One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. It discharges through the submandibular duct. The secretory units are predominantly serous although a few mucous alveoli, some with serous demilunes, occur. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A salivary gland on each side of the mouth below the TONGUE.
Any of the ducts which transport saliva. Salivary ducts include the parotid duct, the major and minor sublingual ducts, and the submandibular duct.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
The largest of the three pairs of SALIVARY GLANDS. They lie on the sides of the FACE immediately below and in front of the EAR.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The discharge of saliva from the SALIVARY GLANDS that keeps the mouth tissues moist and aids in digestion.
Calculi occurring in a salivary gland. Most salivary gland calculi occur in the submandibular gland, but can also occur in the parotid gland and in the sublingual and minor salivary glands.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The craniosacral division of the autonomic nervous system. The cell bodies of the parasympathetic preganglionic fibers are in brain stem nuclei and in the sacral spinal cord. They synapse in cranial autonomic ganglia or in terminal ganglia near target organs. The parasympathetic nervous system generally acts to conserve resources and restore homeostasis, often with effects reciprocal to the sympathetic nervous system.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
Increased salivary flow.
Radiography of the SALIVARY GLANDS or ducts following injection of contrast medium.
Tumors or cancer of the SALIVARY GLANDS.
Decreased salivary flow.
The removal or interruption of some part of the parasympathetic nervous system for therapeutic or research purposes.
A group of closely-related cystatins found in SALIVA.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The tear-forming and tear-conducting system which includes the lacrimal glands, eyelid margins, conjunctival sac, and the tear drainage system.
Protein domains that are enriched in PROLINE. The cyclical nature of proline causes the peptide bonds it forms to have a limited degree of conformational mobility. Therefore the presence of multiple prolines in close proximity to each other can convey a distinct conformational arrangement to a peptide chain.
Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.
A 9,10alpha-dihydro derivative of ERGOTAMINE. It is used as a vasoconstrictor, specifically for the therapy of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
A gamma-emitting radionuclide imaging agent used for the diagnosis of diseases in many tissues, particularly in the gastrointestinal system, cardiovascular and cerebral circulation, brain, thyroid, and joints.
A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
A slowly hydrolyzed muscarinic agonist with no nicotinic effects. Pilocarpine is used as a miotic and in the treatment of glaucoma.
Accessory salivary glands located in the lip, cheek, tongue, floor of mouth, palate and intramaxillary.
A benign, slow-growing tumor, most commonly of the salivary gland, occurring as a small, painless, firm nodule, usually of the parotid gland, but also found in any major or accessory salivary gland anywhere in the oral cavity. It is most often seen in women in the fifth decade. Histologically, the tumor presents a variety of cells: cuboidal, columnar, and squamous cells, showing all forms of epithelial growth. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Agents affecting the function of, or mimicking the actions of, the autonomic nervous system and thereby having an effect on such processes as respiration, circulation, digestion, body temperature regulation, certain endocrine gland secretions, etc.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.
Sweat-producing structures that are embedded in the DERMIS. Each gland consists of a single tube, a coiled body, and a superficial duct.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
An alkaloid, originally from Atropa belladonna, but found in other plants, mainly SOLANACEAE. Hyoscyamine is the 3(S)-endo isomer of atropine.
Drying and inflammation of the conjunctiva as a result of insufficient lacrimal secretion. When found in association with XEROSTOMIA and polyarthritis, it is called SJOGREN'S SYNDROME.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Small, sacculated organs found within the DERMIS. Each gland has a single duct that emerges from a cluster of oval alveoli. Each alveolus consists of a transparent BASEMENT MEMBRANE enclosing epithelial cells. The ducts from most sebaceous glands open into a HAIR FOLLICLE, but some open on the general surface of the SKIN. Sebaceous glands secrete SEBUM.
A family of trypsin-like SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that are expressed in a variety of cell types including human prostate epithelial cells. They are formed from tissue prokallikrein by action with TRYPSIN. They are highly similar to PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta-methylacetylcholine (methacholine).
Conditions characterized by an alteration in gustatory function or perception. Taste disorders are frequently associated with OLFACTION DISORDERS. Additional potential etiologies include METABOLIC DISEASES; DRUG TOXICITY; and taste pathway disorders (e.g., TASTE BUD diseases; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL NERVE DISEASES; and BRAIN STEM diseases).
A thin lining of closed cavities of the body, consisting of a single layer of squamous epithelial cells (MESOTHELIUM) resting on a thin layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and covered with secreted clear fluid from blood and lymph vessels. Major serous membranes in the body include PERICARDIUM; PERITONEUM; and PLEURA.
A sebaceous gland that, in some animals, acts as an accessory to the lacrimal gland. The harderian gland excretes fluid that facilitates movement of the third eyelid.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Mucins that are found on the surface of the gastric epithelium. They play a role in protecting the epithelial layer from mechanical and chemical damage.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.
Carcinoma characterized by bands or cylinders of hyalinized or mucinous stroma separating or surrounded by nests or cords of small epithelial cells. When the cylinders occur within masses of epithelial cells, they give the tissue a perforated, sievelike, or cribriform appearance. Such tumors occur in the mammary glands, the mucous glands of the upper and lower respiratory tract, and the salivary glands. They are malignant but slow-growing, and tend to spread locally via the nerves. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Nonsusceptibility of a microbe to the action of ampicillin, a penicillin derivative that interferes with cell wall synthesis.

Salivary mucin MG1 is comprised almost entirely of different glycosylated forms of the MUC5B gene product. (1/1221)

The MG1 population of mucins was isolated from human whole salivas by gel chromatography followed by isopycnic density gradient centrifugation. The reduced and alkylated MG1 mucins, separated by anion exchange chromatography, were of similar size (radius of gyration 55-64 nm) and molecular weight (2.5-2.9 x 10(6) Da). Two differently-charged populations of MG1 subunits were observed which showed different reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to glycan epitopes. Monosaccharide and amino acid compositional analyses indicated that the MG1 subunits had similar glycan structures on the same polypeptide. An antiserum recognizing the MUC5B mucin was reactive across the entire distribution, whereas antisera raised against the MUC2 and MUC5AC mucins showed no reactivity. Western blots of agarose gel electrophoresis of fractions across the anion exchange distribution indicated that the polypeptide underlying the mucins was the product of the MUC5B gene. Amino acid analysis and peptide mapping performed on the fragments produced by trypsin digestion of the two MG1 populations yielded data similar to that obtained for MUC5B mucin subunits prepared from respiratory mucus (Thornton et al., 1997) and confirmed that the MUC5B gene product was the predominant mucin polypeptide present. Isolation of the MG1 mucins from the secretions of the individual salivary glands (palatal, sublingual, and submandibular) indicate that the palatal gland is the source of the highly charged population of the MUC5B mucin.  (+info)

Biochemical and cytochemical studies on adenylate cyclase activity in the developing rat submandibular gland: differentiation of of the acinar secretory compartment. (2/1221)

To investigate membrane changes in development of the exocrine cells of the rat submandibular gland (SMG), biochemical and cytochemical studies of adenylate cyclase activity were performed on prenatal and postnatal glands. SMG rudiments and glands were studied from 15 days of gestation op to birth and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 weeks after birth. Glands were chemically assayed for adenylate cyclase activity using the procedures of Salomon and coworkers and cytochemically studied using a procedure which was verified biochemically. At 15-16 days of gestation basal adenylate cyclase activity was low and no staining could be observed. Adenylate cyclase activity rose six-fold from the 16th to the 18th day of gestation. Adenylate cyclase staining became evident along the surface of most of the cells of the rudiment at this time. Basal adenylate cyclase activity remained relatively constant from the 18th day of gestation up to 24 weeks of age. However, sequential changes were seen in the cytochemical localization, especially in relation to the apical plasma membrane of the developing secretory cells.  (+info)

EGF precursor mRNA and membrane-associated EGF precursor protein in rat exorbital lacrimal gland. (3/1221)

This study was designed to demonstrate the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) in the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. EGF precursor gene transcription was demonstrated first by RT-PCR analysis of lacrimal gland RNA using a set of specific primers and second by Northern blot analysis of rat lacrimal gland mRNA. A rabbit polyclonal antibody (rEGF2) directed against rat submaxillary gland EGF was used to detect EGF-containing proteins by RIA. Results indicate that the rat lacrimal gland does not contain detectable soluble and mature EGF but that the EGF immunoreactivity is associated with the membrane-enriched fraction. Analysis of the detergent-solubilized membrane proteins by gel filtration shows that membrane-associated EGF immunoreactivity was present as a high-molecular-mass protein. Moreover, as shown by Western blot analysis, a specific anti-rat EGF precursor antibody (ppEGF1) can immunoprecipitate a 152-kDa EGF-containing protein. Taken together, these results demonstrate for the first time both EGF precursor gene transcription and EGF precursor protein expression in a lacrimal tissue, i.e., the rat exorbital lacrimal gland. The demonstration that EGF appears to be stored only as its full-length membrane precursor may provide important information to study the regulation of its secretory process.  (+info)

Nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) immunity: fimbriae-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-regulated IgA responses for the inhibition of bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production. (4/1221)

To investigate the antibacterial activity of mucosal Th1 and Th2 immune responses induced nasally and orally, mice were immunized with mucosal vaccine containing fimbrial protein of Porphyromonas gingivalis, a causative agent for a destructive chronic inflammation in the periodontium, and cholera toxin (CT) as mucosal adjuvant. Nasal vaccine containing low doses of fimbriae (10 micrograms) and CT (1 microgram) induced Ag-specific Th1/Th2-type response in CD4+ T cells in mucosal effector tissues, including nasal passage and submandibular glands, which accounted for the generation of Ag-specific IgA-producing cells. In contrast, oral immunization required higher amounts of fimbriae and CT for the induction of Ag-specific IgA responses. Fimbriae-specific IgA mAbs generated from submandibular glands of nasally immunized mice inhibited P. gingivalis attachment to and reduced subsequent inflammatory cytokine production from epithelial cells. These findings suggest that nasal vaccination is an effective immunization regimen for the induction of Ag-specific Th1 and Th2 cell-driven IgA immune responses that possess the ability to inhibit bacterial attachment to epithelial cells and subsequent inflammatory cytokine production.  (+info)

Dynamics of parenchymal cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis in the young adult female mouse submandibular gland. (5/1221)

The submandibular salivary gland of the young adult female mouse has two secretory cell types, acinar and granular duct, which are separated by intercalated ducts. Based on the occurrence of autologous cell division in these cells, they have been traditionally classified as expanding populations. However, differentiation from stem or progenitor cells in the intercalated ducts, usually associated with renewing populations, has also been detected. The question of renewing or expanding populations is resolved by quantitating and integrating the rates of autologous cell division, differentiation, and apoptosis for each cell type. The integrated data shows that both acinar and granular duct cell populations exhibit a substantial positive growth index, whereas the growth index for the intercalated duct cells is moderately negative. On balance, it suggests that the submandibular gland of the young adult female mouse is still growing. Comparison of young female mice with older females suggests that, although overall parenchymal growth slows with age, there is no longer a net loss of intercalated duct cells. Comparison with young adult male submandibular glands indicates that gender differences exist in the rates and mechanisms used for maintaining the different cell populations. The acinar and granular duct cell populations in young adult female mouse submandibular glands are expanding at the expense of the intercalated duct cell population, which appears to be contracting.  (+info)

Caffeine does not inhibit substance P-evoked intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in rat salivary acinar cells. (6/1221)

We used the Ca2+-sensitive fluorescent dye fura 2, together with measurements of intracellular D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], to assess the inhibitory effects of caffeine on signal transduction via G protein-coupled receptor pathways in isolated rat mandibular salivary acinar cells. ACh, norepinephrine (NE), and substance P (SP) all evoked substantial increases in the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Responses to ACh and NE were markedly inhibited by prior application of 20 mM caffeine. The inhibitory effect of caffeine was not reproduced by phosphodiesterase inhibition with IBMX or addition of cell-permeant dibutyryl cAMP. In contrast to the ACh and NE responses, the [Ca2+]i response to SP was unaffected by caffeine. Despite this, SP and ACh appeared to mobilize Ca2+ from a common intracellular pool. Measurements of agonist-induced changes in Ins(1,4,5)P3 levels confirmed that caffeine inhibited the stimulus-response coupling pathway at a point before Ins(1,4,5)P3 generation. Caffeine did not, however, inhibit [Ca2+]i responses evoked by direct activation of G proteins with 40 mM F-. These data show that caffeine inhibits G protein-coupled signal transduction in these cells at some element that is common to the muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic signaling pathways but is not shared by the SP signaling pathway. We suggest that this element might be a specific structural motif on the G protein-coupled muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic receptors.  (+info)

Cloning of Trp1beta isoform from rat brain: immunodetection and localization of the endogenous Trp1 protein. (7/1221)

The Trp gene product has been proposed as a candidate protein for the store-operated Ca2+ channel, but the Trp protein(s) has not been identified in any nonexcitable cell. We report here the cloning of a rat brain Trp1beta cDNA and detection and immunolocalization of the endogenous and expressed Trp1 protein. A 400-bp product, with >95% homology to mouse Trp1, was amplified from rat submandibular gland RNA. Rat-specific primers were used for cloning of a full-length rat brain Trp1beta cDNA (rTrp1), encoding a protein of 759 amino acids. Northern blot analysis demonstrated the transcript in several rat and mouse tissues. The peptide (amino acids 523-536) was used to generate a polyclonal antiserum. The affinity-purified antibody 1) immunoprecipitated human Trp1 (hTrp1) from transfected HEK-293 cells, 2) reacted with a protein of approximately 92 kDa, but not with hTrp3, in membranes of hTrp3-expressing HEK-293 cells, and 3) reacted with proteins of 92 and 56 kDa in human and rat brain membranes. Confocal microscopy and cell fractionation demonstrated that endogenous and expressed hTrp1 and expressed hTrp3 proteins were localized in the plasma membrane of HEK-293 cells, consistent with their proposed role in Ca2+ influx. The data demonstrate for the first time the presence of Trp1 protein in a nonexcitable cell.  (+info)

Occurrence of permanent changes in vaginal and uterine epithelia in mice treated neonatally with progestin, estrogen and aromatizable or non-aromatizable androgens. (8/1221)

