Fear: The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Facial Expression: Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.Conditioning, Classical: Learning that takes place when a conditioned stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Conditioning (Psychology): A general term referring to the learning of some particular response.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Limbic System: A set of forebrain structures common to all mammals that is defined functionally and anatomically. It is implicated in the higher integration of visceral, olfactory, and somatic information as well as homeostatic responses including fundamental survival behaviors (feeding, mating, emotion). For most authors, it includes the AMYGDALA; EPITHALAMUS; GYRUS CINGULI; hippocampal formation (see HIPPOCAMPUS); HYPOTHALAMUS; PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS; SEPTAL NUCLEI; anterior nuclear group of thalamus, and portions of the basal ganglia. (Parent, Carpenter's Human Neuroanatomy, 9th ed, p744; NeuroNames, http://rprcsgi.rprc.washington.edu/neuronames/index.html (September 2, 1998)).Avoidance Learning: A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.Freezing Reaction, Cataleptic: An induced response to threatening stimuli characterized by the cessation of body movements, except for those that are involved with BREATHING, and the maintenance of an immobile POSTURE.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Extinction, Psychological: The procedure of presenting the conditioned stimulus without REINFORCEMENT to an organism previously conditioned. It refers also to the diminution of a conditioned response resulting from this procedure.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Electroshock: Induction of a stress reaction in experimental subjects by means of an electrical shock; applies to either convulsive or non-convulsive states.Anxiety: Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Septal Nuclei: Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Kindling, Neurologic: The repeated weak excitation of brain structures, that progressively increases sensitivity to the same stimulation. Over time, this can lower the threshold required to trigger seizures.Association Learning: The principle that items experienced together enter into a connection, so that one tends to reinstate the other.Ibotenic Acid: A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Arousal: Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.Lipoid Proteinosis of Urbach and Wiethe: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by glassy degenerative thickening (hyalinosis) of SKIN; MUCOSA; and certain VISCERA. This disorder is caused by mutation in the extracellular matrix protein 1 gene (ECM1). Clinical features include hoarseness and skin eruption due to widespread deposition of HYALIN.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Functional Neuroimaging: Methods for visualizing REGIONAL BLOOD FLOW, metabolic, electrical, or other physiological activities in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM using various imaging modalities.Muscimol: A neurotoxic isoxazole isolated from species of AMANITA. It is obtained by decarboxylation of IBOTENIC ACID. Muscimol is a potent agonist of GABA-A RECEPTORS and is used mainly as an experimental tool in animal and tissue studies.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Face: The anterior portion of the head that includes the skin, muscles, and structures of the forehead, eyes, nose, mouth, cheeks, and jaw.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Neuronal Tract-Tracers: Substances used to identify the location and to characterize the types of NEURAL PATHWAYS.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone: Cell surface proteins that bind corticotropin-releasing hormone with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The corticotropin releasing-hormone receptors on anterior pituitary cells mediate the stimulation of corticotropin release by hypothalamic corticotropin releasing factor. The physiological consequence of activating corticotropin-releasing hormone receptors on central neurons is not well understood.Conditioning, Operant: Learning situations in which the sequence responses of the subject are instrumental in producing reinforcement. When the correct response occurs, which involves the selection from among a repertoire of responses, the subject is immediately reinforced.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Social Perception: The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.Social Behavior: Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Galvanic Skin Response: A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Affect: The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Subliminal Stimulation: Stimulation at an intensity below that where a differentiated response can be elicited.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Oncogene Proteins v-fos: Transforming proteins coded by fos oncogenes. These proteins have been found in the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses which induce osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The FBJ-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p55-kDa protein and the FBR-MSV v-fos gene encodes a p75-kDa fusion protein.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Recognition (Psychology): The knowledge or perception that someone or something present has been previously encountered.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Anger: A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Nucleus Accumbens: Collection of pleomorphic cells in the caudal part of the anterior horn of the LATERAL VENTRICLE, in the region of the OLFACTORY TUBERCLE, lying between the head of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE. It is part of the so-called VENTRAL STRIATUM, a composite structure considered part of the BASAL GANGLIA.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Retention (Psychology): The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of serotonergic neurons. They are different than SEROTONIN RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to SEROTONIN. They remove SEROTONIN from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. Regulates signal amplitude and duration at serotonergic synapses and is the site of action of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Expressed Emotion: Frequency and quality of negative emotions, e.g., anger or hostility, expressed by family members or significant others, that often lead to a high relapse rate, especially in schizophrenic patients. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 7th ed)Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Substantia Innominata: Tissue in the BASAL FOREBRAIN inferior to the anterior perforated substance, and anterior to the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and ansa lenticularis. It contains the BASAL NUCLEUS OF MEYNERT.GABA Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID receptors (RECEPTORS, GABA).Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Bipolar Disorder: A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.Prosencephalon: The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe: A localization-related (focal) form of epilepsy characterized by recurrent seizures that arise from foci within the temporal lobe, most commonly from its mesial aspect. A wide variety of psychic phenomena may be associated, including illusions, hallucinations, dyscognitive states, and affective experiences. The majority of complex partial seizures (see EPILEPSY, COMPLEX PARTIAL) originate from the temporal lobes. Temporal lobe seizures may be classified by etiology as cryptogenic, familial, or symptomatic (i.e., related to an identified disease process or lesion). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p321)Inhibition (Psychology): The interference with or prevention of a behavioral or verbal response even though the stimulus for that response is present; in psychoanalysis the unconscious restraining of an instinctual process.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.GABA-A Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate GABA-A RECEPTORS.Stilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Anxiety Disorders: Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials: Hyperpolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during NEUROTRANSMISSION. They are local changes which diminish responsiveness to excitatory signals.Individuality: Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Neuropeptide Y: A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Behavior: The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Aggression: Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.Receptors, GABA-A: Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.Mice, Inbred C57BLAfferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Basal Ganglia: Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Receptors, Metabotropic Glutamate: Cell surface proteins that bind glutamate and act through G-proteins to influence second messenger systems. Several types of metabotropic glutamate receptors have been cloned. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mechanisms of action.Mental Recall: The process whereby a representation of past experience is elicited.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Depressive Disorder, Major: Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.Soman: An organophosphorus compound that inhibits cholinesterase. It causes seizures and has been used as a chemical warfare agent.Dominance-Subordination: Relationship between individuals when one individual threatens or becomes aggressive and the other individual remains passive or attempts to escape.Flupenthixol: A thioxanthene neuroleptic that, unlike CHLORPROMAZINE, is claimed to have CNS-activating properties. It is used in the treatment of psychoses although not in excited or manic patients. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p595)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Appetitive Behavior: Animal searching behavior. The variable introductory phase of an instinctive behavior pattern or sequence, e.g., looking for food, or sequential courtship patterns prior to mating.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Central Nervous System Depressants: A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Behavior, Addictive: The observable, measurable, and often pathological activity of an organism that portrays its inability to overcome a habit resulting in an insatiable craving for a substance or for performing certain acts. The addictive behavior includes the emotional and physical overdependence on the object of habit in increasing amount or frequency.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Synaptic Potentials: The voltages across pre- or post-SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES.Cocaine-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pons: The front part of the hindbrain (RHOMBENCEPHALON) that lies between the MEDULLA and the midbrain (MESENCEPHALON) ventral to the cerebellum. It is composed of two parts, the dorsal and the ventral. The pons serves as a relay station for neural pathways between the CEREBELLUM to the CEREBRUM.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Receptors, AMPA: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by their affinity for the agonist AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid).Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Parahippocampal Gyrus: A convolution on the inferior surface of each cerebral hemisphere, lying between the hippocampal and collateral sulci.Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Anticipation, Psychological: The ability to foresee what is likely to happen on the basis of past experience. It is largely a frontal lobe function.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Preoptic Area: Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.Phobic Disorders: Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.Olfactory Bulb: Ovoid body resting on the CRIBRIFORM PLATE of the ethmoid bone where the OLFACTORY NERVE terminates. The olfactory bulb contains several types of nerve cells including the mitral cells, on whose DENDRITES the olfactory nerve synapses, forming the olfactory glomeruli. The accessory olfactory bulb, which receives the projection from the VOMERONASAL ORGAN via the vomeronasal nerve, is also included here.Dopamine Uptake Inhibitors: Drugs that block the transport of DOPAMINE into axon terminals or into storage vesicles within terminals. Most of the ADRENERGIC UPTAKE INHIBITORS also inhibit dopamine uptake.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.Satiety Response: Behavioral response associated with the achieving of gratification.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus: Nucleus in the anterior part of the HYPOTHALAMUS.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Periaqueductal Gray: Central gray matter surrounding the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT in the MESENCEPHALON. Physiologically it is probably involved in RAGE reactions, the LORDOSIS REFLEX; FEEDING responses, bladder tonus, and pain.Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Wit and Humor as Topic: The faculty of expressing the amusing, clever, or comical or the keen perception and cleverly apt expression of connections between ideas that awaken amusement and pleasure. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic: A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Memory, Long-Term: Remembrance of information from 3 or more years previously.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Temperament: Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.Kinesics: Systematic study of the body and the use of its static and dynamic position as a means of communication.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Stereotaxic Techniques: Techniques used mostly during brain surgery which use a system of three-dimensional coordinates to locate the site to be operated on.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Autistic Disorder: A disorder beginning in childhood. It is marked by the presence of markedly abnormal or impaired development in social interaction and communication and a markedly restricted repertoire of activity and interest. Manifestations of the disorder vary greatly depending on the developmental level and chronological age of the individual. (DSM-V)Cycloserine: Antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces garyphalus.GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Alcohol-Induced Disorders, Nervous System: Acute and chronic neurologic disorders associated with the various neurologic effects of ETHANOL. Primary sites of injury include the brain and peripheral nerves.
