The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein.
Placement of an intravenous CATHETER in the subclavian, jugular, or other central vein.
Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.
The venous trunk of the upper limb; a continuation of the basilar and brachial veins running from the lower border of the teres major muscle to the outer border of the first rib where it becomes the subclavian vein.
A neurovascular syndrome associated with compression of the BRACHIAL PLEXUS; SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY; and SUBCLAVIAN VEIN at the superior thoracic outlet. This may result from a variety of anomalies such as a CERVICAL RIB, anomalous fascial bands, and abnormalities of the origin or insertion of the anterior or medial scalene muscles. Clinical features may include pain in the shoulder and neck region which radiates into the arm, PARESIS or PARALYSIS of brachial plexus innervated muscles, PARESTHESIA, loss of sensation, reduction of arterial pulses in the affected extremity, ISCHEMIA, and EDEMA. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp214-5).
DEEP VEIN THROMBOSIS of an upper extremity vein (e.g., AXILLARY VEIN; SUBCLAVIAN VEIN; and JUGULAR VEINS). It is associated with mechanical factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Primary) secondary to other anatomic factors (Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis, Secondary). Symptoms may include sudden onset of pain, warmth, redness, blueness, and swelling in the arm.
Radiographic visualization or recording of a vein after the injection of contrast medium.
The vessels carrying blood away from the capillary beds.
A bone on the ventral side of the shoulder girdle, which in humans is commonly called the collar bone.
A set of twelve curved bones which connect to the vertebral column posteriorly, and terminate anteriorly as costal cartilage. Together, they form a protective cage around the internal thoracic organs.
Large veins on either side of the root of the neck formed by the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. They drain blood from the head, neck, and upper extremities, and unite to form the superior vena cava.
The vein accompanying the femoral artery in the same sheath; it is a continuation of the popliteal vein and becomes the external iliac vein.
A radiopaque medium used for urography, angiography, venography, and myelography. It is highly viscous and binds to plasma proteins.
The formation or presence of a blood clot (THROMBUS) within a vein.
A device designed to stimulate, by electric impulses, contraction of the heart muscles. It may be temporary (external) or permanent (internal or internal-external).
The vein which drains the foot and leg.
Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.
Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.
The venous trunk which returns blood from the head, neck, upper extremities and chest.
A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Enlarged and tortuous VEINS.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
Failure of equipment to perform to standard. The failure may be due to defects or improper use.
An accumulation of air or gas in the PLEURAL CAVITY, which may occur spontaneously or as a result of trauma or a pathological process. The gas may also be introduced deliberately during PNEUMOTHORAX, ARTIFICIAL.
Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with velocity detection combined with range discrimination. Short bursts of ultrasound are transmitted at regular intervals and the echoes are demodulated as they return.
Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The veins that return the oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
Surgical insertion of a prosthesis.
A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
A condition that occurs when the obstruction of the thin-walled SUPERIOR VENA CAVA interrupts blood flow from the head, upper extremities, and thorax to the RIGHT ATRIUM. Obstruction can be caused by NEOPLASMS; THROMBOSIS; ANEURYSM; or external compression. The syndrome is characterized by swelling and/or CYANOSIS of the face, neck, and upper arms.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.

Right atrial bypass grafting for central venous obstruction associated with dialysis access: another treatment option. (1/217)

PURPOSE: Central venous obstruction is a common problem in patients with chronic renal failure who undergo maintenance hemodialysis. We studied the use of right atrial bypass grafting in nine cases of central venous obstruction associated with upper extremity venous hypertension. To better understand the options for managing this condition, we discuss the roles of surgery and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stent placement. METHODS: All patients had previously undergone placement of bilateral temporary subclavian vein dialysis catheters. Severe arm swelling, graft thrombosis, or graft malfunction developed because of central venous stenosis or obstruction in the absence of alternative access sites. A large-diameter (10 to 16 mm) externally reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene (GoreTex) graft was used to bypass the obstructed vein and was anastomosed to the right atrial appendage. This technique was used to bypass six lesions in the subclavian vein, two lesions at the innominate vein/superior vena caval junction, and one lesion in the distal axillary vein. RESULTS: All patients except one had significant resolution of symptoms without operative mortality. Bypass grafts remained patent, allowing the arteriovenous grafts to provide functional access for 1.5 to 52 months (mean, 15.4 months) after surgery. CONCLUSION: Because no mortality directly resulted from the procedure and the morbidity rate was acceptable, this bypass grafting technique was adequate in maintaining the dialysis access needed by these patients. Because of the magnitude of the procedure, we recommend it only for the occasional patient in whom all other access sites are exhausted and in whom percutaneous dilation and/or stenting has failed.  (+info)

Totally implantable central venous access ports for high-dose chemotherapy administration and autologous stem cell transplantation: analysis of overall and septic complications in 68 cases using a single type of device. (2/217)

Sixty-eight patients suffering from breast cancer, ovarian cancer, lymphoma or multiple myeloma were treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation. They underwent placement of a central venous port via the subclavian vein for delivery of chemotherapy and reinfusion of stem cells. All patients were followed prospectively for device-related and overall complications, comprising a total of 18,213 days in situ (median: 267 days, range: 90-480). One patient experienced a pneumothorax (1.4%) spontaneously resolved, as an acute toxicity. Two patients (2.8%, 0.1 episodes/1000 days of use) were forced to have the port removed due to infection, caused by Streptococcus mitis in one case, while the causative agent was not identified by laboratory tests in the second. The other 66 patients completed the therapeutic programme, including peripheral stem cell reinfusions and supportive care, such as i.v. antibiotics, antiemetics or fluid administration and blood sample collection, without additional complications. In conclusion, the use of totally implantable central venous access ports has resulted in good long-term access to central veins, in spite of the severe neutropenia and increased septic risk of this category of oncology patients.  (+info)

Central venous injuries of the subclavian-jugular and innominate-caval confluences. (3/217)

