Intracranial Pressure: Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.Brain Infarction: Tissue NECROSIS in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Brain infarction is the result of a cascade of events initiated by inadequate blood flow through the brain that is followed by HYPOXIA and HYPOGLYCEMIA in brain tissue. Damage may be temporary, permanent, selective or pan-necrosis.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Brain Injuries: Acute and chronic (see also BRAIN INJURIES, CHRONIC) injuries to the brain, including the cerebral hemispheres, CEREBELLUM, and BRAIN STEM. Clinical manifestations depend on the nature of injury. Diffuse trauma to the brain is frequently associated with DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY or COMA, POST-TRAUMATIC. Localized injuries may be associated with NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; HEMIPARESIS, or other focal neurologic deficits.Intracranial Hypertension: Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.Cerebral Infarction: The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).Subarachnoid Space: The space between the arachnoid membrane and PIA MATER, filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID. It contains large blood vessels that supply the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.Brain Edema: Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)Infarction: Formation of an infarct, which is NECROSIS in tissue due to local ISCHEMIA resulting from obstruction of BLOOD CIRCULATION, most commonly by a THROMBUS or EMBOLUS.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Glasgow Coma Scale: A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.Pseudotumor Cerebri: A condition marked by raised intracranial pressure and characterized clinically by HEADACHES; NAUSEA; PAPILLEDEMA, peripheral constriction of the visual fields, transient visual obscurations, and pulsatile TINNITUS. OBESITY is frequently associated with this condition, which primarily affects women between 20 and 44 years of age. Chronic PAPILLEDEMA may lead to optic nerve injury (see OPTIC NERVE DISEASES) and visual loss (see BLINDNESS).Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Hydrocephalus: Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glasgow Outcome Scale: A scale that assesses the outcome of serious craniocerebral injuries, based on the level of regained social functioning.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Decompressive Craniectomy: Excision of part of the skull. This procedure is used to treat elevated intracranial pressure that is unresponsive to conventional treatment.Ischemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Cerebral Hemorrhage: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Papilledema: Swelling of the OPTIC DISK, usually in association with increased intracranial pressure, characterized by hyperemia, blurring of the disk margins, microhemorrhages, blind spot enlargement, and engorgement of retinal veins. Chronic papilledema may cause OPTIC ATROPHY and visual loss. (Miller et al., Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p175)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cerebrovascular Disorders: A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.Intracranial Aneurysm: Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)Head Injuries, Closed: Traumatic injuries to the cranium where the integrity of the skull is not compromised and no bone fragments or other objects penetrate the skull and dura mater. This frequently results in mechanical injury being transmitted to intracranial structures which may produce traumatic brain injuries, hemorrhage, or cranial nerve injury. (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p417)Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Ventriculostomy: Surgical creation of an opening in a cerebral ventricle.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Cerebrospinal Fluid Shunts: Tubes inserted to create communication between a cerebral ventricle and the internal jugular vein. Their emplacement permits draining of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus or other condition leading to fluid accumulation in the ventricles.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Intracranial Embolism and Thrombosis: Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.Brain Injury, Chronic: Conditions characterized by persistent brain damage or dysfunction as sequelae of cranial trauma. This disorder may result from DIFFUSE AXONAL INJURY; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; BRAIN EDEMA; and other conditions. Clinical features may include DEMENTIA; focal neurologic deficits; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; AKINETIC MUTISM; or COMA.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Cerebral Arteries: The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Spinal Puncture: Tapping fluid from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region, usually between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Craniotomy: Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Stroke, Lacunar: Stroke caused by lacunar infarction or other small vessel diseases of the brain. It features hemiparesis (see PARESIS), hemisensory, or hemisensory motor loss.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Diuretics, Osmotic: Compounds that increase urine volume by increasing the amount of osmotically active solute in the urine. Osmotic diuretics also increase the osmolarity of plasma.Leukoaraiosis: Non-specific white matter changes in the BRAIN, often seen after age 65. Changes include loss of AXONS; MYELIN pallor, GLIOSIS, loss of ependymal cells, and enlarged perivascular spaces. Leukoaraiosis is a risk factor for DEMENTIA and CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Blood-Brain Barrier: Specialized non-fenestrated tightly-joined ENDOTHELIAL CELLS with TIGHT JUNCTIONS that form a transport barrier for certain substances between the cerebral capillaries and the BRAIN tissue.Brain Concussion: A nonspecific term used to describe transient alterations or loss of consciousness following closed head injuries. The duration of UNCONSCIOUSNESS generally lasts a few seconds, but may persist for several hours. Concussions may be classified as mild, intermediate, and severe. Prolonged periods of unconsciousness (often defined as greater than 6 hours in duration) may be referred to as post-traumatic coma (COMA, POST-HEAD INJURY). (From Rowland, Merritt's Textbook of Neurology, 9th ed, p418)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Aneurysm, Ruptured: The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.Blast Injuries: Injuries resulting when a person is struck by particles impelled with violent force from an explosion. Blast causes pulmonary concussion and hemorrhage, laceration of other thoracic and abdominal viscera, ruptured ear drums, and minor effects in the central nervous system. