lacrimal canaliculi that can cause swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
6. Lacrimal gland tumors: Rare tumors that can affect the lacrimal glands and cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and protrusion of the eyeball.

Treatment for lacrimal apparatus diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

... on ultrasound Submandibular gland Submandibular gland Submandibular gland lateral view Submandibular gland Submandibular gland ... The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor ... right view Submandibular gland - frontal view Submandibular gland Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. ... The submandibular gland is one of the major three glands that provide the mouth with saliva. The two other types of salivary ...
Sublingual glandSubmandibular gland • Sulcular epithelium • :Superior alveolar artery • Superior mouth • Supernumerary roots ... Parotid gland • Patterson Dental • Paul Beresford • Paul N. Cyr • Pedodontics • Pemphigus • Peninsula College of Medicine and ... Salivary gland • Samir Ghawshah • Samuel Bemis • Samuel Cartwright • Scaling and root planing • Schulich School of Medicine & ...
The submandibular gland 6. The submandibular lymph nodes 7. The Facial artery and vein 8. The 12th cranial nerve ( Hypoglossal ... The anterior part contains the submandibular gland, superficial to which is the anterior facial vein, while imbedded in the ... Beneath the gland, on the surface of the Mylohyoideus, are the submental artery and the mylohyoid artery and nerve. The ... The submandibular triangle (or submaxillary or digastric triangle) corresponds to the region of the neck immediately beneath ...
... they are submandibular and sublingual glands. Sometimes accessory parotid glands are found close to the main parotid glands. ... The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals. In humans, the two parotid glands are present on either side of ... The stylomandibular ligament separates parotid gland from the superficial lobe of the submandibular gland.[citation needed] ... These are close to the main glands and consist of ectopic salivary gland tissue. Capsule of parotid gland Capsule of the ...
There are three paired major salivary glands in humans: the parotid glands, the submandibular glands, and the sublingual glands ... and less often they arise from the submandibular gland or a minor salivary gland. Rarely, a ranula may descend into the neck ... The submandibular gland is medial to the angle of the mandible, and it drains its mixture of serous and mucous saliva via the ... Frey's syndrome Salivary gland neoplasm Relative incidence of parotid tumors. Relative incidence of submandibular tumors. A ...
It is the location for the submandibular gland. This article incorporates text in the public domain from the 20th edition of ... The submandibular fovea (or submandibular fossa or submaxillary fovea) is an impression on the medial side of the body of the ... Gray's Anatomy (1918) "Mandible of Intact Skull: Submandibular fossa". Suny Downstate Medical Center. Retrieved 2008-09-26. " ...
A post-translational modification specific of the submandibular gland". J. Proteome Res. 6 (7): 2472-80. doi:10.1021/pr0700706 ...
This enzyme catalyses hydrolyses mouse Ren2 protein (a species of prorenin present in the submandibular gland) on the carboxy ... "Tissue kallikrein mK13 is a candidate processing enzyme for the precursor of interleukin-1beta in the submandibular gland of ... "A processing enzyme for prorenin in mouse submandibular gland. Purification and characterization". The Journal of Biological ... "Substrate specificity of prorenin converting enzyme of mouse submandibular gland. Analysis using site-directed mutagenesis". ...
... their efferents pass to the submandibular glands. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 694 of the 20th ...
Gleeking is the projection of saliva from the submandibular gland. It may happen deliberately or accidentally, particularly ...
This pathway or communication is referred to as the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis, a regulatory ... Early work in this area demonstrated that the submandibular gland released a host of factors which regulate systemic ... SGP-T, an isolate of the submandibular gland, demonstrated its immunoregulatory properties and potential role in modulating the ... Mathison, RD; Malkinson, T; Cooper, KE; Davison, JS (May 1997). "Submandibular glands: novel structures participating in ...
... it separates the parotid and submandibular salivary glands. It also becomes taut when the mandible is protruded. The ...