Injuries to the central venous system can result from penetrating trauma or iatrogenic causes. Injuries to major venous confluences can be particularly problematic, because the clavicle and sternum seriously limit exposure of the injury site. We report our institution's experience with central venous injuries of the subclavian-jugular and innominate-caval venous confluences. Significant injuries of the subclavian-jugular venous confluence frequently result from penetrating trauma, while injuries to the innominate-caval confluence are usually catheter-related. Median sternotomy provides adequate exposure of the innominate-caval confluence, while exposure of the subclavian-jugular venous confluence requires extension of the median sternotomy incision into the neck and resection of the clavicle. The literature is reviewed.  (+info)

Management of penetrating cervicomediastinal venous trauma. (4/217)

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the results of management of penetrating cervicomediastinal venous trauma. DESIGN: retrospective study. Materials forty-nine consecutive patients with cervical and thoracic venous injuries treated at a tertiary hospital between 1991 and 1997. Method patients identified from a computerised database and data extracted from case records. RESULTS: forty-five patients were male and the mean age was 25.3 years. Forty injuries were due to stabs and 9 to gunshots. 22 patients were shocked, 25 actively bleeding and 31 were anaemic. Veins injured were internal jugular in 25, subclavian in 15, brachiocephalic in 6, and superior vena cava in 3. Injured veins were ligated in 25 cases and repaired by lateral suture in 22. No complex repairs were performed. There were 8 perioperative deaths and 5 cases of transient postoperative oedema. Venous ligation was not associated with increased risk of postoperative oedema. CONCLUSIONS: ligation is an acceptable form of treatment of cervicomediastinal venous injuries in the presence of haemodynamic instability, or where complex methods of repair would otherwise be necessary.  (+info)

Exchange of pacing or defibrillator leads following laser sheath extraction of non-functional leads in patients with ipsilateral obstructed venous access. (5/217)

Occlusion of the subclavian or brachiocephalic vein in pacemaker or defibrillator patients prohibits ipsilateral implantation of new leads with standard techniques in the event of lead malfunction. Three patients are presented in whom laser sheath extraction of a non-functional lead was performed in order to recanalise the occluded vein and to secure a route for implantation of new leads. This technique avoids abandoning a useful subpectoral site for pacing or defibrillator therapy. The laser sheath does not affect normally functioning leads at the same site.  (+info)

Surgical intervention is not required for all patients with subclavian vein thrombosis. (6/217)

PURPOSE: The role of thoracic outlet decompression in the treatment of primary axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis remains controversial. The timing and indications for surgery are not well defined, and thoracic outlet procedures may be associated with infrequent, but significant, morbidity. We examined the outcomes of patients treated with or without surgery after the results of initial thrombolytic therapy and a short period of outpatient anticoagulation. METHODS: Patients suspected of having a primary deep venous thrombosis underwent an urgent color-flow venous duplex ultrasound scan, followed by a venogram and catheter-directed thrombolysis. They were then converted from heparin to outpatient warfarin. Patients who remained asymptomatic received anticoagulants for 3 months. Patients who, at 4 weeks, had persistent symptoms of venous hypertension and positional obstruction of the subclavian vein, venous collaterals, or both demonstrated by means of venogram underwent thoracic outlet decompression and postoperative anticoagulation for 1 month. RESULTS: Twenty-two patients were treated between June 1996 and June 1999. Of the 18 patients who received catheter-directed thrombolysis, complete patency was achieved in eight patients (44%), and partial patency was achieved in the remaining 10 patients (56%). Nine of 22 patients (41%) did not require surgery, and the remaining 13 patients underwent thoracic outlet decompression through a supraclavicular approach with scalenectomy, first-rib resection, and venolysis. Recurrent thrombosis developed in only one patient during the immediate period of anticoagulation. Eleven of 13 patients (85%) treated with surgery and eight of nine patients (89%) treated without surgery sustained durable relief of their symptoms and a return to their baseline level of physical activity. All patients who underwent surgery maintained their venous patency on follow-up duplex scanning imaging. CONCLUSION: Not all patients with primary axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis require surgical intervention. A period of observation while patients are receiving oral anticoagulation for at least 1 month allows the selection of patients who will do well with nonoperative therapy. Patients with persistent symptoms and venous obstruction should be offered thoracic outlet decompression. Chronic anticoagulation is not required in these patients.  (+info)

Claviculectomy for subclavian venous repair: long-term functional results. (7/217)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term functional results after medial claviculectomy and venous patch angioplasty or bypass grafting using internal jugular vein after incomplete thrombolysis of effort thrombosis of the subclavian vein. METHODS: The records of 11 patients with effort thrombosis who were treated over the past 9 years were reviewed. Patients have been followed up between 3 and 9 years at 6-month intervals with duplex imaging and contrast venography when indicated and have had an orthopedic evaluation of their shoulder function. RESULTS: All reconstructed veins are patent, and only one patient complains of any arm swelling after prolonged usage. This patient is one of three with postphlebitic changes at the site of repair and has similar findings in her basilic vein. All patients have returned to their prethrombosis vocation without limitation. Four of the 11 patients have jobs requiring heavy physical labor. No patient describes any limitations of shoulder function, but one man who works as a diesel mechanic complains of shoulder aching with overuse with repetitive pulling. Three patients describe upper extremity paresthesias when lying on the operated side. Two patients (one man and one woman) are bothered by the large scar and indentation at the site of the incision. Every patient considers the overall result completely successful from a functional standpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Early subclavian venous repair performed through a medial claviculectomy is a durable operation with excellent long-term functional results. Half of the patients noted minor but significant symptoms, but all are uniformly able to return to normal function.  (+info)

Identification of microemboli during haemodialysis using Doppler ultrasound. (8/217)

