Styrene: A colorless, toxic liquid with a strong aromatic odor. It is used to make rubbers, polymers and copolymers, and polystyrene plastics.Styrenes: Derivatives and polymers of styrene. They are used in the manufacturing of synthetic rubber, plastics, and resins. Some of the polymers form the skeletal structures for ion exchange resin beads.Mandelic Acids: Analogs or derivatives of mandelic acid (alpha-hydroxybenzeneacetic acid).Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Epoxy Compounds: Organic compounds that include a cyclic ether with three ring atoms in their structure. They are commonly used as precursors for POLYMERS such as EPOXY RESINS.GlyoxylatesAir Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Occupational Medicine: Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.Ethylene Glycols: An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Phenylacetates: Derivatives of phenylacetic acid. Included under this heading are a variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the benzeneacetic acid structure. Note that this class of compounds should not be confused with derivatives of phenyl acetate, which contain the PHENOL ester of ACETIC ACID.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Ships: Large vessels propelled by power or sail used for transportation on rivers, seas, oceans, or other navigable waters. Boats are smaller vessels propelled by oars, paddles, sail, or power; they may or may not have a deck.Pseudomonas putida: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and water as well as clinical specimens. Occasionally it is an opportunistic pathogen.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Oxygenases: Oxidases that specifically introduce DIOXYGEN-derived oxygen atoms into a variety of organic molecules.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)FMN Reductase: An enzyme that utilizes NADH or NADPH to reduce FLAVINS. It is involved in a number of biological processes that require reduced flavin for their functions such as bacterial bioluminescence. Formerly listed as EC and EC It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Butylene Glycols: 4-carbon straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons substituted with two hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups cannot be on the same carbon atom.Manufactured Materials: Substances and materials manufactured for use in various technologies and industries and for domestic use.Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Cosmetics: Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)Societies, Pharmaceutical: Societies whose membership is limited to pharmacists.WashingtonPublic Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Glycols: A generic grouping for dihydric alcohols with the hydroxy groups (-OH) located on different carbon atoms. They are viscous liquids with high boiling points for their molecular weights.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Academies and Institutes: Organizations representing specialized fields which are accepted as authoritative; may be non-governmental, university or an independent research organization, e.g., National Academy of Sciences, Brookings Institution, etc.Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Acrylonitrile: A highly poisonous compound used widely in the manufacture of plastics, adhesives and synthetic rubber.Polyanhydrides: Anhydride polymers with a repeating structure of RC(=O)OC(=O)R. They readily hydrolyze in water making them useful for DELAYED-ACTION PREPARATIONS.Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (LATEX) of HEVEA brasiliensis and other trees and plants. It is a substance that can be stretched at room temperature to at least twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retract rapidly, and recover its original dimensions fully.Silicon Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain silicon as an integral part of the molecule.Butadienes: Four carbon unsaturated hydrocarbons containing two double bonds.Nanopores: Small holes of nanometer dimensions in a membrane, that can be used as single molecule detectors. The pores can be biological or synthetic.Silicon: A trace element that constitutes about 27.6% of the earth's crust in the form of SILICON DIOXIDE. It does not occur free in nature. Silicon has the atomic symbol Si, atomic number 14, and atomic weight [28.084; 28.086].Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).

An investigation of factors contributing to styrene and styrene-7,8-oxide exposures in the reinforced-plastics industry. (1/204)

During the manufacturing of reinforced plastics, large amounts of styrene and trace quantities of styrene-7,8-oxide (SO) are released. Since previous work suggests that inhalation of even small amounts of SO might be an important health risk, we investigated several possible factors contributing to styrene and SO exposure during the manufacture of reinforced plastics. Factors related to job type, worker and the type and quantity of styrene-containing resins were investigated using mixed-effects multiple linear regression models. Overall, SO exposure levels were positively correlated with styrene exposure levels. However, this correlation was statistically significant only among hand laminators who had the highest exposures to both styrene and SO. An important factor for predicting both styrene and SO concentrations was the type of resin used, while the quantity of resin consumed was predictive of styrene but not of SO exposure. Since So exposure appears to be associated with factors other than coexposure to styrene, more effort should be placed on investigating emissions of SO per se. The type of mixed-models regression analysis employed in this study can be used for clarifying the underlying patterns for exposures to styrene and SO as well as for evaluating preventive measures.  (+info)

Objectives, designs and populations of the European Asclepios study on occupational hazards to male reproductive capability. (2/204)