Female mice of the C57 Black/Tw strain were injected daily with 100 microng testosterone, 50 microng testosterone propionate (TP), 100 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or 50 microng 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP), for 10 days from the day of birth. Two other groups of female mice were given neonatal injections with 20 microng estradiol-17 beta and 100 microng progesterone for 10 days, respectively. All mice were ovariectomized at 60 days of age and killed at 90 days. In 100% of neonatally estrogenized or androgenized, ovariectomized mice, the cranial part of the vagina was lined with stratified epithelium with either cornification or parakeratosis or mucification. Stratification only or stratification with superficial squamous metaplasia or cornification took place in the uterine epithelia of 18% of the TP-treated, 75% of the DHT-treated and 50% of the DHTP-treated, ovariectomized mice. In contrast, neonatally estrogenized, ovariectomized mice did not show the estrogen-independent, persistent uterine changes. Neonatal progesterone treatment failed to induce the permanent changes in the vaginal and uterine epithelia.  (+info)

Cytomegalovirus-induced embryopathology: mouse submandibular salivary gland epithelial-mesenchymal ontogeny as a model. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Background: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether myoepithelial cells proliferate mitotically during regeneration of rat submandibular glands after atrophy.. Methods: The excretory duct of the right submandibular gland of rats was doubly ligated near the hilum with metal clips, which were removed after 7 days of ligation (day 0). The regenerating right submandibular glands were removed from 0 to 14 days after removal of the clips. The removed tissue was examined with immunohistochemical double staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) as a marker of proliferating cells and actin as a marker of myoepithelial cells, as well as with transmission electron microscopy (TEM).. Results: The PCNA-positive myoepithelial cells were observed at the periphery of transitional duct-acinar structures, ducts and acini in the regenerating glands at every time-point, and the PCNA-labeling index of myoepithelial cells increased greatly especially between day 2 and 4. The mitosis of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calcium‐dependent enhancement by carbachol of the VIP‐induced cyclic AMP accumulation in cat submandibular gland. AU - ENYEDI, PETER. AU - FREDHOLM, BERTIL B.. PY - 1984/4. Y1 - 1984/4. N2 - The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. Carbachol was found to potentiate the cyclic AMP increase induced by VIP by an atropine sensitive mechanism. The effect of carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation was abolished by including EGTA in the incubation medium as was the carbachol mediated potentiation of VIP responses. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine had a similar, but less marked effect. The effect of carbachol was mimicked by phenylephrine (30 μM) and by the calcium inophore A 23187 (3 μM), and also by ethanol in a concentration reported to enhance membrane fluidity. The phospholipase A2 inhibitor, mepacrine, tended to ...
The aim of this research I to determine, at the ultrastructural level, the localization and distribution of individual sugar sugar moieties and terminal sialylated sequences of the secretory products of the mouse SMG of both sexes. We therefore investigated the lectin receptors of control and sialidase-treated sections by a post-embedding approach using horse radish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugates (PNA, DBA, LTA, WGA, Con A), anti-HRP antibody and protein A-gold. Qualitative and quantitative differences occurred in the acinar products of males and females. Sialidase digestion revealed that the acceptor sugar for terminal sialic acids exhibit a different expression in the electron-lucent granules of acinar cells. The occurrence of terminal sialic acid-alpha-N-acetylgalactosamine disaccharide was prominent in male acinar cells in contrast to a modest presence in female. In addition, the terminal sequence sialic acid beta-galactose showed a homogeneous location in the male secretory products and a ...
Mouse submandibular gland (SMG) begins its development at embryonic day 11 when oral epithelium grows into the underlying mesenchyme. The metabolic pathway of protein N-glycosylation is critical for SMG development and partial inhibition of DPAGT1, the gene that initiates N-glycosylation, drives cytodifferentiation of ductal structures. We have shown that DPAGT1 is a target of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and that DPAGT1 regulates E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, required for the survival of differentiating duct cells. Recently, the Hippo pathway has been shown to be critical for tissue development by regulating Wnt signaling and establishing apical-basal polarity. TAZ is a Hippo pathway transcription factor and polarity enhancer that also serves as a mechanosensor of the extracellular matrix. Objective: We investigated whether the Hippo pathway participated in SMG development and if it interacted with the metabolic pathway of N-glycosylation. Method: SMGs were dissected from mice ...
Head and neck cancers are common in several regions of the world and the treatment usually includes radiotherapy. This treatment can generate adverse effects to the salivary flow, with a relationship between the dose and the damage caused. Salivary gland cells are highly permeable to water and therefore, they express aquaporins (AQPs). This study analyzed changes in the expression and location of these proteins and identified morphological changes induced by low radiation in rat submandibular gland. Female rats were divided into control and irradiated groups. Immunohistochemistry analysis allowed confirming the presence of AQP1 in the blood vessel endothelium. Intense and steady labelling granules were also observed in the cytoplasm of submandibular gland ductal cells. In addition, there was AQP5 positive labelling in ductal cells delimiting the lumen of intercalated duct, in the cytoplasm and membrane of acinar cells. Finally, the decrease of AQP labelling in irradiated animal glands validated ...
OBJECTIVE: To investigate protein content of saliva produced in vitro by samples of human submandibular gland following stimulation with the muscarinic agent carbachol. DESIGN: Tissue samples, obtained at surgery from seven patients and showing normal morphological appearance, were tested for 30 min: in absence of carbachol and atropine; in presence of carbachol (10 microM); in presence of carbachol (10 microM) and atropine (20 microM); or in presence of just atropine (20 microM). Medium was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass-spectrometry. Neither before nor during surgery were the patients exposed to drug treatments that were likely to influence the in vitro secretion. RESULTS: Proline-rich proteins (PRP)-1 and -3, peptide PC and PB, statherin, cystatins SN, S1 and S2 were invariably found in control gland tissue medium. Mean concentrations of these proteins/peptides in the medium were non-proportionally elevated following carbachol exposure to the gland tissues. Difference ...
Hayashi and collaborators profiled the EGF dependent microRNAs of the fetal mouse submandibular gland at embryonic day 13. Avraham and colleagues, described a
TY - JOUR. T1 - Calorie restriction modulates Th-1 and Th-2 cytokine-induced immunoglobulin secretion in young and old C57BL/6 cultured submandibular glands. AU - Jolly, C. A.. AU - Fernandez, R.. AU - Muthukumar, A. R.. AU - Fernandes, G.. PY - 1999/12/1. Y1 - 1999/12/1. N2 - Immunoglobulin production by the salivary gland plays an important role in oral and upper respiratory tract immunity. Age and/or disease may compromise salivary gland function. In order to gain insight into the role of calorie restriction (CR) on immunoglobulin (Ig) production, we determined the effect of ad libitum (AL) feeding and CR in young (3 months) and old (18-24 months) C57BL/6 mouse submandibular glands (SM). The SM tissues were fragmented and cultured in the absence (control) or presence of either Th-1 cytokines, such as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), or Th-2 cytokines, e.g. IL-4 and IL-5, for seven days. Culture supernatants were then analyzed for immunoglobulin A (IgA), IgM, and IgG(2α) ...
J:79832 Hoffman MP, Kidder BL, Steinberg ZL, Lakhani S, Ho S, Kleinman HK, Larsen M, Gene expression profiles of mouse submandibular gland development: FGFR1 regulates branching morphogenesis in vitro through BMP- and FGF-dependent mechanisms. Development. 2002 Dec;129(24):5767-78 ...
Runx1 mediates the development of the granular convoluted tubules in the submandibular glands[1] The mouse granular convoluted tubules (GCTs), which are only located in the submandibular gland (SMG) are known to develop and maintain their structure in an androgen-dependent manner. We previously demonstrated that the GCTs are involuted by the epithelial deletion of core binding factor β (CBFβ), a transcription factor that physically interacts with any of the Runt-related transcription factor (RUNX) proteins (RUNX1, 2 and 3). This result clearly demonstrates that the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway is indispensable in the development of the GCTs. However, it is not clear which of the RUNX proteins plays useful role in the development of the GCTs by activating the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway. Past studies have revealed that the Runx /Cbfb signaling pathway plays important roles in various aspects of development and homeostatic events. Moreover, the Runx genes have different temporospatial ...
Question - Swelling of submandibular salivary glands. Feel bumps on gland. Reason for swelling?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Salivary gland cancer, Ask an ENT Specialist
J:91711 Miyazaki Y, Nakanishi Y, Hieda Y, Tissue interaction mediated by neuregulin-1 and ErbB receptors regulates epithelial morphogenesis of mouse embryonic submandibular gland. Dev Dyn. 2004 Aug;230(4):591-6 ...
Objective To study the role of plus sijunzi decoction in the healing of experimental Pi-Xu syndrome combined with gastric ulcer. Methods Using hematoxylin-eosin staining, immunohistochemical technique, and Western-blotting to show the gastric mucosa structure, the phosphorylation level of ERK2 in the gastric mucosa, and the contents of EGF in the granular convoluted tubule (GCT) cells of the submandibular glands respectively. Results After treatment with plus sijunzi decoction, the phosphorylation level of ERK2 in the gastric mucosa decreased, and the contents of EGF in the GCT cells of the submandibular glands increased in contrast to the control group respectively. The recovery of gastric ulcer was accelerated. However,little change was found in spontaneously recovering group. Conclusion Plus sijunzi decoction accelerates the healing of pi-xu syntrom combined with gastric ulcer by mechanisms involving the increased release of EGF from the submandibular glands and the consequent up-regulation of
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Aluminum absorption leads to deposits in several tissues. In this study, we have investigated, to our knowledge for the first time, aluminum deposition in the salivary glands in addition to the resultant cellular changes in the parotid and submandibular salivary glands in a model of chronic intoxication with aluminum citrate in rats. Aluminum deposits were observed in the parotid and submandibular glands. Immunohistochemical evaluation of cytokeratin-18 revealed a decreased expression in the parotid gland with no changes in the submandibular gland. A decreased expression of α-smooth muscle actin was observed in the myoepithelial cells of both glands. The expression of metallothionein I and II (MT-I/II), a group of metal-binding proteins, which are useful indicators for detecting physiological responses to metal exposure, was higher in both glands. In conclusion, we have shown that at a certain time and quantity of dosage, aluminum citrate promotes aluminum deposition in the parotid and submandibular
Submandibular gland removal is surgery to take out a saliva gland below the lower jaw. The gland may have been removed because of infection, a tumour, or a blocked saliva duct. A saliva duct is a tube that carries saliva from the gland into the mouth.. The area below your jaw may be sore for several days after your surgery. The area also may be slightly swollen or bruised. It will probably take 1 to 2 weeks for the cut (incision) the doctor made to heal.. If you have stitches in your incision, your doctor may need to remove them, or they may dissolve on their own. Ask your doctor about this. If your incision was closed with glue, the glue will peel off on its own in the weeks after your surgery.. ...
Submandibular gland swelling often occurs due to small, calcified stones blocking the salivary glands. Learn how to treat and prevent this condition.
Airway obstruction caused by pharyngolaryngeal swelling after intraoral removal of a submandibular gland stone Satomi Sugiyama, Toshinori Iwai, Nobuhide Ohashi, Senri Oguri, Makoto Hirota, Kenji Mitsudo Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Orthodontics, Yokohama City University Hospital, Yokohama, Japan Abstract: Intraoral removal of a submandibular gland stone is less invasive than submandibulectomy, with no life-threatening airway complications reported until now. We report a case involving airway obstruction caused by pharyngolaryngeal swelling after intraoral removal of a submandibular gland stone. A 31-year-old man with a left submandibular gland stone underwent intraoral removal of the stone under general anesthesia and was discharged 1 day after surgery. That night, he was transported back to our hospital by ambulance for dyspnea. Because computed tomography showed pharyngolaryngeal swelling, he was intubated and managed by a ventilator. Four days later, the pharyngolaryngeal swelling
PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9(11):e1003319. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003319. Epub 2013 Nov 21. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
The majority of glands in the face are related to salivation and mastication, the exception being the lacrimal glands that lie in the superior and lateral aspect of the orbits. These produce tears than flow medially and drain through the puncta into the lacrimal sac and into the nasopharynx.. The salivary glands are the parotid, sublingual, and submandibular. The parotid gland lies just anterior to the ear, while the sublingual gland is within the floor of the mouth, and the submandibular glands live under the mandible. The parotid gland drains through Stensens duct which runs from the gland along the edge of the masseter and empties into the mount opposite by the second upper molar - this duct can often be disrupted by trauma. The submandibular glands are emptied by Whartons duct, exiting by the frenulum of the tongue.. ...
I Haldar, U Mahajani, A G Datta; Comparative study of the thyroid-gland and submaxillary-gland peroxidases. Biochem J 1 June 1972; 128 (1): 50P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
The ability of foetal rat salivary epithelium, particularly from the parotid gland, to develop morphogenetically and functionally (amylase activity) in various mesenchymes, and the quantitative effects of altering mesenchymal mass on the development of the parotid epithelium, have been studied in vitro.. Both parotid and submandibular epithelial rudiments were able to undergo morphogenesis and subsequent cytodifferentiation in their own and in the reciprocal mesenchyme. The growth of the explant and the arrangement of the acini were governed by the mesenchyme, submandibular mesenchyme supporting the development of more acini, which were more closely packed, than parotid mesenchyme. The functional product of the epithelium was not qualitatively affected, amylase activity being developed only by parotid epithelium, whether in its own or in submandibular mesenchyme.. Amylase activity was greater when the epithelium from a single parotid rudiment was recombined with submandibular mesenchyme than ...
A membrane protease possessing thrombin-like activity was purified to homogeneity from mitochondria of rat submaxillary gland. The molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 45 kDa by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions and by gel filtration on a Sephadex G-100 column. The enzyme is a glycoprotein and has an isoelectric point of 3.25. Maximum activity was observed at pH 10.5. Inhibition by di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, benzamidine, aprotinin and antipain suggested the enzyme to be a serine protease. Other inhibitors such as EDTA, soya-bean trypsin inhibitor, lima-bean trypsin inhibitor, TosLysCH2Cl and chymostatin did not alter the activity. The enzyme showed affinity towards different synthetic substrates (p-nitroanilide derivatives) containing arginine at the P1 position. Kinetic studies revealed that kcat./Km was highest with the substrate N-Bz-Phe-Val-Arg-p-nitroanilide. The enzyme exhibits significant plasma-coagulating activity. The coagulation initiated by the enzyme was not altered ...
