Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Separation of particles according to density by employing a gradient of varying densities. At equilibrium each particle settles in the gradient at a point equal to its density. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A class of morphologically heterogeneous cytoplasmic particles in animal and plant tissues characterized by their content of hydrolytic enzymes and the structure-linked latency of these enzymes. The intracellular functions of lysosomes depend on their lytic potential. The single unit membrane of the lysosome acts as a barrier between the enzymes enclosed in the lysosome and the external substrate. The activity of the enzymes contained in lysosomes is limited or nil unless the vesicle in which they are enclosed is ruptured. Such rupture is supposed to be under metabolic (hormonal) control. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Condensed areas of cellular material that may be bounded by a membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Methodologies used for the isolation, identification, detection, and quantitation of chemical substances.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of a nucleotide and water to a nucleoside and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.-.
A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Process of using a rotating machine to generate centrifugal force to separate substances of different densities, remove moisture, or simulate gravitational effects. It employs a large motor-driven apparatus with a long arm, at the end of which human and animal subjects, biological specimens, or equipment can be revolved and rotated at various speeds to study gravitational effects. (From Websters, 10th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Mitochondria in hepatocytes. As in all mitochondria, there are an outer membrane and an inner membrane, together creating two separate mitochondrial compartments: the internal matrix space and a much narrower intermembrane space. In the liver mitochondrion, an estimated 67% of the total mitochondrial proteins is located in the matrix. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p343-4)
Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of an orthophosphoric monoester and water to an alcohol and orthophosphate. EC
Pinched-off nerve endings and their contents of vesicles and cytoplasm together with the attached subsynaptic area of the membrane of the post-synaptic cell. They are largely artificial structures produced by fractionation after selective centrifugation of nervous tissue homogenates.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Branch-like terminations of NERVE FIBERS, sensory or motor NEURONS. Endings of sensory neurons are the beginnings of afferent pathway to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Endings of motor neurons are the terminals of axons at the muscle cells. Nerve endings which release neurotransmitters are called PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS.
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A technique used to separate particles according to their densities in a continuous density gradient. The sample is usually mixed with a solution of known gradient materials and subjected to centrifugation. Each particle sediments to the position at which the gradient density is equal to its own. The range of the density gradient is usually greater than that of the sample particles. It is used in purifying biological materials such as proteins, nucleic acids, organelles, and cell types.
Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Electron-dense cytoplasmic particles bounded by a single membrane, such as PEROXISOMES; GLYOXYSOMES; and glycosomes.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The lipid-rich sheath surrounding AXONS in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEMS and PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The myelin sheath is an electrical insulator and allows faster and more energetically efficient conduction of impulses. The sheath is formed by the cell membranes of glial cells (SCHWANN CELLS in the peripheral and OLIGODENDROGLIA in the central nervous system). Deterioration of the sheath in DEMYELINATING DISEASES is a serious clinical problem.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
Centrifugation with a centrifuge that develops centrifugal fields of more than 100,000 times gravity. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
An electron transport chain complex that catalyzes the transfer of electrons from SUCCINATE to CYTOCHROME C. It includes ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX II and ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of urate and unidentified products. It is a copper protein. The initial products decompose to form allantoin. EC
A flavoprotein containing oxidoreductase that catalyzes the dehydrogenation of SUCCINATE to fumarate. In most eukaryotic organisms this enzyme is a component of mitochondrial electron transport complex II.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphoglycerides or glycerophosphatidates. EC 3.1.-.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Eicosamethyl octacontanonadecasen-1-o1. Polyprenol found in animal tissues that contains about 20 isoprene residues, the one carrying the alcohol group being saturated.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.
A flavoprotein that catalyzes the reduction of heme-thiolate-dependent monooxygenases and is part of the microsomal hydroxylating system. EC
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-phosphate (NMN) coupled by pyrophosphate linkage to the 5'-phosphate adenosine 2',5'-bisphosphate. It serves as an electron carrier in a number of reactions, being alternately oxidized (NADP+) and reduced (NADPH). (Dorland, 27th ed)
An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
The study of the origin, nature, properties, and actions of drugs and their effects on living organisms.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A form of fluorescent antibody technique commonly used to detect serum antibodies and immune complexes in tissues and microorganisms in specimens from patients with infectious diseases. The technique involves formation of an antigen-antibody complex which is labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
A multiribosomal structure representing a linear array of RIBOSOMES held together by messenger RNA; (RNA, MESSENGER); They represent the active complexes in cellular protein synthesis and are able to incorporate amino acids into polypeptides both in vivo and in vitro. (From Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Electrophoresis in which a second perpendicular electrophoretic transport is performed on the separate components resulting from the first electrophoresis. This technique is usually performed on polyacrylamide gels.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of N-acylhexosamine residues in N-acylhexosamides. Hexosaminidases also act on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The area within CELLS.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Twenty-carbon compounds derived from MEVALONIC ACID or deoxyxylulose phosphate.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A group of lysosomal proteinases or endopeptidases found in aqueous extracts of a variety of animal tissues. They function optimally within an acidic pH range. The cathepsins occur as a variety of enzyme subtypes including SERINE PROTEASES; ASPARTIC PROTEINASES; and CYSTEINE PROTEASES.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of one of the two ester bonds in a phosphodiester compound. EC 3.1.4.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Unstable isotopes of sulfur that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. S 29-31, 35, 37, and 38 are radioactive sulfur isotopes.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and a D-hexose to ADP and a D-hexose 6-phosphate. D-Glucose, D-mannose, D-fructose, sorbitol, and D-glucosamine can act as acceptors; ITP and dATP can act as donors. The liver isoenzyme has sometimes been called glucokinase. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.

Phosphorylation of the cap-binding protein eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E by protein kinase Mnk1 in vivo. (1/8966)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binds to the mRNA 5' cap and brings the mRNA into a complex with other protein synthesis initiation factors and ribosomes. The activity of mammalian eIF4E is important for the translation of capped mRNAs and is thought to be regulated by two mechanisms. First, eIF4E is sequestered by binding proteins, such as 4EBP1, in quiescent cells. Mitogens induce the release of eIF4E by stimulating the phosphorylation of 4EBP1. Second, mitogens and stresses induce the phosphorylation of eIF4E at Ser 209, increasing the affinity of eIF4E for capped mRNA and for an associated scaffolding protein, eIF4G. We previously showed that a mitogen- and stress-activated kinase, Mnk1, phosphorylates eIF4E in vitro at the physiological site. Here we show that Mnk1 regulates eIF4E phosphorylation in vivo. Mnk1 binds directly to eIF4G and copurifies with eIF4G and eIF4E. We identified activating phosphorylation sites in Mnk1 and developed dominant-negative and activated mutants. Expression of dominant-negative Mnk1 reduces mitogen-induced eIF4E phosphorylation, while expression of activated Mnk1 increases basal eIF4E phosphorylation. Activated mutant Mnk1 also induces extensive phosphorylation of eIF4E in cells overexpressing 4EBP1. This suggests that phosphorylation of eIF4E is catalyzed by Mnk1 or a very similar kinase in cells and is independent of other mitogenic signals that release eIF4E from 4EBP1.  (+info)

Characterization of ZO-2 as a MAGUK family member associated with tight as well as adherens junctions with a binding affinity to occludin and alpha catenin. (2/8966)

ZO-2, a member of the MAGUK family, was thought to be specific for tight junctions (TJs) in contrast to ZO-1, another MAGUK family member, which is localized at TJs and adherens junctions (AJs) in epithelial and nonepithelial cells, respectively. Mouse ZO-2 cDNA was isolated, and a specific polyclonal antibody was generated using corresponding synthetic peptides as antigens. Immunofluorescence microscopy with this polyclonal antibody revealed that, similarly to ZO-1, in addition to TJs in epithelial cells, ZO-2 was also concentrated at AJs in nonepithelial cells such as fibroblasts and cardiac muscle cells lacking TJs. When NH2-terminal dlg-like and COOH-terminal non-dlg-like domains of ZO-2 (N-ZO-2 and C-ZO-2, respectively) were separately introduced into cultured cells, N-ZO-2 was colocalized with endogenous ZO-1/ZO-2, i.e. at TJs in epithelial cells and at AJs in non-epithelial cells, whereas C-ZO-2 was distributed along actin filaments. Consistently, occludin as well as alpha catenin directly bound to N-ZO-2 as well as the NH2-terminal dlg-like portion of ZO-1 (N-ZO-1) in vitro. Furthermore, immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that the second PDZ domain of ZO-2 was directly associated with N-ZO-1. These findings indicated that ZO-2 forms a complex with ZO-1/occludin or ZO-1/alpha catenin to establish TJ or AJ domains, respectively.  (+info)

Studies on a nonpolysomal ribonucleoprotein coding for myosin heavy chains from chick embryonic muscles. (3/8966)

A messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP) particle containing the mRNA coding for the myosin heavy chain (MHC mRNA) has been isolated from the postpolysomal fraction of homogenates of 14-day-old chick embryonic muscles. The mRNP sediments in sucrose gradient as 120 S and has a characteristic buoyant density of 1.415 g/cm3, which corresponds to an RNA:protein ratio of 1:3.8. The RNA isolated from the 120 S particle behaved like authentic MHC mRNA purified from chick embryonic muscles with respect to electrophoretic mobility and ability to program the synthesis of myosin heavy chain in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate system as judged by multi-step co-purification of the in vitro products with chick embryonic leg muscle myosin added as carrier. The RNA obtained from the 120 S particle was as effective as purified MHC mRNA in stimulating the synthesis of the complete myosin heavy chains in rabbit reticulocyte lysate under conditions where non-muscle mRNAs had no such effect. Analysis of the protein moieties of the 120 S particle by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis shows the presence of seven distinct polypeptides with apparent molecular weights of 44,000, 49,000, 53,000, 81,000, 83,000, and 98,000, whereas typical ribosomal proteins are absent. These results indicate that the 120 S particles are distinct cellular entities unrelated to ribosomes or initiation complexes. The presence of muscle-specific mRNAs as cytoplasmic mRNPs suggests that these particles may be involved in translational control during myogenesis in embryonic muscles.  (+info)

Clustering of AMPA receptors by the synaptic PDZ domain-containing protein PICK1. (4/8966)

Synaptic clustering of neurotransmitter receptors is crucial for efficient signal transduction and integration in neurons. PDZ domain-containing proteins such as PSD-95/SAP90 interact with the intracellular C termini of a variety of receptors and are thought to be important in the targeting and anchoring of receptors to specific synapses. Here, we show that PICK1 (protein interacting with C kinase), a PDZ domain-containing protein, interacts with the C termini of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in vitro and in vivo. In neurons, PICK1 specifically colocalizes with AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Furthermore, PICK1 induces clustering of AMPA receptors in heterologous expression systems. These results suggest that PICK1 may play an important role in the modulation of synaptic transmission by regulating the synaptic targeting of AMPA receptors.  (+info)