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Cerebral Ventricles: Four CSF-filled (see CEREBROSPINAL FLUID) cavities within the cerebral hemispheres (LATERAL VENTRICLES), in the midline (THIRD VENTRICLE) and within the PONS and MEDULLA OBLONGATA (FOURTH VENTRICLE).Cerebrospinal Fluid Pressure: Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.Intracranial Embolism: Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Injury Severity Score: An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Transducers, Pressure: Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.Post-Concussion Syndrome: The organic and psychogenic disturbances observed after closed head injuries (HEAD INJURIES, CLOSED). Post-concussion syndrome includes subjective physical complaints (i.e. headache, dizziness), cognitive, emotional, and behavioral changes. These disturbances can be chronic, permanent, or late emerging.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cerebral Ventriculography: Radiography of the ventricular system of the brain after injection of air or other contrast medium directly into the cerebral ventricles. It is used also for x-ray computed tomography of the cerebral ventricles.Arachnoid: A delicate membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord. It lies between the PIA MATER and the DURA MATER. It is separated from the pia mater by the subarachnoid cavity which is filled with CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Subdural Space: Potential cavity which separates the ARACHNOID MATER from the DURA MATER.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Hydrostatic Pressure: The pressure due to the weight of fluid.Trauma Severity Indices: Systems for assessing, classifying, and coding injuries. These systems are used in medical records, surveillance systems, and state and national registries to aid in the collection and reporting of trauma.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Brain Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.Cisterna Magna: One of three principal openings in the SUBARACHNOID SPACE. They are also known as cerebellomedullary cistern, and collectively as cisterns.Brain Abscess: A circumscribed collection of purulent exudate in the brain, due to bacterial and other infections. The majority are caused by spread of infected material from a focus of suppuration elsewhere in the body, notably the PARANASAL SINUSES, middle ear (see EAR, MIDDLE); HEART (see also ENDOCARDITIS, BACTERIAL), and LUNG. Penetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA and NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES may also be associated with this condition. Clinical manifestations include HEADACHE; SEIZURES; focal neurologic deficits; and alterations of consciousness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp712-6)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Headache: The symptom of PAIN in the cranial region. It may be an isolated benign occurrence or manifestation of a wide variety of HEADACHE DISORDERS.Hematoma, Subdural: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Cranial Sinuses: Large endothelium-lined venous channels situated between the two layers of DURA MATER, the endosteal and the meningeal layers. They are devoid of valves and are parts of the venous system of dura mater. Major cranial sinuses include a postero-superior group (such as superior sagittal, inferior sagittal, straight, transverse, and occipital) and an antero-inferior group (such as cavernous, petrosal, and basilar plexus).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Basilar Artery: The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial: A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Neurosurgery: A surgical specialty concerned with the treatment of diseases and disorders of the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral and sympathetic nervous system.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Brain Diseases: Pathologic conditions affecting the BRAIN, which is composed of the intracranial components of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. This includes (but is not limited to) the CEREBRAL CORTEX; intracranial white matter; BASAL GANGLIA; THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Neurosurgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.Encephalocele: Brain tissue herniation through a congenital or acquired defect in the skull. The majority of congenital encephaloceles occur in the occipital or frontal regions. Clinical features include a protuberant mass that may be pulsatile. The quantity and location of protruding neural tissue determines the type and degree of neurologic deficit. Visual defects, psychomotor developmental delay, and persistent motor deficits frequently occur.Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Cerebral Aqueduct: Narrow channel in the MESENCEPHALON that connects the third and fourth CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure: A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Meninges: The three membranes that cover the BRAIN and the SPINAL CORD. They are the dura mater, the arachnoid, and the pia mater.Blood Pressure Determination: Techniques for measuring blood pressure.Percussion: Act of striking a part with short, sharp blows as an aid in diagnosing the condition beneath the sound obtained.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.JapanCarbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Cognition Disorders: Disturbances in mental processes related to learning, thinking, reasoning, and judgment.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Central Venous Pressure: The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.Cerebral Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES due to TRAUMA. Hemorrhage may involve any part of the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the BASAL GANGLIA. Depending on the severity of bleeding, clinical features may include SEIZURES; APHASIA; VISION DISORDERS; MOVEMENT DISORDERS; PARALYSIS; and COMA.Intraocular Pressure: The pressure of the fluids in the eye.Third Ventricle: A narrow cleft inferior to the CORPUS CALLOSUM, within the DIENCEPHALON, between the paired thalami. Its floor is formed by the HYPOTHALAMUS, its anterior wall by the lamina terminalis, and its roof by EPENDYMA. It communicates with the FOURTH VENTRICLE by the CEREBRAL AQUEDUCT, and with the LATERAL VENTRICLES by the interventricular foramina.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Mice, Inbred C57BLVentriculoperitoneal Shunt: Surgical creation of a communication between a cerebral ventricle and the peritoneum by means of a plastic tube to permit drainage of cerebrospinal fluid for relief of hydrocephalus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Intracranial Hemorrhages: Bleeding within the SKULL, including hemorrhages in the brain and the three membranes of MENINGES. The escape of blood often leads to the formation of HEMATOMA in the cranial epidural, subdural, and subarachnoid spaces.