Immediately anteromedial to the right submandibular gland is a circumscribed rounded 6 mm calcification compatible with a sialolith. The proximal most aspect of
Michael, did those research studies mention anything on time frames...?. While my time on here, not every one lost their saliva, so I guess dry mouth is a matter of interpretation. Definitely not 100% completely lost salivary function permanantly, or even temporary for that matter.. Most have and did lose some if not all salivary function as a result of rads. But many of those like myself, and several others have gotten nearly all (if not all) of their saliva back. A few didnt lose it, and at least one I think said it increased.... For me I have around 90 - 95% back I would say... I only get dry during sleep at night. The rest of the time I think Im probably 100% or close enough I cant tell.. Studies are usually geared with an objective and agenda (from what I have found)... And one thing youll hear here often, we are all different... Personally from my four plus years on here, the odds of losing your saliva long term enough to be significant is very low.. Are you or most going to lose ...
It is supplied by branches from the sumandibular ganglion. These branches convey a) secretomotor fibres; (b)sensory fibres from the lingual nerve; and (c) vasomotor sympathetic fibres from the plexus on the facial artery ...
The purpose of this study is to perform biopsies of one of the glands that make saliva. The biopsied tissue will then be analyzed to see if it has changes that occur in Parkinsons disease. This study will determine whether it is possible to do a second biopsy a few years after a previous biopsy and determine whether there are changes in the biopsy that would allow for analysis of disease progression.. ...
ImSAIDs are a class of peptides being developed by IMULAN BioTherapeutics, LLC, which were discovered to have diverse biological properties, including anti-inflammatory properties. ImSAIDs work by altering the activation and migration of inflammatory cells, which are immune cells responsible for amplifying the inflammatory response.[10][11] The ImSAIDs represent a new category of anti-inflammatory and are unrelated to steroid hormones or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories. The ImSAIDs were discovered by scientists evaluating biological properties of the submandibular gland and saliva. Early work in this area demonstrated that the submandibular gland released a host of factors that regulate systemic inflammatory responses and modulate systemic immune and inflammatory reactions. It is now well accepted that the immune, nervous, and endocrine systems communicate and interact to control and modulate inflammation and tissue repair. One of the neuroendocrine pathways, when activated, results in the ...
The kinetics of K+ release from an in vitro system of rat submaxillary gland slices were studied after stimulation with parasympathomimetic secretagogues. The slices were incubated at 37degreesC in an oxygenated, enriched Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium in the presence and in the absence of Ca++ and of ouabain and, in some experiments, in the presence of the specific antagonists atropine (5 x 10(-6) and 2 x 10(-5) M), phentolamine (2 x 10(-5) M) or propranolol (2 x 10(-5) M. K+ release was elicited by the addition of acetylcholine (2 x 10(-5) M), pilocarpine (2 x 10(-5) M) and carbamylcholine (10(-9) to 2 x 10(-5) M). The results demonstrate that: 1) The selective stimulation of cholinergic receptors induces a rapid net release of K+ from the slices. After 10 minutes of incubation, the percent K+ released after a 2 x 10(-5) M dose of each of the three secretagogues was, respectively, 20.8%, 15.5%, and 19%. 2) The response to carbamylcholine does not occur when Ca++ is absent from the medium and ...
The information on this BLOG is not intended or implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. All content, including text, graphics, images and information, contained on or available through this blog is for medical education and enlightenment only ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
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Differentiation of salisphere into acinar cells. (A) Amylase expressing cells (AC) in submandibular gland tissue (Tissue) were also present at the onset of cult
Aside from the blenderized diet, he overall is doing well except for some severe choking. Dear Sons throat muscles have deteriorated with is progressive disease and he is unable to process his own secretions. Normal people swallow their own saliva throughout the day but he cant swallow (which is why he uses a feeding tube) so he is choking on his own saliva. We have tried the normal treatments of Robinul and even botox injections in 2008 for him but they both failed. We had been using a Scopolamine patch for many years up until the manufacturing shortage. Once we stopped the patch, we learned that it was actually causing seizures for Dear Son. When we tried the patch after the manufacturing issue was resolved, we could tell that it was causing seizures for him so now we cant use that. We met with an ENT to discuss the possibility of the removal of his submandibular glands and one of his parotid glands. I thought perhaps since Dear Son was healthy, this might be a good time to consider this ...
Mutants of the second type lacked flagella and were not able to colonize the hyphae or inhibit fungal growth. The paired sample (study and comparison groups) was noted to be similar to TSCS elderly profiles for these subscales. On the other purchasing cialis on the internet hand, the ocular findings corroborate the previous researches. Effects of reserpine and isoproterenol on elemental distribution in submandibular gland of is there a generic cialis rat. Five Cases of Infection of the Urinary Tract Due to a Member of the Group of Bacilli Named after Morgan. Such plasticity and its kinetics can have a crucial functional role, and their characterization has taken center stage in protein research.. A single amino acid is critical for the expression of B-cell epitopes on the helicase domain of the otc cialis pestivirus NS3 protein. Secondary involvement of the thyroid gland by malignant metastases is uncommon.. Higher volume injections resulted in excessive periprostatic extravasation, whereas ...
Study to evaluate the toxic response of associated with infusion of the submandibular gland with an adenoviral factor encoding the gene for human growth hormone (HGH).. ...
Proximal femoral focal deficiency, PFFD, is a congenital anomaly of the pelvis and proximal femur which causes hip deformity and shortening and altered function of the involved lower extremity. The condition may be unilateral or bilateral and is often associated with other congenital anomalies. Embryology: The developing human embryo first shows evidence of limb buds at the 5 millimeter crown-rump stage.As the apical mesoderm proliferates the limb is laid down in a proximo-distal fashion to be complete at the 12 millimeter stage. Elements of the ileum and proximal femur develop from a common cartilaginous anlage, with subsequent cleft formation to create a joint cavity. This means that if an acetabulum is seen in radiograph at any time in the first year of life a femoral head and neck will be present also, even if not evident in the radiograph. Etiology: Numerous agents including irradiation, anoxia, ischemia, mechanical or thermal injury, bacterial toxins, viral infection, chemicals and ...
Patient Presentation A 25-day-old female was transferred to a regional childrens hospital after a 3 day history of right submandibular swelling. Originally she was seen again by her local pediatrician who gave her 1 dose of ceftriaxone and then began Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid twice a day. She was re-seen the following day without any change in…
TY - JOUR. T1 - Oncocytic variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of submandibular gland. T2 - An unusual clinical and morphological entity. AU - Krishnanand, Geetha. AU - Kaur, Manpreet. AU - Rao, Ravikala V.. AU - Monappa, Vidya. PY - 2007/7/1. Y1 - 2007/7/1. N2 - In this case report we describe a rare tumor - Oncocytic variant of Mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the submandibular salivary gland with a review of the literature. Oncocytic metaplasia in salivary glands is a benign change that is associated with increasing age and also seen in a few salivary gland neoplasms, which include oncocytoma, Warthins tumor, and the rare, oncocytic carcinoma. Oncocytic differentiation in mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is uncommon. Only twelve well-documented cases of oncocytic MEC have been reported previously all of which occurred in the parotid gland. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case of oncocytic mucoepidermoid carcinoma involving the submandibular salivary gland. The recognition of this ...
mouse epidermal growth factor binding protein: four different mouse proteins have been identified as EGF-BP; each is a kallikrein that associates with EGF to form a high molecular weight complex in male mouse submandibular glands (separate SCRs for each of four proteins exist)
Medical definition of submandibular ganglion: an autonomic ganglion that is situated on the hyoglossus muscle above the deep part of the submandibular gland, receives preganglionic fibers from the facial nerve by way of the chorda tympani, and sends postganglionic fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands -called also submaxillary ganglion.
Submandibular gland stone | Resection. Otolaryngology: Treatment in Halle, Germany ✈. Prices on - booking treatment online!
The Ren-1 locus of mice encodes the protease renin, which with converting enzyme processes angiotensinogen to the potent vasopressor angiotensin II. Some strains of mice appear to carry a duplication of the renin structural gene (Ren-2) near the Ren-1 locus. Strains with the gene duplication can exhibit as much as 100-fold higher levels of submaxillary gland renin compared to strains with a single gene copy. In contrast, kidney renin levels appear to be unaffected by the gene duplication. Sequence analysis of a 319 bp renin cDNA recombinant isolated from a kidney library from the two-gene strain DBA/2Ha corresponds to a transcript of the Ren-1 gene. Moreover, a single base substitution of A for G at residue #996 in the kidney renin mRNA creates a potential glycosylation recognition site that may, in part, account for the differential glycosylation of kidney and submaxillary gland renins. In addition, our tissue surveys indicate that mature mRNAs from the Ren loci are detectable in adrenal gland ...
The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibres from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to sub...
The submandibular ganglion is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck. It receives parasympathetic fibers from the facial nerve. Gross anatomy small ganglion suspended from the undersurface of the lingual nerve inferior to sub...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interaction of bile salt and phospholipids with bovine submaxillary mucin. AU - Wiedmann, T. S.. AU - Deye, C.. AU - Kallick, D.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Purpose. The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and diffusion of sodium taurocholate-phospholipid micelles with mucin in order to provide the foundation for understanding the transport of ingested fat and poorly water-soluble drugs through the intestinal mucous layer. Methods. Sodium taurocholate NaTC was dispersed with egg phosphatidylcholines PC to yield mixed micelles of a specific size and concentration. A preliminary study was conducted to determine the time required for equilibration of PC/TC micellar solutions with mucin. PC/TC micellar solutions were dialyzed against fixed and variable concentrations of bovine submaxillary mucin after which the concentration of PC and NaTC was measured by an assay for total phosphorus and by HPLC, respectively. In addition, a quantitative assay of TC and PC by ...
It has been reported that immunization against tonin normalizes blood pressure, and that sialoadenectomy, during which the tonin-rich salivary glands are removed, decreases blood pressure in one-kidney, one-clip hypertension. To investigate the role of tonin on this form of hypertension further, we actively immunized one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rabbits with tonin and measured both the blood pressure response and the titer of antibodies raised against tonin. In addition, because sialoadenectomy may alter food intake, we assessed the effect of sialoadenectomy on the blood pressure of one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats fed a liquid diet to facilitate eating. After immunization, all rabbits developed antitonin-antibody titers ranging from 1:300 to 1:56,000. However, in none of the rabbits did the blood pressure decrease significantly (114 +/- 3 mm Hg before immunization; 129 +/- 6 mm Hg at 16 weeks after immunization). In one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats, sialoadenectomy did not ...
To elucidate the role of extracellular matrix and basement membrane associated proteins at the ectodermal-ectomesenchymal interface of developing salivary glands, human fetal submandibular glands (n=100), gestational age varying from 10 to 40 weeks, were evaluated for expression of tenascin, type IV collagen and laminin by using immunohistochemical methods and the results were compared with their expression in adult glands (n=20). Immunoreactive tenascin was present in the epithelial-mesenchymal interface of developing salivary ducts beginning from 10 weeks of gestational age during the early developing stages. In the late developmental stages, the intensity of immunoreaction was reduced around the proximal striated ducts and no immunoreaction was seen around the intercalated duct and acinar cells. Adult submandibular glands had immunoreactive tenascin confined to the periductal connective tissue of distal segment of striated and excretory ducts. Type IV collagen and laminin were observed in the ...
Exemplary methods for affecting conduction and/or operation of the AV node and/or AV bundle. Various exemplary methods include delivery of one or more stimulation pulses to affect conduction and/or operation of an AV node and/or AV bundle. Such delivery optionally stimulates nerves and/or tissue. Nerve stimulation optionally includes parasympathetic nerve stimulation to decrease conduction of the AV node and/or AV bundle. Tissue stimulation optionally causes tissue to enter a refractory period. Various exemplary methods include delivering one or more stimulation pulses during postinspiration. Other exemplary methods and/or devices are also disclosed.
A gland is an organ in an animals body that synthesizes a substance for release such as hormones, often into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland). Humans have a large variety of glands, from the pituitary gland in the brain, to sweat glands over the bodys skin that release perspiration to regulate the bodys temperature. Other well known glands include the adrenal glands, the prostate gland, the thyroid gland, the pineal gland, the thymus and mammary gland. Two other paired glands are the parotid glands and submandibular glands, both involved in saliva production. Template:Anatomy-stubde:Dr se es:Gl ndula eo:Glando fr:Glande ia:Glandula he:בלוטה lt:Liauka pl:Gruczoł ...
MCMV has broad tissue tropism, and can infect the hosts epithelial cells such as salivary gland tissue, as well as macrophages and lymphoid cells. In natural infections, no clinical symptoms may be detected. The submandibular salivary gland is the primary site of lesions; other salivary glands are rarely involved. A substantial percentage of infected mice may eventually develop latent infections, and the virus may be transmitted to other mice through biting ...
The basement membrane separates the epithelium from the surrounding mesenchyme and plays an essential role in the development of various epithelial-mesenchymal organs. Among these, the submandibular salivary gland (SMG) has been chosen to review the expression patterns and roles of the epithelial...
Epithelia from lung rudiments in which secondary bronchial buds are already established (14th and 13th gestational day for rat and mouse respectively) are able to undergo branching morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation in submandibular mesenchyme in vitro, whereas lung epithelium from one day younger foetuses rarely gives a morphogenetic response to submandibular mesenchyme and usually differentiates into primary (non-budding) bronchial epithelium.. The failure of 13-day rat lung epithelium to respond to submandibular mesenchyme can be prevented by peeling off the submandibular mesenchyme from the lung epithelium after 2½ days culture and replacing the same mesenchyme, or renewing it with fresh salivary mesenchyme ex vivo. Changes in the epithelial contour are visible by 10 h and buds form within 24 h; this is followed by branching morphogenesis in more than 66% of the samples.. The number of cells in S-phase in the epithelium is doubled within 3 to 5 h after the operation and the number of ...