This pathway or communication is referred to as the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis, a regulatory ... Early work in this area demonstrated that the submandibular gland released a host of factors that regulate systemic ... SGP-T, an isolate of the submandibular gland, demonstrated its immunoregulatory properties and potential role in modulating the ... Mathison, Ronald D.; Malkinson, Terrance; Cooper, K.E.; Davison, J.S. (1997). "Submandibular glands: novel structures ...
The major salivary glands consist of the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The minor salivary glands consist of ... Around 50% of the tumours found in the submandibular glands are benign. Sublingual gland tumours are very rare but if present, ... also known as mucous gland adenomas or neoplasms, are tumours that form in the tissues of salivary glands. The salivary glands ... Salivary gland tumours usually present as a lump or swelling in the affected gland which may or may not have been present for a ...
"Substrate specificities of growth factor associated kallikreins of the mouse submandibular gland". Biochemistry. 28 (19): 7813- ... Fujinaga M, James MN (May 1987). "Rat submaxillary gland serine protease, tonin. Structure solution and refinement at 1.8 A ... Tissue kallikrein (EC, glandular kallikrein, pancreatic kallikrein, submandibular kallikrein, submaxillary kallikrein ... "Characterization of serine proteinases isolated from rat submaxillary gland: with special reference to the degradation of rat ...
The submandibular duct arises from deep part of submandibular gland, a salivary gland. It begins by numerous branches from the ... The submandibular ducts drain saliva from the submandibular gland, and the sublingual glands to the sublingual caruncles in the ... Rarely, the submandibular gland may need to be removed on one or both sides. The submandibular duct was initially described by ... It drains saliva from each bilateral submandibular gland and sublingual gland to the sublingual caruncle in the floor of the ...
It receives secretions from the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. The lips come together to close the opening of ...
Humans have three major salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands, along with additional minor ... Nitrate extracted from blood by the salivary gland, accumulates in saliva, which is then reduced to nitric oxide to have a ... Most of these substances enter the salivary gland acinus and duct system from the surrounding capillaries via the intervening ... of nitric oxide by the non-nitric oxide synthase or alternative pathway involves the uptake of nitrate by the salivary gland, ...
It splits and encloses submandibular gland and parotid gland; - It splits at lower border of submandibular gland into ... It splits at lower pole of parotid gland into superficial and deep layers; superficial layer attaches to zygomatic arch and ...
Transplantation of the autologous submandibular gland for most severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Coauthors: Peter ... The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (TFOS): Report of the Subcommittee on Management and Treatment of ... "The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Management and Treatment of Meibomian ... Meibomian Gland Dysfunction. Coauthors: Joseph Tauber, Christophe Baudouin, Eiki Goto, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Terrence O'Brien, ...
This nerve carries secretomotor fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The chorda tympani travels through the ... The M3 receptors are also located in many glands that help to stimulate secretion in salivary glands and other glands of the ... fibers synapse at the submandibular ganglion and send postganglionic fibers to the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands ... The parasympathetic aspect of the facial nerve controls secretion of the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands, the ...
... small lymph glands are sometimes found on the deep surface of the submandibular gland.[citation needed] They drain the upper ... The submandibular lymph nodes (submaxillary glands in older texts), are some 3-6 lymph nodes situated at the inferior border of ... One gland, the middle gland of Stahr, which lies on the facial artery as it turns over the mandible, is the most constant of ... They are situated just superficial to the submandibular salivary gland, and posterolateral to the anterior belly of either ...
It is common in both the parotid glands and submandibular glands. The treatment is as for sialadenitis. It may appear on a CT ... Sialodochitis (also termed ductal sialadenitis), is inflammation of the duct system of a salivary gland. This is compared to ... in which there is sudden swelling of the salivary glands. It is associated with other allergic conditions such as asthma, ... sialadenitis, which is inflammation of the gland parenchyma. Sialodochitis may be associated with salivary duct strictures and ...