Purification of gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes from wheat aleurone cells. (5/8966)

Using isopycnic density gradient centrifugation, lysosomes were concentrated in a single region of a sucrose-Ficoll gradient (p = 1-10 g cm-3), well separated from most other cell organelles. Gibberellic acid-induced lysosomes were found to be rich in alpha-amylase and protease but not ribonuclease. The lysosomal band also contained a majority of the NADH2-cytochrome c reductase, a marker enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum, found in the gradient. Examination of electron micrographs revealed that a purified band of lyosomes contained at least 3 vesicle types, ranging in size from 0-1 to 0-5 mum. The significance of these findings to proposed mechanisms of action of gibberellic acid is discussed.  (+info)

Treatment of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats with vanadate and phlorizin prevents the over-expression of the liver insulin receptor gene. (6/8966)

Administration of vanadate, an insulinomimetic agent, has been shown to normalize the increased number of insulin receptors in the liver of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In the present study, the effects of vanadate on various steps of expression of the liver insulin receptor gene in diabetic rats have been analyzed and compared with those of phlorizin, a glucopenic drug devoid of insulinomimetic properties. Livers of rats killed 23 days after streptozotocin injection showed a 30-40% increase in the number of cell surface and intracellular insulin receptors, a 50-90% increase in the levels of 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor mRNA species, and a 20% decrease in the relative abundance of the A (exon 11-) insulin receptor mRNA isotype. Daily administration of vanadate or phlorizin from day 5 to day 23 prevented the increase in insulin receptor number and mRNA level, and vanadate treatment also normalized receptor mRNA isotype expression. Unlike observations in vivo, vanadate and phlorizin differentially affected the expression of the insulin receptor gene in Fao hepatoma cells. Vanadate treatment (0.5 mmol/l for 4 h) decreased the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts by at least twofold, without affecting the relative abundance of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. In contrast, phlorizin treatment (5 mmol/l for 4 h) slightly increased or did not affect the levels of the 9.5 and 7.5 kb insulin receptor transcripts respectively, and increased by twofold the relative expression of the A insulin receptor mRNA isotype. It is suggested that, although mediated in part by a reversal of hyperglycemia, normalization of liver insulin receptor gene expression by vanadate treatment in diabetic rats may also involve a direct inhibitory effect of this drug on gene expression.  (+info)

Redundant systems of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis via acylation of glycerol-3-phosphate or dihydroxyacetone phosphate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/8966)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae lipid particles harbor two acyltransferases, Gat1p and Slc1p, which catalyze subsequent steps of acylation required for the formation of phosphatidic acid. Both enzymes are also components of the endoplasmic reticulum, but this compartment contains additional acyltransferase(s) involved in the biosynthesis of phosphatidic acid (K. Athenstaedt and G. Daum, J. Bacteriol. 179:7611-7616, 1997). Using the gat1 mutant strain TTA1, we show here that Gat1p present in both subcellular fractions accepts glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate. Similarly, the additional acyltransferase(s) present in the endoplasmic reticulum can acylate both precursors. In contrast, yeast mitochondria harbor an enzyme(s) that significantly prefers dihydroxyacetone phosphate as a substrate for acylation, suggesting that at least one additional independent acyltransferase is present in this organelle. Surprisingly, enzymatic activity of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate reductase, which is required for the conversion of 1-acyldihydroxyacetone phosphate to 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate (lysophosphatidic acid), is detectable only in lipid particles and the endoplasmic reticulum and not in mitochondria. In vivo labeling of wild-type cells with [2-3H, U-14C]glycerol revealed that both glycerol-3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate can be incorporated as a backbone of glycerolipids. In the gat1 mutant and the 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase slc1 mutant, the dihydroxyacetone phosphate pathway of phosphatidic acid biosynthesis is slightly preferred as compared to the wild type. Thus, mutations of the major acyltransferases Gat1p and Slc1p lead to an increased contribution of mitochondrial acyltransferase(s) to glycerolipid synthesis due to their substrate preference for dihydroxyacetone phosphate.  (+info)

Protein ProQ influences osmotic activation of compatible solute transporter ProP in Escherichia coli K-12. (8/8966)

ProP is an osmoregulatory compatible solute transporter in Escherichia coli K-12. Mutation proQ220::Tn5 decreased the rate constant for and the extent of ProP activation by an osmotic upshift but did not alter proP transcription or the ProP protein level. Allele proQ220::Tn5 was isolated, and the proQ sequence was determined. Locus proQ is upstream from prc (tsp) at 41.2 centisomes on the genetic map. The proQ220::Tn5 and prc phenotypes were different, however. Gene proQ is predicted to encode a 232-amino-acid, basic, hydrophilic protein (molecular mass, 25,876 Da; calculated isoelectric point, 9.66; 32% D, E, R, or K; 54.5% polar amino acids). The insertion of PCR-amplified proQ into vector pBAD24 produced a plasmid containing the wild-type proQ open reading frame, the expression of which yielded a soluble protein with an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa. Antibodies raised against the overexpressed ProQ protein detected cross-reactive material in proQ+ bacteria but not in proQ220::Tn5 bacteria. ProQ may be a structural element that influences the osmotic activation of ProP at a posttranslational level.  (+info)