Saliva is produced primarily by the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands. Salivary fluid may contain various amounts of hormones, depending on the ability of these hormones to leave the blood, penetrate through or around the salivary cell membranes, and diffuse into the saliva. Lipid-soluble hormones can pass directly through cell membranes via passive diffusion and are commonly found in the saliva. Small, water-soluble hormones may be able to enter the saliva through the tight junctions between salivary cells in a process called ultrafiltration. Salivary cells do not appear to use active transport to place hormones into the saliva.. Salivary tests may help to identify hormonal imbalances in either females or males which can occur at any age and effect how a person feels on a daily basis. The slightest dysfunction of an individuals hormones can result in weight gain, mood changes, low libido, poor memory or concentration, depression, bone loss, migraines or headaches and sleep ...
Purified epidermal growth factor (EGF), isolated from mice submaxillary glands, was used to study regeneration of rabbit corneal epithelium. The progressive decrease in area of standardized 7 mm. central comeal epithelial wounds was determined by serial standardized photography. The projected fluorescein-stained area was measured by planimetry. It has been found that EGF in the concentrations studied (0.05 mg. per milliliter; 0.5 mg. per milliliter; and 2.0 mg. per milliliter) when given topically four times daily, increased the corneal epithelial healing rate compared to saline controls. A 40-fold variation of EGF concentrations failed to effect a statistically significant change in corneal epithelial healing rate. No sign of toxicity was detected clinically and histologically with topical application of EGF on rabbit corneas with intact epithelium and on corneas denuded of epithelium ...
Submandibular Space Infection - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the Merck Manuals - Medical Consumer Version.
Title: Endothelial cell signaling in submandibular salivary gland regeneration (A. Altrieth), Regulation of a ncRNA involved in dosage compensation (S. Breznak), Alternative ribosomes in Mycobacterial species (J. Corro), Using single-molecule experiments to calibrate nucleic acid base-stacking in molecular simulations (K. Dill) and HNA- A new oligonucleotide (A. Hoy). Date: October 3, ...
Intranasal Administration of Mesenchymoangioblast-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Abrogates Airway Fibrosis and Airway Hyperresponsiveness Associated with Chronic Allergic Airways Disease Researchers assessed the in vivo efficacy of induced pluripotent stem cell and mesenchymoangioblast-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MCA-MSCs) on airway remodeling in a murine model of chronic allergic airways disease/asthma. Apart from epithelial thickness, all other parameters measured were significantly, although not totally, decreased by intravenous delivery of MCA-MSCs to ovalbumin-injured mice. [FASEB J] Abstract Identification and Characterization of a Rich Population of CD34+ Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells in Human Parotid, Sublingual and Submandibular Glands Very little is known about the phenotype, distribution and molecular nature of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) in freshly isolated human salivary glands (SGs) as most reports have focused on the analysis of cultured MSCs. The authors results ...
Lethality: Ras signaling promotes the excretory duct cell fate, and mosaic analysis suggested that loss of this one specific cell can account for the zygotic lethality of let-60 null mutants (Yochem et al., 1997). The excretory duct cell is required for osmoregulation (Nelson and Riddle, 1984). let-60 loss-of-function mutants, which lack the excretory duct cell, die as rod-like larvae with a fluid-filled appearance (Figure 2). let-60 gain-of-function mutants sometimes have two excretory duct cells (Yochem et al., 1997). Ras signaling may have other (maternally-rescued) essential roles in addition to excretory duct formation, since mutations in let-23/EGFR, egl-15/FGFR and ptp-2/SHP-2 cause distinct scrawny and lethal defects that are rescued by constitutive forms of LET-60 Ras (DeVore et al., 1995; Gutch et al., 1998; Koga and Ohshima, 1995). Hyperactivation of egl-15/FGFR or let-60/Ras can also lead to lethality with a Clear, fluid-filled appearance (Kokel et al., 1998; Schutzman et al., ...
The rat kallikrein family consists of multiple closely related proteins. A method for demonstration and identification of kallikrein-like proteins has been developed based on their differences in isoelectric point and their immunological similarity. The method, which involved separation in flat-bed isoelectro-focusing gels (pH range 3-9) and detection by immunoblotting using polyclonal antiserum against one of the family members, has been used in the present study to detect kallikrein-like proteins in the rat prostate. Nine immunoreactive kallikrein-like protein bands were detected with pI ranging from 5.30 to 8.35. Of these, six were completely purified and three were partially purified. Two proteins (pI 5.30 and 6.75-6.90) corresponded to protein bands in gels of rat submandibular-gland extracts, and were identified by partial amino acid sequence analysis as rK8 and rK9 respectively. In addition, sequence analysis revealed complete sequence similarity between rK9 and the immunoreactive ...
An additional reported adverse effect of CBD management is an undesirable dry sensation in the mouth. This impact seems to be brought on by the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the restraint of saliva secretion. A study published by Argentinean researchers back in 2006 showed that cannabinoid receptors (kind 1 and also 2) exist in the submandibular glands which are in charge of generating saliva. The activation of these receptors changes the salivary manufacturing; bring about mouth dryness (likewise referred to as cotton-mouth ...
Results The mean age was 51.1±11 years, median disease duration of 6.1 years, 92.8% were females and 92.8% had oral symptoms. The global B-mode score was 22.2 points (13-44) and the RTS global score 2.5 (1.64-3.28) m/seg. We found a correlation between the RTS global score and the global B-mode score (t=0.53, p=0.001), the RTS global score between both parotids (t=0.58, p=0.0001) and both submandibulars (t=0.50, p=0.0001); but not between parotids and submandibular glands. The RTS global score correlated with the NSWSF (t=-0.53, p=0.001), ESSDAI (t=0.31, p=0.03), glandular ESDDAI domain (t=0.36, p=0.02), C4 levels (t=-0.32, p=0.04), but not with the rest of serological variables, chemokines and cytokines levels.. We found fibrosis in 7 patients (26.9%), and these patients were not different when compared to the group without it, regarding the RTS global score, B-mode global score, age and chemokine and cytokines levels, but tended to have a longer disease duration. At the linear regression ...
Stick with widely accepted domain extensions. His research interests include functional donwload and reconstructive outcomes, microvascular head and neck reconstruction, submandibular gland transfer and medical modeling as it applies to the head and neck region. Remani. Our Cloud architects are capable in taking off expensive DB resources when throughput is high and save on cost. Usually, a website size can be determined by the number of monthly visitors. We offer additional services that will enhance your online presence by increasing the swl of traffic to your website. So you just need to enter the BucketName to put together the endpoint for your bucket and replace Region with us-east-1. All of the other settings can be left set to default. Basically web servers have always been an essential part of web hosting. In 1996 we created our first website for a Fire Department in Long Island. The users web servdr automatically accesses these sites based on links embedded in the page of the original ...
Salivary glands are located in the jaws of the lower part of the head, and are at the edges of the head (Brain) CT scans simulated in this study. Extension of the scan range inferiorly includes more or even the entire glands into the head scans. The dose to the glands can be 7.5 times of the default dose after an inferior extension of 3 cm for new-born (0-year-old) patients. For older patients, a 3-cm extension can still increase the dose to the glands by more than 2 times. With a 1-cm inferior extension or a 1-cm superior retraction, the dose to the glands can be doubled or halved, indicating the salivary gland dose is very sensitive to the location of the inferior edge of the head scan. Comparing the doses with 3cm superior retraction and the doses with 3cm inferior extension of the inferior range, the changes in salivary gland dose can be 27 times for newborn patients and 13 times for adults. The inferior extension of head scan range increases the salivary dose, and the extension is up to 8cm ...
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The adrenal and thyroid glands function as sentries between stress in your life and malfunction in your body. Learning to understand them is key to health.
The chronic use of intraglandular OBTXA reduced the size of the salivary glands measured ultrasonographically, and correlated with successful clinical results. ...
DIAGNOSIS: Once exposed and infected with EHV-1 the virus may be detected in blood and nasal swabs for 21 and 14 days respectively in laboratory settings. Virus shedding maybe more transient and difficult to detect in the latter stages of disease and in clinical outbreaks. Nasal shedding may be prolonged (21+ days) in cases infected with certain neuropathic strains of EHV-1. Horses can develop clinical signs as early as 1 day after exposure to the virus, although clinical signs can be delayed up to 10 days after exposure. Typically EHM develops 5 to 6 days after the primary infection. Infection usually develops following exposure to a horse shedding the virus but in a small percentage of cases, infection occurs by reactivation of latent virus. EHV-1 typically causes a biphasic fever peaking on day 1 or 2 and again on day 6 or 7. With respiratory infections there is often significant nasal and ocular discharge, but not a lot of coughing. There may be some persistent enlargement of submandibular ...
You are the resident on-call. Its about 10pm at night and you get a call from the ENT team. They have seen a 4 year old child in the emergency department who has presented with a left submandibular swelling and they would like to take the child to theatre. What are your initial thoughts? Additional…
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See how the Arginine test is used to determine if the pituitary gland can secrete HGH an therefore determine the HGH status of a patient.
mutation-matrix-file Text Optionally store the sample-vs-gene matrix used during calculations. permutations Number Number of permutations used to determine P-values Default value 100 if not specified gene-list Text List of genes to test, typically SMGs. If unspecified, all genes in MAF are tested. skip-non-coding Boolean Skip non-coding mutations from the provided MAF file Default value true if not specified noskip-non-coding Boolean Make skip-non-coding false skip-silent Boolean Skip silent mutations from the provided MAF file Default value true if not specified noskip-silent Boolean Make skip-silent false ...
Sublingual glandSubmandibular gland • Sulcular epithelium • :Superior alveolar artery • Superior mouth • Supernumerary roots ... Parotid gland • Patterson Dental • Paul Beresford • Paul N. Cyr • Pedodontics • Pemphigus • Peninsula College of Medicine and ... Salivary gland • Samir Ghawshah • Samuel Bemis • Samuel Cartwright • Scaling and root planing • Schulich School of Medicine & ...
... their efferents pass to the submandibular glands. This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 694 of the 20th ...
The ImSAIDs were discovered by scientists evaluating biological properties of the submandibular gland and saliva. Early work in ... This pathway or communication is referred to as the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis, a regulatory ... Mathison, Ronald D.; Malkinson, Terrance; Cooper, K.E.; Davison, J.S. (1997). "Submandibular glands: novel structures ... called the submandibular gland peptide-T. SGP-T was demonstrated to have biological activity and thermoregulatory properties ...
A post-translational modification specific of the submandibular gland". J. Proteome Res. 6 (7): 2472-80. doi:10.1021/pr0700706 ...
... a species of prorenin present in the submandibular gland) on the carboxy side of the arginine residue at the Lys-Arg- pair in ... "Tissue kallikrein mK13 is a candidate processing enzyme for the precursor of interleukin-1beta in the submandibular gland of ... "A processing enzyme for prorenin in mouse submandibular gland. Purification and characterization". The Journal of Biological ... "Substrate specificity of prorenin converting enzyme of mouse submandibular gland. Analysis using site-directed mutagenesis". ...
1) Detection of any sialoliths in submandibular salivary glands 2) Used to demonstrate unerupted lower 8's ... How they influence the radiation dose received at the level of the thyroid gland". Radiography. 13 (3): 214-220. doi:10.1016/j. ... which carries saliva from the parotid gland. The occlusal view is not included in the standard full mouth series. ... There is some evidence that the use of the paralleling technique reduces the radiation hazard to the thyroid gland, as compared ...
Gleeking is the projection of saliva from the submandibular gland. It may happen deliberately or accidentally, particularly ...
This pathway or communication is referred to as the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis, a regulatory ... Early work in this area demonstrated that the submandibular gland released a host of factors which regulate systemic ... SGP-T, an isolate of the submandibular gland, demonstrated its immunoregulatory properties and potential role in modulating the ... Mathison, RD; Malkinson, T; Cooper, KE; Davison, JS (May 1997). "Submandibular glands: novel structures participating in ...
"Substrate specificities of growth factor associated kallikreins of the mouse submandibular gland". Biochemistry. 28 (19): 7813- ... Fujinaga M, James MN (May 1987). "Rat submaxillary gland serine protease, tonin. Structure solution and refinement at 1.8 A ... Tissue kallikrein (EC, glandular kallikrein, pancreatic kallikrein, submandibular kallikrein, submaxillary kallikrein ... "Characterization of serine proteinases isolated from rat submaxillary gland: with special reference to the degradation of rat ...
It splits and encloses submandibular gland and parotid gland; - It splits at lower border of submandibular gland into ... It splits at lower pole of parotid gland into superficial and deep layers; superficial layer attaches to zygomatic arch and ...
Transplantation of the autologous submandibular gland for most severe cases of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Coauthors: Peter ... The International Workshop on Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: Report of the Subcommittee on Management and Treatment of Meibomian ... Gland Dysfunction. Coauthors: Joseph Tauber, Christophe Baudouin, Eiki Goto, Yukihiro Matsumoto, Terrence O'Brien, Maurizio ...
The parasympathetic aspect of the facial nerve controls secretion of the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands, the ... The M3 receptors are also located in many glands that help to stimulate secretion in salivary glands and other glands of the ... This nerve carries secretomotor fibers to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The chorda tympani travels through the ... fibers synapse at the submandibular ganglion and send postganglionic fibers to the sublingual and submandibular salivary glands ...
It receives secretions from the submandibular and sublingual salivary glands. The lips come together to close the opening of ...
Humans have three major salivary glands: parotid, submandibular, and sublingual. These glands, along with additional minor ... Nitrate extracted from blood by the salivary gland, accumulates in saliva, which is then reduced to nitric oxide to have a ... Most of these substances enter the salivary gland acinus and duct system from the surrounding capillaries via the intervening ... of nitric oxide by the non-nitric oxide synthase or alternative pathway involves the uptake of nitrate by the salivary gland, ...
The majority of the tumors are identified in the parotid salivary gland, although the submandibular gland can also be affected ... Mostafapour, S. P.; Folz, B.; Barlow, D.; Manning, S. (2000). "Sialoblastoma of the submandibular gland: Report of a case and ... A sialoblastoma is a low-grade salivary gland neoplasm that recapitulates primitive salivary gland anlage. It has previously ... Herrmann BW, Dehner LP, Lieu JE (Feb 2005). "Congenital salivary gland anlage tumor: a case series and review of the literature ...
