Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Carotid Artery, Common: The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Carotid Sinus: The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.Carotid Artery, External: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the exterior of the head, the face, and the greater part of the neck.Carotid Artery Thrombosis: Blood clot formation in any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES. This may produce CAROTID STENOSIS or occlusion of the vessel, leading to TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBRAL INFARCTION; or AMAUROSIS FUGAX.Carotid Artery Injuries: Damages to the CAROTID ARTERIES caused either by blunt force or penetrating trauma, such as CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; THORACIC INJURIES; and NECK INJURIES. Damaged carotid arteries can lead to CAROTID ARTERY THROMBOSIS; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; pseudoaneurysm formation; and INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERY DISSECTION. (From Am J Forensic Med Pathol 1997, 18:251; J Trauma 1994, 37:473)Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Down Syndrome: A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A measurement of the thickness of the carotid artery walls. It is measured by B-mode ULTRASONOGRAPHY and is used as a surrogate marker for ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Tunica Intima: The innermost layer of an artery or vein, made up of one layer of endothelial cells and supported by an internal elastic lamina.Tunica Media: The middle layer of blood vessel walls, composed principally of thin, cylindrical, smooth muscle cells and elastic tissue. It accounts for the bulk of the wall of most arteries. The smooth muscle cells are arranged in circular layers around the vessel, and the thickness of the coat varies with the size of the vessel.Nephrotic Syndrome: A condition characterized by severe PROTEINURIA, greater than 3.5 g/day in an average adult. The substantial loss of protein in the urine results in complications such as HYPOPROTEINEMIA; generalized EDEMA; HYPERTENSION; and HYPERLIPIDEMIAS. Diseases associated with nephrotic syndrome generally cause chronic kidney dysfunction.Sjogren's Syndrome: Chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease in which the salivary and lacrimal glands undergo progressive destruction by lymphocytes and plasma cells resulting in decreased production of saliva and tears. The primary form, often called sicca syndrome, involves both KERATOCONJUNCTIVITIS SICCA and XEROSTOMIA. The secondary form includes, in addition, the presence of a connective tissue disease, usually rheumatoid arthritis.Carotid Artery, Internal, Dissection: The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.Carotid Body Tumor: Benign paraganglioma at the bifurcation of the COMMON CAROTID ARTERIES. It can encroach on the parapharyngeal space and produce dysphagia, pain, and cranial nerve palsies.Endarterectomy: Surgical excision, performed under general anesthesia, of the atheromatous tunica intima of an artery. When reconstruction of an artery is performed as an endovascular procedure through a catheter, it is called ATHERECTOMY.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Turner Syndrome: A syndrome of defective gonadal development in phenotypic females associated with the karyotype 45,X (or 45,XO). Patients generally are of short stature with undifferentiated GONADS (streak gonads), SEXUAL INFANTILISM, HYPOGONADISM, webbing of the neck, cubitus valgus, elevated GONADOTROPINS, decreased ESTRADIOL level in blood, and CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS. NOONAN SYNDROME (also called Pseudo-Turner Syndrome and Male Turner Syndrome) resembles this disorder; however, it occurs in males and females with a normal karyotype and is inherited as an autosomal dominant.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Horner Syndrome: A syndrome associated with defective sympathetic innervation to one side of the face, including the eye. Clinical features include MIOSIS; mild BLEPHAROPTOSIS; and hemifacial ANHIDROSIS (decreased sweating)(see HYPOHIDROSIS). Lesions of the BRAIN STEM; cervical SPINAL CORD; first thoracic nerve root; apex of the LUNG; CAROTID ARTERY; CAVERNOUS SINUS; and apex of the ORBIT may cause this condition. (From Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, pp500-11)Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Abnormalities, MultipleCerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Clonal hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplasia in one or more hematopoietic cell lineages. They predominantly affect patients over 60, are considered preleukemic conditions, and have high probability of transformation into ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Acute Coronary Syndrome: An episode of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA that generally lasts longer than a transient anginal episode that ultimately may lead to MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.DiGeorge Syndrome: Congenital syndrome characterized by a wide spectrum of characteristics including the absence of the THYMUS and PARATHYROID GLANDS resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency, HYPOCALCEMIA, defects in the outflow tract of the heart, and craniofacial anomalies.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Prader-Willi Syndrome: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by deletion of the proximal long arm of the paternal chromosome 15 (15q11-q13) or by inheritance of both of the pair of chromosomes 15 from the mother (UNIPARENTAL DISOMY) which are imprinted (GENETIC IMPRINTING) and hence silenced. Clinical manifestations include MENTAL RETARDATION; MUSCULAR HYPOTONIA; HYPERPHAGIA; OBESITY; short stature; HYPOGONADISM; STRABISMUS; and HYPERSOMNOLENCE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p229)Long QT Syndrome: A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.Guillain-Barre Syndrome: An acute inflammatory autoimmune neuritis caused by T cell- mediated cellular immune response directed towards peripheral myelin. Demyelination occurs in peripheral nerves and nerve roots. The process is often preceded by a viral or bacterial infection, surgery, immunization, lymphoma, or exposure to toxins. Common clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, loss of sensation, and loss of deep tendon reflexes. Weakness of respiratory muscles and autonomic dysfunction may occur. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1312-1314)Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Antiphospholipid Syndrome: The presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids (ANTIBODIES, ANTIPHOSPHOLIPID). The condition is associated with a variety of diseases, notably systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases, thrombopenia, and arterial or venous thromboses. In pregnancy it can cause abortion. Of the phospholipids, the cardiolipins show markedly elevated levels of anticardiolipin antibodies (ANTIBODIES, ANTICARDIOLIPIN). Present also are high levels of lupus anticoagulant (LUPUS COAGULATION INHIBITOR).Compartment Syndromes: Conditions in which increased pressure within a limited space compromises the BLOOD CIRCULATION and function of tissue within that space. Some of the causes of increased pressure are TRAUMA, tight dressings, HEMORRHAGE, and exercise. Sequelae include nerve compression (NERVE COMPRESSION SYNDROMES); PARALYSIS; and ISCHEMIC CONTRACTURE.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Tourette Syndrome: A neuropsychological disorder related to alterations in DOPAMINE metabolism and neurotransmission involving frontal-subcortical neuronal circuits. Both multiple motor and one or more vocal tics need to be present with TICS occurring many times a day, nearly daily, over a period of more than one year. The onset is before age 18 and the disturbance is not due to direct physiological effects of a substance or a another medical condition. The disturbance causes marked distress or significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. (From DSM-IV, 1994; Neurol Clin 1997 May;15(2):357-79)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Pressoreceptors: Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by outbreaks of late term abortions, high numbers of stillbirths and mummified or weak newborn piglets, and respiratory disease in young unweaned and weaned pigs. It is caused by PORCINE RESPIRATORY AND REPRODUCTIVE SYNDROME VIRUS. (Radostits et al., Veterinary Medicine, 8th ed, p1048)Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Klinefelter Syndrome: A form of male HYPOGONADISM, characterized by the presence of an extra X CHROMOSOME, small TESTES, seminiferous tubule dysgenesis, elevated levels of GONADOTROPINS, low serum TESTOSTERONE, underdeveloped secondary sex characteristics, and male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE). Patients tend to have long legs and a slim, tall stature. GYNECOMASTIA is present in many of the patients. The classic form has the karyotype 47,XXY. Several karyotype variants include 48,XXYY; 48,XXXY; 49,XXXXY, and mosaic patterns ( 46,XY/47,XXY; 47,XXY/48,XXXY, etc.).Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Werner Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder that causes premature aging in adults, characterized by sclerodermal skin changes, cataracts, subcutaneous calcification, muscular atrophy, a tendency to diabetes mellitus, aged appearance of the face, baldness, and a high incidence of neoplastic disease.Reye Syndrome: A form of encephalopathy with fatty infiltration of the LIVER, characterized by brain EDEMA and VOMITING that may rapidly progress to SEIZURES; COMA; and DEATH. It is caused by a generalized loss of mitochondrial function leading to disturbances in fatty acid and CARNITINE metabolism.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Plaque, Atherosclerotic: Lesions formed within the walls of ARTERIES.Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus: A species of ARTERIVIRUS causing reproductive and respiratory disease in pigs. The European strain is called Lelystad virus. Airborne transmission is common.Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A heterogeneous group of autosomally inherited COLLAGEN DISEASES caused by defects in the synthesis or structure of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are numerous subtypes: classical, hypermobility, vascular, and others. Common clinical features include hyperextensible skin and joints, skin fragility and reduced wound healing capability.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.HELLP Syndrome: A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.Amaurosis Fugax: Transient complete or partial monocular blindness due to retinal ischemia. This may be caused by emboli from the CAROTID ARTERY (usually in association with CAROTID STENOSIS) and other locations that enter the central RETINAL ARTERY. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p245)Bloom Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by telangiectatic ERYTHEMA of the face, photosensitivity, DWARFISM and other abnormalities, and a predisposition toward developing cancer. The Bloom syndrome gene (BLM) encodes a RecQ-like DNA helicase.Brugada Syndrome: An autosomal dominant defect of cardiac conduction that is characterized by an abnormal ST-segment in leads V1-V3 on the ELECTROCARDIOGRAM resembling a right BUNDLE-BRANCH BLOCK; high risk of VENTRICULAR TACHYCARDIA; or VENTRICULAR FIBRILLATION; SYNCOPAL EPISODE; and possible sudden death. This syndrome is linked to mutations of gene encoding the cardiac SODIUM CHANNEL alpha subunit.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Adult: A syndrome characterized by progressive life-threatening RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY in the absence of known LUNG DISEASES, usually following a systemic insult such as surgery or major TRAUMA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Pedigree: The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.Angelman Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple abnormalities, MENTAL RETARDATION, and movement disorders. Present usually are skull and other abnormalities, frequent infantile spasms (SPASMS, INFANTILE); easily provoked and prolonged paroxysms of laughter (hence "happy"); jerky puppetlike movements (hence "puppet"); continuous tongue protrusion; motor retardation; ATAXIA; MUSCLE HYPOTONIA; and a peculiar facies. It is associated with maternal deletions of chromosome 15q11-13 and other genetic abnormalities. (From Am J Med Genet 1998 Dec 4;80(4):385-90; Hum Mol Genet 1999 Jan;8(1):129-35)Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: A viral disorder characterized by high FEVER, dry COUGH, shortness of breath (DYSPNEA) or breathing difficulties, and atypical PNEUMONIA. A virus in the genus CORONAVIRUS is the suspected agent.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Restless Legs Syndrome: A disorder characterized by aching or burning sensations in the lower and rarely the upper extremities that occur prior to sleep or may awaken the patient from sleep.Cavernous Sinus: An irregularly shaped venous space in the dura mater at either side of the sphenoid bone.Job Syndrome: Primary immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by recurrent infections and hyperimmunoglobulinemia E. Most cases are sporadic. Of the rare familial forms, the dominantly inherited subtype has additional connective tissue, dental and skeletal involvement that the recessive type does not share.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome: A rare, X-linked immunodeficiency syndrome characterized by ECZEMA; LYMPHOPENIA; and, recurrent pyogenic infection. It is seen exclusively in young boys. Typically, IMMUNOGLOBULIN M levels are low and IMMUNOGLOBULIN A and IMMUNOGLOBULIN E levels are elevated. Lymphoreticular malignancies are common.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Paraneoplastic Syndromes: In patients with neoplastic diseases a wide variety of clinical pictures which are indirect and usually remote effects produced by tumor cell metabolites or other products.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Sweet Syndrome: Condition characterized by large, rapidly extending, erythematous, tender plaques on the upper body usually accompanied by fever and dermal infiltration of neutrophilic leukocytes. It occurs mostly in middle-aged women, is often preceded by an upper respiratory infection, and clinically resembles ERYTHEMA MULTIFORME. Sweet syndrome is associated with LEUKEMIA.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Intellectual Disability: Subnormal intellectual functioning which originates during the developmental period. This has multiple potential etiologies, including genetic defects and perinatal insults. Intelligence quotient (IQ) scores are commonly used to determine whether an individual has an intellectual disability. IQ scores between 70 and 79 are in the borderline range. Scores below 67 are in the disabled range. (from Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, p28)Vertebral Artery: The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Jugular Veins: Veins in the neck which drain the brain, face, and neck into the brachiocephalic or subclavian veins.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Churg-Strauss Syndrome: Widespread necrotizing angiitis with granulomas. Pulmonary involvement is frequent. Asthma or other respiratory infection may precede evidence of vasculitis. Eosinophilia and lung involvement differentiate this disease from POLYARTERITIS NODOSA.Cranial Nerve Injuries: Dysfunction of one or more cranial nerves causally related to a traumatic injury. Penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; NECK INJURIES; and trauma to the facial region are conditions associated with cranial nerve injuries.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sturge-Weber Syndrome: A non-inherited congenital condition with vascular and neurological abnormalities. It is characterized by facial vascular nevi (PORT-WINE STAIN), and capillary angiomatosis of intracranial membranes (MENINGES; CHOROID). Neurological features include EPILEPSY; cognitive deficits; GLAUCOMA; and visual defects.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Budd-Chiari Syndrome: A condition in which the hepatic venous outflow is obstructed anywhere from the small HEPATIC VEINS to the junction of the INFERIOR VENA CAVA and the RIGHT ATRIUM. Usually the blockage is extrahepatic and caused by blood clots (THROMBUS) or fibrous webs. Parenchymal FIBROSIS is uncommon.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Chediak-Higashi Syndrome: A form of phagocyte bactericidal dysfunction characterized by unusual oculocutaneous albinism, high incidence of lymphoreticular neoplasms, and recurrent pyogenic infections. In many cell types, abnormal lysosomes are present leading to defective pigment distribution and abnormal neutrophil functions. The disease is transmitted by autosomal recessive inheritance and a similar disorder occurs in the beige mouse, the Aleutian mink, and albino Hereford cattle.Sick Sinus Syndrome: A condition caused by dysfunctions related to the SINOATRIAL NODE including impulse generation (CARDIAC SINUS ARREST) and impulse conduction (SINOATRIAL EXIT BLOCK). It is characterized by persistent BRADYCARDIA, chronic ATRIAL FIBRILLATION, and failure to resume sinus rhythm following CARDIOVERSION. This syndrome can be congenital or acquired, particularly after surgical correction for heart defects.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Wolff-Parkinson-White Syndrome: A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.Circle of Willis: A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.Cerebral Revascularization: Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.Facies: The appearance of the face that is often characteristic of a disease or pathological condition, as the elfin facies of WILLIAMS SYNDROME or the mongoloid facies of DOWN SYNDROME. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Kallmann Syndrome: A genetically heterogeneous disorder caused by hypothalamic GNRH deficiency and OLFACTORY NERVE defects. It is characterized by congenital HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM and ANOSMIA, possibly with additional midline defects. It can be transmitted as an X-linked (GENETIC DISEASES, X-LINKED), an autosomal dominant, or an autosomal recessive trait.Aneurysm: Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.Stevens-Johnson Syndrome: Rare cutaneous eruption characterized by extensive KERATINOCYTE apoptosis resulting in skin detachment with mucosal involvement. It is often provoked by the use of drugs (e.g., antibiotics and anticonvulsants) or associated with PNEUMONIA, MYCOPLASMA. It is considered a continuum of Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.Sezary Syndrome: A form of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma manifested by generalized exfoliative ERYTHRODERMA; PRURITUS; peripheral lymphadenopathy, and abnormal hyperchromatic mononuclear (cerebriform) cells in the skin, LYMPH NODES, and peripheral blood (Sezary cells).Felty Syndrome: A rare complication of rheumatoid arthritis with autoimmune NEUTROPENIA; and SPLENOMEGALY.Usher Syndromes: Autosomal recessive hereditary disorders characterized by congenital SENSORINEURAL HEARING LOSS and RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA. Genetically and symptomatically heterogeneous, clinical classes include type I, type II, and type III. Their severity, age of onset of retinitis pigmentosa and the degree of vestibular dysfunction are variable.Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., VERTEBROBASILAR INSUFFICIENCY) resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or brachiocephalic artery. Common symptoms include VERTIGO; SYNCOPE; and INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION of the involved upper extremity. Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90(3):174-8)Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome: A syndrome of multiple defects characterized primarily by umbilical hernia (HERNIA, UMBILICAL); MACROGLOSSIA; and GIGANTISM; and secondarily by visceromegaly; HYPOGLYCEMIA; and ear abnormalities.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Behcet Syndrome: Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the body.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Alagille Syndrome: A multisystem disorder that is characterized by aplasia of intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC), and malformations in the cardiovascular system, the eyes, the vertebral column, and the facies. Major clinical features include JAUNDICE, and congenital heart disease with peripheral PULMONARY STENOSIS. Alagille syndrome may result from heterogeneous gene mutations, including mutations in JAG1 on CHROMOSOME 20 (Type 1) and NOTCH2 on CHROMOSOME 1 (Type 2).Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Fatal Outcome: Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Bardet-Biedl Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder characterized by RETINITIS PIGMENTOSA; POLYDACTYLY; OBESITY; MENTAL RETARDATION; hypogenitalism; renal dysplasia; and short stature. This syndrome has been distinguished as a separate entity from LAURENCE-MOON SYNDROME. (From J Med Genet 1997 Feb;34(2):92-8)Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome: A hereditary disease caused by autosomal dominant mutations involving CHROMOSOME 19. It is characterized by the presence of INTESTINAL POLYPS, consistently in the JEJUNUM, and mucocutaneous pigmentation with MELANIN spots of the lips, buccal MUCOSA, and digits.Klippel-Feil Syndrome: A syndrome characterised by a low hairline and a shortened neck resulting from a reduced number of vertebrae or the fusion of multiple hemivertebrae into one osseous mass.Syncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Oculocerebrorenal Syndrome: A sex-linked recessive disorder affecting multiple systems including the EYE, the NERVOUS SYSTEM, and the KIDNEY. Clinical features include congenital CATARACT; MENTAL RETARDATION; and renal tubular dysfunction (FANCONI SYNDROME; RENAL TUBULAR ACIDOSIS; X-LINKED HYPOPHOSPHATEMIA or vitamin-D-resistant rickets) and SCOLIOSIS. This condition is due to a deficiency of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate-5-phosphatase leading to defects in PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL metabolism and INOSITOL signaling pathway. (from Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p60; Am J Hum Genet 1997 Jun;60(6):1384-8)Cockayne Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome: An autosomal recessive disorder of CHOLESTEROL metabolism. It is caused by a deficiency of 7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, the enzyme that converts 7-dehydrocholesterol to cholesterol, leading to an abnormally low plasma cholesterol. This syndrome is characterized by multiple CONGENITAL ABNORMALITIES, growth deficiency, and INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY.Craniofacial Abnormalities: Congenital structural deformities, malformations, or other abnormalities of the cranium and facial bones.Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein: WASP protein is mutated in WISKOTT-ALDRICH SYNDROME and is expressed primarily in hematopoietic cells. It is the founding member of the WASP protein family and interacts with CDC42 PROTEIN to help regulate ACTIN polymerization.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Stiff-Person Syndrome: A condition characterized by persistent spasms (SPASM) involving multiple muscles, primarily in the lower limbs and trunk. The illness tends to occur in the fourth to sixth decade of life, presenting with intermittent spasms that become continuous. Minor sensory stimuli, such as noise and light touch, precipitate severe spasms. Spasms do not occur during sleep and only rarely involve cranial muscles. Respiration may become impaired in advanced cases. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1492; Neurology 1998 Jul;51(1):85-93)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Cardiovascular Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.Short Bowel Syndrome: A malabsorption syndrome resulting from extensive operative resection of the SMALL INTESTINE, the absorptive region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome: A syndrome that is characterized by the triad of severe PEPTIC ULCER, hypersecretion of GASTRIC ACID, and GASTRIN-producing tumors of the PANCREAS or other tissue (GASTRINOMA). This syndrome may be sporadic or be associated with MULTIPLE ENDOCRINE NEOPLASIA TYPE 1.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Serotonin Syndrome: An adverse drug interaction characterized by altered mental status, autonomic dysfunction, and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is most frequently caused by use of both serotonin reuptake inhibitors and monoamine oxidase inhibitors, leading to excess serotonin availability in the CNS at the serotonin 1A receptor.Embolization, Therapeutic: A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.Hepatopulmonary Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by the clinical triad of advanced chronic liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and reduced arterial oxygenation (HYPOXEMIA) in the absence of intrinsic cardiopulmonary disease. This syndrome is common in the patients with LIVER CIRRHOSIS or portal hypertension (HYPERTENSION, PORTAL).Orofaciodigital Syndromes: Two syndromes of oral, facial, and digital malformations. Type I (Papillon-Leage and Psaume syndrome, Gorlin-Psaume syndrome) is inherited as an X-linked dominant trait and is found only in females and XXY males. Type II (Mohr syndrome) is inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.Subclavian Artery: Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Collateral Circulation: Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Intraoperative Complications: Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel by an embolus which can be a blood clot or other undissolved material in the blood stream.Proteus Syndrome: Hamartoneoplastic malformation syndrome of uncertain etiology characterized by partial GIGANTISM of the hands and/or feet, asymmetry of the limbs, plantar hyperplasia, hemangiomas (HEMANGIOMA), lipomas (LIPOMA), lymphangiomas (LYMPHANGIOMA), epidermal NEVI; MACROCEPHALY; cranial HYPEROSTOSIS, and long-bone overgrowth. Joseph Merrick, the so-called "elephant man", apparently suffered from Proteus syndrome and not NEUROFIBROMATOSIS, a disorder with similar characteristics.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Duane Retraction Syndrome: A syndrome characterized by marked limitation of abduction of the eye, variable limitation of adduction and retraction of the globe, and narrowing of the palpebral fissure on attempted adduction. The condition is caused by aberrant innervation of the lateral rectus by fibers of the OCULOMOTOR NERVE.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Baroreflex: A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.Comorbidity: The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Complex Regional Pain Syndromes: Conditions characterized by pain involving an extremity or other body region, HYPERESTHESIA, and localized autonomic dysfunction following injury to soft tissue or nerve. The pain is usually associated with ERYTHEMA; SKIN TEMPERATURE changes, abnormal sudomotor activity (i.e., changes in sweating due to altered sympathetic innervation) or edema. The degree of pain and other manifestations is out of proportion to that expected from the inciting event. Two subtypes of this condition have been described: type I; (REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY) and type II; (CAUSALGIA). (From Pain 1995 Oct;63(1):127-33)Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Fainting may result from subclavian steal syndrome or carotid sinus hypersensitivity. There is also often anemia and marked ... Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and ... Milan B, Josip K (November 1967). "Ocular manifestations of the aortic arch syndrome (pulseless disease; Takayasu's disease) ( ... Takayasu's arteritis (also known as Takayasu's disease, "aortic arch syndrome," "nonspecific aortoarteritis," and "pulseless ...
List of MeSH codes (C10)
... subclavian steal syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.300.200 --- carotid artery diseases MeSH C10.228.140.300.200.331 --- carotid artery ... cri-du-chat syndrome MeSH C10.597.606.643.210 --- de lange syndrome MeSH C10.597.606.643.220 --- down syndrome MeSH C10.597. ... melas syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.163.100.540 --- menkes kinky hair syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.163.100.545 --- merrf syndrome MeSH ... rett syndrome MeSH C10.597.606.643.690 --- prader-willi syndrome MeSH C10.597.606.643.700 --- rubinstein-taybi syndrome MeSH ...
Subclavian steal syndrome
"Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke. 19 (8): 1036-42. ... Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal phenomenon or subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is a ... subclavian steal syndrome". Circ J. 67 (5): 464-6. doi:10.1253/circj.67.464. PMID 12736489. Subclavian Steal Syndrome - ... As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who have received a coronary artery bypass ...
Circle of Willis
In subclavian steal syndrome, blood is "stolen" from the circle of Willis to preserve blood flow to the upper limb. Subclavian ... "Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke: A Journal of ... Subclavian steal syndrome. The redundancies that the circle of Willis introduce can also lead to reduced cerebral ... Lord, RS; Adar, R; Stein, RL (1969). "Contribution of the circle of Willis to the subclavian steal syndrome". Circulation. 40 ( ...
Thrombocytosis Subclavian steal syndrome Malignant hypertension can cause ischemia of the optic nerve head leading to transient ... "Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. North American ... The most common source of these athero-emboli is an atherosclerotic carotid artery. However, a severely atherosclerotic carotid ... However, carotid angiography is not advisable in the presence of a normal ultrasound and CT. If the diagnostic workup reveals a ...
List of MeSH codes (C14)
... subclavian steal syndrome MeSH C14.907.320.191 --- diabetic foot MeSH C14.907.320.382 --- diabetic retinopathy MeSH C14.907. ... carotid artery diseases MeSH C14.907.253.123.331 --- carotid artery thrombosis MeSH C14.907.253.123.345 --- carotid artery ... long qt syndrome MeSH C14.280.067.565.070 --- andersen syndrome MeSH C14.280.067.565.440 --- jervell-lange nielsen syndrome ... behcet syndrome MeSH C14.907.940.110 --- Churg-Strauss syndrome MeSH C14.907.940.560 --- mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome MeSH ...
Brachial plexus and subclavian artery Aberrant subclavian artery Subclavian steal syndrome Thoracic outlet syndrome This ... Since the left subclavian is then a tributary of the left common carotid, they can be thought of as arising from the ... The first part of the left subclavian artery arises from the arch of the aorta, behind the left common carotid, and at the ... The left subclavian artery supplies blood to the left arm and the right subclavian artery supplies blood to the right arm, with ...
FMD present in the subclavian artery may cause arm weakness, parenthesis, claudication, and subclavial steal syndrome. Children ... The carotid and vertebral arteries are most commonly affected. Middle and distal regions of the internal carotid arteries are ... The vascular subtype of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (type IV) has been associated with multi-focal FMD. This syndrome should be ... Patients with carotid or vertebral FMD should be medically managed to reduce the risk of a stroke. Aspirin 81 mg is typically ...
Subclavian steal syndrome arises from retrograde (reversed) flow of blood in the vertebral artery or the internal thoracic ... Likewise, using carotid ultrasonography on the premise of identifying carotid artery disease as a cause of syncope also is not ... and other electrical issue such as long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Heart related causes also often have little history ... This type of syncope may also occur when an area in the neck known as the carotid sinus is pressed. The final type of syncope ...