Singh, P.; Warnakulasuriya, S. Aplasia of submandibular salivary glands associated with ectodermal dysplasia. J Oral Pathol Med ... Their sweat glands may function abnormally or may not have developed at all because of inactive proteins in the sweat glands. ... sweat glands, salivary glands, cranial-facial structure, digits and other parts of the body."[citation needed] Individuals ... 2004 Nov;33(10):634-6. Nordgarden, H.; Storhaug, K.; Lyngstadaas, S. P.; Jensen, J. L. Salivary gland function in persons with ...
The majority of the tumors are identified in the parotid salivary gland, although the submandibular gland can also be affected ... Mostafapour, S. P.; Folz, B.; Barlow, D.; Manning, S. (2000). "Sialoblastoma of the submandibular gland: Report of a case and ... A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously ... Herrmann BW, Dehner LP, Lieu JE (Feb 2005). "Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor: a case series and review of the literature ...
Similar considerations apply to the submandibular gland, but xerostomia is less common if only one parotid gland is included in ... "Safety of contralateral submandibular gland sparing in locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers: A multicenter review". Head & ... The probability of xerostomia at one year increases by 5% for every 1Gy increase in dose to the parotid gland. Doses above 25- ... the radiated field and the contralateral submandibular gland is spared (less than 39 Gy) In the same manner, radiation dose to ...
Postsynaptic fibers from the submandibular ganglion supply the sublingual and submandibular glands. Upon emerging from the ... including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic ... The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. ... The facial nerve then passes through the parotid gland, which it does not innervate, to form the parotid plexus, which splits ...
These postganglionic neurons provide parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The sensory ... These postganglionic neurons send axons that provide parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland via a communicating ... after which it synapses with neurons in the submandibular ganglion. ...
They lie anterior and superior to the submandibular gland and inferior and lateral to the tongue, as well as beneath the mucous ... Sublingual gland Sublingual gland Sublingual gland Illustrated Dental Embryology, Histology, and Anatomy, Bath-Balogh and ... Lymph from the sublingual salivary gland drains into the submandibular lymph nodes. The chorda tympani nerve (from the facial ... Salivary gland infections from Medline Plus Salivary gland cancer from American Cancer Society (Wikipedia articles needing ...
May 2008). "The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions". J. ...
... on ultrasound Submandibular gland Submandibular gland Submandibular gland lateral view Submandibular gland Submandibular gland ... The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor ... right view Submandibular gland - frontal view Submandibular gland Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. ... The submandibular gland is one of the major three glands that provide the mouth with saliva. The two other types of salivary ...
Gland Neoplasm, Submandibular; Gland Neoplasms, Submandibular; Neoplasm, Submandibular Gland; Neoplasms, Submandibular Gland; ... Submandibular Gland Neoplasms. Subscribe to New Research on Submandibular Gland Neoplasms Also Known As: ... Salivary Gland Diseases: 58*Salivary Gland Neoplasms: 180*Submandibular Gland Neoplasms. *Submandibular Gland Diseases: 2* ...
... submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The American Joint Committee ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
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Inhibition of submandibular and lacrimal gland infiltration in nonobese diabetic mice by transgenic expression of soluble TNF- ... Inhibition of submandibular and lacrimal gland infiltration in nonobese diabetic mice by transgenic expression of soluble TNF- ... Direct evidence for an instrumental role of TNF-alpha in initiation and progression of submandibular and lacrimal gland ... mice also show massive cellular infiltrates of the submandibular and lacrimal glands concomitant with histological signs of ...
Biosynthesis of O-acylated sialic acids in bovine and equine submandibular glands Eur J Biochem. 1976 Sep 15;68(2):597-610. doi ... 65 nmol and 106 nmol/g wet tissue respectively are found in fresh bovine submandibular glands. 6. The occurrence of the CMP- ... O-acetyltransferase activity was found in a microsome fraction and in the cytosol of bovine submandibular glands. The ... 9-O-acetyl-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid and N-glycolylneuraminic acid in bovine submandibular glands is demonstrated. 7. The ...