Similar considerations apply to the submandibular gland, but xerostomia is less common if only one parotid gland is included in ... "Safety of contralateral submandibular gland sparing in locally advanced oropharyngeal cancers: A multicenter review". Head & ... The probability of xerostomia at one year increases by 5% for every 1Gy increase in dose to the parotid gland. Doses above 25- ... the radiated field and the contralateral submandibular gland is spared (less than 39 Gy) In the same manner, radiation dose to ...
It is common in both the parotid glands and submandibular glands. The treatment is as for sialadenitis. It may appear on a CT ... Sialodochitis (also termed ductal sialadenitis), is inflammation of the duct system of a salivary gland. This is compared to ... in which there is sudden swelling of the salivary glands. It is associated with other allergic conditions such as asthma, ... sialadenitis, which is inflammation of the gland parenchyma. Sialodochitis may be associated with salivary duct strictures and ...
Singh, P.; Warnakulasuriya, S. Aplasia of submandibular salivary glands associated with ectodermal dysplasia. J Oral Pathol Med ... Their sweat glands may function abnormally or may not have developed at all because of inactive proteins in the sweat glands. ... sweat glands, salivary glands, cranial-facial structure, digits and other parts of the body." Individuals affected by an ED ... 2004 Nov;33(10):634-6. Nordgarden, H.; Storhaug, K.; Lyngstadaas, S. P.; Jensen, J. L. Salivary gland function in persons with ...
May 2008). "The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions". J. ...
Other serious sequelae include sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland and adenolymphoma of the parotid gland. The ... The differential diagnoses of fiddler's neck include branchial cleft cyst, disease of the salivary glands, tumors of the ... parotid gland, psoriasis, lichen planus, contact dermatitis, herpes simplex and similar infections, and insect bites and stings ...
Mucoserous acini (singular acinus) or mixed acini are mainly present in submandibular and sublingual glands. They are formed by ...
... submandibular, and labial salivary glands". J. Dent. Res. 81 (2): 134-9. doi:10.1177/154405910208100210. PMID 11829014. Sasaki ...
Postsynaptic fibers from the submandibular ganglion supply the sublingual and submandibular glands. Upon emerging from the ... including the nasal glands, the palatine glands, the lacrimal gland, and the pharyngeal gland. It also provides parasympathetic ... The facial nerve also supplies parasympathetic fibers to the submandibular gland and sublingual glands via chorda tympani. ... The facial nerve then passes through the parotid gland, which it does not innervate, to form the parotid plexus, which splits ...
These postganglionic neurons provide parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular and sublingual glands. The sensory ... These postganglionic neurons send axons that provide parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal gland via a communicating ... after which it synapses with neurons in the submandibular ganglion. ...
Mixed glands: These glands have both serous cells and mucous cells, and include sublingual and submandibular glands. Their ... Of note is the diversity of the salivary glands. There are two types of salivary glands: *serous glands: These glands produce a ... A great example of a serous oral gland is the parotid gland. ... Gastric glands in the stomach. *Secretory cells(islets) in the ... Digestive enzymes of diverse specificities are found in the saliva secreted by the salivary glands, in the secretions of cells ...
"Heparanase cleavage of perlecan heparan sulfate modulates FGF10 activity during ex vivo submandibular gland branching ... Human salivary gland ductal and acinar cells have been successfully grown on a bioactive peptide containing a sequence repeated ... These cells reproduce acini-like structures similar to those found in the native gland and tight junctions, along with complete ... "Perlecan domain IV peptide stimulates salivary gland cell assembly in vitro". Tissue Eng Part A. 15 (11): 3309-20. doi:10.1089/ ...
EGF has since been found in many human tissues, including submandibular gland (submaxillary gland), and parotid gland. ... It can also be found in the submandibular glands, and the parotid gland. The production of EGF has been found to be stimulated ... EGF was originally described as a secreted peptide found in the submaxillary glands of mice and in human urine. ... Venturi S, Venturi M (2009). "Iodine in evolution of salivary glands and in oral health". Nutrition and Health. 20 (2): 119-34 ...
... gleeking occurs when an accumulation of saliva in the submandibular gland is propelled out in a stream when the gland is ... Gleeking (or gleaking) is the projection of saliva from the submandibular gland upon compression by the tongue. In general, ... Gleeking may occur spontaneously due to accidental tongue pressure on the sublingual gland while talking, eating, yawning, or ...
"Expression of type 2 cystatin genes CST1-CST5 in adult human tissues and the developing submandibular gland". DNA Cell Biol. 21 ...
লালা গ্রন্থি (Salivary gland) *কর্ণমূলীয় লালাগ্রন্থি (Parotid gland). *অধোচোয়াল লালাগ্রন্থি (Submandibular gland) ...
... the submandibular glands, these produce both serous fluid and mucus. The serous fluid is produced by serous glands in these ... The main glands are all exocrine glands, secreting via ducts. All of these glands terminate in the mouth. The largest of these ... It is both an endocrine gland and an exocrine gland.[29] The endocrine part secretes insulin when the blood sugar becomes high ... Saliva contains digestive enzymes called amylase, and lingual lipase, secreted by the salivary glands and serous glands on the ...
On either side of the frenulum are small prominences called sublingual caruncles that the major salivary submandibular glands ... The left and right halves of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue drains to submandibular lymph nodes, while the posterior one ...
The submandibular gland wraps around the edges of the mylohyoid, and is divided into superficial and deep lobes above and below ... The mylohyoid may be imaged by CT or MRI.[5] The mylohyoid separates the submandibular space below from the sublingual space ... An area of herniation of the sublingual gland, blood vessels, or fat, may be present, with studies reporting this in 10-50% of ... The mylohyoid muscle separates the sublingual space from the submandibular space, which communicate via a lateral gap between ...
... the submandibular gland contributes around 70-75% of secretion, while the parotid gland secretes about 20-25% and small amounts ... but since then found in many human tissues including submandibular gland, parotid gland. Salivary EGF, which seems also ... Some caterpillars produce silk fiber from salivary glands.[citation needed] Produced in salivary glands, human saliva is 99.5% ... α-amylase (EC3.2.1.1), or ptyalin, secreted by the acinar cells of the parotid and submandibular glands, starts the digestion ...
Glands. *Parotid gland *duct. *Submandibular gland *duct. *Sublingual gland *duct. Teeth. *see tooth anatomy ...
... coated with sticky saliva produced by large submandibular glands. A further adaptation to the diet is the presence of numerous ... Numbats also possess a sternal scent gland, which may be used for marking their territories.[4] ...
submandibular salivary gland formation. • viral RNA genome replication. • small GTPase mediated signal transduction. • protein ...
... but since then found in many human tissues including the submandibular gland, and the parotid gland. Salivary EGF, which seems ... Cardiac glands. Red. Gastric glands. Blue. Pyloric glands. Dark blue. Duodenum. Although the precise shape and size of the ... Only cardiac glands are found here and they primarily secrete mucus.[10] They are fewer in number than the other gastric glands ... Cardiac glands are unique to mammals, and even then are absent in a number of species. The distributions of these glands vary ...
Three salivary glands-the sublingual gland, the submandibular gland, and the parotid gland-secrete enzymes, such as salivary ...
Calcitonin is produced by parafollicular cells in the thyroid gland, and can bind to receptors on osteoclasts to directly ... internal surface (Mental spine, Mylohyoid line, Sublingual fovea, Submandibular fovea). *Alveolar part ...
লালা গ্রন্থি (Salivary gland) *কর্ণমূলীয় লালাগ্রন্থি (Parotid gland). *অধোচোয়াল লালাগ্রন্থি (Submandibular gland) ...
Parotid gland/Parotid duct · Submandibular gland/Submandibular duct · Sublingual gland/Major sublingual duct ...
... or to the submandibular glands (in the lower jaw), or into both the nodes and the glands of the neck and the jaw. ... which serve the lacrimal gland and the glands of the nose and of the palate, via the (upper jaw) maxillary division of cranial ... Lacrimal nerve - conveys sensation to the skin areas of the lateral orbital (eye socket) region, except for the lacrimal gland. ... because that skin is low-density pilosebaceous tissue with very few follicles and sebaceous glands, thus is unlike the oily ...
The ImSAIDs were discovered by scientists evaluating biological properties of the submandibular gland and saliva. Early work in ... This pathway or communication is referred to as the cervical sympathetic trunk-submandibular gland (CST-SMG) axis, a regulatory ... Mathison, Ronald D.; Malkinson, Terrance; Cooper, K.E.; Davison, J.S. (1997). "Submandibular glands: novel structures ... called the submandibular gland peptide-T. SGP-T was demonstrated to have biological activity and thermoregulatory properties ...
The glossopharyngeal nerve also provides parasympathetic innervation to the parotid gland.[1] Unilateral absence of a gag ...
... but since then found in many human tissues including the submandibular gland, and the parotid gland. Salivary EGF, which also ... Cardiac gland region.[61]. Red. Fundic gland region.[61]. Blue. Pyloric gland region.[61]. Dark blue. Duodenum. ... an anterior portion lined by fundic glands and a posterior portion lined with pyloric glands. Cardiac glands are unique to ... Within the body and fundus of the stomach lie the fundic glands. In general, these glands are lined by column-shaped cells that ...
"The proteomes of human parotid and submandibular/sublingual gland salivas collected as the ductal secretions". J. Proteome Res ...
The nasal glands are innervated with secretomotor from the greater petrosal nerve. Likewise, the palatine glands are innervated ... It is one of four parasympathetic ganglia of the head and neck, the others being the submandibular ganglion, otic ganglion, and ... The pterygopalatine ganglion supplies the lacrimal gland, paranasal sinuses, glands of the mucosa of the nasal cavity and ... The pharyngeal nerve innervates pharyngeal glands. These are all branches of maxillary nerve. ...
Udder, Mammary gland. *Gills. *Arm Mammalia, Amphibia, ..., Fin Fish, Wing Aves. *Elbow ...
The olfactory nerve is typically considered the first cranial nerve, or simply CN I, that contains sensory nerve fibers relating to smell. The afferent nerve fibers of the olfactory receptor neurons transmit nerve impulses about odors to the central nervous system, where they are perceived by the sense of smell (olfaction). Derived from the embryonic nasal placode, the olfactory nerve is somewhat unusual among cranial nerves because it is capable of some regeneration if damaged. The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From the olfactory mucosa, the nerve (actually many small nerve fascicles) travels up through the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone to reach the surface of the brain. Here the fascicles enter the olfactory bulb and synapse there; from the bulbs (one on each side) the olfactory information is transmitted into the brain via the olfactory tract.[2] The fascicles of the olfactory nerve are not visible ...
Submandibular glandsEdit. Main article: Submandibular gland. The submandibular glands (previously known as submaxillary glands ... The sublingual glands are a pair of major salivary glands located inferior to the tongue, anterior to the submandibular glands. ... Von Ebner's glandsEdit. Main article: Von Ebner's glands. Von Ebner's glands are glands found in a trough circling the ... Parotid glandsEdit. Main article: Parotid gland. The two parotid glands are major salivary glands wrapped around the mandibular ...
... it suicidally expels the contents of its hypertrophied submandibular glands,[54] expelling corrosive irritant compounds and ... The slime glands along the body of the hagfish secrete enormous amounts of mucus when it is provoked or stressed. The ... The bombardier beetle has specialized glands on the tip of its abdomen that allows it to direct a toxic spray towards predators ... a gland on the front of their head which can secrete and shoot an accurate jet of resinous terpenes "many centimeters". The ...
... the sublingual gland 5% mainly mucous gland, and the submandibular gland 70%is a mixed, mainly serous gland. Sebaceous glands ... then the gland is called a branched gland. Exocrine glands are named apocrine glands, holocrine glands, or merocrine glands ... Examples include Brunner's glands, esophageal glands, and pyloric glands Mixed glands secrete both protein and mucus. Examples ... Exocrine glands are one of two types of glands in the human body, the other being endocrine glands, which secrete their ...
... their efferents pass to the preaortic glands. ...
non-fatal injury to the lactating mammary gland of the mouse is from 60 to 100 mg/kg. At doses of person above 100 mg/kg, ... Rabbits: cardial arrhythmia, submandibular edema and death after consumption of leaves. Cows and goats: mastitis, decreased ... Mice: non-fatal injury to the lactating mammary gland from 60 to 100 mg/kg Persin. Necrosis of myocardial fibres with 100 mg/kg ... with in vivo activity in the mammary gland, induces Bim-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells". Mol Cancer Ther. 5 ( ...
... but not active on natural angiotensinogen This enzyme is present in submandibular glands of male mice. Poe M, Wu JK, Florance ... "Purification and properties of renin and gamma-renin from the mouse submaxillary gland". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
The most common involved site is the parotid gland, however other possible sites include the submandibular gland, minor ... González-García, R; Nam-Cha, SH; Muñoz-Guerra, MF; Gamallo-Amat, C (1 March 2006). "Basal cell adenoma of the parotid gland. ... Witt RL (1 January 2011). Salivary Gland Diseases: Surgical and Medical Management. Thieme. pp. 126-128. ISBN 978-1-60406-537-4 ... Basal cell adenoma is a rare, low-grade benign salivary gland neoplasm. ...
... on ultrasound Submandibular gland Submandibular gland Submandibular gland lateral view Submandibular gland Submandibular gland ... Submandibular gland Submandibular duct Textbook And Color Atlas Of Salivary Gland Pathology Diagnosis And Management, Eric R. ... The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor ... right view Submandibular gland - frontal view Submandibular gland Muscles, arteries and nerves of neck.Newborn dissection. ...
The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor ... The submandibular salivary glands develop later than the parotid glands and appear late in the sixth week of prenatal ... The submandibular glands highly active acini account for most of the salivary volume. The parotid and sublingual glands ... Because the glands are branched, and because the tubules forming the branches contain secretory cells, submandibular glands are ...
The Nfib −/− mouse submandibular gland (SMG) at E18.5 lack aquaporin 5 and SMG protein C (SMGC) expression. Salivary glands ... The Nfib −/− mouse submandibular gland (SMG) at E18.5 displays signs of salivary gland hypoplasia and poor acinar lumen ... The Nfib −/− mouse submandibular glands (SMGs) at E16.5 and E18.5 lack tubule secretory cells. Salivary glands were dissected, ... NFIB regulates embryonic development of submandibular glands.. Mellas RE1, Kim H2, Osinski J3, Sadibasic S2, Gronostajski RM3, ...
... calcified stones blocking the salivary glands. Learn how to treat and prevent this condition. ... Submandibular gland swelling often occurs due to small, ... Where Are the Submandibular Glands?. Firstly, what is the ... If you feel swelling underneath your lower jaw, it could be a swollen submandibular gland. Swollen submandibular glands are ... Submandibular gland swelling may be caused by a blocked salivary gland that can be easily treated. However, make sure to see ...
... one of three human saliva glands, produces about two thirds of the average daily output of one liter of saliva. The saliva ... Human Submandibular Gland. Human Submandibular Gland. The submandibular gland is composed of several different types of cells. ... 20 percent of human submandibular gland cells) of the submandibular gland are composed of serous cells topping mucous cells and ... Serous cells (80 percent of human submandibular gland cells) are shaped like pyramids with more rounded nuclei and are also ...