List of ICD-9 codes 390-459: diseases of the circulatory system
Basilar artery syndrome (435.1) Vertebral artery syndrome (435.2) Subclavian steal syndrome (435.3) Vertebrobasilar artery ... Dissection of carotid artery (443.22) Dissection of iliac artery (443.23) Dissection of renal artery (443.24) Dissection of ... 411) Other acute and subacute forms of ischemic heart disease (411.0) Postmyocardial infarction syndrome (411.1) Intermediate ... 427.8) Other specified cardiac dysrhythmias (427.81) Sick sinus syndrome (427.89) Sinus bradycardia, NOS (427.9) Cardiac ...
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... both carotid arteries and both vertebral arteries) that supply the brain. When the aneurysm has been located, platinum coils ... This is known as Terson syndrome (occurring in 3-13 percent of cases) and is more common in more severe SAH. ... "Intracranial Aneurysm of the Internal Carotid Artery Cured by Operation". Annals of Surgery. 107 (5): 654-9. doi:10.1097/ ...
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... Internal carotid artery. *Tip of basilar artery. Saccular aneurysms tend to have a lack of tunica media and elastic lamina ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome types II and IV.. Specific genes have also had reported association with the development of intracranial ...
ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... I65.2) Occlusion and stenosis of carotid artery. *(I65.3) Occlusion and stenosis of multiple and bilateral precerebral arteries ... I60.0) Subarachnoid haemorrhage from carotid siphon and bifurcation. *(I60.1) Subarachnoid haemorrhage from middle cerebral ...
ICD-10 Chapter VI: Diseases of the nervous system
precerebral: Anterior spinal artery syndrome. *Vertebrobasilar insufficiency *Subclavian steal syndrome. *brainstem: medulla * ... G45.1) Carotid artery syndrome (hemispheric). *(G45.2) Multiple and bilateral precerebral artery syndromes ... G46) Vascular syndromes of brain in cerebrovascular diseases *(G46.0) Middle cerebral artery syndrome ... G93.3) Postviral fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis aka chronic fatigue syndrome). *(G93.4) Encephalopathy, ...
Treatment of subclavian steal syndrome with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting: case report
... of the patients that present subclavian steal also have extracranial internal carotid obstruction and that this obstruction ... steal syndrome.. Keywords: subclavian steal syndrome, subclavian artery stenosis, peripheral arterial stents, stents in ... Subclavian steal can be demonstrated by transcranial doppler (TCD) with the subclavian-steal test. The VA is insonated with the ... steal syndrome. Aust N Z J Med 1997;27:80-81. [ Links ]. 20. Jaeger HJ, Mathias KD, Kempkes U. Bilateral subclavian steal ...
Subclavian steal syndrome - Wikipedia
"Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography of carotid-basilar collateral circulation in subclavian steal". Stroke. 19 (8): 1036-42. ... Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal phenomenon or subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is a ... subclavian steal syndrome". Circ J. 67 (5): 464-6. doi:10.1253/circj.67.464. PMID 12736489. Subclavian Steal Syndrome - ... As in vertebral-subclavian steal, coronary-subclavian steal may occur in patients who have received a coronary artery bypass ...
Takayasu's arteritis - Wikipedia
Fainting may result from subclavian steal syndrome or carotid sinus hypersensitivity. There is also often anemia and marked ... Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and ... Milan B, Josip K (November 1967). "Ocular manifestations of the aortic arch syndrome (pulseless disease; Takayasus disease) ( ... Takayasus arteritis (also known as Takayasus disease, "aortic arch syndrome," "nonspecific aortoarteritis," and "pulseless ...
Neck examination | definition of neck examination by Medical dictionary
Subclavian Steal Syndrome - Subclavian Steal Summary Report | CureHunter
Subclavian steal may also occur in asymptomatic individuals. (From J Cardiovasc Surg 1994;35(1):11-4; Acta Neurol Scand 1994;90 ... resulting from reversal of blood flow through the VERTEBRAL ARTERY from occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian or ... Subclavian Steal Syndrome: A clinically significant reduction in blood supply to the BRAIN STEM and CEREBELLUM (i.e., ... Subclavian Artery; Subclavian Artery Stenoses; Subclavian Carotid Artery Steal Syndrome; Subclavian Steal Syndromes; Syndrome, ...
Aortic arch syndrome: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that ... Subclavian artery occlusive syndrome; Carotid artery occlusion syndrome; Subclavian steal syndrome; Vertebral-basilar artery ... Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that branch ... Aortic arch syndrome problems can be due to trauma, blood clots, or malformations that develop before birth. These defects ...
Stroke/Vascular Services - CentraCare Health, Central Minnesota
Vertebral Artery Atherothrombosis Treatment & Management: Medical Therapy, Surgical Therapy, Intraoperative Details
Carotid vertebral anastomosis: an alternate technic for repair of the subclavian steal syndrome. Ann Surg. 1966 Mar. 163(3):414 ... The approach to the proximal vertebral artery is the same as the approach for a subclavian to carotid transposition. The ... The jugular vein is mobilized laterally and the vagus nerve is retracted medially with the common carotid artery. The carotid ... Carney A, Anderson E. Carotid distal vertebral bypass for carotid artery occlusion. Clin Electroencephalogr. 1978. 9:105. ...
When and How to Study the Carotid Arteries | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
"Subclavian Steal Syndrome" with Reversal of Blood Flow in the Right Carotid Artery Annals of Internal Medicine; 64 (1): 142-144 ... CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS(MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS ... Asymptomatic Changes in the Carotid Arteries of Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis Annals of Internal Medicine; 144 (4): I-38 ... Diagnostic Evaluation of the Carotid Arteries Annals of Internal Medicine; 109 (10): 835-837 ...
MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS* | Annals of Internal...
"Subclavian Steal Syndrome" with Reversal of Blood Flow in the Right Carotid Artery Annals of Internal Medicine; 64 (1): 142-144 ... MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS1 ALLEN SILVERSTEIN, M.D ... MANUAL COMPRESSION OF THE CAROTID VESSELS, CAROTID SINUS HYPERSENSITIVITY AND CAROTID ARTERY OCCLUSIONS1. Ann Intern Med. 1960; ... BUCKLING OF THE CAROTID ARTERY DEMONSTRATED BY ANGIOCARDIOGRAPHY1 Annals of Internal Medicine; 44 (5): 1003-1007 ...
Early prediction of falls after stroke: a 12-month follow-up of 490 patients in The Fall Study of Gothenburg (FallsGOT).
... and right subclavian artery occlusion with right subclavian steal syndrome (Grade 3). Carot... ... Carotid Artery Stenosis after Radiation Therapy in a Patient with Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review. ... right common carotid artery stenosis; left common carotid artery stenosis; left vertebral artery stenosis; ... Cytoflavin in the Rehabilitation of Post-intensive Care Syndrome in Stroke Survivors ...
Dynamic balance and instrumented gait variables are independent predictors of falls following stroke - Bower K, Thilarajah S,...
... and right subclavian artery occlusion with right subclavian steal syndrome (Grade 3). Carot... ... Carotid Artery Stenosis after Radiation Therapy in a Patient with Lung Cancer: A Case Report and Literature Review. ... right common carotid artery stenosis; left common carotid artery stenosis; left vertebral artery stenosis; ... Cytoflavin in the Rehabilitation of Post-intensive Care Syndrome in Stroke Survivors ...
Non-Coronary Vascular Stents: Brachiocephalic arteries - Find-A-Code Spotlight Articles
Subclavian steal syndrome Upper extremity claudication Ischemic rest pain of the arm and hand Non-healing tissue ulceration ... except carotid bifurcation): Stenting may be indicated for treatment of flow-limiting stenosis resulting in conditions such as ... CPT codes: 37236 37237 ICD-10-CM codes: G45.8 - Other transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes Unspecified ... Brachiocephalic arteries (including subclavian, except carotid bifurcation): Stenting may be indicated for treatment of flow- ...
Ruptured internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm presenting with only intracerebral hemorrhage without subarachnoid...
3504353 - Subclavian steal syndrome in a congenitaly anomalous subclavian artery: a case report.. 3310283 - Management options ... Previous Document: Posttraumatic carotid-cavernous fistulae treated by internal carotid artery trapping and high-flow b.... ... Ruptured internal carotid artery bifurcation aneurysm presenting with only intracerebral hemorrhage without subarachnoid ... Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a cerebral aneurysm originating from the bifurcation of the left internal carotid ...
Percutaneous Treatment of Coronary Subclavian Steal Syndrome | Journal of Invasive Cardiology
... in the territory subtended by the graft as well as other non-cardiac symptoms and signs typical of subclavian steal syndrome.3- ... It consists of obstructive atherosclerotic disease of the proximal subclavian artery in the presence of a patent internal ... 2 The reduction in antegrade flow caused by proximal subclavian arterial obstruction can produce either symptomatic or silent ... Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a variant of subclavian steal syndrome. ...