Tissue Distribution CNS (region specific) & several peripheral tissues: Stomach > amygdala, kidney, lung, small intestine > ... Leukocytes ...Pancreatic islet β cells ... Primary Tonsillar B Cells ... Circulating leukocytes of healthy subjects ( ... amygdala, and raphe nucleus. TAAR1 has also been identified in human astrocytes. TAAR1 is the only TAAR subtype not found in ...
The amygdala sends direct projections to the caudate nucleus. Both the amygdala and the caudate nucleus have direct and ... While here the choice was far more complex--the subjects were not simply asked to press a lever, but had to weigh a host of ... The influence of the amygdala on memory processing in the caudate nucleus has been demonstrated with the finding that lesions ... In perhaps the most illustrative case, a trilingual subject with a lesion to the caudate was observed. The patient maintained ...
When subjects were shown emotional images, the amygdala and lingual gyrus both activated significantly more when compared to ... Furthermore, the gyrus is potentially linked to the amygdala. Gyrus activation was observed when subjects were tasked with ... Subjects were tasked with memorizing symbols in certain visual fields while ignoring those in others. In some subjects, the ... Subjects were scanned using fMRI while looking at pictures. The images were emotionally neutral, with no people in close-up. ...
Causes of transsexuality
"David Reimer, subject of 'sex reassignment,' dead at 38".. *^ Colapinto, J (2001). As Nature Made Him: The Boy Who Was Raised ... Both groups experienced amygdala activation in response to EST. Gynephilic male control groups experienced hypothalamic ... One MtF subject, who had never gone on hormones, was also included and matched up with the female neuron counts nonetheless.[11 ... However, the MtF subjects also experienced limited hypothalamic activation to EST. The researchers concluded that in terms of ...
Subjects were administered a solution of aspartame for a specific amount of time before being instructed to swallow the ... An explanation for less activation of the amygdala was that because it is a reward center in the brain, less reward would be ... Before swallowing, the amygdala, somatosensory cortex, thalamus, and basal ganglia were all activated. After swallowing, only ... These regions were identified when human subjects were exposed to a taste stimulus and their cerebral blood flow measured with ...
"Volume of left amygdala subregion predicted temperamental trait of harm avoidance in female young subjects. A voxel-based ... In a study involving thirty-six healthy young men that were subjected to semi-starvation, the men soon began displaying ... Marsh, AA; Finger, EC; Mitchell, DG; Reid, ME; Sims, C (2008). "Reduced amygdala response to fearful expressions in children ... these traits have been shown to originate in various regions of the brain such as the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex. ...
Volumetric MRI analysis of the amygdala and the hippocampus in subjects with age-associated memory impairment. Goossens, L.; ... During recall subjects again need to have all visual stimuli removed by means of a dark room or blindfolding to avoid ... Subjects are asked to recall each image clearly in their mind's eye. While recalling the images researchers are able view the ... The subject's resting brain activation level is first determined in order to form a control or 'baseline' to measure from. ...
Memory and social interactions
... striking differences in perceived trustworthiness and approachability ratings between subjects with complete bilateral amygdala ... The amygdala is one of the major structures in the limbic system. It is also known to play a role in the processing of and ... Research on the subject indicates that people are more likely to remember negative behaviour when it is perceived as coming ... Furthermore, the impaired subjects rated faces as trustworthy which the control group considered dubious. These findings ...
... freezing behavior in subjects. The regions include the basolateral amygdala and the hippocampus. One such study, conducted by ... Two groups of rats were tested: rats that had been lesioned in the basolateral amygdala and rats that were the control group ( ... The results showed that the rats that were lesioned in the basolateral amygdala froze much less to the cat hair than the ... As mentioned before, Ann E. Power investigated the effect of basolateral amygdala on freezing behavior. It was also found that ...
Inferior temporal gyrus
Rather, atrophy in the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus was prominent in the Alzheimer's inflicted subjects of the ... The subjects were selected and confirmed to be in the middle of the spectrum of their respective disorders clinically, and then ... The study concluded that group MOT had no impairment of their color vision while the subjects in group AT all had severe ... Rubens and Benson's 1971 study of a subject in life with prosopagnosia reveals that the patient is able to name common objects ...
Neuroanatomy of intimacy
... showed that dopamine release in the basal ganglia of a subject who was romantically in love appeared similar to a subject ... The amygdala, a key player in emotional processing, is suggested different between men and women. In males, emotions are ... It was found that males showed more stimulation in the amygdala in regards to sexual infidelity, while females showed greater ... One study that tested positively and negatively valenced words on both male and female subjects found that emotional processing ...
Additional sources have shown subjects whose fear learning was accompanied by high cortisol levels had better consolidation of ... Glucocorticoids act on the hippocampus, amygdala, and frontal lobes. Along with adrenaline, these enhance the formation of ... Glucocorticoids at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Bowen R (2006-05-26). "Glucocorticoids ...
Often, physiological psychologists examine the effects that they study in infrahuman subjects using surgical or invasive ... are interested in why we may fear spiders and physiologists may be interested in the input/output system of the amygdala. A ... Psychophysiologists generally study the psychological/physiological link in intact human subjects. While early ... Psychophysiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Cacioppo, John; Tassinary, Louis; ...
The HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well. The release of CRH and VP are regulated by descending ... Generally, the amygdala stimulates, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus attenuate, HPA axis activity; however, complex ... including the amygdala. However, CRH is the main regulatory molecule of the release of ACTH. The secretion of ACTH into ... amygdala, hypothalamus, and stria terminalis. Through these mechanisms, stress can alter memory functions, reward, immune ...
Next, the amygdala was then engaged by having the subject match fearful facial expressions during an fMRI scan (by the 3-T GE ... However, the activity in the right amygdala was much higher for subjects with the s-allele, which shows that the 5-HTTLPR has ... The results of the study showed that there was bilateral activity in the amygdala for every subject when processing the fearful ... It is also important to note that there did not seem to be the same effect on the left amygdala. In the 1990s it has been ...
The subject may have no fear of fast heart rate, hyperventilation or derealization, but may nevertheless feel terror, and it is ... This circuit consists of the amygdala, central gray matter, ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, and the locus ceruleus. ... However, in real-life situations panic may escalate independently of whether the subject is fearful of the minor symptoms ... After repeated trials, when nothing catastrophic happens, the brain learns (hippocampus and amygdala) to not fear the ...
Bondeson (2006) speculates that Tarrare suffered from a damaged amygdala; it is known that injuries to the amygdala in animals ... Suffering from exhaustion, he was hospitalised and became the subject of a series of medical experiments to test his eating ... While there are other documented cases of similar behaviour from the period, none of the subjects other than Tarrare were ...
Electrical brain stimulation
Memory and trauma
The hippocampus and amygdala have been connected with transference of memory from short-term memory to long-term memory. ... some parts of the medial prefrontal cortex didn't activate as they were supposed to when compared to those of a healthy subject ... The temporal lobes, on the sides of the brain, contain the hippocampus and amygdala, and therefore have a lot to do with memory ... Long-term memory is associated with many different areas of the brain including the hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus and ...
The majority of subjects were in Group 1 (PTA episode lasting less than 1 hour), injured in motor vehicle accidents, and male. ... The amygdala, an area of the brain involved in emotional regulation, may be involved in producing remembrance for some aspects ... Individuals who have been subjected to repeated sexual abuse during childhood or who have experienced combat show significant ... Roozendaal B.; Mcewen B. S.; Chattarji S. (2009). "Stress, memory and the amygdala". Nature Reviews Neuroscience. 10 (6): 423- ...