The main objective of the Asclepios program was to examine occupational risk factors for the male reproductive system. The program focused on occupational exposure to fungicides (farmers, greenhouse workers, and vineyard workers), styrene (laminators in the reinforced plastics industry) and inorganic lead (battery workers, foundry workers, and lead smelters). Questionnaire studies of time to pregnancy were combined with longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of semen quality. The 8 data-collecting centers addressed 6553 male workers and contributed time-to-pregnancy values on the 3077 most recent pregnancies. Data collection was by interview or self-collection. The average response rate across all exposures and centers was 69.8%. The Asclepios project is the first international multicenter research project on environmental risks to male reproductive function. A protocol for epidemiologic research on occupational risk factors to the male reproductive system was developed, and links between epidemiologic and experimental units were established. The majority, but not all, of the studies was completed within the given time frame.  (+info)

Characterization of hepatocellular resistance and susceptibility to styrene toxicity in B6C3F1 mice. (3/204)

Short-term inhalation exposure of B6C3F1 mice to styrene causes necrosis of centrilobular (CL) hepatocytes. However, in spite of continued exposure, the necrotic parenchyma is rapidly regenerated, indicating resistance by regenerated cells to styrene toxicity. These studies were conducted to test the hypothesis that resistance to repeated styrene exposure is due to sustained cell proliferation, with production of hepatocytes that have reduced metabolic capacity. Male mice were exposed to air or 500 ppm styrene (6 h/day); hepatotoxicity was evaluated by microscopic examination, serum liver enzyme levels, and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeling index (LI). Metabolism was assessed by measurement of blood styrene and styrene oxide. Both single and repeated exposures to styrene resulted in mortality by Day 2; in mice that survived, there was CL necrosis with elevated BrdU LI at Day 6, and complete restoration of the necrotic parenchyma by Day 15. The BrdU LI in mice given a single exposure had returned to control levels by Day 15. Re-exposure of these mice on Day 15 resulted in additional mortality and hepatocellular necrosis, indicating that regenerated CL cells were again susceptible to the cytolethal effect of styrene following a 14-day recovery. However, in mice repeatedly exposed to styrene for 14 days, the BrdU LI remained significantly increased on Day 15, with preferential labeling of CL hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei (karyomegaly). If repeated exposures were followed by a 10-day recovery period, CL karyomegaly persisted, but the BrdU LI returned to control level and CL hepatocytes became susceptible again to styrene toxicity as demonstrated by additional mortality and acute necrosis after a challenge exposure. These findings indicated a requirement for continued styrene exposure and DNA synthesis in order to maintain this resistant phenotype. Analyses of proliferating-cell nuclear-antigen (PCNA) labeling were conducted to further characterize the cell cycle kinetics of these hepatocytes. The proportion of cells in S-phase was increased by repeated exposure. However, PCNA analysis also revealed an even larger increase in the G1 cell compartment with repeated exposures, without a concurrent increase in G2 phase or in mitotic cell numbers. These data indicate that resistance to styrene-induced necrosis under conditions of repeated exposure is not due to sustained cell turnover and production of new, metabolically inactive cells, but rather is due to some other, as yet unknown, protective phenotype of the regenerated cells.  (+info)

Mortality from nonmalignant diseases of the respiratory, genitourinary and nervous systems among workers exposed to styrene in the reinforced plastics and composites industry in the United States. (4/204)

OBJECTIVES: Mortality from diseases of the nervous system and nonmalignant diseases of the respiratory and genitourinary systems was examined for workers exposed to styrene. METHODS: Altogether 15,826 styrene-exposed workers in 30 plants in the reinforced plastics and composites industry were included. Vital status was ascertained through 31 December 1989. Individual exposure estimates were developed based on job functions, existing industrial hygiene data, process changes, engineering controls, work practices, and the use of personal protective equipment. Analyses were based on cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and the Cox proportional hazards model. Mortality data were analyzed by latency, duration of exposure, average exposure, cumulative exposure, and process category. RESULTS: For diseases of the nervous system, the SMR was 0.56 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.31-0.95]. Mortality from nonmalignant genitourinary diseases was not increased (SMR 0.87, 95% CI 0.46-1.50). Latency, duration of exposure, average exposure, cumulative exposure, and process category showed no association between styrene exposure and these 2 types of disease. A small increase in mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases was found (SMR 1.21, 95% CI 0.98-1.47), mainly due to "other nonmalignant respiratory diseases" (SMR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04-1.84). The highest increase occurred for short exposure duration (SMR 1.79 for <1 year's exposure) or low exposure (SMR 2.15 for <10 ppm-years); there were no increased risks in the high exposure categories. The Cox proportional hazard model revealed no association between styrene exposure and the diseases. CONCLUSIONS: No relationship was found between mortality from any of the diseases examined and any of the styrene exposure indices. The findings were compared with those reported in a European study of styrene-exposed workers.  (+info)