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, Traumatic: Bleeding into the SUBARACHNOID SPACE due to CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Minor hemorrhages may be asymptomatic; moderate to severe hemorrhages may be associated with INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION and VASOSPASM, INTRACRANIAL.Nervous System Diseases: Diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system. This includes disorders of the brain, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscle.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Rupture, Spontaneous: Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Middle Cerebral Artery: The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.Pneumocephalus: Presence of air or gas within the intracranial cavity (e.g., epidural space, subdural space, intracerebral, etc.) which may result from traumatic injuries, fistulous tract formation, erosions of the skull from NEOPLASMS or infection, NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES, and other conditions.Head Injuries, Penetrating: Head injuries which feature compromise of the skull and dura mater. These may result from gunshot wounds (WOUNDS, GUNSHOT), stab wounds (WOUNDS, STAB), and other forms of trauma.Intracranial Hypotension: Reduction of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID pressure characterized clinically by HEADACHE which is maximal in an upright posture and occasionally by an abducens nerve palsy (see ABDUCENS NERVE DISEASES), neck stiffness, hearing loss (see DEAFNESS); NAUSEA; and other symptoms. This condition may be spontaneous or secondary to SPINAL PUNCTURE; NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; DEHYDRATION; UREMIA; trauma (see also CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA); and other processes. Chronic hypotension may be associated with subdural hematomas (see HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL) or hygromas. (From Semin Neurol 1996 Mar;16(1):5-10; Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp637-8)Neuroendoscopy: PROCEDURES that use NEUROENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Neuroendoscopy, generally an integration of the neuroendoscope with a computer-assisted NEURONAVIGATION system, provides guidance in NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Maze Learning: Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)Seizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Nerve Tissue ProteinsPulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Pneumoencephalography: Radiographic visualization of the cerebral ventricles by injection of air or other gas.Consciousness Disorders: Organic mental disorders in which there is impairment of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment and to respond to environmental stimuli. Dysfunction of the cerebral hemispheres or brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION may result in this condition.Dura Mater: The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.Cerebral Veins: Veins draining the cerebrum.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Unconsciousness: Loss of the ability to maintain awareness of self and environment combined with markedly reduced responsiveness to environmental stimuli. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp344-5)Thrombolytic Therapy: Use of infusions of FIBRINOLYTIC AGENTS to destroy or dissolve thrombi in blood vessels or bypass grafts.Iraq War, 2003-2011: An armed intervention involving multi-national forces in the country of IRAQ.Barbiturates: A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Forensic Ballistics: The science of studying projectiles in motion, ballistics, being applied to law. Ballistics on firearm projectiles, such as bullets, include the study of what happens inside the weapon, during the flight of the projectile, and when the projectile strikes the target, such as body tissue.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory: Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.Angioplasty, Balloon, Coronary: Dilation of an occluded coronary artery (or arteries) by means of a balloon catheter to restore myocardial blood supply.Hematoma, Subdural, Acute: Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE with acute onset of neurological symptoms. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.Supratentorial Neoplasms: Primary and metastatic (secondary) tumors of the brain located above the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater separating the CEREBELLUM and BRAIN STEM from the cerebral hemispheres and DIENCEPHALON (i.e., THALAMUS and HYPOTHALAMUS and related structures). In adults, primary neoplasms tend to arise in the supratentorial compartment, whereas in children they occur more frequently in the infratentorial space. Clinical manifestations vary with the location of the lesion, but SEIZURES; APHASIA; HEMIANOPSIA; hemiparesis; and sensory deficits are relatively common features. Metastatic supratentorial neoplasms are frequently multiple at the time of presentation.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Craniosynostoses: Premature closure of one or more CRANIAL SUTURES. It often results in plagiocephaly. Craniosynostoses that involve multiple sutures are sometimes associated with congenital syndromes such as ACROCEPHALOSYNDACTYLIA; and CRANIOFACIAL DYSOSTOSIS.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickard's ... Hamlyn, Peter J (2012). "The Brains of Britain: Facts about the brain and its spine" (PDF). Spine Surgery London. Brain and ...
... subarachnoid haemorrhage, known intracranial arteriovenous malformation or previously known intracranial neoplasm Suspected ... Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥ 185mmHg; or diastolic blood pressure >110mmHg on repeated measures prior to study. (if ... TIMI - thrombolysis in myocardial infarction "Indications for fibrinolytic therapy in suspected acute myocardial infarction: ... or central nervous system damage within 1 year Head trauma within 3 weeks or brain surgery within 6 months Known intracranial ...
... malignant middle cerebral artery infarction, epidural hematoma, subarachnoid hemorrhage, chronic subdural hematoma, infarction ... Midline shift is often associated with high intracranial pressure (ICP), which can be deadly. In fact, midline shift is a ... The sign can be caused by conditions including traumatic brain injury,stroke, hematoma, or birth deformity that leads to a ... Another use is secondary screening to determine deviations in brain trauma at different times after a traumatic injury as well ...
Guidelines for the management of severe traumatic brain injury. Firstgov. Accessed January 4, 2007. Intracranial Pressure at ... eventually leading to ischemia and brain infarction. Increased blood pressure can also make intracranial hemorrhages bleed ... blockage in ventricles or subarachnoid space at base of brain, e.g., by Arnold-Chiari malformation), extensive meningeal ... Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the skull and thus in the brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). ICP is ...