Identifying the submandibular gland hilum, vascular pedicle, glandular texture, and absence of submandibular gland in the ... Submandibular gland flaps were most commonly mobilized into the parapharyngeal space or parotid bed, with others located ... CT and MR Imaging Appearance of the Pedicled Submandibular Gland Flap: A Potential Imaging Pitfall in the Posttreatment Head ... CT and MR Imaging Appearance of the Pedicled Submandibular Gland Flap: A Potential Imaging Pitfall in the Posttreatment Head ...
... submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The American Joint Committee ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
The parotid and submandibular glands were quickly excised. After weighting the glands and minced into 1cm cubes, they were ... Histomorphological changes of parotid and submandibular glands is dependent on different regulatory pathway of these glands, ... while secretory granules in submandibular gland were larger than parotid gland. Following isoproterenol treatment, the ... We suggested that, it is possible, the type of nerve supplying in secretory cells of dog submandibular gland is different from ...
Ultrasound-guided injection of botulinum toxin A into the submandibular gland in children and young adults with sialorrhoea. ...
The development in vitro of the submandibular and sublingual glands of Mus musculus. J Anat 84(3): 287-302, 1950. PMID: ... Role of PI 3-kinase and PIP3 in submandibular gland branching morphogenesis. Dev Biol 255(1): 178-191, 2003. PMID: 12618142. ... Cryopreservation of Biologically Functional Submandibular Gland Rudiments from Fetal Mice. KEISUKE ADACHI, YUTA OHNO, KEITARO ... Cryopreservation of Biologically Functional Submandibular Gland Rudiments from Fetal Mice. KEISUKE ADACHI, YUTA OHNO, KEITARO ...
Submandibular and parotid salivary gland surgeries are offered by General Surgeon, Mr Michael Bickford in Melbourne, Australia. ... Home / Salivary Gland Surgery. Salivary Gland Surgery. Submandibular Gland Surgery. Submandibular salivary gland surgery is ... Parotid Gland Surgery. Parotid glands are two of the largest salivary glands present just in front of the ears. They secrete ... of the submandibular glands that are unresponsive to conservative treatments. ...
Pasteurella multocida, Submandibular gland infection, Gram-negative sepsis Introduction. Submandibular gland infection is an ... The submandibular gland is the second largest of the salivary glands; it is located at the angle of the mandible and the ... The submandibular duct rises up from the anterior border of the submandibular gland and goes through the sublingual space ... Pasteurella multocida Submandibular Gland Abscess and Sepsis: Case Report and Case Report Antonio Mastroianni, MD1*, Sonia ...
C080 Submandibular gland **Note 1:** This schema is based on the UICC chapter *Major Salivary Glands,* pages 54-57. **Note 2 ... If directly assigning SS2000, use the *Parotid Gland, Other Major Salivary Glands* chapter on page 54 of the [SS2000 on-line ...
... RSBO (Online) [online]. 2016, vol.13, n.1, pp. 55-59. ISSN 1984-5685. ... located in the Wharton duct in the left submandibular gland. Methods and Results: Clinical diagnosis was confirmed by occlusal ... Marsupialization suture was performed at the local where the incision was made, forming a new gland duct. Conclusion: The ... those are considered giant salivary gland stones. Objective: This study aimed to report a case of two sialoliths that have ...
Gallagher, Thomas Q.; Hartnick, Christopher J.; Hartnick, CJ; Hansen, MC; Gallagher, TQ ...
We therefore evaluated the ability of the peripheral clocks of the kidney, liver, and submandibular gland to be entrained by ... b-d) Peak phase (b, c) and phase change values (d) of PER2::LUC bioluminescence in the submandibular gland in each condition. ... In addition, Vujovic et al.30 reported that Per1 expression rhythms in the submandibular gland entrained to daytime-scheduled ... Sato et al.29 showed that insulin-insensitive organs including the submandibular gland are more slowly entrained by daytime ...
Histological changes in the rat acinar cells of the submandibular gland consequent to oxybutynin and the reversible effect of ... Histological changes in the rat acinar cells of the submandibular gland consequent to oxybutynin and the reversible effect of ... Histological changes in the rat acinar cells of the submandibular gland consequent to oxybutynin and the reversible effect of ...