BACKGROUND: Doppler ultrasound methods were used during haemodialysis sessions for the detection of microemboli and determination of their origin. METHODS: A 2-MHz ultrasound probe (Multidop X(4) DWL((TM))) was used to assess the number of microembolic signals (MES) in the subclavian vein downstream from the arteriovenous fistula before the dialysis session and over two periods of 15 min at the beginning and end of haemodialysis sessions in 25 patients without previous cardiovascular disease. A similar probe was used during in vitro studies to detect MES at different sites in the dialysis machine (before and downstream from the blood pump, and before and downstream from the air trap). RESULTS: No MES were detected during in vivo studies before haemodialysis sessions. MES were registered in all patients (100%) at the beginning and end of the haemodialysis procedure at an average of 12.7+/-9 and 16. 7+/-11.5 signals/min respectively. The average intensity of MES was 19.2+/-5.0 dB and 19.4+/-3.9 dB respectively. No MES were detected on the arterial line during in vitro studies. In contrast, 19+/-6 MES/min were detected after the blood pump, 13+/-4.2 before the air trap, and 16.5+/-5.5 thereafter. CONCLUSIONS: In all patients, MES were recorded during haemodialysis sessions in the drainage vein from arteriovenous fistulae. The results of in vitro studies indicate that MES are formed by the blood pump of the haemodialysis machine. The intensity of the MES suggests that they correspond to synthetic particles or microbubbles, which are not detected by the air trap. The final destination of these microbubbles will be assessed in further studies.  (+info)

The subclavian vein is a large venous structure that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb and part of the thorax back to the heart. It forms when the axillary vein passes through the narrow space between the first rib and the clavicle (collarbone), becoming the subclavian vein.

On the left side, the subclavian vein joins with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein, while on the right side, the subclavian vein directly merges with the internal jugular vein to create the brachiocephalic vein. These brachiocephalic veins then unite to form the superior vena cava, which drains blood into the right atrium of the heart.

The subclavian vein is an essential structure for venous access in various medical procedures and interventions, such as placing central venous catheters or performing blood tests.

Central venous catheterization is a medical procedure in which a flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a large vein in the body, usually in the neck (internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein), or groin (femoral vein). The catheter is threaded through the vein until it reaches a central location, such as the superior vena cava or the right atrium of the heart.

Central venous catheterization may be performed for several reasons, including:

1. To administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support directly into the bloodstream.
2. To monitor central venous pressure (CVP), which can help assess a patient's volume status and cardiac function.
3. To draw blood samples for laboratory tests.
4. To deliver chemotherapy drugs or other medications that may be harmful to peripheral veins.
5. To provide access for hemodialysis or other long-term therapies.

The procedure requires careful attention to sterile technique to minimize the risk of infection, and it is usually performed under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia. Complications of central venous catheterization may include bleeding, infection, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), arterial puncture, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

The jugular veins are a pair of large, superficial veins that carry blood from the head and neck to the heart. They are located in the neck and are easily visible when looking at the side of a person's neck. The external jugular vein runs along the surface of the muscles in the neck, while the internal jugular vein runs within the carotid sheath along with the carotid artery and the vagus nerve.

The jugular veins are important in clinical examinations because they can provide information about a person's cardiovascular function and intracranial pressure. For example, distention of the jugular veins may indicate heart failure or increased intracranial pressure, while decreased venous pulsations may suggest a low blood pressure or shock.

It is important to note that medical conditions such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) can also affect the jugular veins and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly.

The axillary vein is a large vein that runs through the axilla or armpit region. It is formed by the union of the brachial vein and the basilic vein at the lower border of the teres major muscle. The axillary vein carries deoxygenated blood from the upper limb, chest wall, and breast towards the heart. As it moves proximally, it becomes continuous with the subclavian vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. It is accompanied by the axillary artery and forms part of the important neurovascular bundle in the axilla.

Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a group of disorders that occur when the blood vessels or nerves in the thoracic outlet, the space between the collarbone (clavicle) and the first rib, become compressed. This compression can cause pain, numbness, and weakness in the neck, shoulder, arm, and hand.

There are three types of TOS:

1. Neurogenic TOS: This is the most common type and occurs when the nerves (brachial plexus) that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, causing symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, and weakness in the arm and hand.
2. Venous TOS: This type occurs when the veins that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, leading to swelling, pain, and discoloration of the arm.
3. Arterial TOS: This is the least common type and occurs when the arteries that pass through the thoracic outlet become compressed, causing decreased blood flow to the arm, which can result in pain, numbness, and coldness in the arm and hand.

TOS can be caused by a variety of factors, including an extra rib (cervical rib), muscle tightness or spasm, poor posture, repetitive motions, trauma, or tumors. Treatment for TOS may include physical therapy, pain management, and in some cases, surgery.

Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) is a medical condition that refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins located in the arm or shoulder. This condition can occur due to various reasons, including trauma, surgery, cancer, certain medications, and underlying medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clotting.

The deep veins are larger vessels that run through the body's muscles and are surrounded by fascia, a connective tissue. UEDVT can cause partial or complete blockage of blood flow in the affected vein, leading to swelling, pain, redness, warmth, and decreased function in the arm or hand. In some cases, the clot can break off and travel to the lungs, causing a potentially life-threatening condition called pulmonary embolism (PE).

Diagnosis of UEDVT typically involves a physical exam, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment may include anticoagulant medications to prevent the clot from growing or breaking off, thrombolytic therapy to dissolve the clot, or surgical intervention in severe cases. Compression stockings or other devices may also be used to help improve blood flow and reduce swelling.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

The clavicle, also known as the collarbone, is a long, slender bone that lies horizontally between the breastbone (sternum) and the shoulder blade (scapula). It is part of the shoulder girdle and plays a crucial role in supporting the upper limb. The clavicle has two ends: the medial end, which articulates with the sternum, and the lateral end, which articulates with the acromion process of the scapula. It is a common site of fracture due to its superficial location and susceptibility to direct trauma.

In medical terms, ribs are the long, curved bones that make up the ribcage in the human body. They articulate with the thoracic vertebrae posteriorly and connect to the sternum anteriorly via costal cartilages. There are 12 pairs of ribs in total, and they play a crucial role in protecting the lungs and heart, allowing room for expansion and contraction during breathing. Ribs also provide attachment points for various muscles involved in respiration and posture.