Elevated intracranial pressure can result from numerous pathways of brain impairment, including: subarachnoid hemorrhages, ... If the increase in blood pressure is not sufficient to compensate for the compression on the artery, infarction occurs. Raised ... Traumatic brain injury Bainbridge reflex Ayling, J (2002). "Managing head bangles". Emergency Medical Services. 31 (8): 42. ... Intracranial pressure was raised by filling an intracranial, soft, rubber bag with mercury. Cushing recorded the intracranial ...
A generalized increase in intracranial pressure - hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri, hemorrhage, edema - will affect the ... Hind- and mid-brains; postero-lateral view. Dissection showing origins of right ocular muscles, and nerves entering by the ... It circles anteriorly around the brainstem and runs forward toward the eye in the subarachnoid space. It passes between the ... 2004;45:729-738 Hoya K, Kirino T. Traumatic Trochlear Nerve Palsy Following Minor Occipital Impact. Neurol Med Chir 40:358-360 ...
... cerebral infarction) Headache attributed to transient ischaemic attack (TIA) Headache attributed to non-traumatic intracranial ... to lymphocytic hypophysitis Headache attributed to intracranial neoplasm Headache attributed to increased intracranial pressure ... meningitis Headache attributed to lymphocytic meningitis Headache attributed to encephalitis Headache attributed to brain ... haemorrhage Headache attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage Headache attributed to subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) Headache ...
Delayed cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage is a major cause of morbidity. Two Phase I clinical trials have shown ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) shares many pathophysiological pathways with acute stroke, and ischemic preconditioning increases ... The first-which included 68 Chinese patients under the age of 80 who had intracranial arterial stenosis of 50-99% and had ... Remote ischemic conditioning on the limb is mostly done by healthcare professionals, using a manual blood-pressure cuff and a ...
... of a pupil and loss of the pupillary light reflex may reflect brain herniation as a result of rising intracranial pressure ( ... February 2002). "Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage: demographic and clinical study of 750 patients from the European brain ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial" ... "Hypothalamopituitary dysfunction following traumatic brain injury and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a systematic review" ...
... intracranial hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300.535.450.200 --- brain hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.228.140.300. ... brain infarction MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100 --- brain stem infarctions MeSH C10.228.140.300.301.200.100.500 --- lateral ... intracranial MeSH C10.900.300.837.800 --- subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic MeSH C10.900.300.918 --- skull fractures MeSH ... normal pressure MeSH C10.228.140.617 --- hypothalamic diseases MeSH C10.228.140.617.200 --- bardet-biedl syndrome MeSH C10.228. ...
Traumatic brain injury. *Intracranial hemorrhage. *Intra-axial *Intraparenchymal hemorrhage. *Intraventricular hemorrhage. * ... Brain contusions and subarachnoid hemorrhages are commonly associated with IVH.[7] The bleeding can involve the anterior ... Repeated lumbar punctures are used widely to reduce the effects in increased intracranial pressure and an alternative to ... Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ...
Other symptoms include those that indicate a rise in intracranial pressure caused by a large mass putting pressure on the brain ... "Overview of Adult Traumatic Brain Injuries." Archived 2008-02-27 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved on 2008-01-16. ... 6] Intracerebral bleeds are often misdiagnosed as subarachnoid hemorrhages due to the similarity in symptoms and signs. A ... Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ...
Intracranial pressure, Lupus anticoagulant, Mast cell, Muscle, Norovirus (T), Parvovirus B19 (T), Platelet, Porphyrin, ... Diagnostic tests - Brain biopsy (T), C-reactive protein, CSF tap test (T), CT pulmonary angiogram, Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (T / featured since 10 July 2008), Succinyl-CoA:3-oxoacid CoA transferase deficiency (T), Syndrome of ... Post-traumatic epilepsy (talk), GA1 - review started 25/07/2008 - promoted 02/08/2008 ...
... meningitis or subarachnoid hemorrhage). This is the examination of the cerebrospinal fluid that envelops the brain and the ... where the pituitary undergoes infarction as a result of prolonged very low blood pressure, particularly when caused by bleeding ... traumatic brain injury, pregnancy (during which the pituitary enlarges) and treatment with estrogens. Hormonal stimulation ... Intracranial aneurysm. *Intracranial berry aneurysm. *Carotid artery dissection. *Vertebral artery dissection. *Familial aortic ...
Brain ischemia/. cerebral infarction. (ischemic stroke/TIA). TACI, PACI. *precerebral: Carotid artery stenosis ... G06) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma. *(G07) Intracranial and intraspinal abscess and granuloma in diseases ... G44.3) Chronic post-traumatic headache. *(G44.4) Drug-induced headache, not elsewhere classified ... Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy. *Familial amyloid neuropathy. Autoimmune/demyelinating. *Guillain-Barré ...
... (IIH) is a condition characterized by increased intracranial pressure (pressure around the brain) without a detectable cause. The main symptoms are headache, vision problems, ringing in the ears with the heartbeat, and shoulder pain. Complications may include vision loss. Risk factors include being overweight or a recent increase in weight. Tetracycline may also trigger the condition. The diagnosis is based on symptoms and a high intracranial pressure founding during a lumbar puncture with no specific cause found on a brain scan. Treatment includes a healthy diet, salt restriction, and exercise. Bariatric surgery may also be used to help with weight loss. The medication acetazolamide may also be used along with the above measures. A small percentage of people may require surgery to relieve the pressure. ...