A case of incomplete central retinal artery occlusion associated with short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.
15] described subclavian steal syndrome in a case of arteritis syndrome with bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries. ... Our patient also had subclavian steal syndrome. Subclavian steal syndrome is a function of the proximal subclavian artery ... and the left common carotid artery. On the basis of these findings, he was also diagnosed with subclavian steal syndrome. After ... Osiro S,Zurada A,Gielecki J,Shoja MM,Tubbs RS,Loukas M. A review of subclavian steal syndrome with clinical correlationMedical ...
Aortic arch syndrome | Health Encyclopedia | FloridaHealthFinder.gov
Subclavian artery occlusive syndrome; Carotid artery occlusion syndrome; Subclavian steal syndrome; Vertebral-basilar artery ... Aortic arch syndrome. Definition. Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural ... Aortic arch syndrome problems can be due to trauma, blood clots, or malformations that develop before birth. These defects ... An inflammatory disease called Takayasu syndrome may result in narrowing (stenosis) of the vessels of the aortic arch. This ...
Aortic Arch Angiogram - Stock Image - M175/0601 - Science Photo Library
The is complete occlusion of the left subclavian artery proximal to the left vertebral artery. ... from an aortic arch angiogram shows the typical findings in a subclavian steal syndrome. ... from an aortic arch angiogram shows the typical findings in a subclavian steal syndrome. The is complete occlusion of the left ... Also note the moderately severe stenosis (narrowing) of the proximal left internal carotid artery. ...
Presentations: Leipzig Interventional Course - interdisciplinary global platform for endovascular interventions
Type A aortic dissection followed by elective left subclavian stenting for the steal syndrome Maksim Kashtanov ... Carotid artery stenting for long CTO and pseudoocclusion of carotid artery Katsutoshi Takayama ... Endovascular management of left aberrant subclavian steal syndrome in a 28 year old patient with right sided aortic arch and ... Management of carotid in-stent restenosis Tony Das * This is a case-based session focusing on what we like best ... real cases ...
Subclavian Artery Thrombosis Treatment & Management: Approach Considerations, Medical Therapy, Surgical Therapy
Subclavian artery thrombosis is a condition in which the blood flow through the vessel is obstructed. The condition usually ... For subclavian steal syndrome, a carotid-subclavian bypass using a ribbed synthetic tube graft is the procedure of choice (see ... Subclavian steal syndrome secondary to subclavian artery thrombosis in a patient with homocysteinemia and its successful ... The bypass options include subclavian-carotid, subclavian-subclavian, and axillary-axillary bypasses. Another possible bypass ...
Aortic arch syndrome | Multimedia Encyclopedia | Health Information | St. Luke's Hospital
Aortic arch syndrome. Subclavian artery occlusive syndrome; Carotid artery occlusion syndrome; Subclavian steal syndrome; ... Aortic arch syndrome refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that branch ... Aortic arch syndrome problems can be due to trauma, blood clots, or malformations that develop before birth. These defects ... An inflammatory disease called Takayasu syndrome may result in narrowing (stenosis) of the vessels of the aortic arch. This ...
A Successful Case of Axillo-Axillary Bypass Grafting with Mild Hypothermia for High-Risk Subclavian Steal Syndrome
... carotid artery. We performed subcutaneous axillo-axillary bypass grafting with mild hypothermia on June 1st, 2000. An 8mm ePTFE ... A Successful Case of Axillo-Axillary Bypass Grafting with Mild Hypothermia for High-Risk Subclavian Steal Syndrome. ... Axillo-axillary bypass grafting with mild hypothermia seemed to be safe and effective for high-risk subclavian steal syndrome ... His arteriogram revealed late filling of the occluded right subclavian artery by reversed flow from the right vertebral artery ...
Search Results for "blood flow velocity" | jns
Intraoperative vertebral artery blood flow was measured in two patients with symptomatic subclavian steal syndrome, before and ... The left external and internal carotid were not compromised. Blood flow velocity was studied in each common carotid artery. ... arteriography revealed total occlusion of the right internal carotid artery at its origin from the common carotid artery, the ... When the inspiratory gas was changed from 100% O 2 to 5% CO 2 in 95% O 2 , there was a decrease in right common carotid flow of ...
Mater Online - Vascular Surgery
REF : Quiz : Archives - Volume 16
Aortic arch syndrome
... refers to a group of signs and symptoms associated with structural problems in the arteries that branch ... Subclavian artery occlusive syndrome; Carotid artery occlusion syndrome; Subclavian steal syndrome; Vertebral-basilar artery ... Aortic arch syndrome Aortic arch syndrome. Diseases and Conditions ... Results for aortic, aortic arch syndrome, arch, artery, basilar. * You Can Cut Your Odds for an Aortic Aneurysm. April 22, 2019 ...
Vascular Imaging: Direct Diagnosis in R... | WHSmith Books
Carotid Artery Stenosis Dissection of the Internal Carotid Artery Dissection of the Vertebral Artery Subclavian Steal Syndrome ... of the Aortic Arch Aberrant Left Subclavian Artery Coarctation of the Aorta Takayasu Arteritis Acute Aortic Syndrome ... Malformation Dural Arteriovenous Malformation Fistula between Carotid Artery and Cavernous Sinus Sturge-Weber Syndrome ... Internal Carotid Artery High Jugular Bulb Dehiscence of the Jugular Bulb Glomus Tympanicum Tumor Glomus Jugulare Tumor Carotid ...
Vascular Neurosurgery (2nd New edition)... | WHSmith Books
Artery Bypass Grafting Chapter 35 Indirect Bypasses for Moyamoya Syndrome Chapter 36 Surgery for Subclavian Steal Syndrome ... Chapter 1 Aneurysm Surgery Techniques Chapter 2 Ophthalmic Segment Aneurysms Chapter 3 Supraclinoid Internal Carotid Artery ... Chapter 33 Carotid Microendarterectomy Chapter 34 Superficial Temporal Artery to Middle Cerebral ... Thalamus and Basal Ganglia Chapter 28 Spinal Vascular Malformations Chapter 29 Carotid Cavernous Fistulas Chapter 30 Dural ...
Matthew P. Goldman, MD, MS, FACS | Wake Forest Baptist Health
Image Materials - Lane Medical Library - Stanford University School of Medicine
Subclavian Steal Syndrome -- Positional Compression of the Vertebral Arteries -- Minimally Invasive Approaches for Spontaneous ... Section III : Ischemic and Other Cerebrovascular Disease -- Carotid Microendarterectomy -- Superficial Temporal Artery to ... Stereotactic surgery for obsessive-compulsive disorders and Tourette Syndrome -- 25. Stereotactic surgery for depression -- 26 ... Deep brain stimulation for medically intractable pain syndromes -- 40. Sympathectomy -- 41. Interventional pain management ...