The brachiocephalic veins, also known as the innominate veins, are large veins in the human body. They are formed by the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. The resulting vein then carries blood from the upper limbs, head, and neck to the superior vena cava, which is the large vein that returns blood to the heart.

Here's a more detailed medical definition:

The brachiocephalic veins are paired venous structures that result from the union of the subclavian vein and the internal jugular vein on each side of the body. These veins are located in the superior mediastinum, near the base of the neck, and are typically about 2 to 3 centimeters in length. The brachiocephalic veins receive blood from several sources, including the upper extremities, head, neck, and thoracic wall. They then transport this blood to the superior vena cava, which is a large vein that returns blood to the right atrium of the heart.

It's worth noting that the brachiocephalic veins are subject to various pathological conditions, including thrombosis (blood clots), stenosis (narrowing), and compression by nearby structures such as the first rib or the scalene muscles. These conditions can lead to a variety of symptoms, including swelling, pain, and difficulty breathing.

The femoral vein is the large vein that runs through the thigh and carries oxygen-depleted blood from the lower limbs back to the heart. It is located in the femoral triangle, along with the femoral artery and nerve. The femoral vein begins at the knee as the popliteal vein, which then joins with the deep vein of the thigh to form the femoral vein. As it moves up the leg, it is joined by several other veins, including the great saphenous vein, before it becomes the external iliac vein at the inguinal ligament in the groin.

Iothalamate Meglumine is not a medical condition, but rather a diagnostic contrast agent used in various imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exams. Iothalamate Meglumine is a type of radiocontrast medium that contains iodine atoms which help to enhance the visibility of internal structures during these imaging tests.

The medical definition of Iothalamate Meglumine is:

A radiocontrast agent used in diagnostic imaging, specifically in CT scans and MR urography exams. It contains iodine atoms that help to improve the contrast and visibility of internal structures such as the urinary tract. Iothalamate Meglumine is typically administered intravenously or instilled directly into the bladder.

It's important to note that while Iothalamate Meglumine is generally considered safe, it can cause allergic reactions or kidney damage in some individuals, particularly those with pre-existing kidney disease or diabetes. Therefore, it's essential to inform your healthcare provider of any medical conditions or allergies before undergoing an imaging exam that involves the use of this contrast agent.

Venous thrombosis is a medical condition characterized by the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) in the deep veins, often in the legs (deep vein thrombosis or DVT), but it can also occur in other parts of the body such as the arms, pelvis, or lungs (pulmonary embolism).

The formation of a venous thrombus can be caused by various factors, including injury to the blood vessel wall, changes in blood flow, and alterations in the composition of the blood. These factors can lead to the activation of clotting factors and platelets, which can result in the formation of a clot that blocks the vein.

Symptoms of venous thrombosis may include swelling, pain, warmth, and redness in the affected area. In some cases, the clot can dislodge and travel to other parts of the body, causing potentially life-threatening complications such as pulmonary embolism.

Risk factors for venous thrombosis include advanced age, obesity, smoking, pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy, cancer, recent surgery or trauma, prolonged immobility, and a history of previous venous thromboembolism. Treatment typically involves the use of anticoagulant medications to prevent further clotting and dissolve existing clots.

An artificial pacemaker is a medical device that uses electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It is typically used when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart rate is too slow or irregular. The pacemaker consists of a small generator that contains a battery and electronic circuits, which are connected to one or more electrodes that are placed in the heart.

The generator sends electrical signals through the electrodes to stimulate the heart muscle and cause it to contract, thereby maintaining a regular heart rhythm. Artificial pacemakers can be programmed to deliver electrical impulses at a specific rate or in response to the body's needs. They are typically implanted in the chest during a surgical procedure and can last for many years before needing to be replaced.

Artificial pacemakers are an effective treatment for various types of bradycardia, which is a heart rhythm disorder characterized by a slow heart rate. Pacemakers can significantly improve symptoms associated with bradycardia, such as fatigue, dizziness, shortness of breath, and fainting spells.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Hemothorax is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in the pleural space, which is the area between the lungs and the chest wall. This accumulation of blood can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, rupture of a blood vessel, or complications from lung or heart surgery.

The buildup of blood in the pleural space can cause the affected lung to collapse, leading to symptoms such as shortness of breath, chest pain, and cough. In severe cases, hemothorax can be life-threatening if not promptly diagnosed and treated. Treatment options may include chest tube drainage, blood transfusion, or surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition.

Indwelling catheters, also known as Foley catheters, are medical devices that are inserted into the bladder to drain urine. They have a small balloon at the tip that is inflated with water once the catheter is in the correct position in the bladder, allowing it to remain in place and continuously drain urine. Indwelling catheters are typically used for patients who are unable to empty their bladders on their own, such as those who are bedridden or have nerve damage that affects bladder function. They are also used during and after certain surgical procedures. Prolonged use of indwelling catheters can increase the risk of urinary tract infections and other complications.

The superior vena cava is a large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from the upper half of the body to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right brachiocephalic veins (also known as the internal jugular and subclavian veins) near the base of the neck. The superior vena cava runs posteriorly to the sternum and enters the upper right portion of the right atrium, just posterior to the opening of the inferior vena cava. It plays a crucial role in the circulatory system by allowing blood returning from the head, neck, upper limbs, and thorax to bypass the liver before entering the heart.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Hydrothorax is a medical term that refers to the abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This condition often results from various underlying pathological processes such as liver cirrhosis, heart failure, or kidney disease, where there is an imbalance in the body's fluid regulation leading to the accumulation of fluid in the pleural cavity. The presence of hydrothorax can cause respiratory distress and other symptoms related to lung function impairment.

Varicose veins are defined as enlarged, swollen, and twisting veins often appearing blue or dark purple, which usually occur in the legs. They are caused by weakened valves and vein walls that can't effectively push blood back toward the heart. This results in a buildup of blood, causing the veins to bulge and become varicose.