... of neurons suggesting hyperconnection Show a negative correlation between amygdala size and disorder severity among subjects ... the Amygdala Theory of Autism. This theory focuses on the importance of the amygdala in relation to social functioning and ... This suggests the amygdala may play a crucial role in relating to other humans in a way that allows for behavioral mimicry. ... The amygdala is thought to be associated with the fight or flight response in animals and its activity is heavily correlated ...
The younger the subject and the longer the traumatic event is, the greater the chance of significant amnesia. He stated that ... The amygdala may be particularly important in assigning emotional values to sensory inputs. Although memory distortion occurs ... could convince about half of his subjects that they had survived a vicious animal attack in childhood. Such experimental ... estimate that 3 to 5% of laboratory subjects are vulnerable to post-event misinformation suggestions. They state that 5-8% of ...
Studies have shown that subjects with amygdala damage perform poorly on both the Faux Pas test and the Strange Stories test. ... Typically this agnosia is only found in people with bilateral amygdala damage; that is damage to amygdala regions in both ... Evidence suggests that damage to the amygdala and the limbic system (specifically the amygdala-hypothalamus pathway) results in ... The subject or patient is presented with two sets of stories: social stories that refer to people's emotional states, and ...
The SAM and HPA axes are regulated by several brain regions, including the limbic system, prefrontal cortex, amygdala, ... The HPA axis is subject to negative feedback regulation as well. ... Generally, the amygdala stimulates, and the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus attenuate, HPA axis activity; however, complex ... The release of CRH and VP are regulated by descending glutaminergic and GABAergic pathways from the amygdala, as well as ...
Canli T, Congdon E, Gutknecht L, Constable RT, Lesch KP (Nov 2005). "Amygdala responsiveness is modulated by tryptophan ... and bipolar patients vs control subjects". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 26 (1): 33-7. doi:10.1385/JMN:26:1:033. PMID ... "No human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene R441H mutation in a large cohort of psychiatric patients and control subjects". ... "A regulatory variant of the human tryptophan hydroxylase-2 gene biases amygdala reactivity". Molecular Psychiatry. 10 (9): 884- ...
In addition to its proximity to and association with the limbic system and the amygdala in particular, which plays a key role ... Lesions at the targeted tissue were made with the help of fine electrodes inserted at the right angle into the subject's brain ... In addition, some subjects complained of some form of urinary disturbance, ranging from urinary retention to incontinence. ... However, there are cases of subjects released from hospital after as few as 48 hours after the operation. The mild shorter ...
While there are other documented cases of similar behaviour from this period none of the subjects other than Domery's ... it is known that injuries to the amygdala or ventromedial nucleus in animals can induce polyphagia. It is not recorded what ... speculates that Domery possibly suffered from a damaged amygdala or ventromedial nucleus; ...
... perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala for short allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism compared to subjects ... Healthy subjects that have a high score of neuroticism - a personality trait in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory - have ... perigenual anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala for short allele carriers of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism compared to subjects ... "5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulate-amygdala interactions: a genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression". Nature ...
Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ... rats subjected to the moderate stress of frequent human handling during the first two weeks of life had reduced hormonal and ... Anatomical connections between brain areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus facilitate ... This research in human subjects is consistent with the animal literature discussed above. ...
Brodmann area 45
In almost all the test subjects, this was the left side. In fact, the only subject tested that had right-hemispheric language ... This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. Please ... When their subjects were undergoing experimentation, they were presented with consonant strings, pseudo-words, and words, and ... Furthermore, investigators took volumetric measurements of the grey and white matter of the brains of their test subjects and ...
... s are subject to post translational modification by enzymes primarily on their N-terminal tails, but also in their ... there was an increase in histone 3 lysine 9 acetylation in the pronociceptin promoter in the brain amygdala complex. This ... "Ethanol induces epigenetic modulation of prodynorphin and pronociceptin gene expression in the rat amygdala complex". J. Mol. ...
Neuroscience of music
They found that as these chills increase, many changes in cerebral blood flow are seen in brain regions such as the amygdala, ... Snyder and Large (2005) performed a study examining rhythm perception in human subjects, finding that activity in the gamma ... Gosselin, Peretz, Johnsen and Adolphs (2007) studied S.M., a patient with bilateral damage of the amygdala with the rest of the ... However, in non-AP subjects activation in the right inferior frontal cortex was present whereas AP possessors showed no such ...
There are functional differences between the right and left amygdala. Overall, the role of amygdala in loss anticipation ... In nonhuman subjectsEdit. In 2005, experiments were conducted on the ability of capuchin monkeys to use money. After several ... negative outcome anticipation engages the amygdala. However, only some studies have shown involvement of amygdala during ... Thus later studies rather than focusing on subjects in groups, focus more on individual differences in the neural bases by ...
The amygdala is central to the processing of fear and anxiety, and its function may be disrupted in anxiety disorders. Anxiety ... anxiety is described as the mental state that results from a difficult challenge for which the subject has insufficient coping ... Neural circuitry involving the amygdala (which regulates emotions like anxiety and fear, stimulating the HPA Axis and ... "Emotion, olfaction, and the human amygdala: Amygdala activation during aversive olfactory stimulation". Proceedings of the ...
Phineas Gage: Difference between revisions
The original, like almost all daguerreotypes, shows its subject laterally (left-right) reversed, making it appear that Gage's ... between behaviors he attributes to Gage and those of modern patients with damage to the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala. ... depicts the same subject seen in the Wilgus daguerreotype identified in 2009, according to Gage researchers consulted by the ... the appearances presented by the subject being variously explained away.:329,344. Indeed Jackson (1870) wrote that, " ...
Subjects taking benzodiazepines are found to perform worse on learning and memory tasks compared to drug-naive subjects. ... The amygdala (which is primarily concerned with emotions and emotional content of memories) and the hippocampus (which concerns ... Phelps, E (2004). "Human emotion and memory: Interactions of the amygdala and hippocampal complex". Current Opinion in ... Among American subjects, it has been found that Black women have later memories than Black males or White females. Black ...
... does not prolong QTc in a thorough QT/QTc study in healthy subjects. Dixon R, Job S, Oliver R, Tompson D, Wright JG ... A receptor-mediated neurotransmission in rat amygdala, suggest that a GABAergic mechanism may also be involved. It appears ... Lamotrigine does not prolong QT/QTc in TQT studies in healthy subjects. ... "Lamotrigine reduces spontaneous and evoked GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in the basolateral amygdala: ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder
The amygdala is responsible for threat detection and the conditioned and unconditioned fear responses that are carried out as a ... and healthy control subjects". Biological Psychiatry. 54 (12): 1382-8. doi:10.1016/S0006-3223(03)00571-7. PMID 14675802.. ... The amygdala is strongly involved in forming emotional memories, especially fear-related memories. During high stress, the ... The amygdalocentric model of PTSD proposes that the amygdala is very much aroused and insufficiently controlled by the medial ...
This is a result of both increased amygdala activity and a disconnect between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex, which ... The process model contends that each of these four points in the emotion generation process can be subjected to regulation. ... Studies have shown that sleep, specifically REM sleep, down-regulates reactivity of the amygdala, a brain structure known to be ... Two additional brain structures that have been found to contribute are the amygdala and the anterior cingulate cortex. Each of ...
During the 1960s and 1970s, psychosurgery became the subject of increasing public concern and debate, culminating in the US ... Amygdalotomy, which targets the amygdala, was developed as a treatment for aggression by Hideki Narabayashi in 1961 and is ... The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in 1977 endorsed the ... which involves structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus, certain thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, prefrontal and ...
LaBerge's subjects experienced their lucid dream while in a state of REM, which critics felt may mean that the subjects are ... While maintaining this balance, the amygdala and parahippocampal cortex might be less intensely activated. To continue the ... The subjects then reported the diminishment of their nightmare prevalence from 2-3 times a week to 2-3 times per month. ... In a further study by Stephen LaBerge, four subjects were compared either singing while dreaming or counting while dreaming. ...
Generalized anxiety disorder
This is primarily because women are more likely than men to live in poverty, be subject to discrimination, and be sexually and ... Another difference is that the amygdala areas have decreased connectivity with the insula and cingulate areas that control ... Another area, the adjacent central nucleus of the amygdala, controls species-specific fear responses in its connections to the ... Generalized anxiety disorder has been linked to disrupted functional connectivity of the amygdala and its processing of fear ...
One might say that before conditioning, the subject is surprised by the US. However, after conditioning, the subject is no ... It appears that other regions of the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex, contribute to the ... Latent inhibition might happen because a subject stops focusing on a CS that is seen frequently before it is paired with a US. ... For example, sexual arousal has been conditioned in human subjects by pairing a stimulus like a picture of a jar of pennies ...