During incubation of antipyrine, but not amidopyrine, 4-aminoantipyrine and 4-leucylaminoantipyrine, with rat liver microsomaland cytosol fractions in the presence of NADPH-generating system a reactive metabolite, which binds with glutathione is form
In order to benefit maximally from large scale molecular biology data generated by recent developments, it is important to proceed in an organized manner by developing databases, interfaces, data visualization and data interpretation tools. Protein subcellular localization and microarray gene expression are two of such fields that require immense computational effort before being used as a roadmap for the experimental biologist. Protein subcellular localization is important for elucidating protein function. We developed an automatically updated searchable and downloadable system called model organisms proteome subcellular localization database (MEP2SL) that hosts predicted localizations and known experimental localizations for nine eukaryotes. MEP2SL localizations highly correlated with high throughput localization experiments in yeast and were shown to have superior accuracies when compared with four other localization prediction tools based on two different datasets. Hence, MEP2SL system may ...
TRIM22 alters the sub-cellular localization of Gag protein.A) Analysis of Gag localization by fluorescence microscopy. HOS-CD4/CXCR4 cells were co-transfected w
Cells of virtually all organs and tissues are known to release large numbers of subcellular particles called extracellular vesicles (EVs) into bodily fluids such as blood and urine. There has been a growing interest in ...
Cheng, X., Xiao, X. and Chou, K.C. (2018) pLoc-mGneg Predict Subcellular Localization of Gram-Negative Bacterial Proteins by Deep Gene Ontology Learning via General PseAAC. Genomics, 110, 231-239.
Subcellular localization of the Nramp1 protein in macrophages. Peritoneal macrophages from normal 129/sv mice (A) and from 129/sv Nramp1−/− mutants (B) w
Defining the subcellular localisation of the proteome for an organism of interest is a critical next step following genome sequencing
The cell array-based protein expression and detection approach is a cost-effective platform for large-scale functional analyses, including protein subcellular localization and cell phenotype screening. The results from this study reveal novel functional features of human Chr21 proteins, which should …
В месте субклеточных фракционирования клеток млекопитающих на микроскопе покровные позволяет визуализировать белки...
Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions, organisms, and diseases for biochemical changes and metabolism. It is used also with drugs and chemicals for catabolic changes (breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones). For anabolic processes (conversion of small molecules into large), BIOSYNTHESIS is used. For enzymology, pharmacokinetics, and secretion use the specific subheadings. . ...
BioreclamationIVT is the complete resource for all biologicals including human clinical samples, hepatocytes, subcellular fractions and biological matrices.
BioreclamationIVT is the complete resource for all biologicals including human clinical samples, hepatocytes, subcellular fractions and biological matrices.
Part of a whole; part of a set; equivalent fractions; comparing; ordering; lowest terms; renaming improper fractions and mixed numbers; Adding and subtracting like and unlike fractions; adding and subtracting mixed numbers with like and unlike fractions; Multiplying a whole number times a fraction and a fraction times a whole number; multiplying a fraction times a fraction; multiplying a whole number times a mixed number; multiplying a mixed number times a mixed number; Dividing a whole number by a fraction; dividing a fraction by a fraction; reciprocals. ...
Caltag Medsystems supply whole cell extraction, nuclear extract, cell fractions and lysates from multiple species including human, mouse, rat, monkey, dog, whole cell extraction, nuclear extract.
Get your kid in on the fraction action! Shell get great fraction practice with these worksheets on dividing, multiplying, adding and subtracting fractions.
Title: A Research on Bioinformatics Prediction of Protein Subcellular Localization. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Gang Fang, Guirong Tao and Shemin Zhang. Affiliation:Department of Life Science, Xian University of Arts and Science, Xian 710065, China.. Keywords:Bioinformatics, prediction, protein subcellular localization, localizome, proteomics, database. Abstract: Protein subcellular localization is one of the key characteristic to understand its biological function. Proteins are transported to specific organelles and suborganelles after they are synthesized. They take part in cell activity and function efficiently when correctly localized. Inaccurate subcellular localization will have great impact on cellular function. Prediction of protein subcellular localization is one of the important areas in protein function research. Now it becomes the hot issue in bioinformatics. In this review paper, the recent progress on bioinformatics research of protein subcellular localization and its prospect ...
Experimentally determining the subcellular localization of a protein can be a laborious and time consuming task. Immunolabeling or tagging (such as with a green fluorescent protein) to view localization using fluorescence microscope are often used. A high throughput alternative is to use prediction. Through the development of new approaches in computer science, coupled with an increased dataset of proteins of known localization, computational tools can now provide fast and accurate localization predictions for many organisms. This has resulted in subcellular localization prediction becoming one of the challenges being successfully aided by bioinformatics, and machine learning. Many prediction methods now exceed the accuracy of some high-throughput laboratory methods for the identification of protein subcellular localization.[1] Particularly, some predictors have been developed[2] that can be used to deal with proteins that may simultaneously exist, or move between, two or more different ...
Adjustments in protein subcellular localization and large quantity are central to biological regulation in eukaryotic cells. open-reading frame (ORF) is usually individually tagged, generating a full-length protein with a COOH-terminus GFP fusion, whose expression is usually driven by the endogenous ORF promoter (Huh 2003). We worked with the set of 4144 strains from the original collection previously annotated as having a visible GFP signal and representing 71% of the yeast proteome. We used this collection to measure the subcellular localization and large quantity of yeast proteins at the single-cell level in several conditions in period classes of up to 11 human resources (Chong 2015). A true number of existing sources present images of yeast cells from large-scale research. Some of these research assess phenotypes linked with evaluation of a little amount of morphologic features or indicators in a collection of mutants. Sources that home this type of data consist of SCMD (Saito 2004) and ...
The functional genomics approach requires systematic analysis of protein subcellular distribution and interaction networks, preferably by optimizing experimental simplicity and physiological significance. Here, we present an efficient in planta transient transformation system that allows single or m …
1. An attempt was made to study the rate of synthesis as well as the distribution of RNA in the various cellular fractions in the livers and kidneys of normal and castrated mice. 2. The tissue was fractionated by the procedure of Blobel & Potter (1967). By using this method it was not possible to find any pronounced difference in the relative proportions of RNA in isolated subcellular fractions when kidneys from normal and castrated mice were compared. On the other hand there was an indication of a shift toward the bound ribosomes in livers from normal mice in comparison with livers from castrated mice. 3. Disappearance of the radioactivity followed the pattern of the first-order reaction. Comparing the half-lives of RNA in liver and kidneys it was found that in the latter in both groups of animals half-lives were shorter no matter which cellular fraction was studied. 4. The half-lives for total homogenate RNA, total ribosomal RNA and low-molecular-weight RNA from kidneys of castrated mice were ...
Histochemical studies and electron microscopy of Bacillus subtilis revealed the presence of ATPase in various subcellular fractions. The enzyme was preferentially localized in mesosomes, cytoplasmic membrane, periplasmic space, and cell wall ...
Rodent skin (extrahepatic) subcellular fractions, including matching pooled IGS Sprague-Dawley rat microsomes and S9 from dermal tissue, characterized for in vitro ADME studies to test the biotransformation of transdermal xenobiotics.
Hello - Does anybody can help with working protocol about differential or gradient centrifugation for subcellular fractionation of insect cells (Sf9 cell line)? Also, any information about the densities or/and sedimentation coefficients of different types of INSECT cell organelles would be helpful. Unfortunately, I have no possibility for electron microscopy and no knowledge about marker enzymes for insect cell organelles to design a good experimental protocol for determining the insect cell subcellular fractions. Merike Meier, PhD student meerike at ...
Sekisui XenoTech recently fulfilled its largest order of human liver subcellular fractions to date. A large pharmaceutical customer ordered over 30,000
1. Good laboratory practice, safety 2. Theoretical introduction to the laboratory tasks 3. Chromatography of biomacromolecules, evaluation of purification steps 4. Electrophoretic analysis of erythrocyte membrane proteins 5. Basic characterization of purified preparates of proteins 6. Enzyme kinetics (allosteric enzymes) 7. Modern methods of protein identification 8. Physical & chemical properties of proteins 9. Immunotechniques 10.Basic techniques of molecular biology 11.Isolation of subcellular particles 12.Study of basic metabolic events 13.Methods of determination of catalytical activity of enzymes 14.Evaluation, test and free discussion ...
This gene encodes a protein that plays an essential role in the production of iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters for the normal maturation of lipoate-containing 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases, and for the assembly of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes. Mutation in this gene has been associated with multiple mitochondrial dysfunctions syndrome-2. Two alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding different isoforms with distinct subcellular localization have been reported for this gene (PMID:21944046). [provided by RefSeq, Dec 2011 ...
We are studying the cellular expression of an enzyme which can exist both in the Golgi and at the level of the cell membrane. In vivo, subcellular fractionation is relatively straightforward using a differential gradient system. However, I have not come accross a parallel method for separating the plasma membranes and Golgi fractions from a cultured cell monolayer. This is a particular problem when the small amount of starting material is taken into consideration. Has anybody elso come accross this problem, or how it may be addressed? Kieran Breen Dept. of Pharmacology, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee DD1 9SY, Scotland, U.K. k.c.breen at ...
Protein subcellular localization has been systematically characterized in budding candida using fluorescently tagged proteins. on automatically recognized cells and whose cell-stage dependency is definitely captured by a continuous model for cell growth. We show that it is possible to identify most previously recognized localization patterns inside a cluster analysis based on these features and that similarities between the inferred manifestation patterns contain more information about protein function than can be explained by a earlier manual categorization of subcellular localization. Furthermore the inferred cell-stage connected to each fluorescence measurement allows us to visualize large groups of 2C-C HCl proteins entering the bud at specific phases of bud growth. These correspond to proteins localized to organelles exposing the organelles must be entering the bud inside a stereotypical order. We also determine and organize a smaller group of proteins that show delicate differences in the ...
Membrane vesicle trafficking is the transport of cell products between subcellular components like the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and Golgi apparatus.
Subcellular location of PGRMC2. Localized to the nuclear membrane, plasma membrane & cytoplasm. Analysis based on one antibody, HPA041172, using immunofluorescence in human cells
Subcellular location of IRS2. Mainly localized to the cytoplasm in human and mouse cells. Analysis based on one antibody, HPA054664, using immunofluorescence in human and mouse cells
Aim: To study the expression profile of the NaPi2b protein and its localization in breast, ovarian and lung cancer cells in relation to normal tissues adjacent
Due to the limited knowledge of the enzymes involved in the formation of LY404039, tissue homogenates were used in these studies instead of subcellular fractions to increase the possibility the enzymes involved would be represented. However, because these were human tissue preparations, the quality and treatment of the tissue, including the time interval between receipt and processing of the tissue, may be critical to the activity of these enzymes and may explain the observed large differences in Vmax values between donors (Tables 2 and 3). In accordance with this concept, the human plasma was freshly prepared and the range in Vmax values was substantially reduced.. Prior to incubations to establish kinetic parameters for pomaglumetad methionil hydrolysis, linear rate conditions for LY404039 formation were determined for each of the matrices by incubating multiple concentrations of pomaglumetad methionil, with varying protein concentrations of each matrix for increasing periods of time. Results ...