... submandibular gland peptide-T(SGP-T), which reduces allergen-induced hypotension, wasexamined for effects on intestinal ... Mathison RD: The submandibular glands: A role in homeostasis and allostasis. Biomed Rev 4:61-69, 1995Google Scholar ... A novel peptide, submandibular gland peptide-T(SGP-T), which reduces allergen-induced hypotension, wasexamined for effects on ... Mathison R, Hogan A, Helmer D, Bauce L, Woolner J, Davison JS, Schultz G, Befus D: Role for the submandibular gland in ...
The Adult Mouse Anatomy Ontology organizes anatomical structures for the postnatal mouse (Theiler stage 28) spatially and functionally, using is a and part of relationships. This browser can be used to view anatomical terms and their relationships in a hierarchical display.
Find treatment reviews for Massage submandibular salivary glands from other patients. Learn from their experiences about ...
Kallikreins from cat colon and submandibular gland have been purified by acetone fractionation of tissue extracts, DEAE- ... Submandibular Gland Tissue Kallikrein Precipitin Line Striate Duct Acetone Fractionation These keywords were added by machine ... It is conclude that similar tissue kallikreins are present in the colon and submandibular gland of the cat but are distinct ... Fujimori H., Levison P.R., Schachter M. (1986) Purification and Partial Characterization of Cat Colon and Submandibular Gland ...
I was wondering if anyone has ever had a ulcer directly on their submandibular gland. I have one on min that hurts really bad. ... Ulcer directly on Submandibular gland Hello, I was wondering if anyone has ever had a ulcer directly on their submandibular ... right submandibular gland very swollen siliana19. General Health. 2. 06-16-2008 06:58 AM. ... Right side submandibular gland swollen shoreido. General Health. 15. 04-28-2005 07:21 AM. ...
... calcified stones blocking the salivary glands. Learn how to treat and prevent this condition. ... Submandibular gland swelling often occurs due to small, ... Submandibular gland swelling can be associated with dry mouth, ... Firstly, what is the submandibular gland? There is one walnut-sized submandibular gland on each side of the face, just in front ... If you feel swelling underneath your lower jaw, it could be a swollen submandibular gland. Swollen submandibular glands are ...
The salivary glands serve numerous functions, including lubrication; enzymatic degradation of food substances; production of ... In the case of the submandibular gland, this is mediated through the submandibular ganglion. Presynaptic fibers are derived ... MR of the submandibular gland: normal and pathologic states. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1996 Sep. 17(8):1575-81. [Medline]. ... What is the role of the salivary glands in the pathogenesis of submandibular sialadenitis/sialadenosis?. Updated: May 12, 2020 ...
Normal submandibular salivary gland in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. The convoluted salivary gland ducts (arrow) ... salivary gland ducts are provided here for comparison. In females, cytoplasmic alteration of the submandibular salivary gland ... Normal submandibular salivary gland in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. The arrow indicates a convoluted salivary ... Salivary gland, Duct - Cytoplasmic alteration in a female B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. In this submandibular salivary ...
Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and ... Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis.. Ray S1, ... Brightfield images of (a) an embryonic day 12 (E12) submandibular salivary gland (SMG) organ explant and (b) an SMG explant ... We utilized measurements from time-lapse images of mouse submandibular gland organ explants to construct a temporally and ...
Postsynaptic localization of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in rat submandibular gland Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded ... Postsynaptic localization of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors in rat submandibular gland. DB Bylund and JR Martinez ... alpha 2-Adrenergic receptors (as determined by [3H]clonidine binding) appear in rat submandibular gland membranes following ... 2) Duct ligation, which results in atrophy of the gland, markedly decreased the density of the receptors following subsequent ...
Does anyone have experience or information about submandibular salivary gland transfer procedure that is done prior to ... only getting 26 greys in the area of my submandibular salivary glands on both sides which bodes well for future salivary gland ... The salivary glands are moved to a different location. Research studies found 83% of patients who received this procedure ... retained their salivary gland functions after radiation while 100% of those who didnt receive it ended up with dry mouth. ...
... in case of complete excision of ranula and sublingual gland. Major salivary gland aplasia is a rare f ... Oral ranula is a retention cyst that arises from the salivary gland with recurrence rate of up to 25% after complete excision ... CT scan revealed also the absence of right submandibular salivary gland with persistence of its Whartons duct. This combination ... DISCUSSION: The combination of recurrent sublingual ranula associated with aplasia of ipsilateral submandibular salivary gland ...
... submandibular, and sublingual) is provided below, along with anatomic staging. Table. ... The TNM classification for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual). The American Joint Committee ... TNM Classification for Cancer of Major Salivary Glands (Parotid, Submandibular, and Sublingual) ...
Methods: The excretory duct of the right submandibular gland of rats was doubly ligated near the hilum with metal clips, which ... Amany Mohamed Mousa, Effect of sodium fluoride with and without ginseng on the submandibular gland of adult male albino rat, ... Mitotic proliferation of myoepithelial cells during regeneration of atrophied rat submandibular glands after duct ligation. ... The regenerating right submandibular glands were removed from 0 to 14 days after removal of the clips. The removed tissue was ...
Results of measurements performed on mouse submandibular gland samples demonstrate the ability of the analysis platform to ... submandibular gland; AFM microfluidics; elasticity; tissue engineering; submandibular gland; AFM ... Microfluidic Platform for the Elastic Characterization of Mouse Submandibular Glands by Atomic Force Microscopy. Aaron P. ... Results of measurements performed on mouse submandibular gland samples demonstrate the ability of the analysis platform to ...
The submandibular gland is not a lymphatic organ and usually remains uninvolved with head and neck cancer des... ... The submandibular gland will be left intact for this portion of the procedure. Next, the submandibular gland will be removed. ... Each lymph node group, the submandibular gland, and the fibrofatty tissue lying deep to the submandibular gland, will be ... 2. All the lymph nodes in the submandibular triangle can be removed without resection of the submandibular gland. ...
Mouse submandibular gland (SMG) begins its development at embryonic day 11 when oral epithelium grows into the underlying ... 1113 Hippo Pathway in Submandibular Gland Development: Potential Interplay with N-glycosylation Friday, March 23, 2012: 3:30 p. ... Keywords: Cell biology, Hippo Pathway and Salivary glands See more of: Salivary Gland Structure and Function. See more of: ... Moreover, in DPAGT1 silenced glands, TAZ exhibited enhanced localization to intercellular junctions. Conclusion: Our findings ...
The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands (...) ... Definition : The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located ... Home , F. Pathology by regions , Head and neck , Head , Mouth - Oral cavity , Salivary glands , submandibular glands ...
Clear cell renal carcinoma; Metastasis; Submandibular gland; Salivary gland metastasis. Introduction. RCC is an unpredictable ... Submandibular salivary gland metastases are extremely rare and commonly referred to parotid gland. In our patient radiological ... Literature reports a predominance of parotid gland metastasis; submandibular salivary gland is a rare site of metastasis and ... Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma to Submandibular Gland: A Rare Occurrence Carlo Melloni1*, Nino Dispensa2, Adriana Tuttolomondo ...
... of Bilateral Submandibular Glands using Other Contrast is a medical classification as listed by CMS under Ear, Nose, Mouth and ... ICD-10-PCS code B939YZZ for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Bilateral Submandibular Glands using Other Contrast is a ... Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of Bilateral Submandibular Glands using Other Contrast B939YZZ. ...
Tissue Kallikrein and Tonin Levels in Submandibular Glands of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats and the Effects of Insulin. ... Tissue Kallikrein and Tonin Levels in Submandibular Glands of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats and the Effects of Insulin ... Tissue Kallikrein and Tonin Levels in Submandibular Glands of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats and the Effects of Insulin ... Tissue Kallikrein and Tonin Levels in Submandibular Glands of STZ-Induced Diabetic Rats and the Effects of Insulin ...
Isolation of Myoepithelial Cells from Adult Murine Lacrimal and Submandibular Glands. J. Vis. Exp. (148), e59602, doi:10.3791/ ... Ca2+ signaling by cholinergic and alpha1-adrenergic agonists is up-regulated in lacrimal and submandibular glands in a murine ... Pringle, S., Nanduri, L. S., van der Zwaag, M., van Os, R., Coppes, R. P. Isolation of mouse salivary gland stem cells. Journal ... Hann, L. E., Tatro, J. B., Sullivan, D. A. Morphology and function of lacrimal gland acinar cells in primary culture. ...
... of the submandibular gland: a clinical perspective TL Chow, Tony TF ... Kuttners tumour (chronic sclerosing sialadenitis) of the submandibular gland: a clinical perspective ... Submandibular sialadenectomy is a safe and effective means of treating Kuttners tumour, and can be accomplished under local ... Three had bilateral submandibular swellings. Following preoperative ultrasonography in six of the patients, tumours were ...
Stimulated Ca^,2+, Entry Activates Cl^- Currents after Releasing Ca^,2+, from the Intracellular Store in Submandibular Gland ... Acetylcholine- and caffeine-evoked repetitive transient Ca^,2+,-activated K^+ and Cl^- currents in mouse submandibular cells ... Tetraethylammonium-insensitive, Ca^,2+,-activated whole-cell K^+ currents in rat submandibular acinar cells ISHIKAWA T. ... Calcium release and internal calcium regulation in acinar cells of exocrine glands MARTY A. ...
Submandibular gland removal is surgery to take out a saliva gland below the lower jaw. The gland may have been removed because ... Related to Submandibular Gland Removal: What to Expect at Home. *Salivary Gland Scan ... Submandibular Gland Removal: What to Expect at Home. Skip to the navigation ... Health Information & Tools , Patient Care Handouts , Submandibular Gland Removal: What to Expect at Home ...
  • CT scan revealed also the absence of right submandibular salivary gland with persistence of its Whartons duct. (
  • The excretory duct of the right submandibular gland of rats was doubly ligated near the hilum with metal clips, which were removed after 7 days of ligation (day 0). (
  • The regenerating right submandibular glands were removed from 0 to 14 days after removal of the clips. (
  • A 48 year old female with a past medical history of T2 N0 M0, ER positive, PR positive, HER-2/neu negative intermediate grade infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the right breast presented to the Otolaryngology clinic for evaluation of a PET/CT with increased fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake in the right submandibular gland. (
  • On otolaryngic physical exam, she had minimal fullness in the region of the right neck, consistent with a right submandibular gland. (
  • An autopsy was performed, and it revealed a tumor of the right submandibular gland. (
  • At autopsy, a tumor of about 5cm was found in the right submandibular gland. (
  • The proposed treatment was surgical excision of ductal intra oral and extra oral calculations of the right submandibular gland along with its sialolito. (
  • The mucous cells are the most active and therefore the major product of the submandibular glands is saliva which is mucoid in nature. (
  • We rely on these glands to supply the saliva we need to chew, swallow and speak and to wash food debris away from our teeth. (
  • Along with your other salivary glands , these glands supply saliva that contains enzymes to help break down food and minerals that reduce the damaging effects of food acids on your tooth enamel . (
  • Swollen submandibular glands are usually caused by tiny stones blocking the ducts that channel saliva into the mouth. (
  • The purpose of this study is to perform biopsies of one of the glands that make saliva. (
  • Submandibular gland removal is surgery to take out a saliva gland below the lower jaw. (
  • The gland may have been removed because of infection, a tumour, or a blocked saliva duct. (
  • A saliva duct is a tube that carries saliva from the gland into the mouth. (
  • The blood-saliva barrier (BSB) consists of the sum of the epithelial cell layers of the oral mucosa and salivary glands. (
  • Sjogren's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects salivary and lacrimal glands resulting in a decreased ability to produce saliva and tears. (
  • Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease mainly affecting the exocrine glands, resulting in severe impairment of saliva and tear production. (
  • Diagnosis is by clinical examination and imaging and treatment will depend on the size and location of sialólito, ranging from stimulation of saliva to the surgical removal of the gland involved. (
  • Salivary glands make saliva for your mouth. (
  • Salivary glands secrete saliva into your mouth through ducts. (
  • The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts . (
  • [5] These are largest of the salivary glands, secreting saliva to facilitate mastication and swallowing , and amylase to begin the digestion of starches . (
  • [6] Approximately 65-70% of saliva in the oral cavity is produced by the submandibular glands, even though they are much smaller than the parotid glands. (
  • [7] Unlike the other two major glands, the ductal system of the sublingual glands does not have intercalated ducts and usually does not have striated ducts either, so saliva exits directly from 8-20 excretory ducts known as the Rivinus ducts . (
  • [7] Approximately 5% of saliva entering the oral cavity comes from these glands. (
  • Saliva from submandibular glands (SMG) is necessary to minimize xerostomia. (
  • During stimulated secretion the parotid gland produces majority of the saliva. (
  • The mucous cells are the most active and therefore the major product of the submandibular glands is saliva. (
  • Salivary gland structure and function were analyzed by histopathological assessment, saliva flow rate, quantitative PCR, Western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. (
  • The salivary glands make saliva and release it into the mouth. (
  • When this happens, the gland typically is painful and swollen, and saliva flow is partially or completely blocked. (
  • More rarely, salivary gland swelling occurs due to a tumor. (
  • Merck Manuals explains that swelling caused by a cancerous or noncancerous tumor on the salivary glands may be firmer than swelling caused by an infection. (
  • A cancerous tumor will likely be very hard and fixed to the gland tissue, while a noncancerous tumor may be movable. (
  • The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) tumor/node/metastasis (TNM) classifications for cancer of the major salivary glands (parotid, submandibular, and sublingual) are provided below, along with anatomic staging. (
  • HSG cells, which endogenously express P2Y2 receptors and are derived from a human submandibular gland tumor, were utilized as a cell model to analyze downstream signaling pathways in response to UTP. (
  • Recently, we have encountered large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the submandibular gland that was diagnosed at autopsy, but was difficult to distinguish from metastatic tumor. (
  • Histological examination of the submandibular tumor revealed a solid growth formed of large polygonal atypical cells. (
  • Bilateral Kuttner Tumor of Submandibular Glands: A Case Report', Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology , 22(4), pp. 155-158. (
  • Because of its clinical similarity to a salivary gland neoplasm, this condition has been known as Kuttner tumor and is classified as a tumorlike lesion. (
  • This is the first reported case of bilateral Kuttner tumor of the submandibular glands in Iran. (
  • Available at: (