In one experiment, subjects were asked to write down their dreams in a diary. This prevented the selective memory effect, and ... including the amygdala and hippocampus, become active. The brain synthesizes and interprets these activities; for example, ... When subjects were asked to recall the dreams they had read, they remembered more of the successful predictions than ... Dream reports can be reported from normal subjects 50% of the time when they are awakened prior to the end of the first REM ...
Chapman L. J.; Chapman J. P.; Kwapil T. R.; Eckblad M.; Zinser M. C. (1994). "Putatively psychosis-prone subjects 10 years ... amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), hypothalamus, and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Neuroimaging studies in humans ... meaning that they feel more overwhelmed or helpless in response to a stressful event compared to control subjects who ...
Often, physiological psychologists examine the effects that they study in infrahuman subjects using surgical or invasive ... are interested in why we may fear spiders and physiologists may be interested in the input/output system of the amygdala. A ... Psychophysiology at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Psychophysiologists generally study the psychological/physiological link in intact human subjects. While early ...
Though these collections of voxels do not represent the same tonal arrangements between subjects or within subjects over ... RMPFC is a subsection of the medial prefrontal cortex, which projects to many diverse areas including the amygdala, and is ... When subjects are exposed to three or four cycles of a 40 hertz click, an abnormal spike appears in the EEG data, which is not ... In a 2000 study by Kneif and colleagues, subjects were presented with eight musical notes to well-known tunes, such as Yankee ...
Subjects with ADHD exhibit less activation of the medial prefrontal cortex than healthy controls even when they succeed in such ... The study of executive function in Parkinson's disease suggests subcortical areas such as the amygdala, hippocampus and basal ... For example, in a typical study, Liu and coworkers presented subjects with arrays of dots moving to the left or right, ... Early results with structural MRI show thinning of the cerebral cortex in ADHD subjects compared with age-matched controls in ...
Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor
RTI-112 is another good example of the compound becoming less likely to be self-administered by the test subject in the case of ... amygdala, prefrontal cortex and other forebrain structures. There are several groups of substances that activate the reward ... Depressed subjects are prone to smoking, substance abuse, eating disorders, obesity, high blood pressure, pathological gambling ...
The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section, ... a prefrontal amygdala disconnect". Current Biology. 17 (20): R877-R878. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.007. PMID 17956744. S2CID ... Under one interrogation technique, a subject might be kept awake for several days and when finally allowed to fall asleep, ... which requires the subject to press a button in response to a light at random intervals. Failure to press the button in ...
The amygdala is suspected of processing people's strong reactions to personal space violations since these are absent in those ... Film analyst Louis Giannetti has maintained that, in general, the greater the distance between the camera and the subject (in ... First, it is activated by such proximity, and second, in those with complete bilateral damage to their amygdala, such as ... Further, our findings are consistent with those in monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions, who stay within closer proximity to ...
ഹിപ്പോകാംപസ് - വിക്കിപീഡിയ
Category:Stub-Class neuroscience articles
... of sixty-three healthy subjects. Using fMRI EI was measured in correlation with left insular activity. The subjects were shown ... In addition, the anterior insula itself projects to the amygdala. One study on rhesus monkeys revealed widespread reciprocal ... such as the amygdala, the ventral striatum, and the orbitofrontal cortex, as well as to motor cortices. ... although this view is not represented in any modern research or reviews of the subject. ...
... females show increased amygdala activity in response to threatening scenes; however, males do not show increased amygdala ... Subjects who were told they were interacting with a computer showed no such reaction, leading to the conclusion that oxytocin ... Nasally administered oxytocin has been reported to reduce fear, possibly by inhibiting the amygdala (which is thought to be ... Estrogen has been shown to stimulate the release of oxytocin from the hypothalamus and promote receptor binding in the amygdala ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
Typical MRI studies scan a few different subjects. To integrate the results across subjects, one possibility is to use a common ... Initial results show there is more inflow than consumption of glucose in regions such as the amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus ... Subjects may move their heads during that time, and this head motion needs to be corrected for. So does drift in the baseline ... They also often train subjects how to respond or react in a trial training session prior to the scanning one. ...
José Manuel Rodríguez Delgado
This allowed the subject of the experiment full freedom of movement while allowing the experimenter to control the experiment. ... According to Rodríguez Delgado, "Stimulation of different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced ... This early equipment, while not allowing for a free range of movement, was also the cause of infection in many subjects. ... to a computer that detected the brain signal called a spindle which was emitted by her part of the brain called the amygdala. ...
Fusiform face area
Infant vision involves only light and dark recognition, recognizing only major features of the face, activating the amygdala. ... even in cases where they could easily be identified by normal subjects. This is taken as evidence that the fusiform face ... These disruptions and emotions are first processed in the amygdala and later transmitted to the FFA for facial recognition. ... "A Developmental Examination of Amygdala Response to Facial Expressions". Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 20 (9): 1565-82. ...
Body Language and the Brain: How We Read the Unspoken Signs? | Brain Blogger
Levels of excitement have a crucial role in activation of the amygdala, a part of the brain playing an important role in the ... As the neuroscience on the subject advances, we will most certainly learn much more about this fascinating topic. ... It has been shown that brain regions, such as the amygdala, may be activated when emotional stimuli (such as fear) are masked ... In addition, there is a positive correlation between amygdala activation and modulation of EBA and FBA areas. ...
Browsing Dark-eyed Junco Research by Subject "sexually dimorphic gene expression, Nucleus Taeniae, Medial Amygdala, dark-eyed...
Browsing Ketterson / Nolan Research Group by Subject "sexually dimorphic gene expression, Nucleus Taeniae, Medial Amygdala,...
Fluoxetine Facilitates Fear Extinction Through Amygdala Endocannabinoids | Neuropsychopharmacology
Taken together, these findings reveal a novel, obligatory role for amygdala eCBs in the proextinction effects of a major ... Subjects. Subjects were male 8- to 12-week-old 129S1/Sv1mJ (S1) mice obtained from The Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME). ... Fluoxetine Effects on Amygdala FAAH Activity. To examine the effects of fluoxetine on amygdala FAAH activity, mice were treated ... and excitatory currents at lateral amygdala (LA) synapses, alters a range of amygdala plasticity-related proteins, including ...
Hippocampal, but not amygdala, activity at encoding correlates with long-term, free recall of nonemotional information | PNAS
Subjects were positioned by using laser guidance, and a thermosetting plastic face mask was used to hold each subjects head ... substantial evidence from animal studies and recent studies involving human subjects suggest a specific role for the amygdala ... Presentation of an audio tape to each subject began 30-60 sec after the subject was injected with 5 millicuries of 18 ... Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from PNAS Message Body (Your Name) thought you would like to see the PNAS ...
Comparison of the Effects of Bilateral Orbital Prefrontal Cortex Lesions and Amygdala Lesions on Emotional Responses in Rhesus...
Subjects. These were the same subjects as in experiment 1, with the exception that, after completing experiment 1, one monkey ... Left amygdala damage could not be assessed for one case (Amyg-2), so the estimates are based on seven of the eight amygdalas in ... We estimate the lesion to include 91.5% of the amygdala bilaterally (range, 85.2-100). Each of the monkeys with amygdala ... The extent of amygdala damage was evaluated from T2-weighted scans obtained within 12 d of surgery, and the extent of orbital ...
Reward Learning Requires Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in the Central Amygdala | Journal of Neuroscience
... when the entire amygdala was subjected to the immunoblot analysis (two-way ANOVA [group × gel], group effect: F(1,9) = 6.47, p ... β-DG cleavage was analyzed in the entire amygdala as well as in the central amygdala (CeA) alone after either appetitive or ... increased levels of β-DG were observed only in mice subjected to place preference learning but not in mice subjected to place ... 2007) The amygdala, reward and emotion. Trends Cogn Sci 11:489-497, doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.013, pmid:17988930. ...
Frontiers | Updating appetitive memory during reconsolidation window: critical role of cue-directed behavior and amygdala...
Since conditioned orienting is mediated by the amygdala central nucleus (CeA), our final experiment examined the CeAs role in ... Since conditioned orienting is mediated by the amygdala central nucleus (CeA), our final experiment examined the CeAs role in ... For Experiment 2, subjects were adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Harlan), weighing 250-275 g upon arrival and were housed in a ... The role of amygdala-ventral striatal subsystems. Ann. N Y Acad. Sci. 877, 412-438. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.1999.tb09280.x ...