Distribution and skewness of occupational exposure sets of measurements in the Norwegian industry. (5/204)

Aggregated occupational sets of exposure measurements from the Norwegian industry registered in the exposure database EXPO at The National Institute of Occupational Health, Oslo were examined with respect to distributions and skewness. Data for lead in blood show a truncated almost normal distribution because of regulations for workers with high lead in blood concentrations. The styrene, dichloromethane and acetone measurements show quasi log-normal distributions possibly because of over-representation of worst-case measurements. The other personal and stationary measurements are relatively good fitted to a log-normal model. The stationary measurements indicate generally lower mean levels than the corresponding personal measurements. The statistical parameter skewness is valuable in connection with an exposure database as a distribution test for raw data and log-transformed data.  (+info)

Metabolism of styrene by mouse and rat isolated lung cells. (6/204)

Styrene is pneumotoxic in mice. It is metabolized by pulmonary microsomes of both mouse and rat to styrene oxide (SO), presumed to be the toxic metabolite of styrene, and known to be genotoxic. To determine which pulmonary cell types are responsible for styrene metabolism, and which cytochromes P450 are associated with the bioactivation of styrene, we isolated enriched fractions of mouse and rat Clara and type II cells in order to determine the rate of styrene metabolism, with and without chemical inhibitors. Mouse Clara cells readily metabolized styrene to SO. Diethyldithiocarbamate, a CYP2E1 inhibitor, caused less inhibition of SO formation in Clara cells isolated from mice than previously found with pulmonary microsomes. As in microsomes, 5-phenyl-1-pentyne, a CYP2F2 inhibitor, inhibited the formation of both enantiomers. alpha-Naphthoflavone, a CYP1A inhibitor, did not inhibit SO formation in Clara cells. alpha-Methylbenzylaminobenzotriazole, a CYP2B inhibitor, exhibited minimal inhibition of SO production at 10 microM and less at 1 microM. The microsomal and isolated cell studies indicate that CYP2E1 and CYP2F2 are the primary cytochromes P450 involved in pulmonary styrene metabolism. Styrene metabolizing activity was much greater in Clara cells than in type II pneumocytes, which demonstrated essentially no activity. Styrene-metabolizing activity was several-fold higher in the mouse than in rat Clara cells. The more pneumotoxic and genotoxic form, R-SO, was preferentially formed in mice, and S-SO was preferentially formed in rats. These findings indicate the importance of Clara cells in styrene metabolism and suggest that differences in metabolism may be responsible for the greater susceptibility of the mouse to styrene-induced toxicity.  (+info)

Site-directed mutagenesis of two zinc-binding centers of the NADH-dependent phenylacetaldehyde reductase from styrene-assimilating Corynebacterium sp. strain ST-10. (7/204)

Phenylacetaldehyde reductase (PAR) with a unique and wide substrate range from styrene-assimilating Corynebacterium sp. strain ST-10, which is a useful biocatalyst producing chiral alcohols, has been found to belong to a family of zinc-containing, long-chain alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) on the basis of the primary structure similarity. The enzyme contains 2 moles of zinc per mole of subunit. The amino acid residues assumed to be three catalytic and four structural zinc-binding ligands were characterized by site-directed mutagenesis, compared with other zinc-containing, long-chain ADHs. Sixteen PAR mutants gave measurable but rather low activities toward phenylacetaldehyde, n-hexyl aldehyde, and 2-heptanone, although they maintained the activities of 8 to 16% of that of wild-type PAR for an acetophenone substrate except that the D153N mutant showed quite low activity. The results suggested that the seven residues present in PAR were probably zinc-binding ligands, and mutation in these residues caused a change in activities for some substrates.  (+info)

Physiological analysis of the expression of the styrene degradation gene cluster in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST. (8/204)

The effects of different carbon sources on expression of the styrene catabolism genes in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST were analyzed by using a promoter probe vector, pPR9TT, which contains transcription terminators upstream and downstream of the beta-galactosidase reporter system. Expression of the promoter of the stySR operon, which codes for the styrene two-component regulatory system, was found to be constitutive and not subject to catabolite repression. This was confirmed by the results of an analysis of the stySR transcript in P. fluorescens ST cells grown on different carbon sources. The promoter of the operon of the upper pathway, designated PstyA, was induced by styrene and repressed to different extents by organic acids or carbohydrates. In particular, cells grown on succinate or lactate in the presence of styrene started to exhibit beta-galactosidase activity during the mid-exponential growth phase, before the preferred carbon sources were depleted, indicating that there is a threshold succinate and lactate concentration which allows induction of styrene catabolic genes. In contrast, cells grown on glucose, acetate, or glutamate and styrene exhibited a diauxic growth curve, and beta-galactosidase activity was detected only after the end of the exponential growth phase. In each experiment the reliability of the reporter system constructed was verified by comparing the beta-galactosidase activity and the activity of the styrene monooxygenase encoded by the first gene of the styrene catabolic operon.  (+info)