AngiographyArtery occlusionAtherosclerosisDistal subclavian arteryEndarterectomyCerebralIpsilateral vertebral arteryCoronary-subclavian stealSymptomsDopplerRetrograde flowUltrasoundDiseaseLeft vertebral-arterySYNCOPEAngioplastyStenosis of the proximalClaudicationRight vertebralStrokeStentBrachiocephalicFilling of the subclavian arteryCase of subclavian steal syThoracicPortion of the subclavian arteryCirculationInsufficiencyExternal carotidPatencyArterial stenosisBasilar arteryOcclusion of the leftSymptomaticInternal carotid arteryEndovascularUpper-extremityThrombosisObstructionCommon carotid
- The procedure was well tolerated and immediately afterwards, there was complete remission of the symptoms and of the phenomenon of subclavian steal evaluated by angiography and transcranial doppler. (scielo.br)
- Doppler ultrasound CT angiography Stroke Stent and balloon angioplasty Endarterectomy Vascular access steal syndrome Peripheral artery disease Klingelhöfer J, Conrad B, Benecke R, Frank B (1988). (wikipedia.org)
- Patients who previously had minor strokes could be directly referred for selective carotid angiography because they have a higher likelihood of a surgically approachable carotid lesion. (annals.org)
- Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated a cerebral aneurysm originating from the bifurcation of the left internal carotid artery, which was considered to be responsible for the ICH. (biomedsearch.com)
- His hemodynamic parameters revealed subclavian steal syndrome as examined by cervical ultrasonography and digital subtraction angiography. (biomedsearch.com)
- After applying a computerized tomographic angiography, we observed that the left subclavian artery was totally occluded at the origin point. (ejcvsmed.org)
- On the computerized tomographic angiography (CTA), we observed that the first 3 cm part of the subclavian artery begining from the aortic arcus origin was totally occluded. (ejcvsmed.org)
- Methods: We analyzed a comprehensive database of all patients with critical limb ischemia, claudication, acute limb ischemia, carotid artery stenosis, subclavian artery stenosis, renal artery stenosis, or mesenteric ischemia who underwent angiography between 2006 and 2013 at a multidisciplinary vascular center. (elsevier.com)
- Carotid angiography showed 80% stenosis of the left common carotid artery. (asahq.org)
- Aortic and coronary angiography revealed patent grafts and 80% proximal subclavian stenosis ( fig. 1 ). (asahq.org)
- The diagnosis may be confirmed by carotid duplex ultrasonography and magnetic resonance angiography, or arch aortography. (aafp.org)
- Typically a carotid MRA, which stands for magnetic resonance angiography, a study of the blood vessels, requires a nominal amount of MRI contrast administered to the veins, while a timed MRA sequence captures the contrast in the carotid neck vessels. (mrioptimize.com)
- evaluation carotid angiography is still superior. (butanoblog.com)
- Six months later, the patient's symptoms have not recurred and computed tomography angiography showed the right carotid artery remains patency. (bvsalud.org)
- Magnetic resonance angiography and digital subtraction angiography showed a severe stenosis with post-dilatation in the right internal carotid artery (ICA). (bvsalud.org)
- While ultrasound is sufficient to diagnose steal syndrome, computed tomography and angiography give more complete information. (floridasurgicalclinic.com)
- Subclavian artery occlusion secondary to thoracic outlet syndrome or muscular compression is treated by excision of the anatomic structure compressing the artery, whether muscle or bone. (medscape.com)
- This later phase image shows retrograde opacification of the left vertebral artery and the left subclavian artery distal to the proximal subclavian artery occlusion. (sciencephoto.com)
- The Subclavian Steal Syndrome is a retrograde flow in the vertebral artery as a result of proximal subclavian artery occlusion or severe stenosis. (alliedacademies.org)
- Subclavian steal syndrome and cerebral circulation disorder are due to subclavian artery occlusion between its origin in the aorta and the origin of vertebral artery (3). (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- Unlike isolated subclavian steal syndrome, brachiocephalic artery occlusion induces significant hemodynamic alterations in extracranial arterial flow, which normally produces no symptoms at rest, but may produce symptoms with exercise. (elsevier.com)
- Kapa, S & Adams, J 2008, ' Subclavian steal and rest pain in a case of brachiocephalic artery occlusion ', International Journal of Angiology , vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 166-167. (elsevier.com)
- The left subclavian artery has a more prominent angle at its origin, therefore turbulent flow will accelerate atherosclerosis and account for more than 80% of the cases. (stevenawoor.com)
- Subclavian steal syndrome" or in translation Subclavian steal syndrome is a phenomenon that occurs due to stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian artery as a result of atherosclerosis. (uniri.hr)
- Steal syndrome arises in people with atherosclerosis. (floridasurgicalclinic.com)
Distal subclavian artery4
- As a result, blood travels up one of the other blood vessels to the brain (the other vertebral or the carotids), reaches the basilar artery or goes around the cerebral arterial circle and descends via the (contralateral) vertebral artery to the subclavian (with the proximal blockage) and feeds blood to the distal subclavian artery (which supplies the upper limb and shoulder). (wikipedia.org)
- SSS involves a proximal subclavian stenosis, which results in a lower pressure in the distal subclavian artery. (stevenawoor.com)
- Stenosis of the subclavian artery, proximal to the origin of the vertebral vessel, results in decreased perfusion pressure to the distal subclavian artery, leading to retrograde flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery with exercise of the ipsilateral arm. (wikem.org)
- A self-retaining retractor was used to separate the two halves of the manubrium and to elevate the sternal edge on the left side, giving good access to both the ascending aorta and the distal subclavian artery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Noninvasive diagnostic testing is indicated only for symptomatic patients with transient ischemic attacks in the anterior circulation who are considered candidates for carotid endarterectomy, when knowledge of the vessel anatomy is necessary. (annals.org)
- Blaisdell FW , Lim R Jr , Hall AD : Technical result of carotid endarterectomy. (thejns.org)
- Am J Surg 114 : 239 - 246 , 1967 Blaisdell FW, Lim R Jr, Hall AD: Technical result of carotid endarterectomy. (thejns.org)
- Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure in which the surgeon opens the artery and clears out plaque formation and blockages. (wisegeek.com)
- Other times, improvement of cerebral blood flow with a carotid endarterectomy is more appropriate. (floridasurgicalclinic.com)
- Association between leukoaraiosis and cerebral blood flow territory alteration in asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. (annals.org)
- That compression of a carotid artery may induce a change in cerebral function was apparently known by the ancient Greeks. (annals.org)
- Conditions classified as transient cerebral ischemia are listed in category 435 and include basilar artery syndrome (435.0), vertebral artery syndrome (435.1), subclavian steal syndrome (435.2), and vertebro-basilar artery syndrome (435.3). (icd10monitor.com)
- In ICD-10-CM, transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes are classified as nervous system diseases and are found in Chapter 7, Diseases of the Nervous System. (icd10monitor.com)
- Category G45 includes codes for vertebro-basilar artery syndrome (G45.0), carotid artery syndrome (G45.1), multiple and bilateral precerebral artery syndromes (G45.2), other transient ischemic attacks and related syndromes (G45.8), and unspecified transient cerebral ischemic attacks (G45.9). (icd10monitor.com)
- 7 If the stenosis includes the carotid artery, then symptoms of cerebral ischemia can occur concurrently. (asahq.org)
- Vertebrobasilar "spells" that occur in association with subclavian steal syndrome represent a common example of hemodynamically based transient cerebral ischemia. (mhmedical.com)
- Heidrich (1968) divided clinical manifestations of subclacian steal in four symptom groups: plainly cerebral, cerebral associated to arm complaint, only arm-related complaint and asymptomatic cases. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- The syndrome comprises of both cerebral and upper limb clinical features . (teachmesurgery.com)
- hematoma or epidural hematoma ) Sturge-Weber Syndrome Todd's Paralysis Brain tumor (Primary or metastatic disease) Infection (brain abscess, encephalitis, subdural empyema [cerebral-palsy-information.com] With mild hemiparesis, loss of normal arm swing and slight circumduction may be the only abnormalities. (symptoma.com)
- Brain CT scan showed bilateral massive ischemic stroke located in the anterior circulation, CT angiogram showed occlusion in the left internal carotid artery and the right middle cerebral artery. (bvsalud.org)
- At the Circle of Willis, the internal carotid artery flows into the middle cerebral artery , which continues into the brain, and the anterior cerebral artery , which is part of the Circle of Willis. (thefullwiki.org)
- The syndrome includes specific retrograde blood flow in the vertebral artery, which tries to ensure the needs of the upper extremities for which "steals" blood cerebral circulation. (uniri.hr)
- The Circle of Willis (also called Willis' Circle, Loop of Willis, cerebral arterial circle, and Willis Polygon) is the main collateral system between the bilateral carotid system s and the vertebrobasilar system . (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- The circle of Willis links the two main cerebral artery systems, namely the internal carotid artery system and the vertebrobasilar system, and it is also the primary collateral pathway locating in the base of brain. (operativeneurosurgery.com)
- Retrograde flow in the vertebral artery, associated with a subclavian or innominate (brachiocephalic) artery stenosis, can be an incidental finding during Doppler ultrasound examination of the cerebral supply. (51digg.info)
- These are related to reduced cerebral perfusion when the arm ipsilateral to the subclavian stenosis is exercised. (51digg.info)
Ipsilateral vertebral artery6
- The phenomenon of subclavian steal is caused by occlusion or stenosis of the proximal subclavian artery (SA) with subsequent retrograde filling of the SA via the ipsilateral vertebral artery (VA) 1,2 . (scielo.br)