Frontiers | Medial Amygdala Lesions Selectively Block Aversive Pavlovian-Instrumental Transfer in Rats | Frontiers in...
poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al 2013, Learning and Memory). This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA) ... poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al 2013, Learning and Memory). This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA) ... These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and ... basal and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. ...
Alterations in volumes and MRI features of amygdala in Chinese autistic preschoolers associated with social and behavioral...
To examine the amygdala volume in 2-5-year-old preschool children with autism and explore the relationship between amygdala ... On the other hand, in comparison to those age-matched subjects in Western countries, reduced amygdala volumes are observed in ... The right amygdala volume average was 1.088 ± 0.38 cm3, while that of the left amygdala was 1.04 ± 0.41 cm3, without any ... Morphological comparison of amygdala in the two groups. The transverse diameter of the amygdala in the control group (maximum ...
Smaller amygdala is associated with anxiety in patients with panic disorder - Hayano - 2009 - Psychiatry and Clinical...
... amygdala, hippocampus). As a follow-up test, we performed a two-way anova (between-subject factor: group; within-subject factor ... There was no significant correlation between the volume of the left amygdala and STAI-S score in HC subjects (r = 0.072, P = ... PD patients had smaller amygdala (left, P = 0.029; right, P = 0.005), compared with HC subjects. There were no group difference ... Table 1. Subject details. Variable. Panic disorder patients (n = 27). Healthy comparison subjects (n = 30). t-test. ...
The Size and Connectivity of the Amygdala Predicts Anxiety | Psychology Today
A study found that the larger the amygdala, the greater the amount of anxiety a child was experiencing. The same is true for ... A Larger Amygdala Can Equate to Higher Anxiety in Childhood. The amygdala is an evolutionarily primitive part of the brain ... The Size and Connectivity of the Amygdala Predicts Anxiety A larger amygdala is linked to a higher anxiety risk in children and ... The basolateral amygdala is the specific region that was larger in children with higher anxiety. This is an evolutionarily ...
Chronic Ethanol Differentially Modulates Glutamate Release from Dorsal and Ventral Prefrontal Cortical Inputs onto Rat...
Jhang J, Lee H, Kang MS, Lee H-S, Park H, Han J-H (2018) Anterior cingulate cortex and its input to the basolateral amygdala ... Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from eNeuro ... Likhtik E, Pelletier JG, Paz R, Paré D (2005) Prefrontal control of the amygdala. J Neurosci 25:7429-7437. doi:10.1523/ ... Janak PH, Tye KM (2015) From circuits to behaviour in the amygdala. Nature 517:284-292. doi:10.1038/nature14188 pmid:25592533 ...
Items where Subject is "amygdala" - CSHL Scientific Digital Repository
Items where Subject is "amygdala" Up a level. Export as ASCII Citation. BibTeX. Check URLs. Dublin Core. EP3 XML. EndNote. ... The central amygdala controls learning in the lateral amygdala. Nat Neurosci, 20 (12). pp. 1680-1685. ISSN 1097-6256 ... Schiff, H., Bouhuis, A. L., Yu, K., Penzo, M. A., Li, H., He, M., Li, B. (February 2018) An insula-central amygdala circuit for ... Yu, K., Garcia da Silva, P., Albeanu, D. F., Li, B. (June 2016) Central Amygdala Somatostatin Neurons Gate Passive and Active ...
Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain
Cs = subject + object It is a logical necessity. My suggestion is that the subject is the amygdala and the object is any needed ... Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Roger ... Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain Bruno Marchal. * *Re: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triu... Roger Clough ... 31 Subject: Re: The self (the amygdala) and the triune brain On 11 Sep 2012, at 13:05, Roger Clough wrote: The self (the ...
PLOS ONE: Activity Dependent Protein Degradation Is Critical for the Formation and Stability of Fear Memory in the Amygdala
Here we provide the first evidence that protein degradation through the UPS is critically engaged at amygdala synapses during ... Fear conditioning results in NMDA-dependent increases in degradation-specific polyubiquitination in the amygdala, targeting ... is a major regulator of synaptic plasticity necessary for the formation and stability of long-term memories at amygdala ... However, its role in memory formation in the amygdala, a site critical for the formation of fear memories, currently remains ...
Subject Check one or more subjects to show results from those subjects only. * Amygdala (2). ... Threat-induced anxiety during goal pursuit disrupts amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in posttraumatic stress disorder * ... Rights & permissionsfor article Threat-induced anxiety during goal pursuit disrupts amygdala-prefrontal cortex connectivity in ... Altered Resting-State Functional Connectivity of Basolateral and Centromedial Amygdala Complexes in Posttraumatic Stress ...
Influence of the fusiform gyrus on amygdala response to emotional faces in the non-clinical range of social anxiety |...
Influence of the fusiform gyrus on amygdala response to emotional faces in the non-clinical range of social anxiety - Volume 39 ... Functional imaging has demonstrated an increase in amygdala response to emotional faces in subjects with social anxiety. ... Birbaumer, N, Grodd, W, Diedrich, O, Klose, U, Erb, M, Lotze, M, Schneider, F, Weiss, U, Flor, H (1998). fMRI reveals amygdala ... Rauch, SL, Whalen, PJ, Shin, LM, McInerney, SC, Macklin, ML, Lasko, NB, Orr, SP, Pitman, RK (2000). Exaggerated amygdala ...
Brain stimulation enhances long-term memory for first time
... direct stimulation of the human amygdala, which is involved in memory and emotion, has been shown to improve long-term memory. ... Specifically, the researchers targeted the amygdala. The amygdala is associated with both memory and emotion, making it a prime ... It offers a unique opportunity to experiment; the subjects must remain fully awake while the neurosurgeons do their work. ... "We chose the amygdala because of decades of research in rodents, showing that it interacts with several other memory structures ...
Direct electrical stimulation of the amygdala enhances declarative memory in humans | PNAS
Direct electrical stimulation of the amygdala enhances declarative memory in humans Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... 2 also shows the results of a subsequent awareness test in which subjects were asked to decide if amygdala stimulation had been ... Although the amygdalas role in emotional memory has been well established, the current findings suggest that the amygdala can ... Notably, memory enhancement occurred broadly among the majority of subjects tested, even in subjects with baseline memory ...
Detecting Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography | Protocol
Detecting Amygdala Activity with Magnetoencephalography | Protocol
This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will ... Email Subject:*. Email Message (tell why you need JoVE):*. We use/store this info to ensure you have proper access and that ... This article describes how to record amygdala activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG). In addition this article will ... describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. It will cover 3 topics: ...
Photography - Quimby's
Cognitive and emotional consequences of binge drinking: role of amygdala and prefrontal cortex | Philosophical Transactions of...
Subjects commit this type of error when, in the process of searching through a spatial array of boxes to collect tokens hidden ... 6. Effects of ethanol withdrawal on amygdala function. Consistent with altered amygdala function, repeated experience of ... The amygdala is connected with many brain structures, and the extent to which the effects of repeated withdrawal are due to ... Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences ...
Ian P. Cook | RAND
Volumetric gray matter measures of amygdala and accumbens in childhood overweight/obesity
Methods Fifty-one Caucasian young subjects (32 females; mean age: 13.8±1.9, range: 10.2-16.5 years) were included. Subjects ... amygdala, accumbens, caudate, putamen), as well as whole-brain and regional VBM. Results The volumes of accumbens and amygdala ... Voxel-based GM mass also showed significant negative correlation with zBMI when investigated in the predefined amygdala region ... Amygdala Is the Subject Area "Amygdala" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
The Amygdala Diaries | Massachusetts Council on Family Mediation
Competitive segmentation of the hippocampus and the amygdala from MRI data: validation on young healthy controls and Alzheimer...
For 8 young healthy subjects the mean volume error was 7% for Hc and 11% for Am, the overlap: 84% for Hc and 83% for Am, the ... The hippocampus (Hc) and the amygdala (Am) are two cerebral structures that play a central role in main cognitive processes. ... The approach is designed to perform well on data from diseased subjects. The segmentation is initialized by extracting a ... Competitive segmentation of the hippocampus and the amygdala from MRI data: validation on young healthy controls and ...
Physiology and Behaviour of Animal Suffering | Animal Welfare' Ethics & Law | Veterinary Medicine | Subjects | Wiley
IBEB | Synchronization of intrinsic 0.1-Hz blood-oxygen-level-dependent oscillations in amygdala and prefrontal cortex in...
Serotonin-related genotypes but not diagnosis of social anxiety disorder predict amygdala responsiveness to angry faces.