  • When workers breathe in this contaminated air, styrene exposure can occur. (
  • The known health effects of styrene exposure include changes in color vision, tiredness, dizziness, delayed reactions, and difficulty with concentration and balance. (
  • To further explore the relationship between work-related styrene exposure and cancer, NIOSH investigators compared styrene exposures to cancer deaths among 5,201 former workers in two boat-building facilities in Washington State. (
  • Additionally, the investigators used information from personnel records to estimate styrene exposure by length of employment and job type, and calculated the risk of cancer death related to this exposure. (
  • However, workers in the boat-building facilities with longer tenure with more exposure to styrene did show a greater risk of leukemia when compared to shorter-term workers. (
  • On the other hand, the risk of dying from lung cancer did not appear to be associated with styrene exposure while working in the boat-building facilities. (
  • Although this study suggests an association between styrene exposure and cancer, other studies of similar workers have been inconsistent. (
  • More research is needed to fully understand the relationship between work-related styrene exposure and cancer risk. (
  • Styrene is used in polymer chemistry as a monomer . (
  • SBR latex is a kind of high-polymer dispersion emulsion polymerized by butadiene, and styrene, etc. through advanced techniques. (
  • BatchNo: psp1) 1.2 Relevant identified uses of the substance or mixture and uses advised against Identified uses Laboratory chemicals, Manufacture of substances 1.3 Details of the supplier of the safety data sheet Company PSS Polymer Standards Service GmbH In der Dalheimer Wiese 5 STYRENE Material Safety Data Sheet 1.800.231.4175 Service. (
  • This international petrochemical company shipped a severely fouled styrene polymer bundle to Tube Tech in order to minimise costs whilst swopping over with an identical replacement. (
  • A production upset led to cured blanket of styrene polymer fusing between all the tubes forming a very hard, brittle deposit on the shell side of the exchanger. (
  • A UK based international petrochemical company shipped a severely fouled styrene polymer bundle to Tube Tech in order to minimise costs as they own an identical changeover replacement already. (
  • Solid blockages within the tubes of horizontal styrene polymer bundle. (
  • A primary objective of the present investigation was to determine the tissue distribution of styrene, styrene glycol, and more polar metabolites in mice at different times (0.5-5 h) after the intraperitoneal administration of styrene (3.3 mmol/kg). (
  • The product 2-phenyloxirane is also known as styrene oxide and can be converted by a styrene oxide isomerase (SOI) to obtain phenylacetaldehyde, which can be transformed into the key-intermediate phenylacetic acid by a phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD). (
  • Nalco Champion pioneered the technology for monitoring inhibitor residuals in the monomers production process, including styrene. (
  • With a 10/0 brush I applied Testors very gingerly making sure the brush was not heavily loaded with glue to prevent any distortion of the very thin styrene. (
  • During styrene production, controlling polymerization minimizes fouling and monomer loss and protects the unit during an emergency shutdown. (
  • Styrene-free laminating resin Relining The data given above is approximate information without warranty. (
  • With a good start the Boys at the Clearwater Car Shops thought it was time to report their progress to The Boss on their mixed styrene/resin project to build a model of a double-sheathed Piedmont & Northern boxcar, originally built I think for the Pere Marquette as a 1½ door or double door auto car. (
  • inhalation of indoor air, where styrene is present as a residual at low levels in building materials. (
  • Styrene glycol reached its maximum concentration within 1 h in most tissues. (
  • The concentration of unmetabolized styrene seemed to increase exponentially with the dose in subcutaneous adipose tissue, liver, kidneys, lungs, and brain. (
  • Less well known is whether styrene increases the risk of cancer, although it is "reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen," according to the National Toxicology ProgramCdc-pdfExternal . (
  • Another aim was to determine the dose dependence of the metabolite pattern of styrene in the different tissues. (
  • Evergreen styrene plastic shapes, strips, tube and sheet materials in metric and inch sizes. (
  • To make assembly easy I laminated some 0.005 strips of styrene to the back edges of each end. (
  • Then I cut some very thin strips of 0.005 styrene to use as Batten Strips along the very bottom of each side. (
  • I used a .005 pen to draw a line where this strip should be glued down and used small pieces of masking tape to hold these small strips of styrene in place and straight. (
  • For more information about this report visit (
  • Under COVID-19 Outbreak, how the Styrene Industry will develop is also analyzed in detail in Chapter 1.7 of the report. (