... is a potentially deadly side effect of very high pressure within the skull that occurs when a part of the brain is squeezed across structures within the skull. The brain can shift across such structures as the falx cerebri, the tentorium cerebelli, and even through the foramen magnum (the hole in the base of the skull through which the spinal cord connects with the brain). Herniation can be caused by a number of factors that cause a mass effect and increase intracranial pressure (ICP): these include traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, or brain tumor. Herniation can also occur in the absence of high ICP when mass lesions such as hematomas occur at the ...
Tympanic membrane displacement (TMD) technique, proposed nearly twenty years ago by Marchbanks [16] exploits the effect of intracranial pressure on the acoustic reflex, i.e. a reflex contraction of the stapedius and tensor tympani muscles in response to a sound. Normally, vibrations of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) elicited by acoustic stimuli are transmitted through the chain of ossicles (malleus, uncus, and stapes) in the middle ear to the oval window of the cochlea. Vibrations of the footplate of stapes transmit through the oval window to the perilymph, which in turn causes the endolymph, the basilar membrane, and the organ of Corti to vibrate, activating ultimately the acoustic sensor cells, the inner hair cells of the organ of Corti. The transfer function of this complex mechanical system under physiological conditions is modulated by the action of two small muscles of the middle ear, the tensor tympani and stapedius. The tensor tympani arises from the cartilaginous ...
... (DWS) is a rare group of congenital human brain malformations. There are three subtypes which affect multiple organs to varying degrees, but the fundamental abnormalities involve the cerebellum which controls muscle coordination. The adjacent fourth ventricle is often affected, which can alter the flow of cerebrospinal fluid, increase intracranial pressure, and lead to multiple other brain function problems. The degree of disability varies but is typically lifelong. Treatment may involve physical therapy, special education, or surgical placement of a cerebral shunt. It is named for Walter Dandy and Arthur Earl Walker. In the majority of individuals with Dandy-Walker malformation, signs and symptoms caused by abnormal brain development are present at birth or develop within the first year of life. Some children have a ...
An external ventricular drain (EVD), also known as a ventriculostomy or extraventricular drain, is a device used in neurosurgery to treat hydrocephalus and relieve elevated intracranial pressure when the normal flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inside the brain is obstructed. An EVD is a flexible plastic catheter placed by a neurosurgeon or neurointensivist and managed by intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses. The purpose of external ventricular drainage is to divert fluid from the ventricles of the brain and allow for monitoring of intracranial pressure. An EVD must be placed in a center with full neurosurgical capabilities, because immediate neurosurgical intervention can be needed if a complication of EVD placement, such as bleeding, is encountered. EVDs are a short-term solution to hydrocephalus, and if the underlying ...
0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distention, choroidal folds, globe flattening, scotoma or cotton-wool spots compared to baseline Class 1 Repeat OCT and visual acuity in 6 weeks Refractive changes ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive change and/or cotton-wool spot No evidence of optic-disc edema, nerve sheath distanton, choroidal folds, globe flattening or scotoma compared to baseline CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 2 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 to 6 weeks × 6 months, repeat MRI in 6 months ≥ 0.50 diopter cycloplegic refractive changes or cotton-wool spot Choroidal folds and/or ONS distention and/or globe flattening and/or scotoma No evidence of optic-disc edema CSF opening pressure ≤ 25 cm H2O (if measured) Class 3 Repeat OCT, cycloplegic refraction, fundus examination and threshold visual field every 4 to 6 weeks × 6 months, repeat MRI ...
It is quite common that, when one person vomits, others nearby become nauseated, particularly when smelling the vomit of others, often to the point of vomiting themselves. It is believed that this is an evolved trait among primates. Many primates in the wild tend to browse for food in small groups. Should one member of the party react adversely to some ingested food, it may be advantageous (in a survival sense) for other members of the party to also vomit. This tendency in human populations has been observed at drinking parties, where excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages may cause a number of party members to vomit nearly simultaneously, this being triggered by the initial vomiting of a single member of the party. This phenomenon has been touched on in popular culture: notorious instances appear in the films Monty Python's The Meaning of Life (1983) and Stand By Me (1986).[19] Intense vomiting in ayahuasca ceremonies is a common phenomenon. However, people who experience "la purga" after ...
The most common symptom of IIH is headache, which occurs in almost all (92-94%) cases. It is characteristically worse in the morning, generalized in character and throbbing in nature. It may be associated with nausea and vomiting. The headache can be made worse by any activity that further increases the intracranial pressure, such as coughing and sneezing. The pain may also be experienced in the neck and shoulders.[5] Many have pulsatile tinnitus, a whooshing sensation in one or both ears (64-87%); this sound is synchronous with the pulse.[5][6] Various other symptoms, such as numbness of the extremities, generalized weakness, loss of smell, and loss of coordination, are reported more rarely; none are specific for IIH.[5] In children, numerous nonspecific signs and symptoms may be present.[7] The increased pressure leads to compression and traction of the cranial nerves, a group of nerves that arise from the ...