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A fraction by its very definition is a piece of data used to represent a fact. Fractions can be likened to percentages, ratios and decimals in that they all present a numeric piece of information considered as it relates to a whole data set. In this article...
0113] Free Neu5Gc can be taken up by human epithelial cells from an exogenous source and incorporated into different subcellular fractions. Evidence was presented suggesting that the small amounts of Neu5Gc found in some human tissues originated from dietary sources and showed that human Caco-2 cells (human epithelial cells from a primary colon carcinoma) in culture could metabolically incorporate free Neu5Gc, as determined by a Western blot of a total homogenate, using and anti-Neu5Gc antibody. Increasing incorporation of Neu5Gc was found in the total homogenate fraction of the cells over time, with the highest level reached after incubation with 3 mM Neu5Gc for 3 days. Moreover, Western blotting with an anti Neu5Gc antibody demonstrated metabolic incorporation of Neu5Gc into glycoproteins of these cells. The partitioning of the exogenous Neu5Gc into different subcellular fractions of these cells has now been studied. Prior to feeding, Caco-2 cells were split and cultured in human serum instead ...
Kernel discriminant analysis (KDA) is a dimension reduction and classification algorithm based on nonlinear kernel trick, which can be novelly used to treat high-dimensional and complex biological data before undergoing classification processes such as protein subcellular localization. Kernel parameters make a great impact on the performance of the KDA model. Specifically, for KDA with the popular Gaussian kernel, to select the scale parameter is still a challenging problem. Thus, this paper introduces the KDA method and proposes a new method for Gaussian kernel parameter selection depending on the fact that the differences between reconstruction errors of edge normal samples and those of interior normal samples should be maximized for certain suitable kernel parameters. Experiments with various standard data sets of protein subcellular localization show that the overall accuracy of protein classification prediction with KDA is much higher than that without KDA. Meanwhile, the kernel parameter of KDA
Pattern recognition and classification of images are key challenges throughout the life sciences. We combined two approaches for large-scale classification of fluorescence microscopy images. First, using the publicly available data set from the Cell Atlas of the Human Protein Atlas (HPA), we integrated an image-classification task into a mainstream video game (EVE Online) as a mini-game, named Project Discovery. Participation by 322,006 gamers over 1 year provided nearly 33 million classifications of subcellular localization patterns, including patterns that were not previously annotated by the HPA. Second, we used deep learning to build an automated Localization Cellular Annotation Tool (Loc-CAT). This tool classifies proteins into 29 subcellular localization patterns and can deal efficiently with multi-localization proteins, performing robustly across different cell types. Combining the annotations of gamers and deep learning, we applied transfer learning to create a boosted learner that can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The subcellular compartmentalization of arginine metabolizing enzymes and their role in endothelial dysfunction. AU - Chen, Feng. AU - Lucas, Rudolf. AU - Fulton, David. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - The endothelial production of nitric oxide (NO) mediates endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation and restrains vascular inflammation, smooth muscle cell proliferation, and platelet aggregation. Impaired production of NO is a hallmark of endothelial dysfunction and promotes the development of cardiovascular disease. In endothelial cells, NO is generated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) through the conversion of its substrate, L-arginine to L-citrulline. Reduced access to L-arginine has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying reduced eNOS activity and NO production in cardiovascular disease. The arginases (Arg1 and Arg2) metabolize L-arginine to generate L-ornithine and urea and increased expression of ...
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Fresh anterior pituitary glands from beef and pig were separated by differential centrifugation into subcellular fractions. Nuclei and debris were obtained at 700 g for 15 minutes, secretory granules at 7000 g for 20 minutes, mitochondria at 34,000 g for 15 minutes, and microsomes at 78,000 g for 3 hours. Electron micrographs were taken of the individual fractions. Each fraction was analyzed for nitrogen, pentosenucleic acid (PNA), and phospholipide. Beef and pig anterior lobes were quite similar in their intracellular composition as seen in the subcellular fractions. Succinic dehydrogenase was localized in mitochondria, while alkaline phosphatase was concentrated in the microsomes. A proteinase with pH optimum at 8.2 was exclusively localized. in microsomal and supernatant fractions. Acid phosphatase, acid ribonuclease, and acid proteinase were distributed among the subcellular fractions in another pattern, indicating the presence of a particle type distinct from mitochondria and microsomes. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - SecA2 is distinct from SecA in immunogenic specificity, subcellular distribution and requirement for membrane anchoring in Streptococcus parasanguis. AU - Chen, Qiang. AU - Wu, Hui. AU - Kumar, Reetu. AU - Peng, Zhixiang. AU - Fives-Taylor, Paula M.. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - A secA2 gene is present in the genomes of a wide variety of Gram-positive bacteria. In Streptococcus parasanguis, a primary colonizer of the tooth surface, secA2 is involved in the secretion of a small group of proteins including the fimbrial adhesin, Fap1. Although the substrate specificity is different, SecA2 is predicted to be similar to SecA in structure and function based on the homology between these two proteins. In this study, polyclonal antibodies against SecA2 and SecA did not cross-react with each other, indicating that these two proteins possessed distinct immunogenic epitopes. Fractionation analysis demonstrated that SecA2 was not evenly distributed between the cytoplasmic membrane and ...
Eukaryotic cells contain a huge variety of internally specialized subcellular compartments. Stoichiogenomics aims to reveal patterns of elements usage in biological macromolecules. However, the stoichiogenomic characteristics and how they adapt to various subcellular microenvironments are still unknown. Here we first updated the definition of stoichiogenomics. Then we applied it to subcellular research, and detected distinctive nitrogen content of nuclear and hydrogen, sulfur content of extracellular proteomes. Specially, we found that acidic amino acids (AAs) content of cytoskeletal proteins is the highest. The increased charged AAs are mainly caused by the eukaryotic originated cytoskeletal proteins. Functional subdivision of the cytoskeleton showed that activation, binding/association, and complexes are the three largest functional categories. Electrostatic interaction analysis showed an increased electrostatic interaction between both primary sequences and PPI interfaces of 3D structures, in the
These intriguing results compelled us to develop a wide range of analytical tools to better study the intricacies of cellular biosynthetic machinery. We have perfected non-aqueous subcellular fractionation techniques in order to separate chloroplasts and vacuoles from cytosol. We are operating a metabolite profiling system, using GC-MS, which allows us to distinguish among large numbers of metabolites within each of these samples (subcellular fractions or tissue samples). In excess of 300 compounds can be profiled in this way , 100 of these compounds having known chemical structures. A further experimental development that we are exploring is the use of chemically-inducible promoters to drive transgene expression in a controlled manner in order to study perturbations of metabolism on a temporal basis. In recent years we have additionally established an RT-PCR platform for tomato transcription factors and sensitive methods for following the metabolism of stable isotope labeled substrate and an ...
Cytokinin dehydrogenase (CKX; EC degrades cytokinin hormones in plants. There are several differently targeted isoforms of CKX in plant cells. While most CKX enzymes appear to be localized in the apoplast or vacuoles, there is generally only one CKX per plant genome that lacks a translocation signal and presumably functions in the cytosol. The only extensively characterized maize CKX is the apoplastic ZmCKX1; a maize gene encoding a non-secreted CKX has not previously been cloned or characterized. Thus, the aim of this work was to characterize the maize non-secreted CKX gene (ZmCKX10), elucidate the subcellular localization of ZmCKX10, and compare its biochemical properties with those of ZmCKX1. Expression profiling of ZmCKX1 and ZmCKX10 was performed in maize tissues to determine their transcript abundance and organ-specific expression. For determination of the subcellular localization, the CKX genes were fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) and overexpressed in tomato hairy ...
To elaborate on off-flavour development in dehydrated potato granules, lipids in subcellular particles and membrane systems of the tuber were investigated. Lipid acyl-hydrolase and lipoxygenase...
The distribution of survival times of rats subjected to acceleration stress of 20 Gz conforms to the Roginsky-Zeldovich or Elovich equation. This equation is derived from the hypothesis of electron or ion conduction across an activation energy barrier at the surface of a cell or subcellular particle, which suggests that tolerance to this acceleration stress is dependent upon such a biophysical process. Author
The more proteins diverged in sequence, the more difficult it becomes for bioinformatics to infer similarities of protein function and structure from sequence. The precise thresholds used in automated genome annotations depend on the particular aspect of protein function transferred by homology. Here, we presented the first large-scale analysis of the relation between sequence similarity and identity in subcellular localization. Three results stood out: (1) The subcellular compartment is generally more conserved than what might have been expected given that short sequence motifs like nuclear localization signals can alter the native compartment; (2) the sequence conservation of localization is similar between different compartments; and (3) it is similar to the conservation of structure and enzymatic activity. In particular, we found the transition between the regions of conserved and nonconserved localization to be very sharp, although the thresholds for conservation were less well defined than ...
Systems Biology requires comprehensive systematic data on all aspects and levels of biological organization and function. In addition to information on the sequence, structure, activities and binding interactions of all biological macromolecules, the creation of accurate predictive models of cell behaviour will require detailed information on the distribution of those molecules within cells and the ways in which those distributions change over the cell cycle and in response to mutations or external stimuli. Current information on subcellular location in protein databases is limited to unstructured text descriptions or sets of terms assigned by human curators. These entries do not permit basic operations that are common to other biological databases, such as measurement of the degree of similarity between the distributions of two proteins, and they are not able to fully capture the complexity of protein patterns that can be observed. The field of location proteomics seeks to provide automated, ...
Chlorotrifluoroethene is nephrotoxic in rats, and glutathione S-transferase-catalyzed S-(2-chloro-1,1,2-trifluorethyl)glutathione (CTFG) formation is the initial step in its bioactivation. CTFG biosynthesis and the activities of cytosolic and microsomal glutathione S-transferases were measured in rat and human hepatocytes and in human hepatoma-derived Hep G2 cells. Hepatocytes of , or = 88% viability were obtained from rat or human liver slices by collagenase or collagenase+dispase digestion, respectively. Hep G2 cells were grown in modified Earles medium supplemented with 10% (v/v) fetal calf serum. Cells and subcellular fractions were exposed to chlorotrifluoroethene, and CTFG formation was quantified by HPLC. Both human liver and Hep G2 cell subcellular fractions catalyzed CTFG formation, and human and rat microsomal fractions exhibited higher specific activities than cytosolic fractions with chlorotrifluoroethene as the substrate. Time-dependent formation of CTFG was observed in all cell ...
Here we present protocols for detergent-free homogenization of cultured mammalian cells based on nitrogen cavitation and subsequent...