- This drop in resistance may result in retrograde flow down the ipsilateral vertebral artery with subsequent steal from the vertebrobasilar distribution and posterior circulation symptoms (diplopia, bilateral visual loss, drop attacks, etc). (mhmedical.com)
- Because of the reduction on pressure from subclavian artery in a distal manner to obstruction, blood runs in a anterograde way through contralateral vertebral artery, achieves basilar artery and goes down in a retrograde way through ipsilateral vertebral artery, in order to supply collateral circulation to upper extremity. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- The distal left subclavian filled by retrograde flow through the ipsilateral vertebral artery (subclavian steal syndrome). (biomedcentral.com)
- In the normal individual (color Doppler video clip above), the easiest way to spot retrograde flow is to study the direction of flow in the common carotid artery and the ipsilateral vertebral artery. (blogspot.com)
- The subclavian steal phenomenon (SSP) occurs when there is stenosis or occlusion of the subclavian artery proximal to the vertebral artery origin, causing reversed flow in the ipsilateral vertebral artery. (51digg.info)
- Could it be coronary-subclavian steal syndrome? (thefreedictionary.com)
- Vertebral-subclavian and coronary-subclavian steal can occur concurrently in patients with an ITA CABG. (wikipedia.org)
- Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a variant of subclavian steal syndrome. (invasivecardiology.com)
- 13 In recent years, a percutaneous approach has been adopted to deal with subclavian steal as well as coronary subclavian steal syndromes. (invasivecardiology.com)
- We describe our experience and results of the percutaneous treatment of 6 consecutive patients with coronary subclavian steal syndrome. (invasivecardiology.com)
- The angiographic success rate was 100% (Discussion In coronary subclavian steal, there is a stenosis of the proximal portion of the subclavian artery resulting in reversal of flow in an internal mammary artery graft and subsequent ischemia in the territory it supplies. (invasivecardiology.com)
- Coronary subclavian steal syndrome is a extremely rare clinical picture. (dergisi.org)
- However, if stenosis of the subclavian artery proximal to the take off of the IMA is present, angina may occur as a result of coronary-subclavian steal. (asahq.org)
- Here, we report the successful perioperative treatment of two patients diagnosed with unstable angina due to coronary-subclavian steal syndrome. (asahq.org)
- Retrograde flow through the left IMA was observed, thereby establishing the diagnosis of coronary-subclavian steal ( fig. 2 ). (asahq.org)
- Coronary-Subclavian Steal Syndrome occurs in patients who have undergone an Internal Mammary Artery (IMA) Graft. (teachmesurgery.com)
- A case of coronary-subclavian steal syndrom. (nhi.no)
- Subclavian steal syndrome refers to the association of neurological symptoms related to vertebrobasilar insufficiency and the phenomenon of subclavian steal. (scielo.br)
- Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS), also called subclavian steal phenomenon or subclavian steal steno-occlusive disease, is a constellation of signs and symptoms that arise from retrograde (reversed) blood flow in the vertebral artery or the internal thoracic artery, due to a proximal stenosis (narrowing) and/or occlusion of the subclavian artery. (wikipedia.org)
- Patients with nonlateralizing signs and symptoms of ischemia do not need diagnostic evaluation of possible carotid artery disease unless their symptoms are related to ischemia in the carotid artery circulation. (annals.org)
- 1,2 The reduction in antegrade flow caused by proximal subclavian arterial obstruction can produce either symptomatic or silent myocardial ischemia in the territory subtended by the graft as well as other non-cardiac symptoms and signs typical of subclavian steal syndrome. (invasivecardiology.com)
- The term "syndrome" refers to multiple symptoms and signs that together represent a specific condition, disease, or disease process. (icd10monitor.com)
- Transient insufficiency of the vertebro-basilar blood supply results in symptoms and signs that are definitive for vertebro-basilar artery syndrome. (icd10monitor.com)
- The use of tests such as head computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, carotid and transcranial ultrasonography, and electroencephalography to detect cerebrovascular causes of syncope should be reserved for those few patients with syncope whose history suggests a neurologic event or who have focal neurologic signs or symptoms. (aafp.org)
- The siphoning or "stealing" of blood has traditionally been thought to cause symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIA), vertigo, dizziness, syncope, or presyncope following exercise of the upper extremity. (stevenawoor.com)
- In short, the arm steals blood flow from the vertebrobasilar system resulting in neurologic and upper extremity symptoms due to arterial insufficiency. (wikem.org)
- Motor or sensory symptoms are typically only present with concurrent carotid artery disease. (mhmedical.com)
- 3 With more severe subclavian disease, steal physiology and symptoms can occur in the absence of ipsilateral arm exercise. (mhmedical.com)
- These symptoms are caused by retrograde flow of blood through the vertebral artery to the subclavian artery. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- Lawson et al (1979), when studying 35 patients with occlusion of subclavian, observed 31 of them (88%) with central-nervous-system-related symptoms, 14 (45%) with syncope, vertigo and ataxia due to vertebrosilar insufficiency. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- Smith et al (1994) followed 59 patients with secondary symptoms of subclavian steal syndrome for 14 years, and observed that the most common symptoms were vertigo, syncope and weakness (9). (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- There is a lack on subclavian steal syndrome issue in the literature, but the studies done show that although there are different symptoms from these patients, the physical exam is a trustful method of screening for such disease. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- Since recognition of this syndrome can lead to successful treatment, a review by Chan-Tack emphasizes the need for a high index of suspicion in patients with a suggestive history, risk factors and physical findings, such as symptoms of vertebrobasilar insufficiency. (aafp.org)
- Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include dizziness, a loss of balance, or a severe headache. (umcvc.org)
- Duplex Carotid Doppler: This study is often part of the typical work-up for stroke and stroke-like symptoms. (montclairradiology.com)
- 3 The most common symptoms of internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection include headache and neck pain, occurring in 80% of patients. (j-nn.org)
- The term 'subclavian steal syndrome' should only be used in cases where this aberrant blood flow causes symptoms which affect the brain, upper limb or the heart. (51digg.info)
- Only a minority of patients with subclavian steel stenosis have symptoms. (51digg.info)
- If duplex ultrasound is not available, an alternative noninvasive test is carotid Doppler ultrasound. (annals.org)
- If a bruit is noted, the patient will likely undergo a Doppler ultrasound of the carotid artery to confirm stenosis. (wisegeek.com)
- This color Doppler spectral ultrasound video shows the typical pulsations of the common carotid artery with moderately high PSV or peak systolic velocity and diastolic flow maintained throughout the period of left ventricular relaxation. (blogspot.com)
- The above spectral Doppler ultrasound video clip (with sound) of the normal ECA (external carotid artery) shows a high resistance flow with high peak systolic velocity and very low diastolic velocity, almost touching the baseline. (blogspot.com)
- Vertebral artery Doppler waveform changes indicating subclavian steal physiology. (nhi.no)
- This retrograde flow presupposes that the vertebral artery is of usual origin from the superior surface of its ipsilateral subclavian artery. (alliedacademies.org)
- The main thrust of our report is focused on a modeled occlusion in the proximal region of the subclavian artery or in the proximal segment of the brachiocephalic trunk and the clinical outcome of retrograde flow in the variant right vertebral artery originating from a bifurcated brachiocephalic trunk in both circumstances. (alliedacademies.org)
- When a retrograde flow is modeled in a hypothetical proximal occlusion to the subclavian artery only, this does not give any vascularization to the subclavian artery since the occlusion is occurring distally to the retrograde flow. (alliedacademies.org)
- Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is characterized by total occlusion of proximal part of subclavian artery resulting with retrograde flow of vertebral artery. (ejcvsmed.org)
- It is well known that SSS is a consequence of retrograde flow of vertebral artery following the total occlusion of proximal part of subclavian artery. (ejcvsmed.org)
- The syndrome results from occlusion of the proximal subclavian artery and the development of retrograde flow to the subclavian artery from the vertebral artery. (aafp.org)
- Ultrasound of the carotids and neck vessels is also used to evaluate dizziness particularly if it is associated with movement of the arm, a condition known as subclavian steal syndrome. (montclairradiology.com)
- Your doctor may also order a carotid ultrasound as a screening test if you have significant risk factors for cardiovascular disease. (montclairradiology.com)
- Ultrasound images Pexidartinib datasheet of carotid artery were acquired and IMT measurements were done using B-mode regime usual way. (gabasignaling.com)
- SA occlusive disease may be clinically silent, especially when the amount of blood supply of the ipsilateral VA is compensated by the contralateral VA or from the carotid system through the circle of Willis. (scielo.br)
- An inflammatory disease called Takayasu syndrome may result in narrowing (stenosis) of the vessels of the aortic arch. (medlineplus.gov)
- Due to obstruction of the main branches of the aorta, including the left common carotid artery, the brachiocephalic artery, and the left subclavian artery, Takayasu's arteritis can present as pulseless upper extremities (arms, hands, and wrists with weak or absent pulses on the physical examination) which may be why it is also commonly referred to as the "pulseless disease. (wikipedia.org)
- To appraise critically the clinical indications for diagnostic evaluation of carotid artery disease and the efficacy, safety, limitations, and relative costs of commonly used noninvasive diagnostic tests. (annals.org)