Historically, papilledema was a potential contraindication to lumbar puncture, as it indicates a risk for tentorial herniation and subsequent death via cerebral herniation, however newer imaging techniques have been more useful at determining when and when not to conduct a lumbar puncture.[6] Imaging by CT or MRI is usually performed to elicit whether there is a structural cause i.e., tumor. An MRA and MRV may also be ordered to rule out the possibility of stenosis or thrombosis of the arterial or venous systems. The treatment depends largely on the underlying cause. However, the root cause of papilledema is the increased intracranial pressure (ICP). This is a dangerous sign, indicative of a brain tumor, CNS inflammation or idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) that may become manifest in the near future. Thus, a biopsy is routinely performed prior to the treatment in the initial stages of papilledema ...
The arteriovenous oxygen difference, or a-vO2 diff, is the difference in the oxygen content of the blood between the arterial blood and the venous blood. It is an indication of how much oxygen is removed from the blood in capillaries as the blood circulates in the body. The a-vO2 diff and cardiac output are the main factors that allow variation in the body's total oxygen consumption, and are important in measuring VO2. The a-vO2 diff is usually measured in millilitres of oxygen per 100 millilitres of blood (mL/100 mL). The arteriovenous oxygen difference is usually taken by comparing the difference in the oxygen concentration of oxygenated blood in the femoral, brachial, or radial artery and the oxygen concentration in the deoxygenated blood from the mixed supply found in the pulmonary artery (as an indicator of the typical mixed venous supply). Put in simple terms: a-vO2 diff = Ca - Cv where: Ca = the oxygen concentration of arterial blood (oxygenated blood) Cv = the oxygen concentration of ...
... are ways to classify the injury processes that occur in brain injury. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), primary brain injury occurs during the initial insult, and results from displacement of the physical structures of the brain. Secondary brain injury occurs gradually and may involve an array of cellular processes. Secondary injury, which is not caused by mechanical damage, can result from the primary injury or be independent of it. The fact that people sometimes deteriorate after brain injury was originally taken to mean that secondary injury was occurring. It is not well understood how much of a contribution primary and secondary injuries respectively have to the clinical ...
A centimetre of water (US spelling centimeter of water, abbreviated cm H2O or cm H2O) is a less commonly used unit of pressure derived from pressure head calculations using metrology. It may be defined as the pressure exerted by a column of water of 1 cm in height at 4 °C (temperature of maximum density) at the standard acceleration of gravity, so that 1 cmH2O (4°C) = 999.9720 kg/m3 × 9.80665 m/s2 × 1 cm = 98.063754138 Pa ≈ 98.0638 Pa, but conventionally a nominal maximum water density of 1000 kg/m³ is used, giving 98.0665 Pa. It is frequently used to measure the central venous pressure, the intracranial pressure while sampling cerebrospinal fluid, as well as determining pressures during mechanical ventilation or in water supply networks (then usually in metres water column). It is also a common unit of pressure in the speech sciences. This unit is commonly used to specify ...
Captain Harris suffered a massive stroke during the sixth televised opilio crab season of Deadliest Catch. He was offloading crab on January 29, 2010 at St. Paul Island, Alaska. He was flown to Anchorage for surgery, and was placed in an induced coma to reduce intracranial pressure and swelling. He awoke from the coma after his condition improved. He was squeezing hands, talking, and showing other signs of improvement.[7] Harris' doctors were amazed by his extreme improvement, saying that he was making gains in a few days that usually take months for stroke victims. However, Harris died from an intracranial hemorrhage on February 9, 2010.. Captain Phil Harris was cremated, and half of the ashes were buried (in an ornately painted Harley Davidson motorcycle gas tank) with the remains of his mother. Harris' family spread the remainder of the ashes at sea.[8]. His sons Jacob and Joshua issued a statement from the Harris family, saying, "It is with great sadness ...
... raised intracranial pressure (ICP), and subsequent cerebral ischemic infarction.. Reduction in CBF below a critical threshold ... In traumatic brain injury, episodes of low cerebral oxygenation are also associated with poor outcome.6,7 Brain tissue oxygen ... Methods- Continuous monitoring of arterial blood pressure, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, brain tissue ... brain tissue pH, and brain tissue oxygen was seen together with a decrease in intracranial pressure (P,0.05). Intracranial ...
Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use ... leading to brain ischemia and infarction if not corrected in a timely manner. Pathogens reach the subarachnoid space (SAS) ... Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been widely accepted in the management of traumatic brain injury. However, its use ... The role of intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been broadly studied and accepted in the setting of traumatic brain ...
1. Intracranial pressure monitoring in cerebrovascular disease -- 2. Cerebral blood flow -- 3. Brain tissue oxygen monitoring ... Ischemic brain damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI), extradural, subdural, and intracerebral hematomas and cerebral ... Blood Pressure Management in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: The Role of Blood Pressure Manipulation in Prevention of Rebleeding and ... 1.2 million myocardial infarctions occurred last year in the U.S., and 480,000 patients died following complications of ...