Prefrontal cortexRight amygdalaHuman amygdalaAlmond-shapedFMRIStimuliMonkeys with amygdala lesionsBasolateral amygdala is requiredFearFunctionalDamage to the amygdalaVolume of the amygdalaLesions of the amygdalaComplex of the amygdalaBilateral amygdala lesionsNeuronsResponsesLateralNucleiReactivityConnectivityRoleCortexBehaviorsVolumetricNeuroscienceAffectiveHippocampalLimbic SystemHumansDeclarative memoryVolumesBehaviorPrelimbicStimulationEmotional facesAlterationsAutismModulationComplete bilateralCentralSubcorticalMammalian
- The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal, and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. (frontiersin.org)
- The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) have strong reciprocal connectivity. (eneuro.org)
- Accumulating evidence suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and its projections to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) bidirectionally modulate fear-related behaviors. (eneuro.org)
- We hypothesized that impaired fear extinction in serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/- ) rats is related to changes in DNA (de) methylation and c-Fos expression in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and/or amygdala. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Recent studies have further suggested that the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) critically interact during fear conditioning ( 4 , 13 - 15 ). (sciencemag.org)
- The amygdala is in dialogue with other areas of the brain, most notably the ventral prefrontal cortex (VPFC), which, via two networks, plays a role in modulating the limbic response. (healthcentral.com)
- A magnetic resonance imaging study of hippocampal, amygdala and subgenual prefrontal cortex volumes in major depression subtypes: melancholic versus psychotic depression. (semanticscholar.org)
- Intra-amygdala, but neither intra-infralimbic prefrontal cortex nor intra-dorsohippocampal infusion of SB334867 enhanced fear extinction. (nih.gov)
- These regions were the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, and basolateral amygdala, all of which are implicated in depression . (medicalnewstoday.com)
- No correlation was found between activity of either the left or right amygdala and recall. (pnas.org)
- The right amygdala volume average was 1.088 ± 0.38 cm 3 , while that of the left amygdala was 1.04 ± 0.41 cm 3 , without any statistically significant difference (t = 0.533, p = 0.596) in the autism group. (springer.com)
- the autism group had a significantly larger right and left amygdala volumes as compared to the age-matched typically developing group with a significant positive correlation between age and right amygdala volume (r = 0.406, p = 0.01). (springer.com)
- A relationship between age and right amygdala volume in the preschool children with autism was established. (springer.com)
- VBM showed that structural alteration in the panic disorder group occurred on the corticomedial nuclear group within the right amygdala (coordinates [x,y,z (mm)]: [26,−6,− Z score = 3.92, family-wise error-corrected P = 0.002). (wiley.com)
- Furthermore, various different chapters in this thesis present evidence that the left amygdala appears to be more specialised for responses to more socially salient stimuli and the right amygdala appears to be more responsive to threat related stimuli indicating that key theoretical models of emotion (the dual processing model, and the salience detection model) should be integrated into one cohesive model of emotion processing. (surrey.ac.uk)
- Adolescents, relative to adults, demonstrated enhanced activity in the right amygdala during encoding of positive pictures that were later recalled compared to not recalled. (nih.gov)
- The findings of preferential activity within the adolescent right amygdala during successful encoding of positive pictures may have implications for the increased reward and novelty seeking behavior, as well as elevated rates of psychopathology, observed during this distinct developmental period. (nih.gov)
- More precisely, subiculum and cornu ammonis (CA) 1 subregions of bilateral hippocampus, lateral (LA) and basolateral ventromedial (BLVM) of left amygdala and LA, BLVM, central (CE), amygdalostriatal transition area (ASTR), anterior cortical (ACO) and anterior amygdaloid area (AAA) of right amygdala were demonstrated prone to atrophy. (springer.com)
- 1998). Metabolic rate in the right amygdala predicts negative affect in depressed patients. (springer.com)
- Here we show that brief electrical stimulation to the human amygdala can enhance declarative memory for specific images of neutral objects without eliciting a subjective emotional response, likely by engaging other memory-related brain regions. (pnas.org)
- The results show the human amygdala has a general capacity to initiate enhancement of specific declarative memories rather than a narrower role limited to indirectly mediating emotional effects on memory. (pnas.org)
- One physically small but stealthy and strong obstacle is the human amygdala. (mcfm.org)
- Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. (springer.com)
- Amygdalae are almond-shaped organs in the left and right hemispheres of our brains that can subconsciously derail rational negotiation. (mcfm.org)
- Something strange is going on in the amygdala - an almond-shaped structure deep in the human brain - among people with autism. (eurekalert.org)
- The structure, the amygdala-a pair of almond-shaped regions located in the medial temporal lobes-was previously known to process strong negative emotions, such as anger and fear, and is considered the seat of emotion in the brain. (caltech.edu)
- When thinking happy thoughts the amygdala, an almond-shaped piece of the midbrain, went haywire, as did the rostral anterior cingulate in the frontal cortex, both of which are associated with emotion processing and are disrupted in many cases of depression. (scientificamerican.com)
- They determined that the almond-shaped amygdala was between 13 and 23 percent smaller by volume in addicts than it was in the control subjects. (scientificamerican.com)
- Twenty-two normal subjects showing a wide range in social anxiety scores were examined using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the processing of happy and fearful faces. (cambridge.org)
- Through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), studies have shown that the right ventral tegmental area (VTA) is stimulated when subjects are shown a picture of their beloved. (wikipedia.org)
- Adolphs and colleagues then used a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner to examine the activation of the amygdala in a separate group of healthy subjects who were told when an experimenter was either in close proximity or far away from them. (caltech.edu)
- METHODS: We compared 70 unmedicated MDD-patients with 51 matched healthy controls at baseline, regarding erythrocyte membrane omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA), inflammation [serum (high-sensitivity) C-reactive protein (CRP)], and in a subgroup amygdala-reactivity to emotional faces using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) (N=42). (ru.nl)
- Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings support this model by demonstrating abnormalities across subcortical/limbic and cortical structures, notably the amygdala and medial PFC (mPFC)( 3 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Real-time fMRI neurofeedback (rtfMRI-nf) is a promising tool for enhancing emotion regulation capability of subjects and for the potential alleviation of neuropsychiatric disorders. (hindawi.com)
- Subjects inside an fMRI scanner were asked to imagine positive events (such as birthday parties) or negative events (such as funerals). (scientificamerican.com)
- If the PFo and the amygdala worked together to support responses in the presence of emotionally charged stimuli, we would predict similar effects of PFo and amygdala lesions. (jneurosci.org)
- The role of the amygdala in recognition of danger is well established for visual stimuli such as faces. (caltech.edu)
- The painful heat stimuli were administered at an individually-set temperature threshold for each subject. (elsevier.com)
- However, the thermal stimuli inhibited the activation of the amygdala in these patients and also in healthy controls, presumably suppressing emotional reactivity. (elsevier.com)
- While studies among adults implicate the amygdala and interconnecting brain regions in encoding emotional stimuli, few studies have examined whether developmental changes occur within this emotional-memory network during adolescence. (nih.gov)
- In contrast to salt-resistant subjects, salt-sensitive subjects showed significantly enhanced startle amplitudes under negative stimuli and diminished amplitudes under positive stimuli. (ahajournals.org)
- The amygdala is thought to be critically involved in the regulation of anxiety-like behaviors, with the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) playing an essential role in determining the saliency of external stimuli and in the production of appropriate behavioral responses ( LeDoux, 1996 ). (aspetjournals.org)
Monkeys with amygdala lesions2
- Unlike monkeys with amygdala lesions, however, monkeys with PFo lesions displayed more mild aggression than controls in the presence of a human intruder. (jneurosci.org)
- From their knowledge of the literature, however, the researchers knew that monkeys with amygdala lesions preferred to stay in closer proximity to other monkeys and humans than did healthy monkeys. (caltech.edu)
Basolateral amygdala is required1
- In addition this article will describe how to conduct trace fear conditioning without awareness, a task that activates the amygdala. (jove.com)
- The goal of the present study was to assess the specific role of the amygdala in the recognition of fear from music. (caltech.edu)
- Impaired fear extinction in serotonin transporter knockout rats is associated with increased 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in the amygdala. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 5-HTT-/- and 5-HTT+/+ rats were subjected to fear extinction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- In the central nucleus of the amygdala, c-Fos immunoreactivity was increased in the fear extinction group compared to the no-fear extinction group, regardless of genotype. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- 5-hmC levels were unaltered in the PFC, but reduced in the amygdala of nonextinction 5-HTT-/- rats compared to nonextinction wild-type rats, which caught up to wild-type levels during fear extinction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Many studies have shown the key role played by the mammalian amygdaloid circuits in aversive memory, and most of them have considered the participation of the rodent amygdala in fear conditioning (1-3). (scielo.br)