Ive fractionated some brain tissue using a kit from invitrogen which involves using different buffers and centrifugation speeds on the brain homogenate to fractionate the samples into a nuclear, cytosolic, cytoskeletal and membrane fraction. I confirmed fractionation had worked by running the fractions on a gel and western blotting for cytochrome C (membrane) NeuN (nuclear marker specific for neurons)and neurofilaments (cytoskeletal fraction). These gave the expected results - but when I blotted for my protein of interest - which by microscopy is both nuclear and cytoplasmic - it appeared in every fraction except the nuclear fraction ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phospholipase A in rat and chicken liver. T2 - Subcellular distribution and effects of treatment with estradiol and progesterone. AU - Gabriel, L.. AU - Shakir, K. M.M.. AU - Maor, D.. AU - Margolis, S.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. UR - UR - M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0018390367. VL - 38. SP - No. 77. JO - Federation proceedings. JF - Federation proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 3 I. ER - ...
Worksheets. Improper Fraction To Mixed Number Worksheet. Convert improper fraction converting fractions to mixed 2. Converting mixed fractions to improper a. Convert improper fraction mixed fractions to 2. Printable fraction worksheets convert mixed numbers to improper fractions 2 gif pixels primary maths pinterest. Printable fraction worksheets convert mixed numbers to improper fractions 2 gif pixels primary maths pinterest. The dell primary school home learning blog year 5 httpsmathcrush comfractionsws improper to mixed 2 pv gif. Convert improper fraction converting fractions to mixed 2. Reducing improper fractions to lowest terms a. Converting between improper fractions and mixed numbers. Simplify improper fractions to lowest terms harder version a. Free printable fraction worksheets riddles harder improper fractions worksheet 5b answers. Worksheets for fraction addition add a and mixed number. Comparing improper fractions to 12ths a. Worksheets for fraction multiplication multiply. Tazewellmath
NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor which is present in almost all cell types and is involved in many biological processed such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins RELA/p65, RELB, NFKB1/p105, NFKB1/p50, REL and NFKB2/p52 and the heterodimeric p65-p50 complex appears to be most abundant one. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state ...
Testing against regional requirements using fractionation techniques to separate contaminants by compound type, carbon range or specific compounds.
Wanstrup, J and Ranlov, P, Transfer amyloidosis. Ultrastrusture of the transferred subcellular fractions. (1968). Subject Strain Bibliography 1968. 1145 ...
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Obtenez ceci dans une bibliothèque! New-Opathies : an Emerging Molecular Reclassification of Human Disease. [Errol C Friedberg; World Scientific (Firm);] -- This book presents new insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of systemic diseases recently discovered to be due to specific defects in molecular assemblies, organelles, or other subcellular ...
For fractionation we use a Qiagen kit, but somehow I have a feeling that it must be technical problem of correct separation of cellular fractions. We suspect also that the protein can be attached to nuclear envelope and nuclear location can be linked to the developmental stage of the cells ...
Hong-Bin Shen and Kuo-Chen Chou, Gpos-mPLoc: A Top-Down Approach to Improve the Quality of Predicting Subcellular Localization of Gram-Positive Bacterial Proteins, Protein and Peptide Letters, 2009, 16, 1478-1484 ...
Decimal to Fraction Number calculator - online basic math function tool to convert decimal point number 0.67 to fraction equivalent. Simplest fraction: 0.67 = 67/100 = 67/100; percentage: 0.67 = 67/100 or 67%
Math Aids Com Fractions Worksheets Answers - Math Aids Com Fractions Worksheets Answers, Greater Than Less Than Worksheets Math Aids
De Duve, C; Wattiaux, R; Baudhuin, P (1962). Distribution of enzymes between subcellular fractions in animal tissues. Advances ... He specialized in subcellular biochemistry and cell biology and discovered new cell organelles. The hormone glucagon was ... Then one day they measured the enzyme activity of some purified cell fractions that had been stored for five days. To their ... After the confirmation of lysosome, de Duve's team was troubled by the presence (in the rat liver cell fraction) of the enzyme ...
Blankenship J (1978). "Deacetylation of N8-acetylspermidine by subcellular fractions of rat tissue". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. ...
"3H-dihydromorphine binding sites in subcellular fractions of rat striatum". Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 34 (1-3): 73-78. PMID ...
"Biotransformation of bisphenol F by human and rat liver subcellular fractions". Toxicology in Vitro. 22 (7): 1697-1704. doi: ...
"Stereospecific and nonspecific interactions of the morphine congener levorphanol in subcellular fractions of mouse brain". ...
"Stereospecific and nonspecific interactions of the morphine congener levorphanol in subcellular fractions of mouse brain". ... Terenius L (1973). "Stereospecific interaction between narcotic analgesics and a synaptic plasm a membrane fraction of rat ...
... and bactericidal substances in subcellular fractions of human polymorphonuclear leukocytes". Infect. Immun. 4 (2): 97-102. doi: ...
"Top Down Proteomics Reveals Mature Proteoforms Expressed in Subcellular Fractions of the Echinococcus granulosus Preadult Stage ...
"Ontogeny of puromycin-sensitive and insensitive aminopeptidase activities in several subcellular fractions of the rat brain". ...
Isolated photosystems and sub-cellular photosynthetic fractions may be able to directly reduce the anode if the biological ... Sub-cellular fractions of photosynthetic organisms, such as purified thylakoid membranes, can also be used in biological ... These organisms are able to use light energy to drive the oxidation of water, and a fraction of the electrons produced by this ... or fractions thereof, to harvest light energy and produce electrical power. Biological photovoltaic devices are a type of ...
... and examining sub-cellular fractions for radioactivity. He found that after longer periods of times (hours, days) radioactively ... labeled proteins were present in all subcellular fractions. However, if they allowed less time to pass, radioactivity was found ...
Wu P, Bremer J (Nov 1994). "Activation of alkylthioacrylic acids in subcellular fractions of rat tissues: a new ... Singh I, Lazo O, Kremser K (Sep 1993). "Purification of peroxisomes and subcellular distribution of enzyme activities for ... Singh I, Lazo O, Kremser K (Sep 1993). "Purification of peroxisomes and subcellular distribution of enzyme activities for ... Amigo L, McElroy MC, Morales MN, Bronfman M (May 1992). "Subcellular distribution and characteristics of ciprofibroyl-CoA ...
This technology is used primarily in the isolation of viral particles, subcellular organelles and fractions, and nucleic acids ... Vinichuk, M. (2010). "Accumulation of potassium, rubidium and caesium (133Cs and 137Cs) in various fractions of soil and fungi ... while most of the other isotopes have half-lives from a few seconds to fractions of a second. At least 21 metastable nuclear ...
"Deep sequencing of subcellular RNA fractions shows splicing to be predominantly co-transcriptional in the human genome but ...
... and immunochemical detection of hCG-like factor in subcellular bacterial fractions". Infection and Immunity. 53 (1): 95-8. doi: ...
The most widely used application of this technique is to produce crude subcellular fractions from a tissue homogenate such as ... The soluble fraction of any lysate can then be further separated into its constituents using a variety of methods. Differential ... In general, the smaller the subcellular component, the greater is the centrifugal force required to sediment it. ... In biological research, it can be used in the purification of mammalian cells, fractionation of subcellular organelles, ...
Subcellular fractions can be isolated by ultracentrifugation to provide molecular machinery that can be used in reactions in ...
... that a heat-sensitive high-molecular-weight subcellular fraction (the enzymes) and a heat-insensitive low-molecular-weight ... cytoplasm fraction (ADP, ATP and NAD+ and other cofactors) are required together for fermentation to proceed. This experiment ...
... that ROS are involved in AO induced toxicity causing peroxidative damage of lipids in various hepatic sub-cellular fractions ...
His research showed that a subcellular fraction prepared from cells of the immune system of an animal having cell-mediated ... Rosenfeld, S; Dressler, D (June 1974). "Transfer factor: a subcellular component that transmits information for specific immune ...
Replacement strategies include: Tissue culture Perfused organs Tissue slices Cellular fractions Subcellular fractions More ...
... a series of novel techniques that became available to investigate the migratory responder cells and subcellular fractions ... Sub-cellular components, such as the polarity patch generated by mating yeast, may also display chemotactic behavior. Positive ...
... molecules accumulate in both the ER and a subcellular vesicle fraction of low density called the lipid-rich vesicle fraction. ... The material in the lipid-rich vesicle fraction appears to be a post-ER intermediate in the transport process to the plasma ...
... including proteomic analyses of sub cellular fractions, genome-wide siRNA library screening, insertional mutagenesis, and a new ... Her laboratory uses many techniques including immunolocalisation at the light and electron microscope levels, sub cellular ...
... s were first isolated in an attempt to identify the subcellular compartment corresponding to the fraction of so- ... Whittaker VP (1965). "The application of subcellular fractionation techniques to the study of brain function". Progress in ... Bai F, Witzmann FA (2007). "Synaptosome proteomics". Sub-cellular Biochemistry. 43: 77-98. doi:10.1007/978-1-4020-5943-8_6. ...
A fraction of p97/CDC48 was also found in the nucleus. According to the crystal structures of full-length wild-type p97, six ... The subcellular localization of CDC48 has not been fully characterized, but is likely to be similar to the mammalian ... Many of these proteins serve as adaptors that link p97/CDC48 to a particular subcellular compartment to function in a specific ... In mammalian cells, p97 is predominantly localized to the cytoplasm, and a significant fraction is associated to membranes of ...
... membrane fraction to a vesicle-enriched fraction that is not associated with the synaptosomal membrane and not retained in ... Methamphetamine alters the subcellular location of VMAT2, which affects the distribution of dopamine in the cell. Treatment ... "from a plasmalemmal membrane-associated fraction to a vesicle-enriched, nonmembrane-associated fraction." Consistent with ... with methamphetamine relocates VMAT2 from a vesicle-enriched fraction to a location that is not continuous with synaptosomal ...
... subcellular localization of this protein in the liver indicated that the enzyme was mainly enriched in the microsomal fraction ...
... typically a fraction of a millimeter), the third one can provide images with resolutions well below 1 micrometer (i.e. sub- ...
Blobel G. and Sabatini, D.D., (1970).Controlled proteolysis of nascent polypeptides in rat liver cell fractions.I. Location of ... 12:347-49 IN AWE OF SUBCELLULAR COMPLEXITY: 50 Years of Trespassing Boundaries Within the Cell David D. Sabatini Annual Review ... 21, 2005 Sabatini, D.D. and Blobel (1970). Controlled proteolysis of nascent polypeptides in rat liver cell fractions. II. ... address them to specific subcellular locations and determine their disposition within a membrane. In the late 1970s, in ...
Lowering the intensity of the exercise to the so-called 'fat max' level (aerobic threshold or "AeT") will lower the fraction of ... "Heterogeneity in subcellular muscle glycogen utilisation during exercise impacts endurance capacity in men". The Journal of ... "Heterogeneity in subcellular muscle glycogen utilisation during exercise impacts endurance capacity in men". The Journal of ...
A third method of identifying [PSI+] is by the presence of Sup35 in the pelleted fraction of cellular lysate. When exposed to ... Also, the IPOD is the sub-cellular site to which amyloidogenic proteins are sequestered in yeast, and where prions like [PSI+] ...
Brumell JH, Volchuk A, Sengelov H, Borregaard N, Cieutat AM, Bainton DF, Grinstein S, Klip A (Dec 1995). "Subcellular ... "Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with ...
DeSa, R.J.; Hastings, J.W.; Vatter, A.E. (1963). "Luminescent "crystalline" particles: An organized subcellular bioluminescent ... Krieger, N.; Hastings, J.W. (1968). "Bioluminescence: pH activity profiles of related luciferase fractions". Science. 161 (3841 ... and the actual sub-cellular identity and location of the light emitting elements, which they termed scintillons. They ...
... -water mixtures have less volume than the sum of their individual components at the given fractions. Mixing equal ... Sub-cellular Biochemistry. 67: 235-237. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-5881-0_8. ISBN 978-94-007-5880-3. PMC 4314297. PMID 23400924. " ...
... the measurement window could be confined to a suitable fraction of the time of flight of the thermal wave (using a Fourier ... "Subcellular IR Imaging of a Metal-Carbonyl Moiety Using Photothermally Induced Resonance". Angewandte Chemie International ...