The condition is generally harmless but may cause symptoms like aching, burning, muscle cramp, or a feeling of heaviness in the legs. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious problems, such as skin ulcers, blood clots, or chronic venous insufficiency. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, compression stockings, and medical procedures like sclerotherapy, laser surgery, or endovenous ablation.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Pneumothorax is a medical condition that refers to the presence of air in the pleural space, which is the potential space between the lungs and the chest wall. This collection of air can result in a partial or complete collapse of the lung. The symptoms of pneumothorax may include sudden chest pain, shortness of breath, cough, and rapid heartbeat.

The two main types of pneumothorax are spontaneous pneumothorax, which occurs without any apparent cause or underlying lung disease, and secondary pneumothorax, which is caused by an underlying lung condition such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or lung cancer.

Treatment for pneumothorax may include observation, oxygen therapy, needle aspiration, or chest tube insertion to remove the excess air from the pleural space and allow the lung to re-expand. In severe cases, surgery may be required to prevent recurrence.

Implanted electrodes are medical devices that are surgically placed inside the body to interface directly with nerves, neurons, or other electrically excitable tissue for various therapeutic purposes. These electrodes can be used to stimulate or record electrical activity from specific areas of the body, depending on their design and application.

There are several types of implanted electrodes, including:

1. Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) electrodes: These are placed deep within the brain to treat movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. DBS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that modulate abnormal neural activity in targeted brain regions.
2. Spinal Cord Stimulation (SCS) electrodes: These are implanted along the spinal cord to treat chronic pain syndromes. SCS electrodes emit low-level electrical pulses that interfere with pain signals traveling to the brain, providing relief for patients.
3. Cochlear Implant electrodes: These are surgically inserted into the cochlea of the inner ear to restore hearing in individuals with severe to profound hearing loss. The electrodes stimulate the auditory nerve directly, bypassing damaged hair cells within the cochlea.
4. Retinal Implant electrodes: These are implanted in the retina to treat certain forms of blindness caused by degenerative eye diseases like retinitis pigmentosa. The electrodes convert visual information from a camera into electrical signals, which stimulate remaining retinal cells and transmit the information to the brain via the optic nerve.
5. Sacral Nerve Stimulation (SNS) electrodes: These are placed near the sacral nerves in the lower back to treat urinary or fecal incontinence and overactive bladder syndrome. SNS electrodes deliver electrical impulses that regulate the function of the affected muscles and nerves.
6. Vagus Nerve Stimulation (VNS) electrodes: These are wrapped around the vagus nerve in the neck to treat epilepsy and depression. VNS electrodes provide intermittent electrical stimulation to the vagus nerve, which has connections to various regions of the brain involved in these conditions.

Overall, implanted electrodes serve as a crucial component in many neuromodulation therapies, offering an effective treatment option for numerous neurological and sensory disorders.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to measure blood flow in the body. In this technique, short bursts of ultrasound are emitted and then listened for as they bounce back off moving red blood cells. By analyzing the frequency shift of the returning sound waves, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined. This information is particularly useful in evaluating conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and fetal heart abnormalities. Pulsed Doppler ultrasonography provides more detailed information about blood flow than traditional color Doppler imaging, making it a valuable tool for diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

Pulmonary veins are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart. There are four pulmonary veins in total, two from each lung, and they are the only veins in the body that carry oxygen-rich blood. The oxygenated blood from the pulmonary veins is then pumped by the left ventricle to the rest of the body through the aorta. Any blockage or damage to the pulmonary veins can lead to various cardiopulmonary conditions, such as pulmonary hypertension and congestive heart failure.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Subclavian Steal Syndrome is a medical condition that occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage (stenosis) in the subclavian artery, usually at or near its origin from the aorta. This stenosis causes reduced blood flow to the ipsilateral upper extremity. The decreased blood supply to the arm leads to reversal of flow in the vertebral artery, which normally supplies blood to the brain and neck structures. As a result, the brain may receive insufficient blood flow, causing symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, syncope (fainting), or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes").

The syndrome is called 'subclavian steal' because the vertebral artery essentially "steals" blood from the circle of Willis (the network of arteries at the base of the brain) to compensate for the reduced flow in the subclavian artery. The condition most commonly affects the left subclavian artery, but it can also occur on the right side or both sides.

Subclavian Steal Syndrome is typically diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography (CTA), or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Treatment options include surgical bypass, endovascular stenting, or medication to manage symptoms and reduce the risk of stroke.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS) is a medical condition characterized by the obstruction of the superior vena cava (SVC), which is the large vein that carries blood from the upper body to the heart. This obstruction can be caused by cancerous tumors, thrombosis (blood clots), or other compressive factors.

The obstruction results in the impaired flow of blood from the head, neck, arms, and upper chest, leading to a variety of symptoms such as swelling of the face, neck, and upper extremities; shortness of breath; cough; chest pain; and distended veins visible on the skin surface. In severe cases, SVCS can cause life-threatening complications like cerebral edema (swelling of the brain) or pulmonary edema (fluid accumulation in the lungs).

Immediate medical attention is required for individuals with suspected SVCS to prevent further complications and to manage the underlying cause. Treatment options may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, anticoagulation therapy, or surgery, depending on the etiology of the obstruction.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

Pathological constriction refers to an abnormal narrowing or tightening of a body passage or organ, which can interfere with the normal flow of blood, air, or other substances through the area. This constriction can occur due to various reasons such as inflammation, scarring, or abnormal growths, and can affect different parts of the body, including blood vessels, airways, intestines, and ureters. Pathological constriction can lead to a range of symptoms and complications depending on its location and severity, and may require medical intervention to correct.