  • Submandibular Gland Cancer, also known as malignant tumor of the submandibular gland , is related to submandibular gland disease and parotid gland cancer . (
  • Sometimes, the salivary glands become enlarged without evidence of infection, inflammation or tumor. (
  • INTRODUCTION: Oral ranula is a retention cyst that arises from the salivary gland with recurrence rate of up to 25% after complete excision of ranula and up to 2% in case of complete excision of ranula and sublingual gland. (
  • Excision of the submandibular gland may require an overnight hospital stay. (
  • The submandibular gland excision takes approximately an hour and a half to complete, and patients can expect to leave four hours after arriving. (
  • Patients resume their normal activities in as little as one or two days, and there are no dietary restrictions necessary with a submandibular gland excision. (
  • The lesion was submitted to surgical excision under local anesthesia and the submandibular gland was maintened. (
  • Treatment was by total surgical excision of the submandibular gland for the begnin tumours. (
  • She underwent a second operation of wide excision of the salivary gland mass and ipsilateral neck node dissection. (
  • Need help in choosing submandibular gland excision doctor in Mumbai? (
  • Like other exocrine glands, the submandibular gland can be classified by the microscopic anatomy of its secretory cells and how they are arranged. (
  • The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse strain exhibits immunological, histopathological and physiological characteristics of SS with focal mononuclear cell infiltration of the exocrine glands from approximately 8 weeks of age [ 7 ]. (
  • The cells of ductless glands secrete specific molecules into the adjacent interstitial space (paracrine glands) or into the blood stream (endocrine glands), while the cells of ducted glands (exocrine glands) secrete into a cylindrical sac (tubular glands) or into a flask-shaped sac (alveolar glands). (
  • How this process takes place and is regulated in exocrine tissues such as the pancreas and salivary glands remains poorly understood. (
  • duct gland, exocrine, exocrine gland [Hyper. (
  • Glands are divided into two main groups, endocrine and exocrine. (
  • What is the role of the salivary glands in the pathogenesis of submandibular sialadenitis/sialadenosis? (
  • Chandak R, Degwekar S, Chandak M, Rawlani S. Acute submandibular sialadenitis-a case report. (
  • Gillespie MB, Koch M, Iro H, Zenk J. Endoscopic-Assisted Gland-Preserving Therapy for Chronic Sialadenitis: A German and US Comparison. (
  • Chronic sclerosing sialadenitis is a relatively uncommon disorder of the salivary gland. (
  • It was initially diagnosed as a primary submandibular gland neoplasm whereas histological findings showed chronic sialadenitis. (
  • What is the role of positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT) scanning in the diagnosis of submandibular sialadenitis/sialadenosis? (
  • Sialadenitis of the submandibular gland is a relatively commonly encountered yet infrequently discussed topic. (
  • Although not as frequent as sialadenitis of the parotid gland, it represents an important area of clinical relevance to the otolaryngologist and other specialists. (
  • The following discusses the basic science of the submandibular gland, as well as the more common causes of sialadenitis and sialadenosis of the submandibular gland. (
  • Management of submandibular sialadenitis and sialadenosis involves a wide range of approaches, from conservative medical management to more aggressive surgical intervention. (
  • Neonatal acute suppurative submandibular sialadenitis. (
  • Sialadenitis submandibular supurada aguda neonatal. (
  • Neonatal acute suppurative submandibular sialadenitis literature reports (1950-2015). (
  • For this reason, neonatal acute suppurative submandibular sialadenitis non-coincident with parotitis is considered as a rare entity. (
  • Neonatal acute suppurative submandibular sialadenitis is an uncommon infection that presents similar clinical features throughout the years. (
  • Sialadenitis (infection of a salivary gland). (
  • MR imaging has been proved useful in the diagnosis of several diseases of the salivary glands, including benign and malignant tumors, Sjögren's syndrome, and infections (3-6) . (
  • Fat-containing salivary gland tumors: a review. (
  • Methods A female patient presented with bilateral tumors of the parotid glands, bilateral submandibular gland enlargement, and multiple cystic lesions of the oral mucosa. (
  • Results Imaging and FNA findings of the parotid glands were suggestive of bilateral Warthin tumors. (
  • Conclusion This is the first report of dysgenetic polycystic salivary gland disease of the minor salivary glands, combined with involvement of the submandibular glands and bilateral Warthin tumors of the parotid gland. (
  • Tumors may also arise from the salivary glands. (
  • Salivary gland tumors may be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). (
  • Surgical removal is the main treatment for tumors of the salivary gland. (
  • Epimyoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is a rare low-grade salivary gland malignancy comprising of 1% of all the salivary glands tumors . (
  • The present paper highlights the review of literature of EMC involving submandibular salivary gland, histomorphological spectrum and diagnostic differentiation from other salivary gland tumors. (
  • If you are having surgery to remove tumors from smaller salivary glands, the doctor will make a cut in the area where the gland is located. (
  • Therefore, although uncommon, ACC is one of the most aggressive of the salivary gland tumors. (
  • Most of them are extremely rare, and more than half of salivary gland tumors turn out to be benign (not cancer ). (
  • About 70% of salivary gland tumors start here. (
  • Even if you do, remember that most salivary gland tumors are benign. (
  • They may result from traumatic injuries, infections, or salivary gland stones or tumors. (
  • Most salivary gland tumors occur in the parotid gland. (
  • It begins by numerous branches from the deep surface of the gland, and runs forward between the mylohyoid and the hyoglossus and genioglossus, then between the sublingual gland and the genioglossus, and opens by a narrow orifice on the summit of a small papilla, at the side of the frenulum. (
  • If you are having sublingual gland surgery, it is most likely because a type of cyst, called a ranula, needs to be removed. (
  • The submandibular gland's highly active acini account for most of the salivary volume. (
  • The submandibular gland acini develop from the cords' rounded terminal ends at 12 weeks, and secretory activity via the submandibular duct begins at 16 weeks. (
  • Growth of the submandibular gland continues after birth with the formation of more acini. (
  • The PCNA-positive myoepithelial cells were observed at the periphery of transitional duct-acinar structures, ducts and acini in the regenerating glands at every time-point, and the PCNA-labeling index of myoepithelial cells increased greatly especially between day 2 and 4. (
  • The interaction of two coexisting transmitters in the cat submandibular gland has been elucidated by studying effects of VIP and carbachol on cyclic AMP accumulation in isolated acini from the gland. (
  • The gland has usually a number of acini connected in a tiny lobule. (
  • acinous gland one made up of one or more acini (oval or spherical sacs). (
  • The acini of the sublingual glands are composed primarily of mucous cells. (
  • However, as stated above, surgery may also be recommended to address both benign and malignant disorders of the salivary gland. (
  • The lymphatics from submandibular gland first drain into submandibular lymph nodes and subsequently into jugulo - digastric lymph nodes. (
  • 2. All the lymph nodes in the submandibular triangle can be removed without resection of the submandibular gland. (
  • 1. The submandibular gland is not a lymphatic organ and usually remains uninvolved with head and neck cancer despite the presence of metastatic disease in the lymph nodes that surround it. (
  • 3. The following end-points will be measured: the number of lymph nodes identified within each lymph node group, the number of lymph nodes located within the submandibular gland, and the number of lymph nodes within the fibrofatty contents lying deep to the submandibular gland. (
  • The submandibular gland, and possibly surrounding lymph nodes, will be removed. (
  • The lymph nodes are sometimes called lymph glands but are not glands in the usual sense. (
  • Stage III cancers have moved out of the gland, possibly to the lymph nodes in the same side of the neck. (
  • It may involve taking out part of a salivary gland or the entire gland, removing lymph nodes, and maybe reconstructive work on your face and neck. (
  • A novel peptide, submandibular gland peptide-T(SGP-T), which reduces allergen-induced hypotension, wasexamined for effects on intestinal anaphylaxis.Hooded-Lister rats were sensitized to egg albumin and prepared for the measurement of in vivomyoelectric activity of the jejunum. (
  • Age changes of the submandibular glands (SMG) of male rats were studied morph metrically and ultra-structurally from youth to old age. (
  • Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of hyperlipidemia on histological changes and apoptosis in submandibular glands using apolipoprotein E (apoE)-deficient rats. (
  • The submandibular glands of rats raised at room temperature show daily and seasonal variations. (
  • To quantify these variations, the submandivular glands of male Wistar rats were collected at 4h intervals over a 24h period in the summer and winter and processed for histological analysis. (
  • Rats were infected with T. cruzi then sacrificed after 18, 32, 64 or 97 days, after which the submandibular glands were analyzed by immunohistochemistry. (
  • In addition, during the acute phase of experimentally induced Chagas disease, despite of the absence of an appreciable inflammatory process in the submandibular glands of T. cruzi -infected rats, these glands undergo a severe reduction in sympathetic (Machado et al. (
  • BrdU incorporation in submandibular gland cells - T. cruzi-- infected and non-infected rats were euthanized under deep anesthesia after 18, 32, 64 or 97 days of inoculation. (
  • Although many studies have been done to understand mouse submandibular gland (SMG) branching morphogenesis, little is known about SMG cell differentiation during the terminal stages. (
  • Cell-based multi-parametric model of cleft progression during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis. (
  • Cleft formation during submandibular salivary gland branching morphogenesis is the critical step initiating the growth and development of the complex adult organ. (
  • We present here a comprehensive analysis of several cellular parameters regulating cleft progression during branching morphogenesis in the epithelial tissue of an early embryonic salivary gland at a local scale using an on lattice Monte-Carlo simulation model, the Glazier-Graner-Hogeweg model. (
  • Mouse submandibular salivary gland organ structure and cleft formation during branching morphogenesis. (
  • Branching morphogenesis of fetal mouse submandibular glands (SMGs) partly depends on the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor that triggers at least three intracellular signaling pathways involving (1) the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1/2, (2) phospholipase Cgamma1 (PLCgamma1), and (3) phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K). (
  • Mouse submandibular gland morphogenesis: a paradigm for embryonic signal processing. (
  • Apoptosis-associated protein expression in human salivary gland morphogenesis. (
  • Inhibition and transcriptional silencing of a subtilisin-like proprotein convertase, PACE4/SPC4, reduces the branching morphogenesis of and AQP5 expression in rat embryonic submandibular gland. (
  • We found that SDF-1 and CXCR4 are expressed in this organ and that AMD3100 treatment of submandibular gland explants blocks its branching morphogenesis. (
  • The paired submandibular glands (historically known as submaxillary glands) are major salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. (
  • The submandibular glands (previously known as submaxillary glands) are a pair of major salivary glands located beneath the lower jaws, superior to the digastric muscles . (
  • The paired submandibular glands ( submaxillary glands ) are salivary glands located beneath the floor of the mouth. (
  • Mathison R, Davison JS, Befus AD: Neuroendocrine regulation of inflammation and tissue repair by submandibular gland factors. (
  • Kallikreins from cat colon and submandibular gland have been purified by acetone fractionation of tissue extracts, DEAE-Sephacel ion-exchange chromatography, ρ-aminobenzamidine Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography and gel filtration on Sephadex G-75. (
  • It is conclude that similar tissue kallikreins are present in the colon and submandibular gland of the cat but are distinct from this cat stomach esterase. (
  • Lastly, any remaining fibrofatty tissue that lies deep to the submandibular gland within the confines of level IB will be removed. (
  • Each lymph node group, the submandibular gland, and the fibrofatty tissue lying deep to the submandibular gland, will be submitted for pathological assessment in separate containers. (
  • The levels of tissue kallikrein, tonin, and other kallikrein-like proteinases were determined in extracts of rat submandibular glands 3 mo after the induction of diabetes with STZ (65 mg/kg i.v.). Total kallikrein-like proteinase activity was assayed catalytically with the fluorogenic substrate DVLR-AFC. (
  • The results indicate that in rat submandibular glands, insulin affects the synthesis of kallikrein-like proteinases in different ways and, allowing for the slowness of the processes involved, insulin may exert a direct influence on the regulation of tissue kallikrein synthesis but only have indirect effects on the synthesis of tonin and the closely related kallikrein-like proteinases. (
  • Both the otolaryngologist and radiologist should work closely in assessing suspicious salivary gland tissue within PET/CT of the head and neck and correlating these findings clinically to consider further investigation. (
  • The present study is to evaluate Virtual Touch Tissue Quantification (VTQ) technique in the prevention of submandibular gland damage in patients with Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma (NPC) after Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT). (
  • For example, the P2Y2 receptors are not normally expressed in salivary glands, but upon disruption of tissue homeostasis, the P2Y2 receptors are up-regulated. (
  • The entire gland is enclosed in a tough connective tissue capsule from which trabeculae extend into the cortex. (
  • Several conglomerated high density lesions that involved periglandular soft tissue and measured 1.7 cm were found in the left submandibular gland using head and neck computed tomography ( Fig. 1A ). (
  • An ill-defined mass located in the submandibular gland and periglandular soft tissue was noted in the operative field. (
  • There are 800 to 1,000 minor salivary glands located throughout the oral cavity within the submucosa [9] of the oral mucosa in the tissue of the buccal, labial, and lingual mucosa, the soft palate, the lateral parts of the hard palate, and the floor of the mouth or between muscle fibers of the tongue. (
  • [10] They are 1 to 2 mm in diameter and unlike the major glands, they are not encapsulated by connective tissue, only surrounded by it. (
  • 1995). Patients with enlarged salivary glands frequently show amylasemia and increased amylase content in the parotid tissue (Vieira 1961). (
  • We screened miRNAs expressed in the mouse developing submandibular gland (SMG) and found that miR-200c accumulates in the epithelial end buds. (
  • Therefore, we established epithelial barrier models of the submandibular gland derived from human cell line HTB-41 (A-253). (
  • In conclusion, five different clones originating from the submandibular gland cell line HTB-41 were successfully characterized and established as epithelial barrier models. (
  • The etiological most widely accepted hypothesis is that the sialolitos arise from deposition of calcium salts accumulated around inside the duct, which in turn can result from factors such as infection, trauma, foreign bodies and cell debris organic desquamated epithelial furthermore, more submandibular gland is achieved by its anatomical position and salivary composition. (
  • During the second transition the buds reorganize into branched and polarized epithelial monolayers that further differentiate into tubulo-acinar glands. (
  • Reorganization of a globular mass of epithelial cells in polarized monolayers is also observed during submandibular glands development. (
  • The morphology and ultrastructure of 48 primary tumours established from 5 cell lines of adult mouse salivary gland epithelial cells transformed in vitro are described. (