- Studies that analyze molecular mechanisms underlying the amygdala-dependent learning and memory processes indicate that immediate-early gene expression [e.g., c-fos and zif268 ( zenk )] is increased in the nuclei of the amygdala following fear conditioning (3,11). (scielo.br)
- The amygdala is strongly linked to emotional processing, in particular fear-related emotions. (eurekalert.org)
- Although much has been learned about the role of the amygdala in Pavlovian fear conditioning, relatively little is known about an involvement of this structure in more complex aversive learning, such as acquisition of an active avoidance reaction. (elsevier.com)
- However, APV injection led to impaired retention of contextual fear when tested 48 h later, along with an attenuation of c-Fos expression in the amygdala. (elsevier.com)
- However, overnight deprivation from smoking was associated with a significantly lowered amygdala response to fear, an effect that was probabilistically mapped to the basolateral amygdala. (elsevier.com)
- It is now well accepted that the amygdala plays a central role in both learned and innate fear behaviors ( 9 - 12 ). (sciencemag.org)
- SM has difficulty recognizing fear in the faces of others, and in judging the trustworthiness of someone, two consequences of amygdala lesions that Adolphs and colleagues published in prior studies. (caltech.edu)
- Their amygdalas, which is involved in fear and aggression, was about 7 percent more minuscule. (washingtonpost.com)
- In particular, rodent studies have demonstrated that the lateral/basolateral amygdaloid subdivisions (BLA), the primary site for cortical and thalamic inputs into the amygdala, play a central role in establishing amygdala-dependent anxiety/fear responses. (aspetjournals.org)
- In earlier studies, Michael Davis, PhD, at Emory University found that a receptor for a particular protein called the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in a brain region called the amygdala is critical for the extinction of conditioned fear. (sfn.org)
- This reduction of fear was maintained when the subjects encountered similar real-world situations. (sfn.org)
- Briefly flash up the face of someone of a different race (compared with a same-race face) and, on average, there is preferential activation of the amygdala, a brain region associated with fear, anxiety, and aggression. (nautil.us)
- To explain the functional organization of the amygdala, Wurtz and Olds (1963) , taking into consideration the results of self-stimulation studies, proposed that the dorsomedial amygdala acts as a rewarding, and basolateral as a punishing, system. (jneurosci.org)
- Qin used magnetic resonance imaging to measure the size of the various subregions of the amygdala and functional MRI to measure the connectivity of those regions to other areas of the brain. (psychologytoday.com)
- The basolateral amygdala had stronger functional connections with multiple areas of the neocortex in children with higher anxiety levels," Qin said. (psychologytoday.com)
- Functional imaging has demonstrated an increase in amygdala response to emotional faces in subjects with social anxiety. (cambridge.org)
- In this study, we evaluated the expression of the Zenk protein within the nucleus taeniae of the pigeon's amygdala (TnA) after training in a classical aversive conditioning, in order to improve our understanding of its functional role in birds. (scielo.br)
- Also, the behavioral consequences of TnA lesions in pigeons are consistent with the generally accepted role of the amygdala in learning, social behavior and in affective states (7,10), but several aspects of the functional organization of the TnA still remain unclear. (scielo.br)
- The amygdala: A functional analysis (2nd ed. (springer.com)
- The possibility that functional interaction of neocortical and hypothalamic signals occurs in the amygdala is proved and an active inhibitory process is suggested. (sciencemag.org)
- This allows us to reject the strong claim that the amygdala is neither a structural nor a functional unit, and demonstrates the importance of evolutionary analysis in resolving such issues in systems neuroscience. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
Damage to the amygdala1
- The scientists, led by Ralph Adolphs, Bren Professor of Psychology and Neuroscience and professor of biology and postdoctoral scholar Daniel P. Kennedy, were able to make this link with the help of a unique patient, a 42-year-old woman known as SM, who has extensive damage to the amygdala on both sides of her brain. (caltech.edu)
Volume of the amygdala1
Lesions of the amygdala1
Complex of the amygdala2
- It is unknown how aging impacts local oscillatory activity within the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA). (eneuro.org)
- Here, we examined how age impacts local circuit rhythmicity in the basolateral complex of the amygdala (BLA) during performance of discrimination learning and decision-making tasks. (eneuro.org)
Bilateral amygdala lesions2
- 2001 ) found that monkeys with bilateral amygdala lesions displayed fewer defensive behaviors in the presence of a snake but not in response to a human observer. (jneurosci.org)
- Patient SM, a woman with complete bilateral amygdala lesions (red), preferred to stand close to the experimenter (black). (caltech.edu)
- What we are seeing is hyperexcitability or overarousal of the amygdala, which suggests that neurons in the amygdala are firing more than expected," said Kleinhans, who is associated with the UW Autism Center. (eurekalert.org)
- When you breathe in, we discovered you are stimulating neurons in the olfactory cortex, amygdala and hippocampus, all across the limbic system. (eurekalert.org)
- A large population of immature neurons is present in the ventro-medial portion of the adult primate amygdala, a region that receives substantial direct projections from the hippocampal formation. (elsevier.com)
- Here, we show the effects of neonatal (n = 8) and adult (n = 6) hippocam-pal lesions on the populations of mature and immature neurons in the paralaminar, lateral, and basal nuclei of the adult monkey amygdala. (elsevier.com)
- For comparison, we also assessed the responses of rhesus monkeys with selective amygdala lesions on these same tasks. (jneurosci.org)
- Monkeys with PFo lesions, like those with amygdala lesions, displayed blunted emotional responses to the fake snake. (jneurosci.org)
- Relevant interactions among the emotional face-processing stages exist in the non-clinical range of social anxiety that may ultimately attenuate amygdala responses. (cambridge.org)
- Evoked responses recorded from the amygdala of the cat after sequentially pairing neocortical and hypothalamizic stimulation showed consistent suippression or depression of the response evoked by the test shocks, regardless of whether the cortical or subcortical site received the preceding conditioning shock. (sciencemag.org)
- Our results show no difference in amygdala responses to faces between nonsmokers and satiated smokers. (elsevier.com)
- The amygdala is a small structure in the mid-brain responsible for generating fight-or-flight responses. (healthcentral.com)
- In nonhuman primates, the amygdala appears to be critical for generating appropriate behavioral responses in emotionally salient contexts. (elsevier.com)
- We simultaneously recorded lateral amygdala (LA) and prelimbic (PL) area neuronal activities as rats exited a safe nest to search for food in an open space before, during, and after encountering a "predator" robot programmed to surge from afar. (sciencemag.org)
- Because lateral/basolateral amygdala (BLA) GABA A receptors help regulate anxiety-like behaviors, we have tested the hypothesis that differences in receptor function/expression may be related to strain-specific differences in experimentally measured anxiety. (aspetjournals.org)
- Bipolar patients exhibited reduced medial PFC (mPFC) rGBC, increased amygdala-MPFC connectivity, and reduced connectivity between amygdala and dorso-lateral PFC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Multivariate data decomposition applied to local field potentials recorded from the primate amygdala revealed simultaneously active and functionally distinct networks, defined by anatomical boundaries between the nuclei. (elifesciences.org)
- The nucleus taeniae of the amygdala (TnA) and the subpallial amygdaloid nuclei are considered to be comparable to the mammalian medial amygdala (6,7). (scielo.br)
- Nevertheless, it is unclear to what extent visual areas processing faces influence amygdala reactivity in different socially anxious individuals. (cambridge.org)
- We suggest that aberrant amygdala reactivity in overnight-deprived smokers may reflect a pre-existing vulnerability to smoking and/or increase the risk of smoking relapse after a cessation attempt. (elsevier.com)
- We studied reactivity to mental stress and startle modulation in 14 salt-sensitive healthy white male students and 14 salt-resistant control subjects, who were well matched for age, body mass index, physical fitness, and family history of hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
- However, it is not clear whether the enhanced reactivity of salt-sensitive subjects originates in peripheral factors, such as an impaired regulation of adrenoreceptor sensitivity, 7 endothelial factors, 8 or volume expansion, 9 or through central nervous factors, as suggested by the enhanced anxiety and irritability observed in salt-sensitive subjects. (ahajournals.org)
- Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with alterations in fatty acid metabolism, (neuro)inflammation and amygdala-reactivity. (ru.nl)
- PURPOSE: To test (I) alterations in (neuro)inflammation and its associations with fatty acid metabolism and amygdala-reactivity in MDD-patients compared to controls, and (II) whether these alterations are associated with prospective paroxetine response. (ru.nl)
- CONCLUSION: Higher observed CRP and AA, their mutual association, and relation with amygdala-reactivity, are corroborative with a role for (neuro)inflammation in MDD. (ru.nl)
- Studies of laboratory animals placed in an environment causing chronic stress have determined that the animals' amygdalae grew additional synapses and that this synaptic connectivity resulted in chronic anxiety. (psychologytoday.com)