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Venous TOS is due to compression of the subclavian vein. This makes up about 4% of cases. There are many causes of TOS. The ... and subsequent fibrosis which would cause the thrombosis of the subclavian vein, leading to Paget-Schroetter disease or effort- ... In cases where the first rib (or a fibrous band extending from the first rib) is compressing a vein, artery, or the nerve ... Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition in which there is compression of the nerves, arteries, or veins in the superior ...
"Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for subclavian or femoral vein catheterization". Cochrane Database of ...
... internal jugular vein), chest (subclavian vein or axillary vein), groin (femoral vein), or through veins in the arms (also ... is in the subclavian vein, and to generally avoid the femoral vein if possible. There is no clear recommendation for a tunneled ... or vein (lower pH/pO2, higher pCO2). During subclavian vein central line placement, the catheter can be accidentally pushed ... rather than a vein in the neck or chest. The basilic vein is usually a better target for cannulation than the cephalic vein ...
Descending, it passes anterior to (the 3rd part of) the subclavian artery and vein. The subclavian nerve may issue a branch ... ventral to the subclavian vein. The subclavian nerve innervates the subclavius muscle. Diagram of the brachial plexus. The ... The subclavian nerve, also known as the nerve to the subclavius, is small branch of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It ... The subclavian nerve is a branch of the upper trunk of the brachial plexus. It contains axons derived from the ventral rami of ...
These DVTs typically occur in the axillary and/or subclavian veins. The condition is relatively rare. It usually presents in ... Drapanas, T; Curran, WL (1966). "Thrombectomy in the treatment of "effort" thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins". ... and Leopold von Schrötter later linked the clinical syndrome to thrombosis of the axillary and subclavian veins. Hughes, E. S. ... Paget-Schroetter disease (which evolved from a venous thoracic outlet syndrome) is a form of upper extremity deep vein ...
... may be returned to a vein, or may travel to a larger lymph duct. Lymph ducts drain the lymph into one of the subclavian veins ... Both the lymph ducts return the lymph to the blood stream by emptying into the subclavian veins Lymph vessels consist of ... These vessels drain into the right and left subclavian veins, respectively. There are far more afferent vessels bringing in ... both ducts drain into the circulatory system at the right and left subclavian veins. The system collaborates with white blood ...
This disorder involves primary thrombosis of the axillary vein or subclavian vein. Maria Konopnicka, a famous Polish writer and ...
This treatment involves initial anticoagulation followed by thrombolysis of the subclavian vein and staged first rib resection ... DVT most frequently affects veins in the leg or pelvis including the popliteal vein (behind the knee), femoral vein (of the ... cause vein fibrosis, and result in non-compliant veins. Organization of a thrombus into the vein can occur at the third stage ... splanchnic vein thrombosis), liver (Budd-Chiari syndrome), kidneys (renal vein thrombosis), and ovaries (ovarian vein ...
The left and right external jugular veins drain into the subclavian veins. The internal jugular veins join with the subclavian ... The jugular veins are veins that take deoxygenated blood from the head back to the heart via the superior vena cava. The ... The external jugular vein runs superficially to sternocleidomastoid. There is also another minor jugular vein, the anterior ... veins more medially to form the brachiocephalic veins. Finally, the left and right brachiocephalic veins join to form the ...
... to terminate in the subclavian vein; it receives the transverse cervical and transverse scapular veins, which form a plexus in ... The subclavian vein lies behind the clavicle, and is not usually seen in this space; but in some cases it rises as high as the ... the transverse cervical artery and vein. The external jugular vein runs vertically downward behind the posterior border of the ... The subclavian triangle (or supraclavicular triangle, omoclavicular triangle, Ho's triangle), the smaller division of the ...
The first lymph sacs to appear are the paired jugular lymph sacs at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. ... The ducts empty into the subclavian veins to return to the blood circulation. Lymph is moved through the system by muscle ... where it ultimately returns to the bloodstream via one of the subclavian veins. The tissues of the lymphatic system are ... The arteries and veins supplying the lymph node with blood enter and exit through the hilum. The region of the lymph node ...
He then tried the subclavian vein adjacent to Lockett's collar bone but failed again. The paramedic tried two veins in the left ... The report also challenged the official claim that Lockett's veins failed, saying that his veins were perfectly healthy. Ángel ... She then tried to insert the needle into his brachial vein in his biceps but also failed. She asked for help from a doctor in ... Zellmer then inserted the needle into the femoral vein in the groin. The execution began at 6:23 p.m. CDT, when the first drug ...
It forms various combinations with the right subclavian vein and right internal jugular vein. The right lymphatic duct courses ... The right lymphatic duct forms various combinations with the right subclavian vein and right internal jugular vein. It is ... A right lymphatic duct that enters directly into the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins is uncommon. The ... via the right subclavian trunk ), and right side of the head and neck (via the right jugular trunk), also, in some individuals ...
The thoracic duct empties the chylomicrons into the bloodstream via the left subclavian vein. At this point the chylomicrons ... and medium-chain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the blood via intestine capillaries and travel through the portal vein ... where the arteries and veins are larger). ...
These ducts drain into the venous junctions of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. However, these ducts eventually ... The posterior lymph sacs are associated with the junctions of the external and internal iliac veins. These four new lymph sacs ... When the development of the lymphatic system begins from the cardinal vein, all of the endothelial cells appear to have the ... which come together in a centripetal direction and secondarily opened into the veins. However, more recent research has shown ...
... scalp into the subclavian veins. The right and left vertebral veins drain the vertebrae and muscles into the right subclavian ... The head and neck are emptied of blood by the subclavian vein and jugular vein. The brachiocephalic artery or trunk is the ... The left subclavian artery and the right subclavian artery, one on each side of the body form the internal thoracic artery, the ... The subclavian becomes the axillary artery at the lateral border of the first rib. The left subclavian artery also provides ...