... where the fraction of fluorescing molecules is very small at each time. This stochastic response of molecules on the applied ... for measuring dry mass changes in sub-cellular compartments". Nature Communications. 11: 6256. arXiv:2002.08361. Bibcode: ... so that finally light can be emitted at only a small fraction of space, hence an increased resolution. As well in the 1990s ... pioneer of fluorescence microscopy techniques for visualization of bacterial subcellular proteins Green fluorescent protein ( ...
The human PAK1 was identified as a GTP-dependent interacting partner of Rac1 or Cdc42 in the cytosolic fraction from ... PAK1 localizes in distinct sub-cellular domains in the cytoplasm and nucleus. PAK1 regulates cytoskeleton remodeling, ... redistribution to distinct sub-cellular cellular sub-domains, stimulation or repression of expression of its genomic targets ... modulates snail's subcellular localization and functions". Cancer Research. 65 (8): 3179-84. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3480 ...
In onion bulbs their content may account for up to 80% of the organic sulfur fraction. Less is known about the content of ... According to their cellular and subcellular gene expression, and possible functioning the sulfate transporters gene family has ... Distinct sulfate transporter proteins mediate the uptake, transport and subcellular distribution of sulfate. ...
She purified "Fraction X", renaming it the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM) fraction, and showed that it contained highly ... She began to study the synthesis of the lipids that make up the subcellular membranes that divide the cell into compartments. ... She is known for her pioneering work on subcellular organelles and for her discovery of a connection between the endoplasmic ... This led her to hypothesize that a specialized membrane compartment, which she called Fraction X, might be responsible for the ...
The different centrifugation speeds often create separation into not more than two fractions, so the supernatant can be ... is a common procedure used to separate organelles and other sub-cellular particles based on their sedimentation rate. Although ...
... evidenced by a reduction of beta-catenin expression in the membrane protein fraction and an increase in the nuclear fraction. ... Ryo A, Nakamura M, Wulf G, Liou YC, Lu KP (September 2001). "Pin1 regulates turnover and subcellular localization of beta- ... In a guinea pig model of aortic stenosis and left ventricular hypertrophy, beta-catenin was shown to change subcellular ... There appears to be strict control over the subcellular localization of beta-catenin in cardiac muscle. Mice lacking beta- ...
"Enzymatic Properties and Subcellular Localization of Arabidopsis β-N-Acetylhexosaminidases". Plant Physiology. 145 (1): 5-16. ... "Combined N-Glycome and N-Glycoproteome Analysis of the Lotus japonicus Seed Globulin Fraction Shows Conservation of Protein ...
At present, it is still believed that molecular oxygen was not a significant fraction of Earth's atmosphere until after ... "Three-dimensional preservation of cellular and subcellular structures suggests 1.6 billion-year-old crown-group red algae". ...
A high fraction of enzymes involved in glycolysis, an ancient universal metabolic pathway, exhibit moonlighting behavior. ... For example, the tissue, cellular, or subcellular distribution of a protein may provide hints as to the function. Real-time PCR ... Bross CD, Howes TR, Abolhassani Rad S, Kljakic O, Kohalmi SE (March 2017). "Subcellular localization of Arabidopsis arogenate ... spectrometry is one of the tools used in proteomics to identify the presence of proteins in different cell types or subcellular ...
... and a heterogeneous fraction dubbed perivitellin-3 or PV3 fraction. Recent proteomic analyses, however, showed that the ... Bluemink JG (1967). The subcellular structure of the blastula of Limnaea stagnalis L. (Mollusca) and the metabolization of the ... Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology. Vol. 43. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 215-39. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-30880-5 ... where they were originally grouped in two most abundant protein fractions perivitellin-1 or PV1, perivitellin-2 or PV2 ( ...
Notice that the fraction is the reciprocal of that used for lifetime measurements). This technique was introduced by Jovin in ... "Homo-FRET imaging enables quantification of protein cluster sizes with subcellular resolution". Biophysical Journal. 97 (9): ...
"Subcellular Particles." Subcellular Particles., 1959. Turk B, Turk V (2009). "Lysosomes as 'Suicide Bags' in Cell Death: Myth ... It became clear that this enzyme from the cell fraction came from membranous fractions, which were definitely cell organelles, ... Novikoff AB, Beaufay H, De Duve C (July 1956). "Electron microscopy of lysosomerich fractions from rat liver". The Journal of ... They succeeded in detecting the enzyme activity from the microsomal fraction. This was the crucial step in the serendipitous ...
... for example the sub-cellular localization of the gene product or its physiological role. Many animal models serving as test ... have a lower total neutrophil fraction in the blood, a lower neutrophil enzymatic capacity, lower activity of the complement ...
Kittler JT, Rostaing P, Schiavo G, Fritschy JM, Olsen R, Triller A, Moss SJ (Jul 2001). "The subcellular distribution of ... "Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with ...
Each fraction ends with a specific precipitate. These precipitates are the separate fractions. Fractions I, II, and III are ... 1991 Birnie, G.D. Subcellular components: Preparation and Fractionation. Butterworth. 1972. Cohn, E.J. The history of plasma ... Fraction V is precipitated at pH 4.8. Fractions I, II, III, and IV are coprecipitated at 40% ethanol, with pH of 5.4 to 7.0, ... This is especially used for Fractions II and III. In addition, Gerlough combined the two fractions with IV into one step to ...
The target absorbs this optical energy, which is converted into heat; in most cases the amount of heat is a fraction of ... sub-cellular structures, and processes at the nanometer level, structures that were previously unresolvable by conventional ...
In a smaller fraction of ALCL patients, the 3' half of ALK is fused to the 5' sequence of TPM3 gene, encoding for tropomyosin 3 ... Gouzi JY, Moog-Lutz C, Vigny M, Brunet-de Carvalho N (December 2005). "Role of the subcellular localization of ALK tyrosine ...
Subcellular Biochemistry. Vol. 37. pp. 167-215. doi:10.1007/978-1-4757-5806-1_5. ISBN 978-1-4419-3447-5. PMID 15376621. Pike, L ... Sharma and colleagues reported that a fraction (20-40%) of GPI-anchored proteins are organized into high density clusters of 4- ...
Purified MAM from subcellular fractionation is enriched in enzymes involved in phospholipid exchange, in addition to channels ... Rusiñol AE, Cui Z, Chen MH, Vance JE (November 1994). "A unique mitochondria-associated membrane fraction from rat liver has a ... The introduction of tissue fractionation by Albert Claude allowed mitochondria to be isolated from other cell fractions and ... the alleged ER vesicle contaminants that invariably appeared in the mitochondrial fraction have been re-identified as ...
Blenis J, Resh MD (December 1993). "Subcellular localization specified by protein acylation and phosphorylation". Current ... avoid various nomenclatural problems but should not be taken to imply that these structures represent an appreciable fraction ...
... in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of the scallop Pecten maximus ... Distribution and linkage of domoic acid (amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of ... Distribution and linkage of domoic acid (amnesic shellfish poisoning toxins) in subcellular fractions of the digestive gland of ... Detection and sub-cellular distribution of the amnesic shellfish toxin, domoic acid, in the digestive gland of Octopus vulgaris ...
... and ribonucleic acid in the fines fraction. The proteins in both protein‐rich fractions appear to be the same as judged by ... In addition, a fraction composed largely of vascular tissue of the cotyledon was isolated. The nitrogen of the cell is ... These are two protein‐rich fractions (one of which appears to be aleurone grains), starch grains, a fines material, and cell ... concentrated in the two protein‐rich fractions, phytin in the aleurone grains, sucrose mostly in the fines fraction and to a ...
Analytical study of microsomes and isolated subcellular membranes from rat liver. II. Preparation and composition of the ... microsomal fraction ...
"Subcellular Fractions" by people in this website by year, and whether "Subcellular Fractions" was a major or minor topic of ... "Subcellular Fractions" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Relationship between Alzheimers disease clinical stage and Gq/11 in subcellular fractions of frontal cortex. J Neural Transm ( ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Subcellular Fractions" by people in Profiles. ...
Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water proton in subcellular fractions.. Authors: Ranade, S S. Shah, S. Phadke, R S ... Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water proton in subcellular fractions. Indian Journal of Biochemistry & Biophysics ...
Tissue Collection and Preparation of Subcellular Fractions. The tissue collection and isolation of hepatic subcellular ... The S9 fraction and the post-mitochondrial supernatant were prepared as described by Bauer et al. (1994). The fractions were ... Moreover, a relatively high fraction of geraniol absorbed in the bloodstream can be assumed if it does not undergo degradation ... Livers were collected to evaluate enzymatic activities on liver microsomal fraction.. Animal Care and Treatment. The ...
... subcellular fractions. We are experts for subcelluar fractionation of liver cells and liver s9 fraction. ... s9 fractions, a variety of microsome products, liver microsomes, ... PRIMACYT provides subcellular liver fractions from human and a ... Primacyt has introduced a portfolio of liver subcellular fractions, available as an S9 fraction, liver cytosol, and liver ... Subcellular fractions derived from liver contain a rich variety of metabolic enzymes for assessing the in vitro metabolism of ...
Subcellular Fractions / metabolism * Synaptic Vesicles / metabolism * Tetrabenazine / analogs & derivatives* * Tetrabenazine / ... Subcellular fractionation and regional distribution of [2-3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and serotonin uptake showed that the ...
Subcellular fractionation. Subcellular fractions were isolated as previously described.45 Cells were trypsinized, and pelleted ... Total cell lysate (100 μg) and subcellular fractions (100 μg) isolated as described above were solubilized in loading buffer ... panels B and C) Nuclear fractions (panel B) and total cell lysate (panel C) were isolated from WT and Bcl-2 overexpressing (B19 ... To determine the subcellular localization and level of expression of AR after treatment with Casodex and TNF-α, total cell ...
Extraction of Subcellular Fractions 10. Western Blotting 11. Immunohistochemistry 12. Wound Healing Migration Assay, Trans-Well ... Figure 2. Subcellular distribution of ABCG2 in A549 cells 51. Figure 3. Subcellular distribution of ABCG2 in A549 cells 52. ... Subcellular localization and distribution of the breast cancer resistance protein transporter in normal human tissues. Cancer ...
Subcellular Fractions (metabolism) Join CureHunter, for free Research Interface BASIC access!. Take advantage of free ...
Metabolism of caffeic acid by isolated rat hepatocytes and subcellular fractions. Toxicol.Lett. 7-21-2002;133(2-3):141-151. ...
Ontogeny of puromycin-sensitive and insensitive aminopeptidase activities in several subcellular fractions of the rat brain. de ...
Subcellular fractions were prepared from adult mouse hippocampus as described in Materials and Methods. Equal amounts (12 μg) ... H, Homogenate; P2, crude synaptosome fraction; LP1, presynaptic and postsynaptic membrane fraction. ... The crude synaptosome fraction was lysed by osmotic shock by adding 10 vol of ice-cold water containing protease inhibitors. ... The synaptic membrane fraction (LP1) was pelletted from this homogenate by centrifugation at 48,000 × g for 30 min and ...
Pelleting of subcellular fractions in 5-30 minutes; plasmid DNA separation in 3 hours. For use in the Optima MAX-XP Benchtop ... Major applications: Pelleting of subcellular fractions in 5-30 minutes; plasmid DNA separation in 3 hours. For use in the ...
Contribution of iron and protein contents from rat brain subcellular fractions to MR phase imaging. Magnetic Resonance in ...
Subcellular Fractions [A11.284.835]. *Intracellular Membranes [A11.284.835.514]. Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is ... Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes ...
LSD failed to cause an increase in 5-HT either in whole brain or in any subcellular frac-. tion, provided that the animals were ...
Morphological characterization of intact pseudobranch, subcellular fractions, and plasma membrane substructure. J. Cell Biol. ... 2C,D), of which a small fraction reacted weakly positive for cytokeratins(Fig. 2D), but most did not react at all with this ... On the other hand, a fraction of small, undifferentiated cells in our preparations was nicely stained by the antibody directed ...
The major group of enzymes in the liver that metabolize drugs can be isolated in a subcellular fraction termed the microsomes. ... Phase I oxidative enzymes are mostly found in the endoplasmic reticulum, a subcellular organelle in the liver. The predominant ... is responsible for the metabolism of a large fraction of drugs. A large amount of cytochrome P450 has not yet been ...