- Menon added that they were surprised that alterations to the structure and connectivity of the amygdala were so significant in the children with higher levels of anxiety, given both the young age of the children and the fact that their anxiety levels were still too low to be considered clinical. (psychologytoday.com)
- We also independently tested connectivity between anatomically-defined amygdala and PFC. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Thus, a picture begins to emerge of disruptions in the brain transitioning into adulthood, leading to decreased connectivity between the VPFC and the areas it is meant to modulate, especially the amygdala. (healthcentral.com)
- The authors also note that an over-active amygdala and a failure in connectivity is hardly exclusive to bipolar. (healthcentral.com)
- In contrast, substantial evidence suggests a more selective role for the amygdala in declarative memory formation, namely, modulation of memory storage for emotionally arousing events ( 5 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- These studies were intended to inform the role of the PFo and the amygdala, and their potential interaction, in response selection. (jneurosci.org)
- Since conditioned orienting is mediated by the amygdala central nucleus (CeA), our final experiment examined the CeA's role in the retrieval-extinction process. (frontiersin.org)
- Of note, the smaller subregion in the amygdala estimated on VBM could correspond to the corticomedial nuclear group including the central nucleus, which may play a crucial role in panic attack. (wiley.com)
- We chose the amygdala because of decades of research in rodents, showing that it interacts with several other memory structures in a modulatory role. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Past studies have pointed to a central role for the amygdala in mediating this endogenous memory enhancement. (pnas.org)
- 3.8 The Role of the Amygdala. (wiley.com)
- The hippocampus ( Hc ) and the amygdala ( Am ) are two cerebral structures that play a central role in main cognitive processes. (spie.org)
- Neuroimaging studies indicated depression could be a risk factor for cognitive control deficits, and amygdala-related circuitry may play a critical role in this abnormal interaction. (springer.com)
- Previous studies have suggested that the basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays an important role in conditioned context-induced retrieval of morphine withdrawal memory. (sciencemag.org)
- SM is unique, because she is one of only a handful of individuals in the world with such a clear bilateral lesion of the amygdala, which gives us an opportunity to study the role of the amygdala in humans , " says Kennedy, the lead author of the new report. (caltech.edu)
- They also help to expand our understanding of the role of the amygdala in real-world social interactions. (caltech.edu)
- Converging lines of behavioral and pharmacological evidence suggest that GABAergic synapses in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) may play an integral role in mediating the anxiolytic effects of ethanol (EtOH). (aspetjournals.org)
- The amygdala is widely recognized to play a central role in emotional processing. (elsevier.com)
- Despite a large literature documenting the role of the amygdala in emotional processing in adult rhesus macaques, little research has assessed the role of the amygdala across the macaque neurodevelopmental trajectory. (elsevier.com)
- The amygdala plays a central role in emotional learning. (eneuro.org)
- Neuronal oscillations in the amygdala, hippocampus, and perirhinal cortex during this next-day memory test indicated that a neural correlate of the memory enhancement was increased theta and gamma oscillatory interactions between these regions, consistent with the idea that the amygdala prioritizes consolidation by engaging other memory regions. (pnas.org)
- Neuroscience has shown that these people may be victims of an over- developed amygdala or an underdeveloped or damaged pre-frontal cortex. (mcfm.org)
- First, we produced a cKO mouse in which Vglut2 was deleted in specific subpopulations of the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus from preadolescence. (diva-portal.org)
- Second, we produced and analysed cKO mice in which Vglut2 was deleted in the cortex, amygdala and hippocampus already from midgestation, and could show that this deletion affected emotional, but not cognitive, function. (diva-portal.org)
- Compared with controls, GMV reductions were found mainly in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and bilateral amygdala, and decreased SC was found between the amygdala and ACC in ESRD patients. (springer.com)
- The extinction-facilitating effects of the hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist SB334867 were associated with increased expression of cFos in the basolateral amygdala and the infralimbic cortex. (nih.gov)
- In a separate session, subjects viewed a series of 42 pictures of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), varying in pleasure and arousal, while acoustic startle probes were administered randomly, and electromyogram activity of the orbicular eye muscle was continuously recorded. (ahajournals.org)
- In a nutshell, an underperforming VPFC combined with an over-performing amygdala may form the "neuroanatomic" basis for affective symptoms. (healthcentral.com)
- Participation of two medial temporal lobe structures, the hippocampal region and the amygdala, in long-term declarative memory encoding was examined by using positron emission tomography of regional cerebral glucose. (pnas.org)
- Within the MTL, the hippocampal region and amygdala are believed to play distinct roles in long-term memory consolidation ( 2 - 7 ). (pnas.org)
- With these considerations in mind, we examined hippocampal and amygdala involvement in long-term (24 hr) memory by using positron emission tomography (PET) of regional cerebral glucose. (pnas.org)
- There were no age group differences in amygdala or hippocampal activity during successful encoding of negative pictures. (nih.gov)
- However, the premise that the amygdala can causally enhance declarative memory has not been directly tested in humans. (pnas.org)
- Previous studies of humans never had revealed an association between the amygdala and personal space. (caltech.edu)
- To simplify, this can be revealed with the Implicit Association Test, where subjects look at pictures of humans or trolls, coupled with words with positive or negative connotations. (nautil.us)
- The preschool children with autism had significantly larger bilateral amygdala volumes as compared to age-matched typically developing children, the amygdala lesions may show abnormal signal. (springer.com)
- Citation Query MRI volumes of amygdala and hippocampus in non-mentally retarded autistic adolescents and adults. (psu.edu)
- 2002), as has reduced amygdala volumes in others (=-=Aylward et al. (psu.edu)
- Larger amygdala volumes in first depressive episode as compared to recurrent major depression and healthy control subjects. (semanticscholar.org)
- In particular, the amygdala, a limbic forebrain area, seems to provide pivotal regulation of this behavior. (aspetjournals.org)
- and the inspection game, in which subjects had to successfully compete against an intelligent adversary by mentalizing the opponent's state of mind in order to anticipate the opponent's behavior in future. (caltech.edu)
- Scientists find that directly stimulating the amygdala can improve memory the next day, marking the first time ever that electrical stimulation has boosted memory for more than a few minutes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Fourteen epilepsy patients undergoing monitoring of seizures via intracranial depth electrodes viewed a series of neutral object images, half of which were immediately followed by brief, low-amplitude electrical stimulation to the amygdala. (pnas.org)
- Amygdala stimulation elicited no subjective emotional response but led to reliably improved memory compared with control images when patients were given a recognition-memory test the next day. (pnas.org)
- At supraliminal stimulation in healthy controls, results of previous studies were replicated and confirmed a spinothalamic and a vagal pathway of visceral sensory perception and suggested processing in amygdala and hippocampus. (hu-berlin.de)
- At subliminal stimulation in healthy controls, previous results were also replicated showing similar processing in single subject analysis. (hu-berlin.de)
- Abnormal MRI signals were found in 19/78 (24.4%) amygdala in the autism group, the amygdala lesions showed punctuate or flaky low signal, slightly low signal, low to iso-signal, slightly high signal, or iso to high-signal intensity on T1 weighted three-dimendional fast low angle shot(T1FL3D) images. (springer.com)
- Previous research at the UW and elsewhere has shown that abnormal growth patterns in the amygdala are commonly found among young children diagnosed with autism. (eurekalert.org)
- Those individuals with autism who had the most social impairment exhibited the highest levels of amygdala arousal. (eurekalert.org)
- This is another piece of evidence that there is something wrong with the amygdala in autism that contributes to social impairment. (eurekalert.org)
- 1997). Amygdala enlargement has been found among individuals with autism (Howard et al. (psu.edu)
- Accumulating evidences suggests pERK expression in amygdala to be responsible for pain modulation and emotional aspects. (slu.se)
- Molecular mech-anisms of pain and modulation by the amygdala associated with pERK re-quire further elucidation. (slu.se)
- The increased startle modulation of salt-sensitive subjects suggests an enhanced activity of the central nucleus of the amygdala. (ahajournals.org)
- Youth with BD or SMD differ from HV in modulation of amygdala activity in response to small changes in facial anger displays. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- We report that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, extracellularly operating enzyme) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is crucial for appetitive, but not for aversive, learning in mice. (jneurosci.org)
- Is the Subject Area "Central nervous system" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
- 5-mC levels were stable in central amygdala in both wild-type and 5-HTT-/- extinction rats. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Amygdala is part of the central nervous system and Gemini ruled by Mercury rules this area. (skyscript.co.uk)