The catheter is introduced through a large vein-often the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral veins. Ease of placement for ... right subclavian. From this entry site, it is threaded through the right atrium of the heart, the right ventricle, and ... a pulmonary artery catheter from easiest to difficult is: right internal jugular > left subclavian > left internal jugular > ...
The dorsal scapular vein is a vein which accompanies the dorsal scapular artery. It usually drains to the subclavian vein, but ... "Definition: dorsal scapular vein from Online Medical Dictionary". Retrieved 2007-08-30. v t e (Articles with short description ... Veins of the torso, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system stubs). ... can also drain to the external jugular vein. " ...
The anterior pair opens into the subclavian vein and the posterior pair into the femoral vein. The pair near the third vertebra ... The other pair at the end of the vertebral column pump lymph into the iliac vein in the legs. The position of mammalian jugular ... The lymph hearts rhythmically and slowly pump to drive the lymph into the veins. It is possible to see the lymph hearts beat by ... In amphibians, lymph hearts lie at vein junctions. Frogs and salamanders have 10 to 20 lymph hearts, while caecilians have more ...
It terminates at the lateral margin of the first rib, at which it becomes the subclavian vein. It is accompanied along its ... Other tributaries include the subscapular vein, circumflex humeral vein, lateral thoracic vein and thoraco-acromial vein. ... This large vein is formed by the brachial vein and the basilic vein. At its terminal part, it is also joined by the cephalic ... Axillary vein Axillary vein Baker, Champ L.; Baker, Champ L. (January 1, 2009), Wilk, Kevin E.; Reinold, Michael M.; Andrews, ...
... is occasionally used to treat residual subclavian vein stenosis following decompression surgery for thoracic outlet ... For patients with a life expectancy greater than 2 of years life, or who have an autogenous vein, a bypass surgery could be ... Angioplasty requires an access vessel, typically the femoral or radial artery or femoral vein, to permit access to the vascular ... is a minimally invasive endovascular procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat ...
Paget-Schroetter disease - Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in the axillary or subclavian veins, related to TOS. Budd- ... pain or iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis. Specifically, the problem is due to left common iliac vein compression by the ... Compression of the left common iliac vein may be seen on pelvic CT. Management of the underlying defect is proportional to the ... In contrast to the right common iliac vein, which ascends almost vertically to the inferior vena cava, the left common iliac ...
Catheter placement in one of the big veins (Subclavian vein, Internal jugular vein or femoral vein) is routinely done to ... The subclavian veins lie just behind the clavicle on each side and therefore known as subclavian vein.[citation needed] ... "Internal jugular vein occlusion test for rapid diagnosis of misplaced subclavian vein catheter into the internal jugular vein ... However, there is a significant risk of misplacement of subclavian vein catheter into the internal jugular vein of same side. ...
Two leads are then inserted; one into the right atrium and the other into the right ventricular apex via the subclavian veins. ...
A lymph duct is a great lymphatic vessel that empties lymph into one of the subclavian veins. There are two lymph ducts in the ... The thoracic duct drains lymph into the circulatory system at the left brachiocephalic vein between the left subclavian and ... left internal jugular veins. Lymphatic system Right lymphatic duct Thoracic duct v t e (Lymphatic system, All stub articles, ...
Other sites which have been used include the subclavian vein, carotid artery, femoral vein and inferior vena cava. Protocols ... Bubbles which are carried back to the heart in the veins will normally pass into the right side of the heart, and from there ... Vascular bubbles appear to form at the venous end of capillaries and pass through the veins to the right side of the heart, and ... Some of the bubbles carried back to the heart in the veins may be transferred to the systemic circulation via a patent foramen ...
Subclavian vein Subclavian vein - right view Subclavian vein Subclavian vein Jacob, S. (2008-01-01), Jacob, S. (ed.), "Chapter ... and the right subclavian vein. As the subclavian vein is large, central and relatively superficial, the right subclavian vein ... The subclavian vein follows the subclavian artery and is separated from the subclavian artery by the insertion of anterior ... The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body, that is responsible for draining blood from the ...
Discover the subclavian veins origin, course, tributaries, and its importance in draining the upper limb. ... The subclavian vein receives the external jugular vein. The thoracic duct drains into the left subclavian vein and the right ... Subclavian Vein. 18 The subclavian vein courses anterior to the anterior scalene muscle as it passes over the first rib, before ... The subclavian vein then unites with the internal jugular vein to form the brachiocephalic vein. ...
He coined the name gouty phlebitis to describe the spontaneous thrombosis of the veins draining the upper extremity. ... Sir James Paget first described thrombosis of the subclavian veins in 1875. ... Catheter-induced subclavian vein thrombosis. Introducing catheters and transvenous pacemakers in to the subclavian vein alters ... encoded search term (Subclavian Vein Thrombosis) and Subclavian Vein Thrombosis What to Read Next on Medscape ...
... axillary vein, and subclavian vein.. What does the subclavian vein do?. The primary function of the subclavian vein is to drain ... Where does right subclavian vein drain?. The subclavian vein is a paired large vein, one on either side of the body, that is ... What is right subclavian vein?. The right subclavian vein is joined by the right lymphatic duct at the right venous angle, ... Is subclavian vein a deep vein?. Veins considered to be "deep" classically have a corresponding named artery. In the upper ...
either of a pair of veins, one on each side of the body, that return blood from the arms to the heart. [1760 70] * * * ... subclavian vein - subcla′vian vein′ n. anat. either of a pair of large veins that return blood from the arms • Etymology: 1760- ... subclavian vein - n the proximal part of the main vein of the arm that is a continuation of the axillary vein and extends from ... subclavian vein - noun a continuation of the axillary vein; joins the internal jugular to form the brachiocephalic vein • Syn ...
Catheterization of the subclavian vein. Technic and indications. Original language. Spanish. Pages (from-to). 483-485. ...
"Subclavian Vein" by people in this website by year, and whether "Subclavian Vein" was a major or minor topic of these ... Subclavian vein obstruction with collateral flow through the umbilical and hepatic veins. Surg Radiol Anat. 2006 Mar; 28(1):105 ... The continuation of the axillary vein which follows the subclavian artery and then joins the internal jugular vein to form the ... "Subclavian Vein" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ...
Jugular/Subclavian Delivery Kit - Bard DENALI Vena Cava Filter, Jugular/Subclavian Vein Approach IFU ...