Deep sequencing of subcellular RNA fractions shows splicing to be predominantly co-transcriptional in the human genome but ... Analysis of lncRNA subcellular localization can also give clues to lncRNA functionality. This can be done with Fish-like ... A large fraction of extragenic RNA pol II transcription sites overlap enhancers. PLoS Biol 2010, 8, e1000384. [Google Scholar] ...
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A comparison with in vivo drug metabolism and drug metabolism in subcellular liver fractions. R E Billings, R E McMahon, J ...
VHH-Fc antibodies retrieve globulin precursors in the insoluble fraction and modulate the Arabidopsis thaliana seed subcellular ...
Absorption also depends sub-cellular fractions as well as buy Dianabol steroids online the comparison of PDE7B mRNA steroid who ...
Transcript expression was quantified across cell types and subcellular fractions as the number of fragments per kilobase per ... 1 in at least one subcellular fraction were considered for subsequent analyses (Additional file 5: Table S4). ... as measured by CAGE across cell types and subcellular fractions. (DOC 343 kb) ... a-c The fold-change in transcription frequency (fraction of loci with evidence of transcription initiation) for sites with ...
... may contribute to the subcellular deregulation of biometal homeostasis in NCLs. Importantly, the metal-complex, ZnII(atsm), ... Biometals accumulate in subcellular fractions that display Zip7 loss in presymptomatic CLN6 sheep occipital lobe. Sucrose ... We also probed fractions for CLN6, but were unable to detect CLN6 protein in any fraction (unpublished data). ... Together the data suggest complex deregulation of subcellular Zn pools in Cln6 cells - increased labile Zn in specific sub- ...
X. Wang, M. Shi, X. Lu et al., "A method for protein extraction from different subcellular fractions of laticifer latex in ... fraction were spotted on the sample plate, mixed them, and allowed to evaporate to dryness. Proteins of known molecular mass ( ...
  • Comparative metabolism of methyl parathion in intact and subcellular fractions of isolated rat hepatocytes. (
  • And as the premier supplier of hepatic products, including hepatocytes and subcellular fractions, BioIVT enables scientists to better understand the pharmacokinetics and drug metabolism of newly discovered compounds and their effects on disease processes. (
  • Microsomes and S9 fractions are characterized by CYP metabolism / SDS PAGE, Cytosol by SDS PAGE. (
  • Also, liver cells and subcellular liver fractions are provided for environmental toxicology studies of herbicide and pesticide metabolism and bioaccumulation studies in birds and fish, like rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) or Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). (
  • Subcellular fractions derived from liver contain a rich variety of metabolic enzymes for assessing the in vitro metabolism of drug candidates and xenobiotics. (
  • A comparison with in vivo drug metabolism and drug metabolism in subcellular liver fractions. (
  • SUMMARY Five fractions of parenchymatous cells of the cotyledon of the peanut were isolated by homogenization and differential centrifugation from nonaqueous media. (
  • Longobardi L, Granero-Moltó F, O'Rear L, Myers TJ, Li T, Kregor PJ, Spagnoli A. Subcellular localization of IRS-1 in IGF-I-mediated chondrogenic proliferation, differentiation and hypertrophy of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. (
  • Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. (
  • Analytical study of microsomes and isolated subcellular membranes from rat liver. (
  • Primacyt has introduced a portfolio of liver subcellular fractions, available as an S9 fraction, liver cytosol, and liver microsomes. (
  • PRIMACYT provides subcellular liver fractions from human and a variety of animals for use in drug development in human and animal health. (
  • The Liver microsome, S9 fractions, and cytosolic extracts are characterized by SDS-PAGE analysis and the determination of Cytochrome P450 activities. (
  • The assay was performed in mussels exposed to primary-treated effluents and revealed increased anisotropy of the subcellular fraction of the digestive gland suggesting NP-like effects. (
  • In conclusion, polystyrene NP induces anisotropic effects at the subcellular fraction of the digestive gland as determined with the FOE probe. (
  • The substance is readily biodegradable and is expected to have a low bioaccumulation potential based on the low octanol water partition coefficient and biotransformation observed in the in-vitro biotransformation test using rainbow trout hepatic S9 subcellular fraction. (
  • Subcellular fractionation and regional distribution of [2-3H]dihydrotetrabenazine binding and serotonin uptake showed that the ligand binds to synaptic vesicles. (
  • Subcellular Fractions" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water proton in subcellular fractions. (
  • Ranade SS, Shah S, Phadke RS, Kasturi SR. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water proton in subcellular fractions. (
  • Immunoblotting revealed that arsenic-exposed offspring had significantly lower levels of both GR and mineralocorticoid receptors in the activated nuclear subcellular fraction than controls. (
  • Instead, many of them are first transported from the nuclear periphery to various subcellular territories where their corresponding proteins will perform their cellular functions. (
  • These are two protein‐rich fractions (one of which appears to be aleurone grains), starch grains, a fines material, and cell wall fragments. (
  • Immunoelectrophoretic analysis of subcellular preparations from cotytedons confirms that a-arachin is an aleurin and that c1-conarachin is a typical cytoplasmic protein. (
  • For all fractions, the Protein content in mg/ml is availableSubcellular fractions are suitable for a variety of experiments including Metabolic Stability, Cytochrome P450 Phenotyping, Metabolite Characterization, Cytochrome P450 Inhibition Studies, Metabolic Stabilit, Cytochrome P450 Phenotyping, and Metabolite Characterization. (
  • Substantial progressive loss of the ER/Golgi-resident Zn transporter, Zip7, which colocalized with the disease-associated protein, CLN6, may contribute to the subcellular deregulation of biometal homeostasis in NCLs. (
  • However, these RNAs were not the ones playing a role in protein synthesis but those that were present in another of the subcellular fractions used for the in vitro synthesis system. (
  • However, extensive research in the last two decades addressing the fate of the messenger RNAs following their transport into the cytoplasm suggest that a significant fraction of total cellular mRNAs do not immediately engage in translation (protein production). (
  • The major proteins of the classic arachin and conarachin fractions have been identified. (
  • Here we show that altered biometal trafficking pathways involve loss of ER-co-localized transmembrane proteins, CLN6 and the metal transporter Zip7, triggering subcellular metal accumulation in presymptomatic CLN6 disease. (
  • Directed transport of an mRNA to a specific subcellular zone saves a lot of cellular energy," says Dr. Anusha Chaudhuri, one of the study's authors. (
  • Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS . (
  • In subcellular fractions derived from human donors, we monitor the specific activities of cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyl-transferases (UGT). (
  • Ontogeny of puromycin-sensitive and insensitive aminopeptidase activities in several subcellular fractions of the rat brain. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Subcellular Fractions" by people in this website by year, and whether "Subcellular Fractions" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • In addition, a fraction composed largely of vascular tissue of the cotyledon was isolated. (
  • Although increasing the concentrations of 50 nm polystyrene NP in buffer alone did not change polarization, the addition of the subcellular fraction increased polarisation of the dye in a concentration-dependent manner. (
  • However, the presence of 1 antigen in the large aleurone fraction, which is not present in the small aleurone fraction could signify a' difference between these 2 particles or could simpfWi originate from contamination by the nuclei. (
  • PRIMACYT Subcellular Fractions - Choose from our large collection, containg a wide variety of species. (
  • Electron microscopic cytochemical and biochemical subcellular fractionation experiments demonstrate binding and uptake of labeled surfactant components by type II pneumocytes [ 5 , 7 , 9 , 11 , 12 ]. (
  • ht-UtLM) cells, we conducted systematic confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation analysis using ERα36 antibodies. (
  • Fractionation studies showed that ERα36 existed predominantly in membrane fractions, with minimal or undetected amounts in the cytosol, nuclear, chromatin, and cytoskeletal fractions. (
  • We have developed a R apid, E fficient A nd P ractical ( REAP ) method for subcellular fractionation of primary and transformed human cells in culture. (
  • This method drastically reduces the time needed for subcellular fractionation, eliminates detectable protein degradation and maintains protein interactions. (
  • A majority of the established methods of subcellular fractionation are based on subtle variations of the sucrose density gradient method, often with addition of detergents to solubilize membrane proteins [ 10 , 11 ]. (
  • Utilizing differential centrifugation or density gradient centrifugation for subcellular fractionation, dsRNA was found associated specifically with fractions containing 80-100 nm spherical membrane vesicles. (
  • Here, we used a rigorous subcellular fractionation approach to compare APA profiles of cytoplasmic and nuclear RNA fractions from human cell lines. (
  • The subcellular fractionation study indicates that mannose labeled liposomes are incorporated into lysosomes rich fraction both in liver and brain. (
  • Subcellular fractionation revealed an abnormal recruitment of PKC-beta(I) and -beta(II), but not PKC-delta, to particulate fractions in p47(phox)-deficient cells. (
  • Subcellular localization. (
  • however, the subcellular localization of ERα36 remains controversial. (
  • With the establishment of differential expression of the proteins in colon cancer, their subcellular localization was analyzed. (
  • Surprisingly, subcellular levels of CKB were decreased in colon tumors, suggesting that the observed high CKB levels in nuclear matrix extracts are caused by the enhanced localization of CKB to the nuclear matrix during colon tumorigenesis. (
  • The REAP method also performed well for TNFα induced NF-κB NCPT, corroborating changes in subcellular localization visualized in parallel by indirect immunofluorescence in mouse embryonic fibroblast cells. (
  • Protein subcellular localization prediction using artificial intelligence technology. (
  • One aspect of protein function that has been the target of intensive research by computational biologists is its subcellular localization. (
  • Aberrant subcellular localization of proteins can result in several diseases, including kidney stones, cancer, and Alzheimer's disease. (
  • However, the application of advanced artificial intelligence (AI)-based techniques in recent years has resulted in significant improvements in our ability to predict the subcellular localization of a protein. (
  • Ab initio methods that predict subcellular localization for any protein sequence using only the native amino acid sequence and features predicted from the native sequence have shown the most remarkable improvements. (
  • In this chapter, we review some of the most important methods for the prediction of subcellular localization. (
  • Multi-label classification has received increasing attention in computational proteomics, especially in protein subcellular localization. (
  • This scheme is integrated into our recently proposed subcellular localization predictor that uses the frequency of occurrences of gene-ontology terms as feature vectors and one-vs-rest SVMs as classifiers. (
  • Experimental results on two recent datasets suggest that the scheme can effectively avoid both over-prediction and under-prediction, resulting in performance significantly better than other gene-ontology based subcellular localization predictors. (
  • Masuda, W & Jimi, E 2011, ' CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase in the rat sublingual gland: Subcellular localization under resting and saliva-secreting conditions ', Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics , vol. 513, no. 2, pp. 131-139. (
  • An equally important part of proteomics is to map the subcellular distribution of all human proteins. (
  • An important question vital to the task of characterization of unannotated proteins is "In what subcellular compartment does a particular uncharacterized protein reside? (
  • The current student project is to set up and train artificial neural networks to allow prediction of subcellular locations of all uncharacterized proteins from the differential-centrifugation proteomic data. (
  • and 5) application of the trained neural net to predict the subcellular locations of all previously uncharacterized proteins. (
  • Here, we used tandem mass tag labeling coupled with mass spectrometry to reveal that changing the mRNA decay landscape, as frequently occurs during viral infection, results in subcellular redistribution of RNA binding proteins (RBPs) in human cells. (
  • The spatial proteomics method analyses a whole cell extract created by recombining differentially labeled subcellular fractions derived from cells in which proteins have been mass labeled with heavy isotopes [Boisvert, F.-M., Lam, Y. W., Lamont, D., Lamond, A. I., Mol. (