Learn more about how our experienced surgeons perform submandibular gland resection. Call (888) 826-2672 today to schedule your ... Located just along the underside of the jaw, on either side of the neck, are the submandibular glands. These glands are ... Once the patients skin has been opened to reveal the inner structures of the neck, the submandibular gland is identified just ... Because of the relatively uncomplicated and straightforward nature of the submandibular gland resection, both surgeon and ...
Regeneration of submandibular gland autografts in sympathectomized rats. In: The Anatomical Record. 1987 ; Vol. 218, No. 4. pp ... Regeneration of submandibular gland autografts in sympathectomized rats. The Anatomical Record. 1987 Aug;218(4):373-379. doi: ... Regeneration of submandibular gland autografts in sympathectomized rats. Norris L. ODell, Mohamed Sharawy, Mary C. Richardson ... Regeneration of submandibular gland autografts in sympathectomized rats. / ODell, Norris L.; Sharawy, Mohamed; Richardson, ...
Home · Foundations of Periodontics · Nerve supply to the periodontium · Submandibular salivary gland innervation - Periodontal ...
Endoscopic submandibular gland resection preserving great auricular nerve and periaural sensation. Doh Young Lee, Kwang-Yoon ... Endoscopic submandibular gland resection preserving great auricular nerve and periaural sensation. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016 Feb ... Endoscopic submandibular gland resection preserving great auricular nerve and periaural sensation. In: Auris Nasus Larynx. 2016 ... Lee, D. Y., Jung, K-Y., & Baek, S. K. (2016). Endoscopic submandibular gland resection preserving great auricular nerve and ...
Idiopathic dilatation of the submandibular gland duct.. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery Oct 2023 ... Five patients (three female, two male) aged 30-76 years with idiopathic duct dilatations in nine submandibular glands were ... have only been described in the parotid gland. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of submandibular duct ... Patients with submandibular duct dilatation of ≥4 mm confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging sialography (sialo-MRI), who also ...
NFIB regulates embryonic development of submandibular glands. Read our blog about seriously cool science in language anyone can ...
Submandibular Triangle, and Floor of the Mouth Aaron Ruhalter Anatomy of the Parotid Gland The parotid gland is the largest of ... The gland is wedged into the parotid space. Parotid Space The parotid space has a skeletal background created by the ramus of ... Anatomy of the Parotid Gland. The parotid gland is the largest of the paired salivary glands. The gland is wedged into the ... This ligament supports the temporomandibular joint and separates the parotid gland from the submandibular gland. The ...
ALX/FPR2 modulates anti-inflammatory responses in mouse submandibular gland. Read our blog about seriously cool science in ...
The selection and delineation of these volumes is complex and requires extensive knowledge of parotid and submandibular gland ... radiotherapy has been widely used routinely in recent past years for post-operative radiotherapy of salivary gland cancers ...
Submandibular Gland MALT Lymphoma Associated With …The submandibular triangle is the housing to the sub-mandibular gland and a ... CASE REPORT Acquired toxoplasmosis of a … · CASE REPORT Acquired toxoplasmosis of a submandibular lymph node in a 13-year-old ... The Lymphatic System The body has approximately 600 lymph nodes, but only those in the submandibular, axillary.. ... The submandibular lymph nodes are found in level IB as defined surgically. ...
Cone beam computed tomography use in sialolithiasis of the submandibular salivary gland Authors. * Sandeepa Rajbaran Singh ... cone beam computed tomography, soft tissue calcification, Sialolith, submandibular gland Abstract. A 62-year-old diabetic male ... Singh, S. R., & Mashigo, N. J. (2023). Cone beam computed tomography use in sialolithiasis of the submandibular salivary gland ... collectively measuring 12mm x 9mm x 8mm within the region of the right submandibular gland (Figure 2). On resection of the ...
... submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, ... Submandibular, and Sublingual). The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...

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