How To Do Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Cannulation - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from ... Subclavian vein cannulation is popular. Unlike the internal jugular vein How To Do Internal Jugular Vein Cannulation, ... or a left subclavian vein cannulation How To Do Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Cannulation Percutaneous cannulation of the ... and How To Do Subclavian Vein Cannulation, Ultrasound-Guided How To Do Infraclavicular Subclavian Vein Cannulation, Ultrasound- ...
Central Veins=Subclavian Vein and Brachiocephalic Vein. Please consult Instructions for Use for product indications for use, ...
Clinical Effect of Modified Ultrasound-Guided Subclavian Vein Puncture. July 06, 2023 ...
Their venous drainage comes from the pectoral vein via the subclavian vein.[4] The subclavius receives vascular supply by the ... Their corresponding veins drain into the azygos or hemiazygos veins. The anterior intercostal arteries of the first six ... Their corresponding veins drain into the internal thoracic or musculophrenic veins. The lymphatic drainage of the thoracic wall ... The subclavius muscle originates at the costochondral junction of the first rib and inserts at the subclavian groove of the ...
Pulmonary embolism from left subclavian vein thrombus following suprapubic prostatectomy.﻽. Gentile DP, Cos LR, Ouriel K ...
The left subclavian artery, left subclavian vein, left internal jugular vein, and left common carotid artery are all located in ... It receives blood from the left subclavian vein and the left internal jugular vein, and then joins with the right ... C. Left brachiocephalic vein Explanation. The left brachiocephalic vein courses across the mediastinum in an almost horizontal ... The left brachiocephalic vein is located immediately anterosuperior to the ascending aorta, making it the most likely vein to ...
The ultrasound shows subclavian vein thrombosis. What is the best approach to treating her upper extremity deep venous ... Although most patients present with pain, swelling, parathesias, and prominent veins throughout the arm or shoulder, many ... Although most patients present with pain, swelling, parathesias, and prominent veins throughout the arm or shoulder, many ...
These leads go into the heart through the subclavian vein (transvenous). Some ICDs have a lead that is placed under the skin so ...
Venous TOS is due to compression of the subclavian vein.[19] This makes up about 4% of cases.[2] ... and subsequent fibrosis which would cause the thrombosis of the subclavian vein, leading to Paget-Schroetter disease or effort- ... Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a condition in which there is compression of the nerves, arteries, or veins in the superior ... Arterial TOS is due to compression of the subclavian artery.[19] This is less than one percent of cases.[2] ...
The subclavian vein is more fragile than the subclavian artery.. Accumulation of blood in the pleural space will appear as an ... The thoracic duct normally joins the venous system at the junction of the left internal jugular vein with the left subclavian ... subclavian artery located between the anterior and middle scalene muscles in the interscalene triangle and the subclavian vein ... The brachial plexus and subclavian vessels pass over the first rib in the costoclavicular space, with the brachial plexus and ...
The alternate sites are left jugular vein and subclavian veins, femoral veins and axillary veins. Peripherally inserted central ... subclavian) via an introducer sheath. When the catheter is inserted through either the subclavian or the internal jugular vein ... the most popular are the right internal jugular vein and subclavian veins. ... Mansfield P. F, Hohn D. C, Forage B. D et al: Complications and failures of subclavian vein catheterization. N Engl J Med., 331 ...
Ultrasound guidance versus anatomical landmarks for subclavian or femoral vein catheterization. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 ...
... vein. Alternately, this catheter may be inserted into the subclavian vein although the jugular vein is the preferred site. ... It may be placed into the subclavian vein also. The NextStep catheter is intended to be used only in adult patients. ChloraPrep ... Catheters greater than 40 cm are intended for femoral vein insertion. The Arrow NextStep Antegrade Catheter is intended for use ... The NextStep Catheter is inserted percutaneously and is preferentially placed into the internal jugular (IJ) vein. ...
The internal jugular vein is one of the frequently used sites for this procedure. Other common sites are the sub-clavian and ... The internal jugular vein is one of the frequently used sites for this procedure. Other common sites are the sub-clavian and ... An IJ CVC can be placed in either the right or the left IJ vein. In general, however, the right IJ vein is preferred because of ... Additionally, an accidental arterial puncture is readily compressible at this site, unlike the subclavian vein. ...
Right internal jugular vein. Right subclavian vein. Right brachiocephalic vein. Left brachiocephalic vein ... How many pulmonary veins emerge from the right and left posterior surfaces of the heart? ... The jugular veins are found in the neck. What are their arterial equivalents? ... Name the veins (blue structures) on the left-hand side of this picture. ...
Visualization improves supraclavicular access to the subclavian vein in a mixed reality simulator. Anesth Analg. 2018;127:83-89 ... Robinson AR, 3rd, Gravenstein N, Cooper LA, Lizdas D, Luria I, Lampotang S. A mixed-reality part-task trainer for subclavian ... a chest for internal jugular and subclavian central venous access, an arm for peripheral venous access, and a box for ...
Needles are placed in peripheral veins. Single or double lumen catheters are also used in the internal jugular, subclavian of ...
Male operators more often chose the subclavian vein (P < .001) and inserted more catheters with bore size ≥ 9 Fr (P < . ... Male operators more often chose the subclavian vein (P , .001) and inserted more catheters with bore size ≥ 9 Fr (P , .001). ... Jugular Veins. in BMC Anesthesiology. volume. 24. article number. 68. pages. 1 - 8. publisher. BioMed Central (BMC). external ... Jugular Veins}}, language = {{eng}}, month = {{02}}, pages = {{1--8}}, publisher = {{BioMed Central (BMC)}}, series = {{BMC ...
First, a decapolar catheter was positioned in the coronary sinus through left subclavian vein. Then transseptal puncture was ... Spontaneous initiation of atrial fibrillation by ectopic beats originating in the pulmonary veins. NEngl JMed. 1998;339:659-66 ... Association between left atrial size and atrial fibrillation recurrence after single circumferential pulmonary vein isolation: ... Association between left atrial size and atrial fibrillation recurrence after single circumferential pulmonary vein isolation: ...
... inserted subcutaneously under local anesthesia connects the peritoneal cavity to the internal jugular vein or subclavian vein ... Prehepatic causes include splenic vein thrombosis and portal vein thrombosis. These conditions commonly are associated with ... The HVPG is defined as the difference in pressure between the portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Thus, the HVPG is equal ... Hepatic vein patency is checked most readily by performing abdominal ultrasonography, with Doppler examination of the hepatic ...

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