  • To track NCPT in the absence of these experimental manipulations that could introduce unknown artefacts, we have developed a rapid method that appears to produce pure nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, suitable for obtaining accurate estimates of the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratios of proteins known to undergo NCPT. (
  • The simplicity, brevity and efficiency of this procedure allows for tracking ephemeral changes in subcellular relocalization of proteins while maintaining protein integrity and protein complex interactions. (
  • 1.?Data The presented data include info within the proteins of different subcellular fractions in blood and their concentration (Table 1), and proteins masses obtained from the mass-spectroscopy (Table 2). (
  • These strategies include metal sequestration in subcellular compartments such as cytosolic metal-binding proteins (metallothioneins or metallothionein-like proteins) and metal-rich granules. (
  • In this study, we developed two-dimensional (2D) maps of the major proteins of the different subcellular compartments of host-derived MtrA response regulator protein as cell wall-associated proteins. (
  • B) Traditional western blot of striatal proteins extracts (total proteins and synaptic fractions) from WT and NR1-KD Flurizan manufacture mice, immunoblotted for TH proteins, 14-3-3, and GAPDH like a launching control. (
  • Proteins must be localized in the same subcellular compartment to cooperate toward a common physiological function. (
  • Studies carried out on liver subcellular fractions demonstrated that T2 not only increases the activity and the expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase but also of other proteins linked to DNL such as the mitochondrial citrate carrier and the cytosolic ATP citrate lyase. (
  • A protein from a gel spot or a separated subcellular fraction is proteolytically digested and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Proteins are identified by comparison of measured peptide fragment ions with those predicted by in silico digestion of a protein database. (
  • /metabolism Used with organs, cells and subcellular fractions for biochemical changes and metabolism. (
  • Therefore, prior considerations arising particularly from human in vitro programs could also be unfounded and the main focus of investigation sooner or later needs to be to reduce the potential in vitro assay limitations frequent to complete cells and subcellular fractions. (
  • Similar experiments were done with 14 probe compounds in human cytosol fractions. (
  • Gel-filtered cytosol from L-FABP null liver lacked the main fatty acid binding peak in the fraction that normally comprises both L-FABP and sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2). (
  • Protein extracts (whole cell lysates and microsomal fractions) were prepared from liver tissue and the expression of various CYP isozymes was determined by Western blot analysis. (
  • From the data on densities, volumes, volume fractions, and mass calculated the probable distribution of water in rat hearts at the fractions observed mainly on left ventricular myocardium, cytoplasm, levels of whole tissue and intracellular composition. (
  • In these studies we have examined the subcellular distribution of sialidase (SE) in human neutrophils as well as the mobilization of this enzyme following neutrophil activation. (
  • Since then, PPIns have been linked to almost every important cellular process, including conserved roles in vesicular trafficking, signal transduction, ion channel regulation, as well as, most recently, to the control of lipid transport between various subcellular compartments (3). (
  • The most reliable correlations in terms of lowest bias and highest precision were observed by comparing in vivo CL int , calculated using the parallel-tube model and incorporating fraction unbound in blood, with in vitro CL int determined using relative activity factors and adjusted for nonspecific binding. (
  • Subcellular fractions such as liver microsomes are useful in vitro models for investigation of hepatic clearance and drug-drug interactions. (
  • Fukutin was present in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions in the mouse retina and 661W cells, and accumulated in the endoplasmic reticulum. (
  • The highest binding relative to protein content occurs in the striatum regionally act and in microsomal fractions subcellularly. (
  • Also available are specifically genotyped human liver fractions as well as induced animal liver fractions, and the largest commercially available pool of human liver microsomes, XTreme 200. (
  • Special attention is paid to some subcellular fractions such as mitochondria and microsomes where important metabolic pathways take place. (
  • This approach allowed us to extract APA isoforms that are subjected to differential regulation and provided us with a platform to interrogate the molecular regulatory pathways that shape APA profiles in different subcellular locations. (
  • Fractions corresponding to absorption peaks were pooled, diluted with water, centrifuged at 27,000 for 30 min, and washed repeatedly to remove sucrose. (
  • Under resting conditions, CD38/ADP-ribosyl cyclase activity in the post-nuclear fraction of SLG homogenates was separated into two major peaks by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. (
  • The subcellular fractions studied both showed high protein levels of hnRNP F in colon tumors compared with normal colon tissues. (
  • Precisely measured protein lifetimes in the mouse brain reveal differences across tissues and subcellular fractions. (
  • Ceramides (N-acylsphingosine) are one of the hydrolysis byproducts of sphingomyelin by the enzyme sphingomyelinase (sphingomyelin phosphorylcholine phosphohydrolase E.C. which has been identified in the subcellular fractions of human epidermis (PMID 25935) and many other tissues. (
  • Consistently, TEM micrographs and the determination of total silver in subcellular fractions indicated that this Ag+ accumulated preferentially in mitochondria and in smaller concentrations in nucleus, where interact with DNA. (
  • Finally, TEM micrographs and the determination of total silver in subcellular fractions reinforce the idea that Ag+ released from AgNPs-EPSaer firstly in mitochondria and then in nuclei determines cell damage and death. (
  • Pooled human liver cytosolic fractions. (
  • Liver cytosolic fractions prepared from a pool of male Beagle Dogs. (
  • The nucleus and the cytoplasm have very distinct macromolecular composition and separation of nuclear and cytosolic fractions is proving very useful for proteomic analysis [ 9 ]. (
  • Such techniques yield useful information about the biochemical properties of the metal-biomolecule complexes and further our understanding of metal interactions with subcellular biomolecules involved in metal toxicity. (
  • Once subcellular targets of trace metal have been identified, the biochemical and physiological consequences of metal binding to these biomolecules are determined. (
  • These technologies will be specifically directed at the fundamental technological challenges inherent in acquiring quantitative information at the high anatomic resolution (subcellular) and biologically relevant timescales necessary for temporal and spatial characterization of complex biochemical pathways and molecular interactions. (
  • In prior studies, we have applied protein mass spectrometry (proteomic) techniques to analyze the protein composition of subcellular fractions from differential centrifugation. (
  • Separation of subcellular fractions by density gradient centrifugation showed that SE is present not only in neutrophil primary and secondary granule populations, like lysozyme, but also in plasma membrane fractions. (
  • To further investigate the effect of p53 activation, we used a MS-based proteomics method to provide an unbiased, quantitative and high-throughput approach for measuring the subcellular distribution of the proteome that is dependent on p53. (
  • Here we present a spatiotemporal dissection of proteome single cell heterogeneity in human cells, performed with subcellular resolution over the course of a cell cycle. (
  • LION/web was validated by analyzing a lipidomic dataset derived from well-characterized sub-cellular fractions of RAW 264.7 macrophages. (
  • This approach is important in biochemistry and biotechnology since it is a required step in every procedure used in biological research, from the separation of cell organelles to sophisticated investigations including the separation of sub-cellular fractions. (
  • Neutrophil activation was associated with a redistribution of SE from secondary granule-enriched fractions to the plasma membrane. (
  • Binding studies were performed using crude membrane fractions from CHO cells expressing the mPR-alpha. (
  • 0.001) to membrane fractions from CHO cells expressing ovine mPR-alpha. (
  • Analysis of the Phosphoinositide Composition of Subcellular Membrane Fractions. (
  • The subcellular distribution data also suggest that the d-LSD acceptor substance need not be confined to the neuronal soma or terminal membrane. (
  • The supernatant was centrifuged at 27,000 for 30 min, and the supernatant from this step was recentrifuged at 100,000 for 2 h to LY294002 provide the membrane fraction and the soluble cytosolic fraction. (
  • While the relative amount of PPIns lipids represent only a small fraction (2-6%) of the total PI, the seven distinct PPIns members show high membrane turnover rates and numerous human enzymes are dedicated to their formation as well as degradation. (
  • Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaM-kinase II) purified from rat brain by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose is highly enriched in the cytoskeletal fraction. (
  • Entry into mitosis is regulated by the subcellular relocalization of Cdc2/cyclin B, which is rapidly imported into the nucleus at the end of G2. (
  • For the formation of chemical substances in organisms, living cells, or subcellular fractions, "biosynthesis" is used. (
  • A hippocampal subcellular fraction that is highly enriched in large mossy fiber nerve endings was developed for this purpose. (
  • Protein kinase C: subcellular redistribution by increased Ca2+ influx. (
  • 261, 11608-11612), which points to the possible importance of Ca2+ influx in the subcellular redistribution (activation) of protein kinase C in intact cells. (
  • 3. The subcellular organelles were located in the density gradient by assay of marker enzymes and previously unassigned enzymes were localized to particular organelles. (
  • Using the inhibition of ouabain-insensitive sodium transport in erythrocytes as an assay to identify the factor, we ran the crude promyelocyte extract through Sephadex G-25 and G-10, with an intermediate ion-exchange step on DE-32, and finally subjected the active fraction to reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (
  • The specific inhibitory activity of the final fraction was 180-fold higher than that of the crude promyelocyte extract. (
  • The subcellular distribution of kinase activity in crude cytosolic and microtubular preparations was investigated. (
  • Similar to subcellular metal partitioning studies, these techniques are applied to several aquatic organisms collected from metal-impacted regions or laboratory exposures. (
  • /genetics Used for genetic aspects of subcellular elements. (
  • Total protein concentration: 20 mg/ml We provide liver subcellular fractions from a variety of tox species, including human, nonhuman primates (Cynomolgus Monkey and Rhesus Monkey), dog (Beagle), rat (Sprague-Dawley), mouse (CD-1. (
  • Table 1 Total protein concentration in the subcellular fractions of the blood of individuals with different side-effects. (
  • Here, we discuss methodologies for systematic subcellular profiling with emphasis on the antibody-based approach performed as a part of the Human Protein Atlas project. (
  • S9 fraction consists of both microsomal and cytosolic enzymes (SULT, GST, XO, ADHs, NATs) and it can be supplemented with cofactors such as UDPGA and PAPS to investigate Phase II metabolic pathways. (
  • Liver S9 fractions prepared from a pool of male Sprague Dawley rats. (
  • Once subcellular metal partitioning measurements have been done, information is available on the fractions where high metal accumulation occurs. (
  • This allows the accurate estimation of intrinsic clearance from stability incubations by correcting the experimental clearance with the fraction of drug unbound in the incubation. (
  • Degradation occurred mainly in microsomal and soluble fractions. (
  • Examination of the degradative activity of the soluble fraction suggested that glutathione alkyltranferase catalysed the conjugation of azinphos-methyl and glutathione, the only products found being S-methyl glutathione and desmethyl azinphos-methyl. (
  • Comparison of ERα36 and ERα66 domain structures and subcellular ERα36 staining patterns. (
  • Comparison of ERα36 and ERα66 domain structures and subcellular ERα36 staining patterns in human uterine smooth muscle (ht-UtSMC) and leiomyoma cells (ht-UtLM). (
  • The high-affinity binding is saturable (half-saturation at 4 nM) and shows definite regional and subcellular differences. (
  • Pseudo-total concentrations of Cu were high in all wastes, mainly in the artisanal rock waste, with 19,034 mg kg-1, of which 61% is concentrated in the most reactive fractions. (
  • Protein concentrations of all subcellular fractions were measured by the bicinchoninic acid assay reagent (Pierce, Rockford, Ill.), and the amount of the total carbohydrate was estimated (10). (
  • C) Densitometry from the O.D. of TH and 14-3-3 amounts within total and synaptic fractions, normalized to GAPDH. (