- We did a secondary analysis of the literature, using available data to generate estimates for the probability of selected, clinically important events and the utilities of relevant outcomes observed in patients when carotid artery disease is present or absent, and we critically appraised studies reported since 1980 to estimate the sensitivity and specificity, safety, limitations, and costs of diagnostic tests. (annals.org)
- We recommend a conservative diagnostic approach in patients with suspected carotid artery disease. (annals.org)
- We identified 6 symptomatic patients with concomitant coronary and subclavian arterial atherosclerotic disease. (invasivecardiology.com)
- [ 17 ] A large-scale multicenter study from Japan found that primary endovascular therapy for subclavian artery disease yielded good outcomes with regard to perioperative complication and long-term patency rates. (medscape.com)
- Subclavian steal syndrome (SSS) is usually an asymptomatic disease characterized by total occlusion etiology of proximal part of subclavian artery. (ejcvsmed.org)
- When structural heart disease is excluded, tests for neurogenic reflex-mediated syncope, such as head-up tilt-table testing and carotid sinus massage, should be performed. (aafp.org)
- Upper Extremity Arterial Disease (Subclavian Stenosis, Subclavian Steal Syndrome, etc. (christieclinic.com)
- Injury (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Head injury - first aid Intracranial pressure monitoring Shaken baby syndrome Subdural hematoma [ Read More ] [icdlist.com] SUBDURAL HEMATOMA Subdural hematoma Subdural hematoma . (symptoma.com)
- Contrast-enhanced spiral computerised tomography (CT) revealed disease at the origin of all great vessels, with an irregular 50% stenosis at the origin of innominate artery, a 70% stenosis at the origin of the right subclavian and a 30% stenosis of at the origin of left common carotid artery. (biomedcentral.com)
- Kiris, I., S. Gulmen, S. Yılmaz ve H. Okutan, ''Management of concomitant coronary and bilateral carotid artery disease: a case report'', J. Card. (medifema.com.tr)
- The disease causes constrictions primarily in the internal carotid artery , which travels from the neck up to the Circle of Willis inside the skull just under the brain. (thefullwiki.org)
- Patients with Down syndrome , neurofibromatosis , or sickle cell disease can develop moyamoya malformations. (thefullwiki.org)
- PFO-stroke), sickle cell disease (SCD), or coagulopathies caused by various conditions such as anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. (j-nn.org)
- The is complete occlusion of the left subclavian artery proximal to the left vertebral artery. (sciencephoto.com)
- These episodes may occur (under exertion or not) when the sub-clavian artery "steals" blood flow from the left vertebral artery that feeds the base of the brain. (mrioptimize.com)
- The first 15-mm segment of the left subclavian artery proximal to the origin of left vertebral artery was totally occluded. (biomedcentral.com)
- Patients with syncope who have a history or physical finding suggesting a neurologic cause should receive HUTT testing, carotid sinus massage, and/or implantable loop recorder. (aafp.org)
- The subclavian steal syndrome is an unusual pathology that presents with vertigo, syncope and visual disturbances, which are often precipitated by exercises involving upper extremity. (arquivosdeorl.org.br)
- Subclavian steal syndrome is a rare condition causing syncope or neurological deficits when the blood supply to the affected arm is increased through exercise. (teachmesurgery.com)
- We propose that percutaneous transluminal angioplasty with stenting placement is a good therapeutic option for subclavian steal syndrome. (scielo.br)
- Subclavian artery angioplasty was performed in an antegrade fashion in all cases from the femoral artery using 8 Fr guiding catheters. (invasivecardiology.com)
- In some cases, when the risk of general anesthesia is too great, cardiologists perform a carotid angioplasty. (wisegeek.com)
- Guneyli S, Oran I, Cinar C, Erdinc I, Bilgen C. Factors affecting the occurrence and degree of luminal protrusion of carotid plaques after angioplasty stenting. (ege.edu.tr)
- Oran NT, Oran I. Carotid angioplasty and stenting in carotid artery stenosis: neuroscience nursing implications. (ege.edu.tr)
- Durability of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for obstructive lesions of proximal subclavian artery: long term results. (nhi.no)
Stenosis of the proximal1
- SA stenosis may also present with upper-extremity claudication and fatigue or even angina pectoris as a result of coronary artery steal with retrograde blood flow occurring after upper-extremity exercise 5 . (scielo.br)
- For instances of upper-extremity claudication or acute thrombosis in which the problem has been attributed to the subclavian artery, intervention should be planned and executed. (medscape.com)
- Carotid (CCA occlusion with ECA flow reversal), jaw claudication. (duc.co.za)
- His arteriogram revealed late filling of the occluded right subclavian artery by reversed flow from the right vertebral artery and 50% stenosis of the left internal carotid artery. (umin.ac.jp)
- It seems the blue vertebral artery, shows a reverse flow, showing sub-clavian steal syndrome in the right vertebral artery. (mrioptimize.com)
- mra carotid flow quantification showing reverse flow in the right vertebral artery. (mrioptimize.com)
- MRA carotid flow quantification showing reverse flow in the blue graph line, which correlates with the right vertebral artery in the cross-sectional image. (mrioptimize.com)
- While mild carotid artery stenosis occurs in most people as they age, the greater the blockage, the more chance that those affected will suffer a stroke or a transient ischemic attack (mini-stroke). (wisegeek.com)
- Unfortunately, the first symptom of carotid artery stenosis may be impaired brain function, a mini-stroke, or a full stroke. (wisegeek.com)
- In general carotid system or anterior circulation TIA are more liable to develop stroke than vertebrobasilar or posterior circulation TIA. (butanoblog.com)
Filling of the subclavian artery1
Case of subclavian steal sy1
- In any operative procedure for subclavian artery thrombosis, care must be taken to protect the thoracic duct from damage. (medscape.com)
- Careful assessment of patients with thoracic outlet syndrome will be required because of the complexity of this problem, the multiple structures involved, and the high-profile medicolegal issues that arise with treatment of these patients. (medscape.com)
- Operative treatment of the arterial complications of the thoracic outlet syndrome should be performed. (medscape.com)
- Other less common etiologies, such as arterial thoracic outlet syndrome (with or without poststenotic aneurysm) and upper extremity aneurysm, may indicate the need for upper extremity revascularization. (uptodate.com)
- Thoracic outlet syndrome and stenosis after surgical repair of aortic coarctation or Fallot's tetralogy (with a Blalock-Taussig shunt) are other possible causes. (51digg.info)
Portion of the subclavian artery1
- In ICD-9-CM, three codes are provided in category 435 for transient ischemic syndromes related to basilar and/or vertebral artery circulation. (icd10monitor.com)
- When the internal carotid artery becomes completely blocked, the fine collateral circulation that it supplies is obliterated. (thefullwiki.org)
- arteriography revealed total occlusion of the right internal carotid artery at its origin from the common carotid artery, the external carotid remaining patent. (thejns.org)
- Collaterals from the external carotid artery, the thyrocervical trunk, and multiple small branches of the cervical vertebral artery also supply the vertebrobasilar system. (mhmedical.com)
- Note the sharp sound of the audio as the external carotid artery pulsates. (blogspot.com)
- Again, these include 435.0 (basilar artery syndrome), 435.1 (vertebral artery syndrome), and 435.3 (vertebro-basilar artery syndrome). (icd10monitor.com)
- In ICD-10-CM, a single code, G45.0 Vertebro-basilar artery syndrome, covers the same conditions indicated by the three codes in ICD-9-CM. In order to understand why these conditions have been reclassified and combined into a single code in ICD-10-CM, it is necessary to review the medical terminology, anatomy, and pathophysiology related to these conditions. (icd10monitor.com)
- A. Medial inferior pontine syndrome results from occlusion of the paramedian branches of the basilar artery. (vertigoexercises.us)
Occlusion of the left1
Internal carotid artery2
- Although utilization of endovascular treatment of extracranial steno-occlusive lesions except for internal carotid artery stenosis continues to increase, there is no consensus regarding the natural course and standard treatment of these lesions. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- The aim of this study was to characterize the utility of endovascular treatment for extracranial steno-occlusive lesions except for internal carotid artery stenosis. (fujita-hu.ac.jp)
- Future therapy for subclavian artery thrombosis will most likely involve the use of endovascular stents. (medscape.com)
- Open operations or endovascular interventions in lesions of the first segment of the subclavian artery? (angiolsurgery.org)
- Steal syndrome can be treated with open as well as endovascular techniques. (floridasurgicalclinic.com)
- Early diagnosis and therapy of subclavian artery thrombosis are indicated to prevent disabling upper-extremity ischemia and gangrene. (medscape.com)
- The syndrome exists when a patient has compromised upper extremity blood flow as a result of high-grade stenosis or occlusion in the corresponding subclavian artery proximal to a patent vertebral artery. (mhmedical.com)
- Superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome is a group of clinical signs caused by the obstruction or compression of SVC and characterized by edema of the head, neck, and upper extremities, shortness of breath, and headaches. (readbyqxmd.com)
- Steal syndromes Subclavian (reverse flow in VA from a subclavian artery obstruction proximal to the VA origin). (duc.co.za)
- The main option for treating offending ostial lesions (V1 segment) is transposition of the proximal vertebral artery onto the common carotid artery. (medscape.com)
- The jugular vein is mobilized laterally and the vagus nerve is retracted medially with the common carotid artery. (medscape.com)
- Once the artery is fully exposed, an appropriate site for reimplantation in the common carotid artery is selected. (medscape.com)
- Blood flow velocity was studied in each common carotid artery. (thejns.org)
- After systemic heparinization common carotid artery was clamped. (ejcvsmed.org)
- The patient underwent drug-coated balloon dilatation at the lesion of the right common carotid artery and performed well after the procedure. (bvsalud.org)