Increased venous pressure and venous obstruction directly increase intracranial pressure, which is additionally made worse by ... Compared with other forms of acute brain injury such as encephalopathy after cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injury, the ... B) Magnetic resoance imaging of the brain showing large hemorrhagic infarction (arrow) in patient with transverse sinus ... intracranial hemorrhage such as subdural hemorrhage (SDH), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH ...
Spinal cord infarction. *Complications of vascular disease, including raised intracranial pressure, infections, and deep venous ... traumatic brain injury, brain injury after cardiac arrest, seizures, spinal cord injury, neuromuscular disorders, and many ... Fellows can participate in pre- and post-op management of neurosurgical and endovascular patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage ... metabolism and intracranial pressure. *Pathophysiology and treatment of increased intracranial pressure, altered cerebral blood ...
The affected patients consisted of individuals who had undergone DC for traumatic brain injury (TBI; n=4), for subarachnoid ... METHODS: A total of 162 patients who underwent cranioplasty following DC due to life-threatening elevated intracranial pressure ... Angiography , Brain , Brain Edema , Cerebral Infarction , Decompressive Craniectomy , Diagnosis , Early Diagnosis , Emergencies ... Bone Resorption , Brain Injuries , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Infarction , Decision Making , Decompressive Craniectomy , ...
Elevated intracranial pressure may cause brain shift and compression through the tentorial opening, inducing brain herniation. ... Secondary brain injury is defined as those processes that occur later that contribute to overall traumatic brain injury: from ... generalized increased intracranial pressure, and unilateral cerebral disease causing herniation such as infarction, hemorrhage ... Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Subarachnoid hemorrhage may present as coma. It is important to note that the sensitivity of CT in the ...
Intracranial Hemorrhage, Subarachnoid Hemorrhage, See Stroke Intracranial Pressure Management Intoxication, Alcohol, And ... Seizure Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) Therapeutic Appendix Chemotherapy: Common Neuro-Oncologic Drugs Chorea (Movement Disorder ... Spinal Cord Infarction Spinal Epidural Abscesses Spinocerebellar Ataxia (See Also Ataxia) Spinocerebellar Degeneration ( ... Vaccination Intracranial Pressure Intracranial Stenosis Ischemia (Stroke And Transient Ischemic Attack) (See Also The ...
... subarachnoid hemorrhage convalescence and sequelae of traumatic brain injury. It also has efficacy in treating the mental ... patients of intracranial hemorrhage and acute cerebral infarction should be hanged.. The above information is edited by the ... intravenous blood pressure can cause short-term decline of the blood pressure; pregnant women should take with caution; ... Intravenous injection of this product can cause short period of blood pressure drop while oral administration has no such ...
The pressure within the cranial vault directly depends on the volume and compliance of the brain parenchyma, cerebrospinal ... Epidural hematoma (EDH) is an intracranial hemorrhage between the outer membrane of the brain (dura mater) and the skull, ... Non-traumatic EDH is very rare, and some possible causes include complication of neurosurgical procedure, epidural abscess, ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may present with variable symptoms. The characteristic features include a severe and sudden-onset ...
Many factors including elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), release of vasoactive substances during erythrocyte lysis, ... hypoxia-ischemia induced brain injury, and traumatic brain injury [53]. In the experimental SAH model, it is suggested that ... M. D. I. Vergouwen, D. Ilodigwe, and R. L. MacDonald, "Cerebral infarction after subarachnoid hemorrhage contributes to poor ... 4. Causes and Mechanisms of Brain Injury after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Accumulated data indicate that not only delayed ...
... with or without injury to the brain. The head injury can be described as minimal, minor, moderate, or severe, based on symptoms ... Focal injury includes specific lesions such as contusions, intracranial haematomas, infarctions, axonal tears, cranial nerve ... Traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most common CT findings in TBI, occurring in about 30% to 40% of ... Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a non-specific term describing blunt, penetrating, or blast injuries to the brain. TBI can be ...
Traumatic Brain Injury. *Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. *Cerebral Hemorrhage. Interventions. *Intracranial Pressure ... Cerebral Infarction. * ... Intracranial pressure (ICP) is derived from cerebral blood and ... In traumatic and ischaemic (especially in middle cerebral artery occlusion and aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage) brain ... after brain injury and may expand the damage to adjacent brain areas. Our aim is to detect CSD by means of intracranial ...
Anatomy of Brain by MRI In this presentation we will discuss the cross sectional anatomy of brain. Then we will discuss the ... MRI diagnosis of brain vascular diseases • Intra cerebral Hemorrhage • Cerebral InfarctionIntracranial Aneurysm ... The types of head trauma  Skull fracture  traumatic cerebral swelling  brain contusions  Intracranial bleed of trauma - ... Brain bleed (hemorrhage) • Causes : high blood pressure, vascular malformation and tumor • Stage : acute, sub acute, chronic ...
Midline shift (MLS) of the brain is an important feature that can be known that intracranial mass can cause brain shift, ... A midline shift occurs when the pressure exerted by the buildup of blood and swelling around the damaged brain tissues is ... Another use is secondary screening to determine deviations in brain trauma at different times after a traumatic injury as well ... Note the large infarction in the distribution of the left middle cerebral and​. Controversy surrounds the issue of whether ...