  • Since our previous studies have demonstrated the importance of apoptosis during embryonic submandibular salivary gland (SMG) development, we postulated that survivin is a likely mediator of SMG epithelial cell survival. (
  • Parasympathetic innervation to the submandibular glands is provided by the superior salivatory nucleus via the chorda tympani, a branch of the facial nerve, that becomes part of the trigeminal nerve's lingual nerve prior to synapsing on the submandibular ganglion. (
  • In the case of the submandibular gland, this is mediated through the submandibular ganglion. (
  • Postsynaptic fibers extend from the ganglion to the gland itself. (
  • The nerves are derived from the submandibular ganglion, through which it receives filaments from the chorda tympani of the facial nerve and the lingual branch of the mandibular, sometimes from the mylohyoid branch of the inferior alveolar, and from the sympathetic. (
  • The gland itself lies on the hyoglossus muscle, superficial to both the hypoglossal and the lingual nerves, the latter supplying parasympathetic innervation by way of the chorda tympani nerve (from cranial nerve VII) and the submandibular ganglion. (
  • What Causes Submandibular Gland Swelling? (
  • Submandibular gland swelling can be associated with dry mouth, infection and other conditions. (
  • However, most causes of gland swelling can be treated. (
  • If you feel swelling underneath your lower jaw, it could be a swollen submandibular gland. (
  • When a stone blocks a salivary gland , a condition known as sialolithiasis, an individual may experience swelling and pain over the affected gland. (
  • In these cases, swelling of the gland may be accompanied by redness and pus. (
  • See your dentist to determine what's causing your submandibular gland swelling. (
  • To ease the pain of submandibular gland swelling, apply a warm compress to the gland area and rinse your mouth with salt water. (
  • Submandibular gland swelling may be caused by a blocked salivary gland that can be easily treated. (
  • A 53 years old female patient developed a left submandibular swelling. (
  • Diagnosis of metastatic disease for patients affected by submandibular swelling with a previous history of RCC should be always considered. (
  • Swelling of submandibular salivary glands. (
  • I have had swelling of my submandibular salivary glands for just over a year now. (
  • You also might have intermittent swelling with or without pain in the area of the gland. (
  • The physical exam revealed a tender swelling on palpation in the left submandibular region, and also a firm intraoral swelling was detected in the left sublingual region. (
  • The patient is being followed up for 2 years and 8 months, with no complaints of salivary flow or gland dysfunction, without gland swelling and no radiographic changes. (
  • Thirty-five (35) patients who presented with sub-mandibular gland swelling and had diagnostic ultrasound or CT/MRI prior to surgery and histological examination of tissues removed at surgery were investigated to determine the correlation between radiologic diagnosis and histologic diagno-sis. (
  • Therefore, in this study, ultrasound provided a better guide in the pre-op radiologic assessment of submandibular gland swelling. (
  • These symptoms are followed by swelling in the parotid glands, usually on both sides of the face. (
  • They underwent submandibular sialadenectomy under either local (n=6) or general (n=3) anaesthesia. (
  • Sixteen patients with sialolithiasis of the submandibular gland underwent MR imaging. (
  • All the patients underwent Ultrasonography (US) while submandibular volume was determined and VQT examination while Shear Wave Velocity (SWV) was measured. (
  • Six consecutive patients with suspected obstructive salivary gland diseases underwent MR sialography with a three-dimensional fast imaging using steady-state acquisition. (
  • The patient subsequently underwent a submandibular gland resection with preservation of the facial nerve branches. (
  • Gruber first described a case of bilateral submandibular gland aplasia in 1985 and Bruno first described a case of unilateral submandibular gland aplasia in 1894. (
  • According to The Journal of Medical Research , sialolithiasis is the most common salivary gland disease, and the submandibular gland is affected in 83 percent of cases. (
  • Submandibular glands with sialolithiasis could be classified into three types on the basis of clinical symptoms and MR imaging features of the glands. (
  • These results suggest that MR imaging features may reflect chronic and acute obstruction, and a combination of CT and MR imaging may complement each other in examining glands with sialolithiasis. (
  • Sialolithiasis most commonly occurs in the submandibular glands at a rate reportedly fluctuating between 80% and 95% (1, 2) . (
  • In this study, we evaluated the MR features of the submandibular gland affected by sialolithiasis and correlated these changes with clinical symptoms and histopathologic features of excised glands. (
  • Diagnosis of sialolithiasis was made eventually at surgery, confirming the presence of sialolith(s) in the duct of the submandibular gland. (
  • The article describes a clinical case of an orocutaneous fistula, due to submandibular sialolithiasis, with calculi found in the fistulous route. (
  • The sialolithiasis is a change in salivary gland which is characterized by the deposition of calcium salts within the duct of a gland or the parenchyma. (
  • Sialolithiasis (salivary gland stones).Tiny, calcium -rich stones sometimes form inside the salivary glands. (
  • The duct of the submandibular gland, also known as the Wharton duct, exits the gland from the deep lobe, passing through the floor of the mouth, and opening in close proximity to the lingual frenulum. (
  • In this study, we chose to model the vulnerability by investigating the cell and molecular pathogenesis of CMV infected mouse embryonic submandibular salivary glands SMGs. (
  • A better understanding of the frequency of submandibular gland involvement may lead to refined treatment strategies for head and neck cancer, which can possibly spare removal of the submandibular gland and potentially improve the long term side effects from therapy. (
  • Bimanual palpation of the left neck could not locate the left submandibular gland. (
  • The three major salivary glands in the head and neck are the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands (see above diagram). (
  • The gland will be removed via an incision in a crease of your neck below your jaw line. (
  • Despite the fact that surgery in the neck involves dissection in proximity to many important structures such as vessels and nerves, excising this salivary gland is usually performed without difficulty or long-term complications. (
  • For both types of surgery, the gland will be reached by making a cut in front of the ear and into the neck. (
  • We implemented a technique for sparing contralateral submandibular glands (CLSM) during contralateral elective neck irradiation without compromising PTV coverage. (
  • Consequently, we implemented treatment plans that specifically spared both the PG and the contralateral submandibular gland (CLSM) in patients without contralateral (CL) neck metastases requiring bilateral neck irradiation. (
  • Anatomically, it is situated in the submandibular triangle of the neck. (
  • [6] This gland can usually be felt via palpation of the neck, as it is in the superficial cervical region and feels like a rounded ball. (
  • 1. ( MeSH ) One of two salivary glands in the neck, located in the space bound by the two bellies of the digastric muscle and the angle of the mandible. (
  • Most reported cases of metastases to the head and neck involve the thyroid and parotid glands. (
  • Cady, N.C. Microfluidic Platform for the Elastic Characterization of Mouse Submandibular Glands by Atomic Force Microscopy. (
  • Further, because the secretory cells are of both serous and mucous types, the submandibular gland is a mixed gland, and though most of the cells are serous, the exudate is chiefly mucous. (
  • those of the submandibular glands, of both serous and mucous types, with the serous cells outnumbering the mucous cells by four to one. (
  • 1999. Salivary, Harderian, and lacrimal glands. (
  • The body's immune defenses attack the salivary glands, the lacrimal glands (glands that produce tears), and occasionally the skin's sweat and oil glands. (
  • In the salivary glands, blood flow and salivary secretion are under autonomic nervous control of both parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves [ 5 ]. (
  • Other secretory mechanisms include holocrine (in which the gland cell membrane disintegrates to release its secretion), apocrine (in which the ends of the gland cells pinch off, carrying the secretion), and direct active transport of particular molecules across the gland cell membrane. (
  • [5] The secretion produced is a mixture of both serous fluid and mucus , and enters the oral cavity via the submandibular duct or Wharton duct. (
  • Classification of glands according to mode of secretion. (
  • apocrine gland one whose discharged secretion contains part of the secreting cells. (
  • The parotid and sublingual glands account for the remaining. (
  • The submandibular gland, along with the parotid and sublingual glands, comprise the major salivary glands. (
  • Human submandibular gland. (
  • Serous cells (80 percent of human submandibular gland cells) are shaped like pyramids with more rounded nuclei and are also pushed to the base of the cell by secretory droplets of serum-albumin (thinner, more watery). (
  • The mixed alveoli (20 percent of human submandibular gland cells) of the submandibular gland are composed of serous cells topping mucous cells and in humans, purely mucous alveoli are not common. (
  • The secretory acinar cells of the submandibular gland have distinct functions. (
  • The Nfib −/− mouse submandibular gland (SMG) at E18.5 displays signs of salivary gland hypoplasia and poor acinar lumen formation. (
  • Therefore, passive leakage of Ca 2+ from the ER in acinar cells of the submaxillary salivary gland is realized through pores of the translocon complex of the ER membrane. (
  • Oxidized LDL generation in case of hyperlipidemia may trigger off a reaction of apoptotic acinar cells with vacuolization in the submandibular glands. (
  • We evaluated the outcomes of contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). (
  • Brightfield images of (a) an embryonic day 12 (E12) submandibular salivary gland (SMG) organ explant and (b) an SMG explant harvested at E12 and grown for 24 hours ex vivo with epithelium (E) and mesenchyme (M) labeled. (
  • Mouse submandibular gland (SMG) begins its development at embryonic day 11 when oral epithelium grows into the underlying mesenchyme. (
  • Up to now, standardized, cell line-based models of the epithelium of the submandibular salivary gland are still missing for this purpose. (
  • The structure of tumours derived from mouse submandibular gland epithelium transformed in vitro. (
  • [1] Salivary glands can be classified as serous , mucous or seromucous (mixed). (
  • 25% Parotid, Submandibular and Sublingual ~ 67% and ~8% minor mucous glands. (
  • Cobelli's g's mucous glands in the esophageal mucosa just above the cardia. (
  • Kopec T, Wierzbicka M, Kaluzny J, Mlodkowska A, Szyfter W. Sialendoscopy and sialendoscopically-assisted operations in the treatment of lithiasis of the submandibular and parotid glands: our experience of 239 cases. (
  • Major salivary gland aplasia is a rare finding that is usually associated with other developmental anomalies. (
  • Unilateral submandibular gland aplasia is a rare entity with only thirteen cases reported in the literature. (
  • The minor salivary glands are scattered along the upper aerodigestive tract, including the lips, mucosa of the oral cavity, pharynx, and hard palate. (
  • In addition to these major glands, 600 to 1,000 very tiny, minor salivary glands are scattered throughout the mouth and throat. (
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To present the surgical technique and feasibility of robot-assisted submandibular gland (SMG) resection via retroauricular approach. (
  • Submandibular gland stone - Resection. (
  • For the 3 years since resection of the submandibular gland, the patient has been free of disease. (
  • The cords of the submandibular gland later branch further and then become canalized to form the ductal part. (
  • Result: Confocal imaging showed colocalization of F-actin and ZO-1 extending further into the ductal region in DPAGT1-silenced glands compared to controls. (
  • Intense and steady labelling granules were also observed in the cytoplasm of submandibular gland ductal cells. (
  • Thus, the decrease in AQP1 protein levels in the endothelium and AQP5 in gland ductal cells of irradiated animals may have hindered the removal of water from the lumen of ductal cells, inducing a delay in water absorption and triggering a slight lumen increase. (
  • 2008). In this context, we evaluated the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation as well as Fas and Bcl-2 expression in submandibular glands cells from infected and non-infected animals to determine if delayed ductal maturation on T. cruzi infection may correlate with induction of apoptosis or inhibition of DNA synthesis. (
  • Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound for differential diagnosis of submandibular gland disease. (
  • Congenital sialolipoma of the parotid gland: presentation, diagnosis, and management. (
  • The histopathological diagnosis was large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the submandibular gland. (
  • Conclusion: Our evaluation of pre-operative diagnosis of CT and ultrasound in the assessment of submandibular swellings reveal that ultrasound is better in determining the nature of the lesion. (
  • D37.032 is a billable ICD code used to specify a diagnosis of neoplasm of uncertain behavior of the submandibular salivary glands. (
  • The objectives of this study were to investigate the feasibility of clinical application of magnetic resonance (MR) virtual endoscopy as a presurgical procedure before sialoendoscopy and to evaluate its value in the diagnosis of obstructive salivary gland diseases and preoperative visualization of endoluminal views. (
  • The oral mucosa and submandibular papilla were normal appearing with good dentition. (
  • In addition to these major glands, there are over 500 minor salivary glands lining the inside of the mouth. (
  • The gland itself can be arbitrarily divided into superficial and deep lobes based on its relationship to the mylohyoid muscle, the former lying superficial to the muscle, and the latter wrapping around the posterior aspect of the muscle. (
  • Identification of CNS neurons with polysynaptic connections to both the sympathetic and parasympathetic innervation of the submandibular gland. (
  • Gland cells and their intertwined vascular beds can be controlled by autonomic innervation and by hormones from other glands. (
  • Research studies found 83% of patients who received this procedure retained their salivary gland functions after radiation while 100% of those who didn't receive it ended up with dry mouth. (
  • The patients were selected by plain radiographic examination, which demonstrated a solitary or multiple calcified sialolith-like structure in the submandibular region. (
  • These patients had no history of disease or receiving drugs such as corticosteroids that could affect the salivary gland function. (
  • Most of the published patients were asymptomatic on presentation without any associated facial anomalies.We present a patient with a history of breast cancer with an incidental finding of unilateral submandibular gland aplasia presenting with asymmetric uptake of fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose (FDG) in the remaining submandibular gland on a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). (
  • Decreased vascular responses to salivary gland stimulation are observed in Sjögren's syndrome patients. (
  • On the other hand, an in vitro study on human labial gland cells isolated from patients with primary SS has demonstrated similar response to stimulation with acetylcholine and neuropeptides as healthy controls, indicating functional receptor systems [ 9 ]. (
  • Second, a prospective study compared the size of the salivary glands between drooling patients treated with repetitive OBTXA injections and a control group. (
  • The investigators found that in 98% of patients with IgG4-SS, FDG uptake was increased in the submandibular gland. (
  • Patients and methods: Retrospective studies of sub-mandibular gland tumours presenting to our department between 1986 and 2000. (
  • We reviewed surgical result of 5 patients with pulmonary metastasis from submandibular gland cancer. (
  • Submandibular gland biopsy can be used to identify α-synuclein aggregates, potentially offering not only a simple means of histologically confirming Parkinson's disease but also a marker for the disease in patients with premotor manifestations, researchers report. (