Metabolic failure precedes intracranial pressure rises in traumatic brain injury: a microdialysis study. Acta Neurochir. (Wien ... Rabinstein, A. A., Weigand, S., Atkinson, J. L., Wijdicks, E. F. Patterns of cerebral infarction in aneurysmal subarachnoid ... Birch, A. A., Eynon, C. A., Schley, D. Erroneous intracranial pressure measurements from simultaneous pressure monitoring and ... intracranial pressure monitoring and repeated brain CT scans. During the last 10 years, new methods have been implemented in ...
What is Subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic? Meaning of Subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic medical term. What does Subarachnoid ... traumatic in the Medical Dictionary? Subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic explanation free. ... Intracranial hypertension - Abnormally high pressure within the brain.. Ischemia - A condition in which blood flow is cut off ... and cerebral infarction. ... Traumatic brain injury is the leading cause of subarachnoid ...
A case report of delayed cortical infarction adjacent to sulcal clots after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the absence of ... Intracranial pressure responsiveness to positive end-expiratory pressure is influenced by chest wall elastance: a physiological ... Is traumatic brain injury a risk factor for neurodegeneration? A meta-analysis of population-based studies. Chi-Hsien Huang, ... Intracranial pressure responsiveness to positive end-expiratory pressure in different respiratory mechanics: a preliminary ...
Subdural hematoma is the most common type of traumatic intracranial mass lesion. ... is a collection of blood below the inner layer of the dura but external to the brain and arachnoid membrane (see the images ... subarachnoid hemorrhage, and diffuse axonal injury. Secondary brain injuries may include edema, infarction, secondary ... Cerebral injury results from direct pressure, increased intracranial pressure (ICP), or associated intraparenchymal insults. ...
... pressure reactivity allows determination of optimal cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with traumatic brain injury". ... "Effect of oral nimodipine on cerebral infarction and outcome after subarachnoid haemorrhage: British aneurysm nimodipine trial ... a trustee of the Brain Research Trust and was the first patron of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH) UK. Pickards ... Hamlyn, Peter J (2012). "The Brains of Britain: Facts about the brain and its spine" (PDF). Spine Surgery London. Brain and ...
rise in intracranial pressure. • gradual & progressive bleeding→ over a period of wks. Result: • Chronic Hematoma ... base of the brain covered by extensive hemorrhage → located in sub-arachnoid space cause: • berry aneurysm ... Acute myocardial infarction with mural thrombosis 23 most common location of the hypertrophic muscle in hypertrophic ...
Intracranial pressure monitoring in severe traumatic brain injury: The time for a randomized controlled trial is now*. ... Isoflurane delays the development of early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage through sphingosine-related pathway ... Treatment of acute coronary syndrome: Part 2 ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Trost, Jeffrey C.; Lange, Richard A. ... Factors influencing intracranial pressure monitoring guideline compliance and outcome after severe traumatic brain injury*. ...
Secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus is due to an underlying disease process such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, traumatic ... brain injury, cerebral infarction, and meningitis, and would continue to be classified to code 331.3, Communicating ... by implanting a shunt to drain cerebrospinal fluid either from the intracranial ventricular system or the lumbar subarachnoid ... Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (NPH) A new code has been proposed for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus in category 331, ...
... treatment of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals. ... decompress the brain if intracranial pressure is increased, or remove intracranial hematomas. In the first few days after the ... Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH-bleeding into the subarachnoid space-see Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH)) is common in TBI, although ... Injured venous sinuses can later thrombose and cause cerebral infarction.. * Fractures that involve the carotid canal: These ...
Subarachnoid Hemorrhage. Subarachnoid hemorrhage refers to blood in the subarachnoid space due to a ruptured brain aneurysm or ... Lowering the intracranial tension with mannitol and diuretics will improve the patients mental status. Blood pressure control ... Brain infarction or hemorrhage can both be complications of sinus thrombosis due to blood congestion. It can be a complication ... It can be spontaneous or traumatic, with a severe headache that can be described as the "worst headache of my life." ...
  • As a result, the majority of brain abscesses from an otogenic source are located in the temporal lobes, and, similarly, although cerebellar abscesses are uncommon, up to 90% are otogenic. (clinicaladvisor.com)
  • ADH is produced by the hypothalamic neurons in the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei, migrates along their axons to the posterior pituitary gland where it is stored in secretory granules and is secreted in the circulation when stimulated (by increased plasma osmolality-osmoregulation or by decreased arterial blood pressure-baroregulation). (mdpi.com)
  • Collections of grey matter in the deep areas of the brain, below the cerebral cortex involved in the control of movement. (braininjuryisbig.org.uk)
  • Another study evaluated the effects of cyclic guanosine monophosphate on blood-brain barrier permeability and found that its direct application on the cerebral cortex significantly increased blood-brain barrier permeability and suggests that the regulatory effect of nitric oxide on vascular and blood-brain barrier permeability is directly linked to its ability to increase cyclic guanosine monophosphate. (asahq.org)
  • For long-term coma, adjunctive treatment includes passive range-of-motion exercises, enteral feedings, and measures to prevent pressure ulcers. (merckmanuals.com)
  • This bleeding may increase pressure inside the skull, leading to coma and, in serious cases, death. (finr.net)